Part 4 out of 4
sufficiently advanced and plunges it at his prey. If he has hit his mark,
he continues his efforts and endeavours to transpierce it or so to entangle
the barbs in the flesh as to prevent its escape. When he finds it secure
he drops the instrument, and the fish, fastened on the prongs,
rises to the surface, floated by the buoyancy of the staff. Nothing now
remains to be done but to haul it to him, with either a long stick
or another fish-gig (for an Indian, if he can help it, never goes into the
water on these occasions) to disengage it, and to look out for fresh sport.
But sometimes the fish have either deserted the rocks for deeper water,
or are too shy to suffer approach. He then launches his canoe, and leaving
the shore behind, watches the rise of prey out of the water, and darts
his gig at them to the distance of many yards. Large fish he seldom procures
by this method; but among shoals of mullets, which are either pursued
by enemies, or leap at objects on the surface, he is often successful.
Baneelon has been seen to kill more than twenty fish by this method
in an afternoon. The women sometimes use the gig, and always carry one
in each canoe to strike large fish which may be hooked and thereby facilitate
the capture. But generally speaking, this instrument is appropriate
to the men, who are never seen fishing with the line, and would indeed
consider it as a degradation of their pre-eminence.
When prevented by tempestuous weather or any other cause, from fishing,
these people suffer severely. They have then no resource but to pick up
shellfish, which may happen to cling to the rocks, and be cast on the beach,
to hunt particular reptiles and small animals, which are scarce, to dig
fern root in the swamps or to gather a few berries, destitute of flavour
and nutrition, which the woods afford. To alleