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A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, Volume IX. by Robert Kerr

Part 10 out of 12

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[Footnote 262: Perhaps this means by shifting the wadded sail.--E.]

A fast being proclaimed to be held on board the fleet, and the exercise
to be in the James on Sunday the 3d December, Mr Wren, the chaplain of
the Sun, preached in the morning, and our own minister, Mr Copland, in
the afternoon. This day the Bee sailed for Engano, in hopes to recover
some money and goods belonging to the Swan, from the inhabitants of that
island. The 4th, a Dutch ship, called the Black Lion, arrived from
Patania, and rode to the westward of Pulo Paniang. As Mr Denton was well
acquainted among the Dutch, he was sent aboard in the barge to enquire
whence she came. On coming aboard, he met an old acquaintance, Hendrick
Janson, who had been a long time chief factor for the Dutch in Patania.
He, and another inferior factor, came aboard the Moon along with Mr
Denton, where they were well entertained till Sir Thomas Dale came on
board, and were soon after set ashore at Bantam. That same night we held
a council, when it was determined to proceed before day with four ships,
the Moon, Clove, Globe, and Samson, against the Black Lion, the better
to prevent her escape. At break of day on the 6th, we were close around
her, and after a short parley, they yielded their ship, on condition of
being allowed to land with all their private property; and we brought
her that same day near the island, among the rest of our fleet.

The Bee returned on the 14th, having been forced back by contrary wind,
and unable to get through the straits. On the 16th, twenty Portuguese
came on board the James Royal, who had fled from the Dutch at Jacatra,
and whom we received kindly. This evening we were ready to sail, having
eleven ships, great and small, and being in hopes to drive the Dutch
from Jacatra. Our fleet consisted of the following ships:--The Moon, in
which Sir Thomas Dale sailed as admiral; the Gift, in which I sailed as
vice-admiral; the Unicorn, Clove, Globe, Samson, Pepper-corn, Thomas,
Bee, Rose, and Black Lion. We left behind us the James Royal, the
Advice, and our prize, because the James was not ready, and the other
two had most of her provisions and stores on board.

We sailed in the morning of the 19th, and anchored that evening between
Pulo Paniang and Pulo Tunda. In the evening of the 20th, we anchored
with our whole fleet about a league to the northward of Hector island.
This night we sent a barge to the Flemish islands, where they found no
persons on the southern island: but there lay there a Dutch galley,
which they set on fire, and so returned on board. That same evening we
saw seven Dutch vessels in the bay of Jacatra. Early in the morning of
the 21st, they all stood out towards us till near the islands, when they
anchored all together, and we stood towards them in the afternoon,
coming to anchor about a mile to windward of their fleet. In the
evening, we held a consultation on board the Moon, when it was resolved
to assault the Butch fleet in the following manner:--The Globe and
Samson were appointed to assail the Sun, and the Thomas was to pass in
between them, filled with combustible matter as a fire-ship, to set the
Sun on fire. The Moon and Clove were to attempt the Golden Lion; the
Gift and Bee were to assail the Angel; the Unicorn and Rose were to
attack the Devil of Delft; and the Pepper-corn was ordered to surprise
the burger-boat come from Jambee, which rode about three leagues from
the rest, and whose boat, with thirteen men, had been intercepted by our
barge, while making for the Dutch fleet, about seven this evening. This
arrangement being written down, we departed, every man to his own
particular charge.

After we were gone, the admiral, Sir Thomas Dale, sent his boat to the
Thomas for three _sackers_, which kept them at work till next morning at
eight o'clock, so that the Hollanders were all away before these guns
were got on board the Moon. We were then all in a Burly-burly to weigh
and get out to sea, that we might have sea-room, and the advantage of
the turn of the tide, which we at length attained, getting without the
isles of Point Aire. In the mean time, the Dutch fleet passing between
these isles and the main of Java, anchored that night on the coast of
Java, and our fleet in the offing, without the islands. On the 23d, in
the morning, the Dutch fleet stood off to the westwards, close under
_Anti-Lackie_, in which course the Devil of Delft borrowed so near, that
she got aground, and remained fast for a quarter of an hour. On seeing
this, we made towards them, but she was got off before we could get any
thing near, when she and all the rest of their fleet stood to the
northwards. As our fleet had the weather-gage, we _paid room upon
them_[263] till we came within shot, and then the Moon, commanded by our
admiral, Sir Thomas Dale, began the fight with the headmost ship of the
enemy, called the San. The battle continued for the space of three
hours, during which time we spent upon them some 1200 cannon-shot, when
we left them for the night, they standing so for to the northwards, that
they got the _burger-boat_ again into their company, and then anchored
about half a league from us to the westwards, where they remained all
night.

[Footnote 263: This antiquated expression evidently means bearing down
upon them to leewards.--E.]

Both fleets weighed anchor on the 24th, ours plying to the westwards to
gain the wind, and the Hollanders ran in shore towards Point Aire. In
the mean time, we descried three sail coming before the wind from the
westwards, which at length we perceived to be the Little James, the
Hound, and the Francis. By and bye we joined altogether, and chased the
Dutch fleet through the bay of Jacatra, to its eastern point, where we
all came to anchor for the night. During the night, the Dutch from
Jacatra sent a junk filled with combustible matter, and on fire, which
came so near our fleet that we were fain to weigh our anchors and get
out of her way. The 25th, being Christmas-day, we again saw the Dutch
fleet standing to the eastwards, and we sent our barge to follow them
all night, to see what course they took, because we had left the James
Royal in the bay of Bantam, with the Advice and our prize, which they
might have surprised, if they got to Bantam before us, as there was no
ship of force but the James, and she was unprepared, being busied in
taking in her goods and stores, after being emptied to find her leak.

The 27th of December, after midnight, the Black Lion, our Dutch prize,
was set on fire by the carelessness of three wicked fellows, and burnt
to the water's edge. The president went ashore on the morning of the
30th, to wait upon the king of Jacatra, accompanied by Mr Henry Jackson,
when an unfortunate shot carried away his leg, of which wound he
died.[264]

[Footnote 264: It appears in the sequel that it was Jackson who lost his
leg and life though the text leaves it dubious whether he or the
president.--E.]

The 1st of January, 1619, the James Royal, the Advice, and the prize,
joined us from Bantam. The 2d, Sir Thomas Dale went ashore to Jacatra to
visit the king, and to learn what were his intentions respecting the
Dutch fort. The king gave to both him and the president much
satisfaction, in words at least, promising to grant the English any
reasonable conditions, if they would assist him to surprise the Dutch
castle. This morning, before day, the Francis departed for Puloroon,
with provisions for the relief of Mr Nathaniel Courthop and his
companions. The 6th we held a council of war aboard the Moon, when it
was determined that we should land from our greater ships six pieces of
large cannon, three culverines, and three demi-culverines, with a
proportional store of powder and shot, to assist the king of Jacatra
against the Dutch; that Sir Thomas Dale was to remain in that road with
eight sail, to cover this business, while five ships, under my command,
were to ply up for the straits of Sunda, to lie in wait for the Dutch
ships.

The 25th, we got into the road of Becee, and anchored in fifteen
fathoms, about two miles from the shore; the S. point of Becee bearing
S.W. 1/4 W. and the N. point _Sabaicas_, which shut in the western isle
of Pirio Tigs, bearing N. by W. three leagues off. We watered our ships
on the 27th and 28th, and cut wood. I and Mr Coytmore, with several
other masters, went twice ashore to view the harbour, which we found to
be an excellent place of refuge for a small fleet against a superior
enemy. The 31st, by order of the president, we repaired with our fleet
into Bantam roads.

The 1st February, Captain John Jourdan the president came on board, who
acquainted me with all that had taken place between them and the Dutch,
in regard to the castle of Jacatra, during my absence, the Dutch having
agreed to deliver up that fort to the English, on condition of being
allowed to depart with bag and baggage, and a ship, _for two thousand
rials of eight_, to carry them to the coast of Coromandel.[265] Sir
Thomas Dale arrived in Bantam roads on the 4th, with the Moon, Clove,
James, Pepper-corn, Hound, and Advice. As the pangran of Bantam had
practised underhandedly with the Dutch to have the castle of Jacatra
delivered into his hands, by which we had been unjustly deprived of that
acquisition, we agreed, in a general consultation, that the president,
and all the rest of the principal persons of our factory at Bantam,
should repair on board, and get all our goods and provisions put aboard
the ships. Accordingly, we were occupied from the 10th to 16th, both
inclusive, in getting all the money and goods belonging to the
honourable Company on board. During this time, the pangran sent several
obscure persons to the president, as of their own accord, to enquire the
reason of his departure, pretending that the pangran had given no just
cause for leaving the country. Upon this the president drew up a
memorial, enumerating the several grievances and wrongs which the
English had suffered from him, meaning to have it translated into the
Javan language, and then to be transmitted to the pangran.

[Footnote 265: This agreement was crossed by the Pangran of Bantam, who
gave us leave to beat the bush, and thought to have caught the birds
himself, but was deceived in the end.--_Purch._]

The 17th, advice was received from Mr Ufflet, at Jacatra, that the Dutch
were daily occupied in repairing and strengthening their fortifications;
and that, when the messengers of the pangran demanded the surrender of
their fort, with part of their money, goods, and ordnance, they gave for
answer, That all these things were the property of their masters, which
therefore they could not give away. We this day received news of two
Dutch ships in the road of Jacatra, and that same night Sir Thomas Dale
set sail with eight ships in quest of them, while I remained with four
to attend upon the president. The 26th, having certain intelligence that
four Holland ships were at anchor in the mouth of the Straits of Sunda,
I went out that same evening to look for them, with the James, Gift,
Unicorn, and the Little James. Next morning we anchored near Pulo
Paniang, to take in water, and to put our ships into order, by taking
aboard some planks that were alongside.

We weighed again in the morning of the 1st March, making sail towards
the mouth of the Straits, where we observed the two Dutch ships at
anchor near the island of Tamporan, about three leagues to the westwards
of Viun, or Palambangan point. We immediately made all sail towards
them, while they, as in a careless manner, plied to and fro, having
their topsails half mast down. At length, as we drew nigh, the Dutch
admiral and all the rest of his ships bore up with my ship, which was
most to windward, and gave us two shots, one of which went through the
ship's side under the half-deck, and the other through the steerage.
They had no sooner begun than they were as quickly answered from my
ship, and in such measure, that, in the space of two hours, they became
as quiet as lambs; their admiral, who gave the onset with so much
arrogance, being the first to run away, followed by all the rest. We
chased them till night, and then finding them too swift of foot, we gave
over the chase, standing over towards Pulo Tunda. We came to anchor
again on the 2d of March in the road of Bantam, on which day we had
intelligence that one of the two ships lately come to Jacatra had got
aground near the castle, and had been set on fire by themselves on
seeing Sir Thomas Dale. The other ship, which had taken in a valuable
loading from the castle, was also cast away on some rocks, ten leagues
east of Jacatra.

On the 4th, we had a letter from John Powell, residing at Jacatra,
stating that Sir Thomas Dale had sailed on the 1st, with the Moon,
Hound, Rose, and Bee, in search of the stranded Dutch ship. The 14th we
heard from Sir Thomas that he had got almost within shot of the four
Dutch ships we met with, but had been taken by a dead calm for twelve
hours, succeeded in the night by a tempest, which scattered them so far
asunder by next morning, that they lost all hopes of the chase, and had
therefore returned to Point Ayre, whence he proposed bringing the Moon
immediately to Bantam, leaving the rest of his ships to take in
provisions at Jacatra. In a consultation as to the best course to be
taken with the fleet, it was resolved to go to the coast of Coromandel,
which we were informed was a good country for recovering the health of
our men, and abounding in rice, wheat, butter, and other, provisions,
which could not be procured here for any money.

Sec.3. _Departure for Coromandel, with Occurrences there, and the Death of
Sir Thomas Dale,--Capture of English Ships by the Dutch; and Occurrences
at Tecoo_.

On Monday the 19th of April, 1619, all our ships being together in
Bantam roads, with three Chinese junks riding among us, it was resolved
in council to execute the commission given us by the Honourable Company,
by appropriating to them the goods in these junks, in payment of former
debts due by the Chinese. Next day _Kewee_ came aboard to the president,
accompanied by the three _nockhadas_, or captains of the junks, to know
his intentions. He gave him the following answer:--If the young king of
Bantam would displace the pangran, who had treated us with so much
injustice, he would then return on shore and _bichar_[266] with him, and
restore the junks. The 28th, being ready to sail, intending to go for
Morrogh to take in water and unload the junks, we descried a sail coming
from the westwards round Palinbangan point, which turned out to be a
Portuguese frigate, captured at Jasques, manned by twenty Englishmen,
and sent by Captain Bonnar with advice to the president at Bantam. We
learnt from these men that Sir Thomas Roe, the lord ambassador to the
Mogul, was gone for England in the Ann Royal, having left the country
with great honour and reputation to himself, and much advantage of the
Honourable Company. Bodman, who was the cause of setting the Black Lion
on fire, was hanged on the 22d of May, and that same night we set sail.

[Footnote 266: This unexplained term probably means to make peace.--E.]

The 30th May, Sir Thomas Roe stood in with his fleet under the island,
while we held on our course for Masulipatam, having the Unicorn, Gift,
and Bee in our company. The 30th June we anchored in nine fathoms, about
two leagues from the coast of Coromandel, where we rode four days,
being hardly able to visit each other in all that time, owing to W.S.W.
winds, and a continual current setting to E.N.E. The surf also broke so
lofty on the beach, that we durst not attempt landing with any of our
boats. We were at length able to communicate together, when Mr Roberts,
the master of the Unicorn, gave us notice of a bay on this coast in the
latitude of 17 deg. N. about five leagues to the eastwards of Nassapore,
[Narsipore] where there was good riding during the westerly monsoon.
This was exactly what I wanted, having no hope to recover Masulipatam
against wind and current. We accordingly set sail on the 4th, in the
morning, and stood to the eastwards, the coast trending W.S.W. and
E.N.E. And having run about nine leagues by estimation, with the wind
and current, we found the land to turn away N. and N. by W.[267] giving
me hopes of a good road. At this point of land there cometh put a great
river,[268] by the stream of which there has been raised a reef or
shoal, extending half a mile into the sea from the point, and
occasioning a smoother road. Bringing that sand to bear S.S.W. there is
good and safe anchorage in six and a half fathoms, two miles from the
land. Two leagues north from this point, which, for distinction, I name
Cape Comfort, there issues forth another branch of the same river, by
which the headland is made an island, and off the mouth of this river
there is likewise a long spit of sand, which is dry at low water.

[Footnote 267: Obviously rounding Cape Godawery, in lat. 16 deg. 83' N.]

[Footnote 268: One of the two main branches forming the Delta of the
Godawery.--E.]

The 4th of July I sent the boat belonging to the Unicorn into the second
branch of the river, which we called Mullet Sound, to see if they could
discover any town where a guide might be procured, to conduct Robert
Pickering and William Clarke to Masulipatam, by whom we proposed sending
a letter to Mr Methwould. Our boat returned on the morning of the 6th,
reporting that a guide had been procured at a little village three
leagues up the river. They likewise brought aboard twenty hens, which
they had bought for two shillings. The 8th, the barge returned from
Captain Ball with seventy-one sheep and goats, and thirty-nine hens,
having left Captain Ball and others at a town called _Narsapela_, six
leagues up in the country. The 12th, Mr Methwould came from Masulipatam
in one of the country boats, and brought with him twenty hogs, two large
jars of arrack, six goats, and two baskets of bread. He also brought us
news of a Dutch ship richly laden, then in the port of Masulipatam, and
ready to depart for Holland.

In the evening of the 26th, I went in the barge to seek out some bar or
creek by which we might reach Coringa, the principal town in these parts
near the sea side. That same night, I got over the bar of Coringa, which
place I came to about two miles up the river, and was well received by
the principal persons of the place, who were very ready to trade with
us, and sent notice that same night of my arrival to the governor of
Vingeron. Next morning, having rowed about three miles up the main
river, and two miles up a little creek, we had sight of Vingeron, about
twelve miles off.[269] I now landed, and walked towards Vingeron; but,
before I reached it, the governor sent his horse for me, with all the
music the place afforded; and among these instruments there were two
great brass horns instead of trumpets. The governor received me very
kindly, but more kindly my present, which consisted of two pieces of
China velvet, and six pieces of China taffeta. Our compliments ended. I
took leave of him, when he caused me to be conveyed in his own palanquin
to a house near at hand, which he had appointed for my lodging.

[Footnote 269: The town of Rajahmundry exactly answers to these
circumstances, in reference to Coringa, and is in fact the head town of
the province in which Coringa is situated.--E.]

I returned on board the James on the 1st of August, when I learnt, to my
sorrow, that the shallop belonging to the Unicorn had been cast away
three days before, near Ponara, on which occasion Mr Harris was drowned,
together with two of the coxwain's crew, and a black; Captain Spaulding,
Mr Yard, and others, escaping with much difficulty. In the morning of
the 2d, the governor of Vingeron came aboard to see our ship, expecting
some great present; on which occasion I gave him a piece of China
damask, and four pieces of taffeta, which gave him more delight than the
sight of a thousand ships, and he departed when he found he got nothing
more by begging. The 23d I caused all the men to come on board,
intending to proceed for Masulipatam, and this evening we got on board
150 goats, to serve us for fresh provisions at sea. The 24th there
arrived a ballegat from Narsepore, bringing twenty-six candees of
garavances, a candee of butter, and an hundred gallons of arrack.[270] I
also, had letters from Masulipatam, announcing the melancholy news that
Sir Thomas Dale had died at that place on the 9th of August.

[Footnote 270: Though not so expressed, these seem to have been intended
for the use of the English ships.--E.]

In the morning of the 6th September, having rode most part of the
preceding night in nineteen fathoms, about three leagues S.S.E. from the
bar of Narispore, and having the wind at N.W. we again set sail toward
Masulipatam,[271] and anchored at night four leagues to the eastward of
that place. Off the river of Narsipore we found the current to set by
day to the S.S.E. and N.N.E. in the night, at the rate of half a league
an hour. In the morning of the 7th we could see the English ships in the
road of Masulipatam, in which road we came to anchor in the evening,
finding here the Moon, Clove, Globe, and Advice, which last being found
unserviceable, was here cast off, and her stores and provisions put on
board the Moon and Clove. Next day, Mr Spaulding, Mr Ball, and Mr
Methwould came aboard the James, giving me a report of all matters that
had passed in my absence, as also a state of the Company's business. I
accompanied them ashore in the afternoon, that we might the better
consult together how to proceed in the important concerns committed to
our charge. The first thing proposed was the union of both fleets, which
was thought adviseable, and I was made choice of as admiral and chief
commander of the whole ships and men thus united, according to the
direction of the Honourable Company.

[Footnote 271: The true name of this place is Mutchelipatnam; in Purchas
it is called Messulapitan and Masulpatam.--E.]

The 18th of October, a ship belonging to Masulipatam arrived from Mokha,
by which we had news of the Lion being at Mokha, having a small frigate
or bark in her company. The same day the Bee arrived from
Narsipore-pete, with provisions for the fleet. The 19th, the Dragon's
Claw came from Narsipore-pete[272] almost laden with rice and
paddy.[273] On Thursday the 9th December, Mr Ball, Mr Methwould, and the
other merchants who were to remain in the country, went ashore in the
afternoon. In the morning of Friday the 10th, we left the road of
Masulipatam, and anchored in the afternoon off the headland, to wait for
the Pepper-corn, which came to us in the evening. By my estimation, the
difference of longitude between the island of Engano and Masulipatam is
19 deg. 30' of a great circle; and, although this does not give the true
longitude in these parts near the equator, as custom has so called it, I
do, that I may not savour of innovation.

[Footnote 272: This may designate the road of Narsipore; but petah
usually signifies in India the suburb or town connected with a
fortress.--E.]

[Footnote 273: Paddy is rice in its natural state as it comes from the
plant on which it grows; rice is paddy deprived by art of its coarse
husk.--E.]

Next morning, very early, we descried the land of Sumatra, the hill of
Passaman bearing E.N.E 1/2 N. twelve leagues distant,[274] and the high
land of Priaman E. 1/2 S. fourteen leagues off. We here met with two
shoals, within a mile of each other, E. and W. The Gift came over the
eastermost, and had not less than four and a half fathoms. I sent the
Claw over the other, on which were four fathoms where she first crossed,
but only two fathoms in returning, a little more to the northward. About
nine this morning the wind came to the S.E. and so continued till three
in the afternoon, by which time we had got to the southward of all the
shoals; and so, with little wind, we spent the night between these
shoals and the island of Battoo, [Batoa.] In this situation, a sagging
current bore us to the northwards near the shoals, which, if it had set
S.E. as formerly experienced, it ought to have carried us near to Tecoo.

[Footnote 274: Purchas must here have omitted a part of the text,
particularly the series of dates between Masulipatam and Passaman in
Sumatra. As the text now stands, it would seem as if they had gone from
Masulipatam to the coast of Sumatra, a run of about 1600 miles, in one
night, an utter impossibility. But from the context, instead of the 11th
December, 1619, the day after leaving Masulipatam, it would appear they
reached the coast of Sumatra on the 23d January, 1620, giving forty-four
days for the run across the bay of Bengal.--E.]

The 24th, in the evening, we had sight of the isles of Tecoo, and came
to anchor about eight o'clock, in forty-four fathoms, these isles
bearing E. by N. seven leagues off. The 25th, with the first of the
tide, we again weighed and steered for Tecoo; and, as we drew near, we
espied three sail standing to the northwards, which came to anchor near
the coast that night, while we anchored with our whole fleet about a
league without them. Next morning they weighed anchor and joined us,
when we found them to be the Palsgrave, Elizabeth, and Hope. From them
we had the doleful news of the Dragon, Bear, Expedition, and Rose,
having been taken by six Dutch ships, while at anchor, within the isles
of Tecoo; as also that the Star had been taken by the Dutch in the
straits of Sunda. They also said that the Hollanders had sent four great
ships, doubly manned, in quest of the Samson and Hound, and that they
were exceedingly doubtful as to the safety of these ships. Thus the
English ships now taken by the Hollanders were almost equal in number to
our three fleets now joined in one under my command.

On Monday the 31st January, 1620, we held a consultation aboard the
James Royal as to our future proceedings, when it was unanimously agreed
to go to Acheen, in hopes to meet our ships from Surat, that we might
keep our force together, according to the instructions of the Honourable
Company. Our chief reasons for this proceeding were the want of rice and
other provisions, which could not at this time be had at Bantam;
secondly, the strong naval force of the Hollanders, as we did not think
it prudent to risk the entire property now belonging to the Company in
India upon such desperate terms, as the Dutch had four ships for every
one of ours; and, lastly, which was an imperious necessity, that we
might careen three of our ships, the James, the Gift, and the Unicorn,
which could not be much longer deferred without imminent hazard. For all
these reasons, we resolved to proceed for Japan, where, as we were given
to understand, all things necessary for careening our ships, and
abundance of provisions for our relief, were to be had.

The 11th, Mr Mills arrived in the Bee from Priaman, with 300 sacks of
very good rice, and eleven hogsheads of oil, giving us great
encouragement to send there again. The 12th, the Claw was sent off for
Pedang and Cuttatinga, to procure rice and other provisions; and, on the
15th, the Bee was sent back to Priaman for more rice and oil. The 19th
the Claw returned with thirty-four bags of rice, 16,000 cocoa-nuts, and
ten goats; and the same night the Bee came back with 980 sacks of rice,
procured with much difficulty by Mr Mills, merchant of the Elizabeth.

The 3d March we departed from the road of Tecoo, intending first to
touch at _Mintaon_, on purpose to dispatch the Bee for England, and
thence to go for Acheen, in hopes of meeting the Charles and the Ruby
from Surat. The 30th March we all anchored in the bay of Samanca, about
a mile from shore, where we took in wood, water, and other necessaries.
Next day we sent to recall the Bee from Balembeen. The 1st April we sent
the shallop belonging to the Unicorn for Anniar, to enquire concerning
the Dutch force, and how the pangran stood affected towards us.[275] At
eleven this night, twenty-two of our men ran away with our barge. Next
morning the shallop returned from Anniar, and brought news that there
were fifteen sail of Dutch ships at Bantam and Jacatra, upon which we
resolved to proceed to Bantam, to treat with the pangram, hoping that
the Dutch _might not venture to attack us_. The Bee arrived in the
afternoon from Ballambeen, [Palimbangan.] The 6th we set sail for
Bantam, and on the 7th, between Crackastaw and Becee, we met a proa with
some of our people coming from Anniar.

[Footnote 275: The intended voyage to Acheen seems to hate been laid
aside; perhaps the monsoon had become adverse, and forced them to the
S.E. towards Bantam.--E.]

Sec.4. _News of Peace between the English and Dutch_.

At four in the morning of Saturday the 8th April, 1620, we met the Bull,
newly come from England, bringing the joyful news of peace having been
concluded between us and the Dutch. She was accompanied by a small ship,
called the Flying Hart, with letters of advice for us, or any other of
the English ships, giving notice of the agreement and union that had
taken place between the two Honourable East India Companies of England
and Holland. We came to anchor with all our fleet in the afternoon, near
the point of Palimbangan. In the morning of the 11th, we descried the
Dutch fleet coming from Jacatra to meet us, and to congratulate with us
on the joyful intelligence of peace. General Coen was there in person,
and as soon as he came to anchor, the Holland fleet and ours began to
salute each other with peals of ordnance, to communicate the
intelligence to the natives, and to express our own joy of the happy
news of peace.

The 12th, we came altogether into Bantam roads, the Dutch fleet
consisting of fifteen sail, besides two others of their nation which we
found already in the roads, and ours of twelve sail. This day, Mr
Janson, commander of the Dutch fleet, accompanied by their fiscal, and
divers others, came to visit me, and invited Mr Brockendon, Mr Spalding,
and myself on board the Dutch admiral's ship, where we conferred with
General Coen concerning our future conjunct arrangements. After we had
compared the articles and letters, the Dutch general agreed that we
should jointly proceed in conformity with the instructions we had
received from our Honourable Company; but he declined publishing the
articles till the arrival of some ship from Holland, with the articles
and instructions from their Company. On the 14th, in the morning, by
mutual concert between us and the Hollanders, we sent Mr Beaumont and
Philip Baduge on, shore, with one Dutch merchant, to communicate the
news of our peace and agreement to the pangran, and to inform him, as we
were now united, we only desired to have a reasonable composition with
him, through which we might remain quietly in his country, enjoying a
free trade on just and equitable conditions, as in other parts of India.
But the pangran was so much dissatisfied with the news, that he would
give no answer to their message, often times asking them why we had
become friends with the Hollanders, so that they had to return without
any answer. We sent the same message to him next day, but our messengers
were not allowed to land.

* * * * *

"The differences and maritime warfare which took place between the Dutch
and English East India Companies, of which some notice has been taken;
and the peace and union which are announced, as having been communicated
to their respective commanders at this time, would lead to historical
discussions and deductions, which do not properly belong to the object
of a Collection of Voyages and Travels; but which, if altogether passed
over, would leave much of the foregoing circumstances, and some that
have to be noticed in the sequel, abrupt, isolated, and almost
unintelligible. It has therefore been deemed proper to give a brief
account of these differences, and of the singular so called _union_,
which took place in consequence, extracted from the Annals of the East
India Company, vol. I. p. 201, _et seq._[276]

[Footnote 276: This addition to Sec.4. of the present voyage, is made by
the Editor; but almost entirely derived from the historiographer of the
East India Company.--E.]

"When the differences and aggressions which had occurred in the spice
islands were reported in Europe, the English and Dutch Companies
presented memorials and remonstrances to their respective governments,
each complaining against the servants of the other, as guilty of
unwarrantable aggressions. In Holland, calculating on the pacific
character of King James, it was expected that the opposition to the
projects of the English for participating in the trade of the spice
islands, although of at least a tendency towards warlike aggression,
would not lead to national hostilities, but might be discussed by means
of remonstrances and negociation.

"After long conferences between English and Dutch commissioners, for
settling the disputes between the two Companies, a treaty was concluded
at London on the 17th July, 1619; by which, after specifying an amnesty
for all past excesses, and a mutual restitution of ships and property,
the trade of the two nations in the East was declared to be free;--That
the pepper trade at Java should be equally divided;--That the English
should have a free trade at Pullicat, on paying half the expences of the
garrison;--That the English were to enjoy one third of the export and
import trade, at the Molucca and Banda islands, commonly called the
spice islands; commissioners to be appointed for regulating the trade,
and the charges of the garrisons, under their inspection, to be defrayed
in that proportion by the two Companies;--That each Company should
furnish ten ships of war for the common defence; which ships were not to
be employed to bring cargoes to Europe, but only in the carrying trade,
between one port and another in the East Indies.--The whole proceedings
arising out of this treaty, were to be under the regulation of a
_Council of Defence_, composed of four members appointed by each
Company, who were to reside in India; and this treaty was to subsist in
force for twenty years.

"It would lead far beyond any due bounds that could be afforded in this
work, to follow out this compact, singularly weak on the part of King
James, and assuredly either contrived by his boasted _king craft_, or
devised by some wily Dutch politician, who was acquainted with his
majesty's wonderful sagacity. This union and the council of defence,
turned out a most fruitful source of advantage to the Dutch, who had
completely duped the king and government of England, and totally
expelled the English Company from any share whatever in the trade of the
spice islands; after contriving to make them pay more than two thirds of
the expence of fortifications and garrisons, instead of one third, all
of which were effectually converted to their injury and exclusion. In
the sequel of these voyages, several instances will be found, completely
illustrative of these positions; and from the year 1625, or thereabout,
the Dutch enjoyed the entire profits of the spice trade, including the
whole island of Java, till within these very few years; when, as
subjects of Buonaparte, they have been driven from every foreign
possession, and entirely excluded from all participation in the trade of
the East."--E.

Sec.5. _Voyage of Captain Pring from Bantam, to Patania and Japan, and
return to Jacatra_.[277]

The 26th of April, 1620, we sailed from Bantam roads, with the James
Royal and Unicorn in company, intending, by the grace of God, to go for
Japan, there to careen and trim our ships. Mr Brockendon departed at the
same time for Jacatra with six ships; proposing, about a month after our
departure, to send five good English ships after us to Japan, that we
might have the fittest season of the year to go from thence to the
Manillas. The 27th, we took leave of this fleet, and steered towards the
north, borrowing within half a league of the eastern point of
Pulo-Tunda; and came to anchor in the evening about a league off the
N.E. point of that island, in twenty-three fathoms upon ooze, waiting
till the western stream of the tide began to return to the eastwards
which was about ten at night, when we proceeded on our course.

[Footnote 277: Purchas gives two relations of this voyage, one brief,
"lest the longer one might interrupt the more delicate muses of some
readers with sea-sickness, the other for those that are more studious of
nautical knowledge." On the present occasion, we have preferred the more
extended narrative, and have therefore united both accounts as given by
Purchas, being the remainder of Sec.4. joined to the whole of Sec.5. giving
one instance of minute nautical remarks of our earlier navigators.--E.]

The 28th at night, we anchored in 18 f. on ooze, Pulo Antekero bearing
N.E. three leagues off. Pulo Antekero bears N.N.E. 1/2 E. from Pulo
Tunda, about eight leagues distant. The depth of water between the two
islands, runs-from 16 f. to 26, and so to 22, 20, 18, 16, 14, and 12 f.
all ooze. Pulo Antekero is westernmost of the islands which extend in a
row from the bay of Jacatra, [or Batavia,] to the westward. Continuing
our course, we anchored, in the evening of the 29th, in 15 f, Pulo Kero
bearing N. by E. 1/2 E. 2-1/2 leagues off. Pulo Kero bears N.N.E. nearly
from Antekero, six leagues off. After passing halfway between these
islands we had 20, 18, 16, 14, 12 f. on ooze. At noon on the 30th we
had Pulo Kero six leagues off, S. 1/2 E. our depth continuing 13,12,11
f. all ooze.

At noon on the 1st May, Pulo Kero bore S. 1/2 W nine leagues, and the
depth 12 f. being just able to see that island from our top-mast head.
By observation of the sun, we were then in lat. 4 deg. 45' S. From noon till
five p.m. our course was N.N.E. four leagues. We then anchored in 11 f.
on ooze, having Pulo Kero by estimation thirteen league S by W. This
night at nine, being still at anchor in the same place, I made the ship,
by observation of the Crozies, in lat. 4 deg. 40' S. allowing 29 deg. for the
complement of declination. We set sail at four a.m. of the 2d, and by
noon had run about six leagues N.N.E. the depths continuing as before,
13, 12, 11 f. By noon of the 3d our course was S. by E. five leagues,
the soundings as before, all the ground from Bantam roads hitherto being
ooze. From Bantam for the first two days, we had land and sea breezes;
afterwards, till the afternoon of the 2d, the wind was constant between
E. and S.E. when the wind came northerly, and so continued till the 3d
at noon. From Pulo Paniang to Pulo Antekero, the current set to the
westwards, somewhat strong; but from thence we found the currents more
gentle, and changing into every direction in the course of the
twenty-four hours.

Our course from noon of the 3d till noon of the 4th was N.N.E. eleven
leagues, the depths from 12 to 10-1/2 f. From noon this day till seven
at night, we made 5-1/2 leagues N. and then anchored in 9-1/2 f. We
weighed in the morning of the 5th. having but little wind and that
variable, till half an hour after six, when it sprung up fresh at S.W.
From four to nine a.m. we made three leagues N.E. 1/2 E. and from nine
till noon only half a league N.W. by N. This day at noon we were in lat.
3 deg. 30' S. when we descried a small island N.N.E. 1/2 E. four leagues
off, which appeared at first like a great tree rising out of the see.
From noon till six p.m. our course was five leagues N.W. We here saw two
or three hummocks like islands, N. by W. seven leagues off. From thence
till three a.m. of the 6th, we sailed W. six leagues. At six in the
evening of the 5th we had 9 f. which increased as we stood westwards in
the night, to 10, 11, and l2 f. and afterwards decreased to 8 f. where
we came to anchor. The stream by night set S.E. and by day N.W. We
weighed again at six a.m. of the 6th, and steered W.N.W. 1-1/2 league,
when we had sight of many hummocks rising like so many islands, but
which at length we perceived to be all one land. Coming now into 6-1/2
f. we altered our course to the N.E. making our course N.N.E. till noon,
about 2-1/2 leagues; at which time, by an observation of the sun, we
were in lat. 3 deg. 20' S. We were now in 8 f. and found the current to set
N.W. by W. About noon of this day, a junk belonging to Johor came up
with us, which had been at Cheribon in Java, and was returning to Johor.
The afternoon, we steered in with the eastern part of the hummocky land
of Banka, making our course N.N.E. 1/2 N. in which we came again to 8 f.
afterwards increasing regularly to 24 f. and then decreasing again to a
quarter less 7 f. when we came to anchor against the E. point of that
land, which bore from us N.N.E. 1/3 N. four leagues off.

We weighed in the morning of the 7th, and stood in nearer the point, in
hopes of being able to pass through between that island and one which
lay three leagues to the E. But in our way, we found the soundings,
after increasing from 7 to 17 f. to decrease again to 6 and to one-half
less 4 f. and about two miles off the point in the fair way we had only
six feet water in the fair way, or mid-channel. To the eastwards, there
appeared many islands, and by the report of the people in the junk, the
sea is full of islands between the S.E. end of Banka and the island of
Borneo. The S.E. end of Banka now bore N.N.E. 1/2 N. about two leagues
off; and the land from this point to the entrance of the straits of
Banka, lay W. by S. the straits being thirteen leagues from us. Where we
lay at anchor, the before-mentioned point bearing N. by E. 1/2 E. 2-1/2
leagues off, we had an observation of the sun, giving the latitude of
the ship 3 deg. 8' S. Having little hope of finding a passage between Banka
and Borneo among these islands, by reason of the fearful shoalings we
had already met with, we resolved on the 8th to go through the straits
between the island of Banka and Sumatra, called the Straits of Banka;
wherefore we set sail, retracing as nearly as we could the course by
which we came into the present shoal water; in which course we found
still more dangerous shoalings than in our in-coming. After we had got
about eight leagues off, S.S.W. from the before-mentioned point of
Banka, we steered S.W. by W. the current setting N.W. which made our
course nearest W. by S. In this course we proceeded five leagues, and
anchored in 8 f. on ooze, about nine at night.

In the morning of the 9th, we descried Lucepara, N.N.W. seven leagues
off, and steered towards it, till we had it N. two leagues. In this
course we passed over a spit, where we had only 4-1/2 f. and 4-3/4. But
on nearing Lucepara, we had 5-1/4 f. all ooze. We then steered N.W. by
N. till Lucepara was N.E. of us, having 5 f. and the same ground. We
then, went W.N.W. having always ooze, till we were within two leagues of
the Sumatra shore in 6 f. The isle of Lucepara bore then E.S.E. 3-1/2
leagues off; and a hill on Banka with a deep swamp, N. by W. being about
a sail's breadth open of the point of Sumatra, which bore N. by W. 1/2
W. from us, about three leagues off. We steered thence away with the
said point N. by W. Having 6-1/2 and 7 f. soft ground, till we came
within a league of the point, where edging too near we had but 5-1/2,
and only 4-1/2 in the boat hard by us: But, if we had kept a little
farther from the point, we might have gone in 7, 8, 9, and 10 f. all
through the strait, borrowing carefully with the lead upon the Sumatra
shore; whereas by keeping nearer to Banka than Sumatra, the soundings
are very variable, sometimes deep, and sometimes shallow, and mostly
foul ground. On the Sumatra shore, even if coming into shoal water, the
ground is mostly soft ooze, and the soundings far more regular and
certain.

In the evening of the 12th May, having brought the N.W. point of Banka
to bear N.E. we opened two smooth hills with a little hummock between
them; one of these hills being the northermost land of Banka, and
bearing N.E. nine leagues, from the N.W. point of that island. This
night we steered N.N.E. to get through the channel between Lingan and
the N. end of Banka, having 23, 22, 20, 18, and 16 f. all ooze, till we
came near the entrance, and afterwards 15, 14, 13 f. in going through
the passage. Lingan rises at first in three islands, the northermost
being larger than both the other two, being near two leagues long and
full of hummocks. Among these three islands there are certain fragments
of isles intermixed, like so many hay-cocks, which is a good mark
whereby to know these islands. From the smooth hill which is the north
end of Banka, to the south-westermost isle of Lingan, it is N. by W. ten
leagues. From the middle of the largest isle of Lingan, which is the
north-eastermost, there is another smooth island nine leagues off,
E.N.E. 1/2 N. From that there is another flat island, and off the north
point of the round smooth island, there is a little fragment like a
rock. In the fair way between this island and Lingan, there are 14 and
13 f. the course being midway between, and to the N. to pass along by
the E. side of Bintang. This day at noon, being the 12th May, our
latitude was 1 deg. S.[278] the greatest isle of the Lingan group being S.W.
from us five leagues, whence we estimated its latitude to be 1 deg. 10'
nearly.

[Footnote 278: This is an evident error, as the northern side of the
largest island of the Lingan group is exactly on the equator, and
Bintam, or Bintang, is in lat. 1 deg. N.--E.]

At noon of the 14th, having made way twenty-four leagues to the
northward, by aid of the wind and a current setting to the north, we had
sight of the high land of Bintang, rising with two hills and a deep
swamp or hollow between, and, as we judged, twelve leagues from us. At
this time, likewise, we had sight of three or four hummocks, S.W. by W.
eight leagues off, which seemed separate islands. We had here 20 f. our
soundings from Lingan being 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, and 20 f. From noon of
the 14th till noon of the 15th, we made twenty-seven leagues N. 1/3 W.
our soundings in these twenty-four hours being 21, 22, 23, and 24 f.
From noon till three p.m. of the 15th we made 3 1/2 leagues, and then
had sight of Pulo Laor, N.W. 1/2 N. about twelve leagues off, having
then 27 f. the ground resembling fuller's earth. At night, Pulo Laor
being N.W. by W. eight leagues off, we had 39 f. on ooze. From noon of
the 15th till eight a.m. of the 16th, we made our course N.N.W. 1/2 W.
fifteen leagues. At night of the 16th, Pulo Laor bore S.W. by S. five
leagues; the body of the island of Hermano de Layo W.S.W. 1/2 W. seven
leagues; and the S. end of Pulo Timon W. 1/2 N. ten leagues, its N.E.
end being W.N.W. 1/2 W. ten leagues. We anchored this evening within
four leagues of the N. point of Pulo Timon, in 24 f. _streamy_ ground,
that point bearing W. by S. 1/2 S. In the evening I sent my boat round
the point, where they observed a town, with a junk riding close by the
shore, and several proas fishing. One of these came to enquire what
nation our people were of, and told them there was good fresh water at
the town, with plenty of buffaloes, goats, and poultry.

In the morning of the 17th, we sent the Unicorn's longboat along with
ours to the town, whence they came back in the evening with four butts
of water each, not willing to fill more, as it was brackish. They found
at the watering-place a junk belonging to Johor, fitted out for war,
having twenty men armed with fire-arms, besides lances and javelins.
They reported that they had taken a Chinese junk, which they had sold on
the coast of Johor; the nokhada sending me word, that he would assist me
against the Portuguese at the hazard of his life. In the bay next to the
southwards of Pulo Timon, we found excellent fresh water, but could not
conveniently take it in by means of our long-boat, which drew five feet
water when loaded. Having thus spent the day to little purpose, we set
sail at the beginning of the night, directing our course for Patane,
and steering N. all night with little wind.

At noon of the 18th, we were in the latitude of 3 deg. 40' N. At four p.m.
we had sight of Pulo Tingoran, N.N.W. fifteen leagues off. At night we
passed by Tingoran, about six leagues to the eastwards, having 28, 30,
and 32 f. on soft ground. At six a.m. of the 19th, Tigoran bore W.S.W.
seven leagues from us, when we had thirty-six f. soft ground. At noon of
this day we were in lat. 5 deg. 30' N. Tingoran bearing S. 1/3 E. fourteen
leagues off, by which we estimated the latitude of that island to be 4 deg.
50 N. We had likewise, at noon, the south isle of Pulo Rowdon, [Ridang,]
N.W. by W. seven leagues off. The same night at eight, I observed the
croziers, making the latitude of the ship 5 deg. 48' N. At this time, the
largest of the Ridang isles, which is the eastermost, bore from us due
W. four leagues distant. From eight this night, till noon of the 20th,
our course was nearly N.W. by W. nine leagues, our sounding being from
28 to 17 f. The northermost of the Pulo Ridang isles was then S. 1/3 E.
four leagues off, being a round hummock, much like Pomo in the gulf of
Venice, but somewhat higher and more complete. These isles consist of
good high land, having fair depth all along their eastern side to
seawards, and I am told have a free and safe channel between them and
the main land. There are thirteen or fourteen islands in this group,
great and small.

From noon of the 20th till eight in the morning of the 21st, our course
was W.N.W. nine leagues. We saw two hills by the water-side, bearing W.
and five leagues off, resembling two great tortoises. From Pulo Tingoran
all the way to Patani, the land up the country is very high, while that
just within the coast is low, with a sandy beach. This is the case for
at least twenty leagues south of Patani, but how much farther I know
not. In the afternoon of the 20th, while standing towards the two hills
just mentioned as resembling tortoises, we came from 17 into 14 and 13
f. with hard ground; and as we drew nearer these hills, the depth again
increased to 19 f. on ooze, and then shoaled again to 18 and 17 f. on
ooze.

The 21st of May, being Sunday, from eight a.m. to seven p.m. our course
was N.W. 3/4 W. thirteen leagues, keeping mostly within four leagues of
the low sandy shore, the depth all the way being 15, 14, and 13 f. We
then anchored in 13-3/4 f. streamy ground, the northermost point in
sight, falling down from a reasonably high land at the far end of the
low land, bore from us W.N.W. 1/2 N. near 3-1/2 leagues off. S.E. by S.
from this point, six leagues off, there is a rock, as high above water
as the hull of a small ship, which we passed about 1-1/2 league on its
E. side, finding no alteration in the soundings. This point I named the
Gurnet's Head. From this point, the land trends W.N.W. and W. by N. all
the way to the entrance into Patani roads, being all low land from the
Gurnet's Head to the point of the road, this point being the lowest of
all. The distance from the Gurnet's Head to that low point is six
leagues, all the way of fair depth till coming near the low point of the
road, to which a good birth must be given, as there lies a shoal from it
half-way over to the western shore, wherefore it must not be approached
too near, till you find in the first place the shoaling of the western
shore, which is the softest ground. From the low point, in going across
the bay to the western shore there are only from 5 f. to 4 1/2 when in
the road; and then the low point bears from the anchorage, E.N.E. 1/3 E.
the highest mountains in the western side of the bay bearing S.S.W. 1/3
W.

We anchored in the road of Patani on Thursday the 25th of May, when we
found the Sampson and a Dutch pinnace there at anchor. I went ashore the
day before to the English factory, where I found Mr Adam Denton and Mr
Richard Welding, lately come from Jambee in Sumatra in a proa, with
several of the Sampson's people, who were all rejoiced to see our ships
coming into the port. On getting to the English house, I told Mr Denton
that my chief purpose for coming here was for arrack and fresh victuals,
of which we were in great need, upon which he gave immediate orders to
procure every thing we needed, so that in six days we were supplied with
sixteen butts of arrack and arrack-apee; three butts of which last we
had from the Dutch, for which courtesy we were chiefly obliged by their
anxiety to have us away. We had also beeves, goats, and poultry, in
abundance. We also bought here _dammar_ and oil, for the purpose of
repairing our ships, as I understood these things were dear at Japan. I
here found a small frigate or country bark, which had been bought by the
English; and as she was of no great use there, it was agreed that she,
with most of the English sailors, should attend upon us to Japan.

We departed from Patani on the 31st May; and at seven a.m. of the 1st
June, we saw a small rock, just above water, being very dangerous for
ships bound from Patani for the point of Camboja. When this rock bore
N.N.E. 1/2 E. at the distance of a league, the high land over Gurnet
Head was S.S.W. 1/4 W. eighteen leagues off; and by computation, the low
point of Patani road was then eighteen leagues off, W.S.W. 1/2 S. After
getting out of Patani road into 7 f. the depth increased regularly to 9,
10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 f. till we got sight of the rock; and
two leagues from it we had 25 f. on ooze, as was the ground all the way
over from Patani. This day at noon, we found the latitude of the ship to
be 7 deg. 20' N. the rock bearing W. about four leagues off.

From that time till the 3d, at noon, our course was E. 1/2 N. forty-five
leagues, when we had sight of Pulo Hube, bearing E.N.E. 1/2 N. eight
leagues off, having 14 f. on ooze, as we constantly had for the last
forty-eight hours, the sounding being from 27 to 36 f. and thence
decreasing again to 14 f. Pulo Hube rises at first as one round hill,
and on coming nearer some high land is seen rising in hummocks, but not
above two-thirds so high as the round hill, being all one land with it.
Then another and smaller island is seen to rise, nearly of the same
height with the hummocks, and close to the larger island. At the east
end of this lesser round island, there are two little isles very near,
and a mile east of them there is a long rock like the hull of a galley.
This night we anchored in 13 1/2 f. on ooze, about three leagues from
the largest and highest isle. In the morning of the 4th we weighed, and
stood E. by S. with little wind. At six p.m. we had the body of Pulo
Hube W. by N. four leagues off. From thence we steered E. by S. and E.
till six next morning, but were so opposed by the current, that we made
our course to the northward of east. From six a.m. of the 5th till six
p.m. we ran fifteen leagues in the before-mentioned course, when we saw
a very small round isle about four leagues to the southward, having a
long flat rock S. from it about a mile, a good height above water. From
Pulo Hube till three leagues from this island, our soundings were 13,
14, 15 f. and then 15, 14, 13 f. again, all ooze. When within two
leagues of this small island, we had 13 f. on sand.

Here we descried Pulo Condor, its N. end bearing E. by N. from this
small island about seven leagues off. This day at noon, we made our
latitude 8 deg. 42' N. the highest land on Pulo Condor bearing from us E.
six leagues off. From Patani till we were in sight of Pulo Condor, the
wind was mostly S.S.W. This day at noon, we steered away N.E. then N.E.
by N. and in the night N.N.E. so that we made our course on the whole,
till next day at noon, N.E. by N. about twenty-four leagues, the depths
being 13 and 14 f. on ooze. At noon of the 6th, we had sight of two
hummocks on the coast of Camboja, bearing N. by E. nine leagues off,
with low land to the westwards. From Pulo Condor till we had sight of
this coast, the current set E. by N. At this time we had 12 f. on
streamy ground. The 7th at noon, we were in lat. 10 deg. 42' N. having run
from the former noon twenty-five leagues N.E. 1/2 N. and found that the
current had carried us ten leagues to the N. of our computation. Our
depths were in these twenty-four hours, from 12, to 16, 20, and 24 f.
and then back to 20, 18, 16, 14, on sandy ground.

From the before-mentioned two hummocks, as we coasted along, about eight
leagues from the land, sometimes more, and sometimes less, we saw high
land all the way in the inland country, and a smooth land in most places
by the sea side, about the height of the Lizard, with many plots upon it
resembling white sand, as well as the sea side. The first of these white
spots was on a point ten leagues W. of Cape Cessier, which we at first
thought had been a town with fair white houses and white walls. This
day, at noon, being the 7th, when in the lat. of 10 deg. 48' N. that Cape
bore from us about six leagues W.N.W. 1/2 W. At noon of the 8th, we were
in lat. 11 deg. 30' N. having gone twenty leagues N.E. 1/2 N. from noon of
the 7th. From the 8th, till noon of the 9th, we steered along shore
N.N.E. sixteen leagues, N. by E. six leagues, N. six leagues, and N. by
W. nine leagues, making our course in all N. by E. 1/3 E. thirty-six
leagues. We now had Cape Varella[279] W.S.W. eight leagues off, and were
in the lat. of 13 deg. 13' N. This cape is called Jentam by the Chinese,
signifying a chimney in their language, because it has a sharp hummock
on the top of the hill, much like a chimney on the top of a house. From
noon of the 9th, till noon of the 10th, our course was N. two-thirds W.
twenty-six leagues; our latitude on the 10th being 14 deg. 30' N. when we
were about ten leagues from the land.

[Footnote 279: Cape Verelly is in lat. 12 deg. 40' N. on the coast of Cochin
China--E.]

The 11th, at noon, we were in lat. 16 deg. 10' N. having run, from the
foregoing noon, thirty-three one-third leagues due N. Next noon, the
12th, we had made other twenty-six leagues, N.N.E. 1/2 N. and were in
latitude 17 deg. 40' N. the current having set us six leagues to the N. of
our computation. This evening, at six, we descried the island of Aynam,
[Hainan] its high land bearing N.W. by N. twelve leagues, and we had run
from noon seven leagues N.E. From hence, till noon of the 13th, our
course was N.E. by E. twenty-two leagues, and we were then in lat. 18 deg.
30' N. We this morning chased a Portuguese frigate, but she was so light
that we could not get near her. The 14th, at noon, we were in 19 deg. 35' N.
our course having been these twenty-four hours N.E. twenty-six leagues,
the current having carried us four leagues to the N. of our reckoning;
and yet this day at noon, in seventy-three f. on ooze, our boats found
no current at all. We here saw many ripplings, like the overfalls of
some rapid tide, yet found none. At six this evening, we again anchored
our boat in sixty-eight f. on oozy sand, and found a slight current to
the southwards. By the 15th, at noon, we had ran seventeen leagues N.E.
by N. and our latitude was 28 deg. 30' N. the current having carried us
seven leagues to the north of our reckoning. We had here forty-five f.
sandy ooze. The 16th, at noon, in 21 deg. 20' N. we had sight of three
islands, the eastermost N.N.W. the westermost N.W. and the nearest land
nine leagues off. We had here twenty-two f. on oosy sand, the wind being
E.S.E. and very fresh; but, from Cape Verelly till now, the wind had
always blown from S.S.E. to S.W. Next morning, at eight, we had
twenty-eight f. on ooze, having run, from noon of the 16th, eleven
leagues S.W. Finding the wind to increase, we thought it better to come
here to anchor than to run back again.

In the morning of the 18th June, the weather being somewhat fair, we
endeavoured to weigh our anchor; but when it was right apeak, the cable
gave way, though a new one, never before wetted, by which we lost our
anchor. Just at this time the Unicorn fired a gun, on which I sent
immediately to know what was amiss, and was informed she had sprung a
great leak, by which all her men were tired out with bailing. I then
sent thirty men to her aid, to ease her crew, till it might please God
they should find the leak. This day we had the wind at S.E. and stood E.
making our course N.E. till six p.m. when we again saw the former high
island ten leagues from us, bearing N.N.E. one-third E. This evening our
men returned from the Unicorn with the joyful news that the great leak
was firmly stopped. From six p.m. till midnight, we made fourteen
leagues N.E. when we had twenty f. in ooze. From that time, till five
next morning, we stood to the southwards, making a S.W. course three and
a half leagues.

From five in the morning of the 19th, we cast about towards the land,
with the wind at S.E. making a course N.E. and at six o'clock were
within eight leagues of the before-mentioned high island, bearing from
as N. by E. At eight this morning, Mr Roberts, the master of the
Unicorn, came on board the James, to inform me that another great leak
had broke out in that ship, and that it was necessary to seek out for
some smooth place to ride in at anchor, to enable them to search out the
leak, and fit their foremast better into the step. Upon this
intelligence, I resolved to bear up under the lee of the great island,
which bore now from us N. by E. in hope to find there a smooth anchorage
for the purposes of the Unicorn. There were many more islands in sight,
both to the eastwards and westwards of us, but that being the nearest,
and the likeliest for our purpose, and only three leagues from us, we
steered for it. The night approaching, and the wind becoming dull, we
plied off and on till morning of the 20th, when the wind had come round
so much to the northwards, that we could not fetch our intended place of
anchorage. I went aboard the Unicorn this day to enquire into their
intentions and situation, when I found them all willing to stand on our
original course, as the wind was fair, and they were hopeful of being
able to overcome their leak. I therefore sent all my Lascars on board
the Unicorn, in aid of her crew, after which we stood on our course all
that day till midnight, with a fair wind and favourable weather.

Towards midnight of the 20th June, the wind increased so much, that we
had to lay our ship a-try all night under her main-course. In the
morning of the 21st, we saw the Unicorn a league and a half astern of
us, having a foresail and spritsail out, which I afterwards perceived
was for the purpose of floating her about towards the shore. I
immediately caused our fore-courses to be made ready to float our ship
about after the Unicorn, though we had little hope of being able to
assist her in any thing, as the sea was become very rough. While our men
were throwing loose the forecourse, there came so violent a gust, that
they were obliged to furl it again, otherwise it had been blown away.
After the gust was over, we set our foresail, and, to make her wear
better round, we brailed up our main-course, part of it being blown out
of the bolt rope before the men could furl it. After that was up, we put
our helm hard a-weather, thinking the ship would come round, but all in
vain, for our ship would not wear beyond two or three points, and then
came to again. The sea was now so much grown that we durst not let fall
our spritsail, and the wind so violent that we could not loosen our
fore-topsail; and by this time the Unicorn had gone out of sight.[280]
Finding we could not wear ship, we steered away as near as we could lie
S. by E. till noon, having by that time made a course S. by E. thirteen
leagues from the southermost island we had seen over night, which I
called the Morocco Saddle, or Saddle island, because of a high hill
having a deep swamp or hollow between two peaked tops. This Saddle
island is in lat. 21 deg. 45' N.[281] There are four or five small islands
close to its western side, and three on its eastern side. Besides which,
there are many other islands in different directions, some N.W. others
W.N.W. and W. by N. the southermost of all the islands in sight bearing
from Saddle island to the W. about fifteen leagues off.

[Footnote 280: It will be seen in the sequel that she was lost on the
coast of China, probably run on shore to save the men's lives from the
effects of the increasing leak.--E.]

[Footnote 281: The indicated latitude leads to one of the numerous
islands on the coast of China, at the month of the bay of Canton, about
the longitude of 113 deg. E. from Greenwich.--E.]

This afternoon our ship became very leaky, having suddenly four and a
half feet water in the hold, which kept both pumps going a long while
before we could free her. Towards evening, it pleased God that we
discovered three or four great leaks between wind and water; and after
our carpenters had stopped them, we had great comfort, as we could then
let the pumps stop half an hour, and afterwards free the ship in a
quarter of an hour. From this day, the 21st, at noon, till noon of the
22d, we made five leagues S.S.W. with a pair of courses, and nine
leagues S.W. by W. a-hull, having twenty-seven and a half f. in ooze. In
the afternoon of the 22d, the violence of the wind and waves began to
abate, and our ship became tighter, which plainly shewed that most of
our leaks were between wind and water, wherefore, on the first fair
weather, I caused our carpenters to search the ship's sides, where they
found and stopped many bad places, some a yard long, where the oakum was
all rotten in the seams.

The 24th, we had sight of a great island to the N. about seven leagues
off; having a high hill on its southern end, being the island formerly
mentioned as about fifteen leagues W. from Saddle island. From thence,
till the evening of the 26th, our course was S. by W. twenty-four
leagues, the depths increasing from nineteen to thirty-six f. on ooze.
We had here a small round island S.W. by N. two leagues off, nearly in
latitude 20 deg. 20' N.[282] This island has four small islands on its S.W.
side, but all of them considerably lower, for we saw this from the
distance of at least ten leagues, rising in the shape of a Chinese hat.
From hence, till noon of the 27th, our course was E. by N. two-thirds N.
twelve leagues. This morning at two o'clock the wind veered round to
S.S.E. and at noon was due S. From noon of the 27th, to noon of the
28th, we stood E.N.E. eighteen leagues, and had then almost forty-one f.
on ooze. Till noon of the 29th, we made other eighteen leagues E.N.E.
when we were in 21 deg. 10' N. To the 30th, at noon, other eighteen leagues
E.N.E. To noon of 1st July, our course was E.N.E. 1/2 N. twenty-two
leagues, our latitude being then 22 deg. 10' N. Here, from the topmast-head
we saw land N.N.W. 1/2 N. From noon this day, till seven p.m. we sailed
N.E. by N. six leagues. At six this evening we saw three Chinese
fishing-boats.

[Footnote 282: There must be a material error here, as the latitude in
the text would carry us back to the peninsula to the north of Hainan,
more than two degrees of longitude backwards. Indeed, the text seems
corrupted in many respects, even the bearings being extremely
suspicious.--E.]

This evening the wind came up at E.S.E. with which we stood to the
southwards; and having sprung our main topmast only a little before, we
could only bear a course and bonnet, and therefore made our way no
better than S.W. From noon of the 2d, till eight p.m. our way was S.
four leagues. Till noon of the 3d, we sailed N.N.W. 1/4 W. seven
leagues. We here saw land twelve leagues off, from N. to N.E. rising in
certain hummocks, which land I estimated to be nearly in 22 deg. 45' N. On
the 8th, I had an observation of the Scorpion's Heart, by which I made
our latitude 22 deg. 35' N. Next day, at noon, on observation of the sun
gave the latitude 23 deg. 6' N. At this time we had sight of the high land
of Logosse, eleven leagues off, N.W. by N.[283] This morning we saw
eight or more fishing boats, and came within hail of one, but could not
persuade the people to come on board.

[Footnote 283: The latitude of the text points to the coast of China in
about the longitude of 117 deg.E. but no such name as Logosse occurs in
these parts.--E.]

On the 10th we had sight of some small islands, one of which, rising in
form of a sugar-loaf, bore from us W.N.N. about eight leagues off.[284]
We this day hoisted out a small boat, built by our carpenters upon the
forecastle, by which we made trial of the current, and found it to set
E.N.E. At eight this evening, we anchored in 28 f. having made no way at
all this afternoon but with the current, which went at the rate of about
a mile an hour N.E. The 11th we weighed, and drove away with the current
to the N.E. having no wind. This day at noon we had sight of the high
land of Formosa above the clouds, the highest part bearing S.E. by E.
about eighteen leagues off, the nearest island on the coast of China
bearing seven leagues from us N.W. We here saw great numbers of fishing
boats all round about us, which sent little boats to us with fish, for
which we gave them double the value to encourage them to come back. At
six this evening, the wind sprung up at N.N.E. by which, and some help
of the current setting N.E. by E. we made our way nine leagues E. to the
12th at noon. Our latitude was then 25 deg. 20' N. The high land of Formosa
being S.E. and the nearest port eight leagues off; the northern point
ten leagues E. by N. and the depth 46 fathoms on ooze. The 13th the
northern point of Formosa bore E.S.E. ten leagues off, being then in
lat. 25 deg. 40' N.

[Footnote 284: These appear to have been the Poughoy, or Pescadores
islands, off the western coast of Tai-ouan, or Formosa.--E.]

The 22d of July at noon, we were in lat. 32 deg. 40' N. the great sound of
Langasaque, [Nangasaki,] being E. nine leagues off, and the S.E. of the
Gotto isles W. by N. ten leagues off. The 23d, we arrived in a port of
the island of Firando named Cochee, [Coetch,] which is about 4 1/2
English miles to the southwards of Firando haven.[285] On the 25th,
Captain Cox sent a great number of funnies, or _toe_ boats, to our
assistance, by the help of which we got safe in the afternoon into the
harbour of Firando, where we found the Swan and Expedition, sent hither,
as I suppose, by the Dutch, for the disgrace of our nation in this
remote part of the world. This day, before we got in, the Elizabeth
brought in with her into Coetch, a frigate, containing silks and hides,
and some sugar, her mariners being Japanese with some Portuguese, a part
of whom were friars. Captain Adams, the admiral of the united fleet,
arrived in the same place about three hours after me in the Moon, as
likewise William Johnson in the Trow.

[Footnote 285: Coetch, about 17 miles W. by N. from Firando, the former
on the western, and the latter on the eastern side of the island.--E.]

The 26th, a general council was held of all the English and Dutch, in
the English house at Firando, when it was resolved to call in the ships
that lay nearest the coast of _Sashma_, because we were certainly
informed that the Portuguese frigates were just arrived from Macao at
Nangasaki. The 30th, the king of _Crats_ came aboard the James,
appearing much delighted to see such a ship, demanding of the jurabassa
if this were one of the English frigates; whence we concluded the Dutch
had reported we had only small ships like frigates. The 1st of August we
held another council at the English factory, to make choice of two men,
an Englishman and a Hollander, to carry a present to the emperor. As I
could not be spared so long from the James, nor Captain Adams from his
fleet, we made choice of Mr Charles Cleavengar, commander of the
Palsgrave, and Mr Joseph Cockram, Cape merchant of the fleet, to go on
the part of the English, and Jasques le Febre of the Harlaem, and
Mathias de Brooke, were chosen on the part of the Dutch.

On the 6th the Palsgrave arrived in Coetch roads. The Bull arrived there
on the 7th, having cut away all her masts by the board, as they said to
save the ship and goods. This day Captain Adams and I paid a visit to
the king of Firando, carrying a small present, which was well received,
and we were courteously entertained. On the 9th the king invited the
English and Dutch to dine with him, shewing respect to our nation by
placing us on his right hand, while the Dutch sat on his left, and the
first dish of every course was offered to us.

The 4th September we had a great tuffoon from the north, which forced
the Moon on shore, and overset the Expedition, which instantly went
down. The Trow had likewise been overset, had not her master veered out
the cable, and allowed her to go on shore, stern foremost. The 5th I
sent all my men aboard the Moon to help her off when we all strove a
long time to no purpose; but she was again got off on the 13th, having
fortunately received no damage by lying so long ashore. Having every
thing taken out of the James Royal, except some bars of lead to help in
trimming her over, she was hove down on the 19th almost halfway to the
keel. The 21st we brought her down so low as to see part of her keel,
and then began to sheath her with all expedition, and in four days the
carpenters sheathed the whole of one side, from the keel up to her lower
bends. The 27th I sent a cooper, two quarter-masters, and a butcher, to
Nangasaki, to kill and salt such meat as was provided for us.

On the 12th October, we got the James hove down on the other side to the
keel, and on this side we found four very dangerous places, where the
main plank was eaten quite through by the worms. Into each of these we
graved a piece of plank, and in one of them we drove a trunnel where
none had been before. We also nailed a piece of lead on the end of the
bolt, which had been formerly driven through the keel to stop our great
leak. Our ship was then righted, both sides being finished up to the
lower bends. The Moon was likewise finished on the 21st on both sides.
The 24th we had news that Nangasaki was greatly injured by a fire which
began in the Portuguese street, and consumed four or five of the richest
streets in the city.

The 7th of December we departed from Firando, and anchored the same
evening in the bay of Coetch. The 16th, Captain Cleavengar and Captain
Le Febre returned to Firando from the court of the emperor, bringing the
joyful news of having succeeded in their business. I took my leave of
them on the 17th; and the wind being fair, with favourable weather, I
set sail from the road of Coetch.

Sec.6. _Voyage from Japan to Bantam, and thence Home to England_.[286]

The 18th December at noon, the islands of Mexuma bore from us N.W. four
leagues off, our course from Pomo being S.S.W. twenty-five leagues. At
noon on the 19th, our latitude was 31 deg. 32'N. the isles of Mexuma bearing
N.E. by N. nine leagues off. The 12th January, 1621, we stood in for the
coast of Sumatra, and anchored at midnight in the river of Palembangan
in twelve fathoms. We weighed again in the morning of the 13th,
steering along the Sumatra shore through the straits of Banka; and past
midnight of the 14th we got to anchor near Pulo Paniang. The 16th,
seeing four ships in Bantam roads, we weighed and stood a little way
within Pulo Paniang, when the Pepper-corn's boat came to us with the
master, Mr Morton, who told me there were two Dutch ships in the road
and one French ship, the pangran having consented to grant trade, and
that it had been agreed to share the pepper in thirds among them. I also
learnt from him, that most part of our loading was already prepared for
us at Jacatra. I set sail, therefore, in the morning of the 17th, and
arrived that evening near Antilaky; and in the evening of the 18th we
arrived in the bay of Jacatra, [now Batavia bay,] where we found the
Charles, the Gift, and the Clove, as also two Dutch ships, the Leyden
and the Sun. The Globe and the Bee were at Hector island.

[Footnote 286: In the former subdivision of this voyage a sufficient
sample has been given of dry nautical detail of courses, bearings,
winds, and soundings, and it does not seem necessary to insert the
minute uninteresting detail of the return voyage to Bantam, which was
along the coast of China, Cochinchina and Camboja, nearly retracing the
former course.--E.]

I here found the master of the Unicorn with several of his ship's
company, having come over in a junk, after losing his ship on the coast
of China.[287] The James here discharged her lading, and was ready to
reload for England, there being here at this time, in the Charles,
Clove, and Gift, about 600 tons of pepper and other goods, and the Bear
daily expected from Jambee with 200 more, so that we had good hope of
soon making up our loading with pepper, benzoin, cloves, and silk.
Having taken in our whole loading of pepper, except fifty-five pekuls,
and a few sapetas of silk and some cloves, I departed in the morning of
the 26th February from the road of Jacatra, and set sail for England.

[Footnote 287: Purchas, II. 1700, informs us, that the Unicorn being
wrecked on the coast of China, the company saved themselves and part of
their goods on shore. At first the rude Chinese would have assaulted and
rifled them; but they stood on their defence, till a magistrate came and
rescued them from the hands of the vulgar, after which they had kind
usage and just dealing. They were allowed to purchase two vessels, with
all necessary provisions, for their departure, and in these, part of the
company went to Japan, and the other to Malacca.--_Purch._]

In the afternoon of the 20th May, we arrived in the road of Saldanha,
[Table-bay,] at the Cape of Good Hope. We here found the Ann Royal and
the Fortune, two ships belonging to the honourable Company, and three
Dutch ships, the Gowda, Black Bear, and the Herring, all bound for
Bantam and Jacatra. We trimmed our ship on the 21st, and on the 22d we
sent some water-casks on shore, and set up a tent for our sick men and
coopers, landing twenty-five men as a guard for their protection. This
night I sent out sixty men, along with sixty Dutchmen, in quest of
cattle, but they returned without procuring any.

We left Saldanha bay in the morning of the 6th June, with the wind at
S.S.E. The 21st, at six in the morning, we got sight of St Helena, and
about ten in the forenoon of the 22d, we anchored in Chappel Bay, half a
mile from the shore, in twenty-six fathoms. The 25th, we changed to the
valley leading to the lemon-trees, being the best in all the island for
refreshments. Having remained seven days at this island, where we filled
our water-casks, and got at least fifty goats and hogs, and above 4000
lemons, we weighed anchor on the 29th, at nine a.m. The 16th of August
we saw the high land of Pico, E.N.E. about 15 leagues off. The 15th
September we got sight of the land's end of England; and on Tuesday the
18th of that month we arrived in the Downs, having been absent on this
voyage, four years, seven months, and fourteen days.

SECTION XI.

VOYAGE OF THE ANN ROYAL, FROM SURAT TO MOKHA, IN 1618.[288]

The Ann Royal belonged to the fleet commanded by Martin Pring, of which
an ample relation has been given in the foregoing section. The present
section gives an account of a subordinate voyage, arising out of the
former, and intended for settling a trade in the Red Sea. The Ann Royal
was commanded by Captain Andrew Shilling, and this narrative is said by
Purchas, to have been extracted from the journal of Edward Heynes, who
appears to have been second merchant in the Ann.--E.

[Footnote 288: Purch. Pilgr. I. 622.]

* * * * *

Sir Thomas Roe, lord ambassador from his majesty to the Great Mogul,
having given certain articles of instruction to Captain Andrew Shilling,
commander of the Ann Royal, and Joseph Salbank, Edward Heynes, and
Richard Barber, merchants in that ship, for establishing and conducting
trade at Dabul or other places in the Red Sea, as they might see
convenient, it was thought meet by Captain Martin Pring the general,
Thomas Kerridge, and Thomas Rastell, on the 12th March, in a
consultation on board the James Royal, that we should sail direct for
the Red Sea, as the season was already too far gone for going to Dabul.

Sailing therefore from the road of Swally, we got sight of Aden on the
10th of April. The 13th, about seven in the morning, we passed the Bab,
or straits of Bab-al-Mandub, so named from an island at the entrance, or
mouth, of the Red Sea, and forming one side of the straits. About five
in the evening we came in sight of Mokha; and as night was coming on, we
cast anchor. Shortly after, a canoe came on board, sent by the governor
to enquire who we were, and what were our intentions; and having given
them an answer, they departed, having first begged a few biscuits. Next
morning we weighed, and came again to anchor a league and half from the
shore, when we saluted the town with nine guns. The water-bailey, or
shahbander, brought off, as a present from the governor, a young
bullock, two goats, with mangoes, limes, cucumbers, and water-melons. He
welcomed us in the name of the governor, and desired us to send some
persons on shore to inform the governor of the purpose of our arrival.
About three in the afternoon, there came aboard a Jew born in Lisbon,
together with an old renegado Venetian, who was in great favour with the
governor, and in his name assured us of meeting with good usage to our
content.

The 15th, Ali Asgee, the chief scrivano, sent a present of goats and
fruits, with a message of welcome, by two old men of good condition, who
were sent by the governor to remain aboard in pledge for such of us as
were to go on shore, with many protestations of good usage. Accordingly,
Mr Salbank and I went ashore, accompanied by two linguists and an
attendant, carrying as a present for the governor, six yards of stammel
broad cloth, six yards of green, a fowling-piece and a looking-glass.
Above a thousand people were on the shore expecting our arrival, and
several officers were in waiting to conduct us to the governor. His
house was large and handsome, built of brick and stone, having a fair
gate of entrance with a porter's lodge, and several servants in waiting.
From the gate, we went into a great court, whence a winding stair of
thirty steps led to a square terrace, from which we were conducted into
a large room, at one end of which was a great bow-window looking towards
the sea. The governor sat in this window, and there were others on the
sides of the room, which looked to the wharf or landing-place. The floor
of this room was all covered with fine mats, and towards where the
governor sat, with fine Turkey carpets and Persian felts. Where he sat,
there lay a party-coloured sattin quilt, with several rich cushions of
damask and others of velvet. He was dressed in a violet-coloured vest of
sattin, under which were garments of fine India muslin or calico, having
on his head a sattin cap, wreathed round by a white sash. He was
attended by the chief scrivano, the principal officers of the customs,
some Turks of importance, many Indian merchants, and about an hundred
servants. He seemed about fifty years of age, and his name was Mahomet
Aga.

On our approach, and doing reverence, he bowed to us, and desired us to
sit down, demanding who we were, and what was our business. We answered
that we were Englishmen and merchants from London, who, by command of
the ambassador of the king of England to the Great Mogul, with whom we
had a league of peace and amity, had come to this place to treat for
liberty of trade. That we were in friendship with the Grand Signior, and
had free trade at Constantinople, Aleppo, and other places in the
Turkish dominions, and hoped to enjoy the same here; for which purpose
we were come to desire his and the pacha's phirmauns, giving us such
privileges as we already had in other parts of the dominions of the
Grand Signior, both for the present time and in future, as we meant to
visit his port yearly with plenty of English and Indian commodities. We
said likewise that we were commanded to say by the lord ambassador, that
hearing there were sundry pirates, English, Dutch, French, Portuguese,
Malabars and others, who infested the trade of this port, and
principally that carried on by the Guzerats, who were our friends, we
had his orders to free the seas of all such incumbrances, protecting all
honest merchant ships and junks from injury. These, we said, were the
true causes of our coming here.

The governor then rose up and bid us welcome, applauding our declared
purposes, but asked why we were so fearful as not to come on shore
without pledges. We answered, that about six years before, some of our
countrymen being here, were enticed on shore by fair promises of good
usage, who were betrayed and imprisoned by the then governor, and
several of them murdered. For these reasons, we were under the necessity
of being careful of our safety. We said moreover, that he would shortly
be certified we were exactly what we professed, by means of two junks of
Guzerat, one of which had not come this year, but for the pass and
promise of the ambassador that they were to be protected in the voyage
home by our ship, against the enterprizes of any pirates who might be in
these seas, as one had been last year by some of our ships, which came
opportunely to their rescue, and conducted her safely to their port, and
had sent the chief commanders to England, to be tried and punished for
their wrongs against the friends of our sovereign.

The governor acknowledged the friendly conduct of our nation in that
affair, promising that we should live as safely on shore, and conduct
our business with as much freedom and security, as in our own country,
for which we should have his phirmauns, which he would procure to be
confirmed by the pacha to our entire contentment. He said likewise that
the former governor was a bad man, long since deposed, and now living at
Constantinople in disgrace; and swore by his beard, and by Mahomet, that
not a hair of our heads should be diminished, nor any wrong offered to
us, as he should make proclamation of our liberties, that no one might
pretend ignorance and do us harm or discourtesy. He desired us,
therefore, to look out for a house for ourselves and our goods,
commanding two of his chiauses to attend upon us, and recommended us to
lodge with the Jew merchant till we could fit ourselves better, desiring
him to assist us in all things.

After giving many thanks for his kindness, and delivering the present as
from our captain, we went, by the advice of the Jew, to visit the
scrivano, who is likewise chief customer or shahbander; and as he was
not at home, his servant received and entertained us with much civility.
They conducted us into an handsome room, not much inferior in building
and furniture to that of the governor, where we had left their master,
who soon came home and welcomed us with much politeness, assuring us
that all the governor had promised should be faithfully performed, as he
himself should see all executed, and had also power to see us righted.
We were informed that this man's power was as great in Mokha as that of
the governor, who was directed by him in all matters of importance. This
officer seemed a hearty old man. After making us drink coffee and
sherbet, we took our leaves, and remained all night with the Jew.

Next morning we spent an hour in viewing the town, and observing the
countenances of the people towards us, whom we found gentle and
courteous, especially the Banians and Guzerats, many of whom reside here
as merchants, shopkeepers, and mechanics, having neatly-built shops and
warehouses. Their market or bazar seemed well furnished with all manner
of necessaries, among which were plenty of fruits, which are brought
daily from the country. Most of the town is built of brick and stone,
neatly plastered over with Paris plaster, some of the houses being two
stories high, and all flat-roofed, with terraces on the top, on which in
summer they construct lodges of canes and mats, in which they sleep and
spend the first quarter of the day, having at that time a fresh breeze
from the sea. All the rest of the day at that season is so hot that they
can hardly endure even a shirt. Mokha lies quite level along the
sea-shore, being about two miles from north to south, and contains many
good-looking houses, with three principal mosques. The streets are kept
clean, every person having to sweep and water before his door every
morning and evening, so that they resemble sandy alleys for bowling,
more than streets. No filth is allowed to be thrown into the streets,
but must all be carried to an appointed place, where it is scoured out
by the sea. In fine, I have never seen a sweeter, cleaner, or better
ordered town any where.

The wharf is situated between the governor's house and that of the
scrivano, and is about twelve score square.[289] Near this, and
adjoining the governor's house, there is a platform or fort, built of
hewn stones, having battlements towards the sea, being about forty paces
square, in which there are thirteen or fourteen pieces of ordnance of
little value. Over against the landing-place two fair brass cannons are
planted, above five feet long. At the other end, is the Alfandica, where
there is a brass gun six feet long, carrying a large ball. Besides these
defences, there is a stone house at the north end of the town, built
like a sconce or redoubt, with a few pieces of ordnance; but they trust
little in their ordnance, relying mostly on their soldiers, of whom they
have always 200 in the town, and about 300 more in the country, within a
day or two days march, who are all constantly in readiness for service.

[Footnote 289: This is obscure, as it is not said whether it be 240
feet, yards, or paces.--E.]

The son of Cojah Nassan, the principal India merchant of the town, whom
we waited upon at his house, promised us all kindness, and regaled us
with tobacco and coffee, as is usual among these people. We went
afterwards to wait upon the governor before we returned on board. He
rose up at our entry to meet us, causing us to sit down by him, and
repeated all the fair promises of free trade he had given the day
before, declaring that he would deny us nothing that was reasonable. He
then told us there was another governor shortly to succeed him, who was
as his brother, and honester even than himself, who would faithfully
perform every thing he had promised. At our request, the governor
ordered the water-bailiff to furnish us at all times with boats, either
for our conveyance, or to carry water to the ship. From the governor, we
again went to visit the scrivano, who received us with much civility,
promising to come aboard to visit our ship, and compliment our captain.
After treating us with coffee, we took leave, and returned to the ship,
when the pledges were dismissed, acknowledging the good treatment they
had received, and were saluted on going ashore with five guns.

On the 17th, the scrivano, with our two pledges, our Jew friend, and
twenty other persons, came aboard, bringing a bullock, with bread,
quinces, and other fruits, a great round cake or pasty, like puff-paste,
in which were several fowls and chickens, well seasoned and baked, and
most excellent eating. We also, with a large quince pye, and many crabs,
together with sack and cordials, added our best welcome. The scrivano
was so well pleased with his reception, that he insisted upon becoming
the sworn brother of our captain, which was accordingly celebrated with
a cup of sack; and, after much mirth, and having taken a view of our
ship, he departed highly gratified.

We were well supplied with water by several poor people of Mokha, who
brought it off to the ship at a reasonable rate. Also, with the
concurrence of the governor and scrivano, we made every junk that
arrived anchor under our guns, and to ride in that situation till they
discharged their cargo; which indeed the governor wished us to do,
because some junks passed by that port to trade at others, to the injury
of Mokha At six in the evening of the 21st of April, we had a violent
storm of wind off the land, accompanied by much thunder and lightning,
but no rain, which continued for half an hour, all the rest of the night
being extremely hot. Although we rode above a league from the shore,
this tempest brought great quantities of dust, and even sand on board.
The 25th, we had a message from the scrivano, saying that the governor
and he had received letters from the pacha at Sinan, commanding them to
entertain us with all manner of kindness, and to give us free trade,
with liberty to reside among them in all quietness and security.

On the 27th the new governor arrived, when the ordnance of the town, and
of our ship and the several junks in the road, all fired to welcome his
arrival. He sent the former pledges on board to return thanks for our
salute, accompanied by a present of plantains, limes, mangoes, melons,
and bread, with one bullock, promising, in the name of the pacha, as
free trade as our nation had in Constantinople. The pledges remained all
night aboard, and went ashore with us next day, when we found the new
and the old governors sitting together at the end of a large room, much
in the same way as we had found the old one at our first arrival. The
new governor was named Regib Aga, and was accompanied by several
principal Turks, and by all the principal merchants from Surat, Diu,
Dabul, Scindy, Calicut, and Cananore. On our approach, he and the other
Turks only moved their bodies, but all the merchants rose up to salute
us. He made us sit down beside him, and told us that the pacha had
commanded him to give us satisfaction in all things; and that he knew
besides, we were of a nation in friendship with the Grand Signior, and
had free trade in Constantinople, Aleppo, and other parts of the Turkish
empire, being a nation of a friendly and honest disposition, and we
should therefore always find him disposed to give us free trade, and
every other courtesy In reply, we told him we proposed, at our next
coming to Mokha, if our reasonable requests of a free trade were
granted, to settle a permanent factory at this place, and to come yearly
to the port, with plenty of English and India goods, and should defend
the trade against pirates. We even distantly hinted, that it was
needless to deny us a free trade, being in a condition to force it if
refused, and to hinder all others from coming hither, the fear of which
had already caused some junks to pass by Mokha to Jidda, the port of
Mecca, a town of great trade, 150 leagues farther up the Red Sea, and to
other places.

The new governor replied, that we should be made as welcome as in any
place of our own country; and swore by God, and Mahomet, and by his own
beard, that we should live as free from all injury as in our own land.
We asked what security he would give us besides his word, when he said
we should have his phirmaun under his _chop_, or seal, and would procure
us the same from the pacha. With this we seemed satisfied, and gave him
many thanks; and indeed they all seemed perfectly willing to give us
every satisfaction, yet, in my opinion, not from good-will or justice,
but from fear, as they knew we were able to intercept their whole trade.
After some conversation about our ambassador, who now resided at
Constantinople, and about the Portuguese and Spaniards, whom Rajib said
were proud and faithless nations, we spoke of Sir Henry Middleton,
asking the cause of their treacherous conduct to him and his people. He
answered, that the then Vizier was a bloody, cruel, and ill-minded man,
and made worse by the instigation of the Turks and Arabs of Mokha, who
were enraged by the uncivil behaviour of our people, who made water at
the gates of their mosques, forced their way into the houses after the
citizens wives, and being daily drunk in the streets, would fight and
quarrel with the people,[290] things hateful in their eyes. These were
only in part the cause, for the covetousness of the governor, hoping to
have got their ship and goods, was the main cause of that scandalous
conduct, for which he was soon afterwards sent to Constantinople to
answer for his crimes.

[Footnote 290: Let English Christians read, blush, and amend--_Purch._]

We dined that day with the scrivano, and hired a house of Hassan Aga,
one of our pledges, at seventy dollars the monsoon, or yearly rent, it
being all the same. The scrivano insisted to swear himself our friend on
his Koran, yet denied the present governor to be the person who captured
Sir Henry Middleton, which we afterwards found to be Turkish faith, or
absolute falsehood. We now agreed to pay at the rate of three in the
hundred, _ad valorem_, both inwards and outwards, though the scrivano
swore that all others paid five; all money, with silver and gold in
bullion, to pass free of duty. We remained this night with the scrivano
to supper, and gave him a present.

On the 29th of April we expected to have had our phirmaun publicly read
before all the merchants, and proclaimed to the people; but most part of
the day was spent in ceremony by the governor and other chiefs at the
mosque, on account of the death of Sultan Achmet, the Grand signior,
and the accession of his brother to the throne. They came riding past
our house while we were sitting at a window which opened to the street,
whence we made our obeisance to them, and they bowed in return. They
were all in grand gala, having their horses richly caparisoned. At four
in the afternoon we were sent for, but our linguist had got to a Jew
house and was drunk with arrack, so we sent an apology, under pretence
that Mr Salbank was indisposed, and promised attendance next day. On the
31st, the governor sent for us, and made our welcome known to all the
merchants, causing his scrivano draw up a phirmaun as full as we could
have wished, which he signed with his chop or seal in the afternoon at
the house of the principal scrivano, entirely according to what was
before agreed upon, by which we were to pay three per cent. for all we
landed, excepting money, and the same for all we took on board, except
victuals. We got afterwards a similar phirmaun from Mahomet, the pacha
of Sinan: and Rejib Aga gave us a particular safe conduct for Mr Salbank
and the rest.[291]

[Footnote 291: Copies, or translations rather, from the Arabic, are
given in the Pilgrims of all these three phirmauns, which it was not
thought necessary to insert.--E]

It was now agreed among ourselves that Mr Salbank and I were to remain
ashore to conduct the business of sales and purchases, while Mr Barber
staid on board to prepare and send such goods as we required. The 5th of
May we went to the scrivano to get leave to make arrack for the use of
our sick men; because, since our linguist and several of our people had
got drunk in the house of a Jew, we had complained, and procured an
order prohibiting the Jews from selling them any, and the governor had
even strictly enjoined the Jews and Turks not to sell any more arrack or
wine in the town. At our request through the scrivano, the governor
granted leave for a Jew, nominated for the purpose to brew arrack at our
house, but forbid any to be made elsewhere.

In the afternoon of the 8th, learning that the governor and principal
men were sitting in form at the Alfandica, to receive the Surat captain
who was then coming on shore, we went also to see the ceremonial of his
reception. We found the governor at the upper end of a long room,
sitting on a stone bench spread with carpets, having on the same bench
with him various merchants and Turks of quality, to the number of about
twenty. Opposite to him sat about as many in chairs, forming a lane down
the room to a square platform raised three steps from the floor, railed
in and matted, in which the scrivano and other officers of the customs
sat on carpets. The governor bid us welcome, saying he had given orders
to the chief broker to examine our goods and promote their sale. He then
desired us to sit down, two merchants offering us their places, and
called for coffee and tobacco to regale us.

About half an hour after, the nokhada, or captain of the Surat ship,
came ashore. His boat was curiously painted, having a tilt of red silk,
with many streamers, and sails of fine white calico. He was rowed by
twenty of his servants, all dressed in fine white calico, and he was
accompanied by a wretched band of music, consisting of drums, waits, and
bad trumpets, the noise from which was augmented by the discharge of
guns from his own great junk and those belonging to the town. Attended
by a few slaves, decked out in silks and coarse sattins, he entered the
lone room where we were, when the governor rose and saluted him, and
placed him next himself on the stone bench. Many compliments of welcome
passed between the nokhada and the other merchants; but in the height of
his pride he overlooked us, and we him accordingly. Yet we thought he
might have shewn us more respect, considering that Captain Shilling had
sent his long-boat and men to free his junk of 400 or 500 tons, when
aground, and had entertained him with much civility aboard our ship.

After some time spent in compliments, coffee was again brought in for
all the company; after which six vests were produced, two of which were
given to the Surat captain, and one each to his four principal
merchants. When these were put on, and mutual _salams_ or reverences
given, they again sat down, like so many painted images, dressed up in
coats of coarse gold and silver velvet. We here observed one usual
custom of this town, at the arrival of any junk, and the landing of her
nokhada or captain, that free liberty is given to all the mariners and
passengers to bring ashore as much goods as each man can carry on his
back, without payment of any duty; accordingly, at this time, about 300
persons belonging to this junk passed with their luggage to the
captain's residence, unmolested.

On the 9th, our landlord and the scrivano told us that three junks from
Diu, and four Malabar vessels, were at Aden, whence they were afraid to
proceed without our pass or licence. Accordingly we sent them a free
pass, signed by our captain and three merchants. In this, after reciting
that we had found good usage from the governor and merchants at Mokha,
we engaged to give them all freedom to pass quietly, assuring them of
kind usage, provided they were not enemies to our sovereign or his
subjects. A more general pass was afterwards granted by us for the quiet
and free departure of all junks and other vessels, with their cargoes,
mariners, and passengers.

On the 10th, the captain of the Dabul junk invited us to a banquet at
his house, where we found the governor with about fifty principal
persons, besides attendants, all of whom rose up to bid us welcome.
Coffee, sherbet, and tobacco, were served round, with various fruits, as
plums, apricots, and mangoes, and thinking these had been the feast, we
were about to depart; but the governor and the Dabul captain desired us
to remain, that we might _eat bread and salt with them_, which we did.
The feast at last made its appearance, though late, being about sixty
dishes of meats, baked, roasted, broiled, stewed, and boiled, but all
mingled with rice and various kinds of sallads, in the fashion of India.

Our cargo consisted mostly of bad wares, which had lain in India till
they were nearly spoiled, and so hung long upon our hands; wherefore we
importuned the governor to dispeed our sales, which he charged the
broker to do with all expedition. We also had leave granted to come and
go between the ship and the shore at our pleasure, without demanding
leave, contrary to the usual custom of the port, the water bailiff being
ordered to give us no molestation. On the 20th, it was noticed that the
monsoon had changed. The 24th, the scrivano observed to us that our
sailors, on coming ashore, were in the custom of selling _baftas_ and
sword-blades in the bazar. He said the governor had promised liberty for
the goods of these poor fellows to pass free of custom, and therefore
they might freely bring them ashore for sale, but must sell them at our
house, and not in the public bazar, which was a disgrace to us and our
nation.

On the 31st, our ship was in great danger of being burnt. Some one
happened to be smoking on the spritsail yardarm, when the burning
tobacco fell out unobserved into a fold of the sail, where it burnt
through two or three breadths, and was long smelt before it could be
found. After this, smoking was strictly prohibited, except in the
cook-room or the captain's cabin. At this time, for the recovery of our
sick men, the exploration of the coast, and procuring ballast instead
of lead taken out of the ship for sale, it was concluded to send the
ship over to Assab; on the African coast, on which occasion Mr Baffen,
the master's mate, was sent before to sound and discover the passage.

On the 10th of June we had a conference with the governor, and, among
other discourse, he told us that he was governor of Aden when the
Ascension was there, when he imprisoned the captain and Mr Joseph
Salbank for two days, suspecting them to be freebooters, and not
merchants, as he alleged. He said also that he was governor here at
Mokha when Sir Henry Middleton was apprehended, but laid the whole blame
of that transaction on the then pacha, whose servant he was, and who had
given orders for that and much more, which he called God to witness was
much contrary to his inclination, and declared that these things were
past, and we had now nothing to fear. By this avowal, we had a clear
evidence how far he and the scrivano were to be trusted. The governor
sent for us again on the 13th, saying that he had acquainted the pacha
with our purpose of sending to him for his phirmaun, and that he had
promised a hearty welcome and full contentment, whether we went
personally or sent a messenger; but the governor advised that one of us
should go up to Sinan, for which purpose he would provide us with
horses, camels, and attendants, and should write in our behalf to the
pacha.

The 19th a junk arrived from Jiddah, with many passengers from Mecca,
bringing camblets, bad coral, amber beads, and much silver, to invest in
spices and India cotton goods. She brought news of a ship, laden last
year from Mokha for Grand Cairo, which had lost her monsoon, and was
forced to wait till next year, at a place only a little way beyond
Jiddah. By this ship, the governor had letters informing him that the
Grand Signior had sent various state ornaments to the pacha of Sinan,
whom he had confirmed in his government for seven years longer, and
appointing himself to continue governor of Mokha for the like time, of
which he seemed not a little proud.

As I was constantly indisposed, it was thought fit that Mr Salbank
should go up to Sinan to wait upon the pacha with a present, and to
carry up some goods also with him for sale at that place. On this
occasion, the scrivano offered him his own mule to ride upon, which he
thankfully accepted. He was furnished with two camels, a cook, a
horsekeeper, and three servants belonging to the governor, all of whose
wages he agreed to pay at certain fixed rates, and was also accompanied
by a linguist named Alberto. Taking leave of the governor, who gave him
letters for the pacha, he departed from Mokha about six in the evening
of the 23d June, the nights being the accustomed time of travelling.

In the morning of the 23d, we had a letter from our captain; then at
Assab, informing of his safe arrival there, and the good health of the
people, and that he had procured ballast and provisions to his
satisfaction. On the 26th, the governor sent me a horse by one of his
servants, inviting me to accompany him to his banqueting house, about
half a mile out of town, there to spend the day in mirth along with
other merchants. About half an hour after, the chief scrivano came to
accompany me, with whom I went, joining the governor by the way, and
rode with him to the place. It was a fair house, in the middle of a
grove of date trees, beside a large tank or pond, having several rooms
handsomely fitted; up for sitting. After a little while, the governor
and several others went into the tank to bathe, where they sported
themselves for half an hour. Coffee was then handed round to the
company, after which grapes, peaches, and both musk and water; melons,
were brought in, together with blanched almonds and great quantities of
raisins, as there were between fifty and sixty guests, besides,
attendants; and always between whiles coffee, sherbet, and tobacco were
handed round. Thus, and with indifferent music, we spent the forenoon.
After prayers, the governor, went again into the tank, where he spent an
hour sporting with his company. In the sequel, the time was spent in
cards and chess, and in looking at various; jiggling tricks, till four
in the evening. At this time above an hundred dishes were served up, all
of good meat, but; cold, and ill dressed, each dish being sufficient to
have satisfied four hungry men. He treated me with much kindness, and
was earnest to have me go with him into the tank, but I excused myself;
on account of my late indisposition. He then said, if at any time I was
inclined to bathe, I might come to this place when I pleased, and he
would give orders to the keeper to admit me and use me well.

The 12th July, the Surat captain made a fine display of many artificial
fire-works before the governor, it being then new moon. The governor
sent for me to see them, and placed me in a chair beside himself,
telling me he had letters that day from Sinan, informing him that the
Pacha had granted a phirmaun for us before the arrival of Mr Salbank,
but hearing of his coming, had delayed sending it, and had since granted
another, according to his instructions, and had delivered it to Mr
Salbank with his own hand.

On the 13th there passed by the roads a junk of four or five hundred
tons from Jiddah, bound for _Kitchine_, a day's sail within the entrance
of the Red Sea, which I suppose is not far from Cape Guardafui, on the
coast of Africa.[292] She is said to contain great sums in gold and
silver, with much valuable merchandize. This ship comes yearly to Mokha
at the beginning of the western monsoon, bringing myrrh, and boxes for
_coho_ seeds, [coffee] and goes from hence to Jiddah or _Aliambo_, [Al
Yambo] where she sells her coffee and the India goods procured at
Kitchine; which last are brought thither by Portuguese barks from Diu
and other places. Her outward lading consists of indigo, all manner of
India cotton goods, gum-lac; and myrrh.[293] She is freighted by the
Portuguese, and the governor of Mokha wished much we had met with her,
which we had probably done, had not our ship been absent, which returned
into the road of Mokha on the 21st. I went aboard, and was told that the
king of Assab and his brother had been aboard, and were kindly
entertained, in return for which he promised to supply them with
abundance of beeves and goats; but that same evening, in consequence of
a signal of fire, he and all his people fled into the mountains,
pretending they were threatened by an attack from their enemies, and
never even gave thanks for their entertainment.

[Footnote 292: The only place resembling this name is Kissem, on the
oceanic coast of Yemen, or Arabia Felix, nearly due N. from Cape
Guardafui.--E.]

[Footnote 293: This must refer to her homeward lading, called outward in
the text in respect to India.--E.]

Before day of the 27th July, Mr Salbank returned from Sinan in perfect
health, and much satisfied with his phirmauns. He gave me an account of
his whole journey, having been respectfully treated every where; always
before entering any town, being met both by horse and foot to conduct
him to the different governors, by whom he was kindly received. All his
provisions were provided by their officers, but at his own expence; and
the servant of the governor of Mokha caused him every where to be well
used. He was met a mile from Sinan by forty or fifty Turks, well
mounted, sent by the Pacha to escort him to a well-furnished house
prepared for his reception. He was there kindly received and entertained
by the xeriffe and the pacha's chief treasurer, who were both deputed to
give him welcome in the name of the pacha. Two days afterwards, he had
audience of the pacha, from whom he received courteous entertainment,
receiving two phirmauns of the same tenor, one of which was much more
ornamentally written than the other, and intended for being shown to the
Grand Signior, if necessary.

According to his report, the city of Sinan and its neighbourhood will
give vent yearly for a good quantity of English cloth, as the weather
there is cold for three quarters of the year; and even while he was
there, though the height of summer, a person might well endure a furred
gown. Besides, there is a court at that place to which belongs _forty_
or _fifty_ thousand gallant Turks,[294] most of whom wore garments of
high-priced Venetian cloth. Not far from thence there is a leskar, or
camp, of 30,000 soldiers,[295] continually in the field against an Arab
king in the adjoining mountains, not yet conquered; all of which
soldiers are said to wear coats of quilted India chintzes, which are
dear, and of little service to defend them from the cold of that region,
which is there excessive. To this I may add the city or Teyes, near
which there is a _leskar_ of thirty or forty thousand soldiers,
commanded by a German renegado under the pacha of Sinan. That place,
though only about five days journey from Mokha, is very cold, and much
cloth is worn by the people about that place.

[Footnote 294: This is probably a vast exaggeration, though in words at
length in the Pilgrims; and we ought more likely to read _four_ or
_five_ thousand Turks.--E.]

[Footnote 295: A similar reduction to 3000 is probably needful for this
army.--E.]

On the 2d of August the governor sent a rich vest to our captain by the
chief shabander, attended by drums and trumpets, his boat being decked
out with flags and streamers. This was delivered with great ceremony,
and reverently received. The Dabul nokhada, Melic Marvet, and Roswan,
the nokhada of the Chaul ship, sent us letters of recommendation to
their kings, on the 11th August, according to our desire, certifying the
friendly usage they had experienced from us at Mokha, and our kind
offer to protect them on the homeward voyage, from pirates, and
entreating therefore for us freedom of trade and friendly usage in their
dominions. The 14th, as we had formerly done to others, we gave our
passes to two Malabar captains, Amet ben Mahomet of Cananore, under
Sultan Ala Rajah, and Aba Beker of Calicut, under the Zamorin.

This day there came a galley into the road from Cairo, having many Turks
and Jews as passengers, bringing great store of dollars, chekins, coral,
damask, sattin, camblet, opium, velvets, and taffetas. She had come down
the whole length of the Red Sea in thirty days. I had a conference with
the Jews, one of whom I had formerly known in Barbary. They reported
that the brother of the former Grand Signior, on being made emperor, had
imprisoned his two nephews, and put to death several of the grandees,
and had otherwise given great offence to the great men at
Constantinople, whereupon he was deposed and imprisoned, and his eldest
nephew made emperor in his stead. They said likewise that an army of
200,000 men was sent against the Persians, for the conquest of
Gurgistan, adding various other particulars, some of which turned out
true, and others false, like merchants news in general. Some Turks and
Jews desired to have passage for themselves and goods in our ship to
Surat; and it is likely, when they know us better, much profit may be
made in this way, as their junks are usually pestered with rude people.

Having sold and bartered our goods as well as we could have expected,
considering our cargo, and dispatched all our business, we visited the
governor, and desired to have his testimonials to the lord ambassador,
which he gave us. We took leave of him on the 19th of August, and of the
scrivano and other chief men of the town, from whom we received
protestations of continued kindness on all future occasions. We went
aboard that same day, proposing to sail the next day for India, taking
the Surat junk under our convoy, according to our instructions.

SECTION XII.

JOURNAL OF A VOYAGE TO SURAT AND JASQUES, IN 1620.[296]

"According to the title of this journal in the Pilgrims, the fleet which
sailed on this voyage consisted of the London, of 800 tons, William
Baffin master, on board of which was Captain Andrew Shilling, chief in
command, or general; the Hart, of 500 tons, Richard Blithe master; the
Roebuck, of 300 tons, Richard Swan master; and the Eagle, of 280 tons,
Christopher Brown master. The account of the voyage in Purchas is said
to consist of extracts from the journal written by Richard Swan, the
master or captain of the Roebuck."--E.

[Footnote 296: Purch. Pilgr. 1. 723.]

Sec.1. _Voyage from England to Surat._

We sailed from Tilbury-hope on the 26th of February, 1620, and anchored
in Saldanha road [Table Bay, at the Cape of Good Hope] on 24th of June,
where we found the Lion homewards-bound, and nine Dutch ships bound for
Bantam, commanded by a gentleman named Nicolas van Baccum, who Was said
to have studied seven years at Oxford. Next morning the Lion and the
Dutch fleet departed, each their several way; and in the evening arrived
the Schidam belonging to Deft, outward-bound, which being suspected by
both admirals, the master was sent for, and producing Us commission,
gave satisfaction. On the 3d of July we made a solemn proclamation of
the right and title of his majesty King James to Saldania, and on the
7th King James's mount was erected.[297]

[Footnote 297: It thus appears that the first fortified station at the
Cape of Good Hope was erected by the English, to whom that colony now
belongs. It would surely be a better appellation for this important
colony, which may be called the key of India, to restore its old name-of
_Saldania_, than to continue its present awkward denomination, The
Colony of the Cape of Good Hope.--E.]

We sailed from the Cape of Good Hope on the 25th of July, and 26th of
October we put into Dabul roads, where we remained till the 2d of
November to refresh our men, and to provide the two ships bound for
Persia. The 6th November, the Hart and Eagle took leave of us and the
9th we anchored in Swally roads, where we found the Wappen van Zeland,
of 1000 tons, which at our arrival took in her colours, and saluted the
London with three guns, and the Roebuck with two. I was sent on shore,
and brought off Mr Thomas Kerridge, the president of the factory at
Surat, with Mr James, and Mr Hopkinson. Next day, in a consultation, it
was determined to dispatch us speedily after the Hart and Eagle, as we
had intelligence that four Portuguese galleons were waiting at Ormus, or
in Jasques roads, to intercept them.

Sec.2. _Voyage from Surat towards Jasques_.

The 19th November, having dispatched our business at Swally with all
expedition, we set sail towards Jasques. The 21st we chased a ship,
which surrendered without resistance, being the Nostra Sennora de
Merces, of 200 tons, bound from Muscat for Chaul, having on board
forty-two Arabian horses, her principal loading, and for which trade she
was built. The residue of her cargo consisted of dates and raisins. The
name of her captain was Francisco de Mirando.

The 5th December, when in latitude 24 deg. 55' N. we met the Hart and Eagle
coming from Jasques for Surat, because not of sufficient strength to
encounter the Portuguese force which was waiting for them with the
intention of ruining our Persian trade. Thus happily rejoined to our
former consorts, we shaped our course for Jasques to accomplish our
purpose. The 8th, at the earnest desire of the Portuguese and Moors
taken in the prize, we set them on shore, except some Moor seamen whom
we detained in our service, and the Portuguese pilot, who entreated to
stay, as he feared some hard usage from his own people. On the 12th,
certain volunteers who had engaged to set fire to our prize, and run her
aboard the Portuguese admiral, were put on board of her, and she was
fitted as a fire-ship. The 15th we had sight of the east point of
Jasques roads, having upon it a tomb or old square flat-roofed house,
which bore W.N.W. by compass, twelve miles off. From Diu head to this
point, I make the longitude, by the ordinary plain chart, 9 deg. 55' 36" W.
but by Mercator's projection, 10 deg. 51'. From where we were, we could see
the Portuguese men of war sent from Lisbon to oppose our trade with
Persia, consisting of two Portuguese galleons, one of which was larger
than the London, and two Dutch ships, one as large as the Hart, while
the other was less than the Eagle. Their general was Don Ruy Frere de
Andrado; the vice-admiral, Joam Boralio; and the two Dutch ships were
commanded by Antonio Musquet and Baltazar de Chaves.[298]

[Footnote 298: According to a special account of this and the
succeeding sea-fight, appended to the present relation in Purchas, the
Portuguese fleet on the present occasion, besides the four galleons,
consisted of two gallions and ten frigates or armed barks, none of which
are here mentioned except the four galleons.--E.]

Sec.3. _Account of the first Fight with the Portuguese_.

In the morning of the 16th December, our admiral and all the masters of
our squadron went on board the prize, carrying two barrels of powder,
some tar, and other combustible materials, to fit her up as a fire-ship,
intending to lay her on board the Portuguese admiral athwart his hawse,
that both might burn together. After she was fitted, we bore up for the
Portuguese squadron, but it fell calm, and the current set us so near
them, that they reached us with their shot. We kept under sail all
night, and in the morning of the 17th, being to leeward of them in
consequence of the land breeze, they weighed and made toward us, when we
waited their approach, although they preserved the advantage of the
weather-gage. The fight began about nine in the morning, and continued
without intermission for nine hours. In the afternoon, a fine gentle
sea-breeze sprung up from the westwards, which gave us the weather-gage;
and the Portuguese admiral anchored, either of necessity to repair some
defect about his rudder, or of policy to gain some expected advantage.
His vice-admiral and the large Dutch ship anchored to the eastwards, and
the lesser Dutch ship to leeward of them all, stopping his leaks. We
were now in great hopes of putting our fire-ship to a good purpose; but
being too soon fired and forsaken by those who had her in charge, she
drove clear of them all, to their joy and our disgrace. Seeing them
remain at anchor, and keeping to windward of them, we turned to and
again close a-head of them as they rode at anchor, raking them as we
passed, through and through, fore and aft, especially the admiral,
receiving only in return their prow and bow-chases. By these, as I
passed to the north, two unfortunate shots cut asunder the weather leech
ropes of the Roebuck's foresail and fore-topsail, in the middle depth of
both sails; owing to which we could not bring her into stays, and were
forced, for repairing these sails, to bear down to leeward, between the
enemy and the shore; in which course, the three great ships plied their
whole broadsides against us, but with less hurt than I could have
imagined, God be praised. Having compassed the three large ships, I
luffed up to rejoin our squadron, which still held the advantage of the
wind, and plied their great guns on the Portuguese like so many muskets.
When I had got to windward of the smaller Dutch ship, which stood off as
I did till he had our fire-ship directly between him and me, he turned
tail, and steered right before the wind along shore to the eastwards,
with all the sail he could carry. The other three now set sail to his

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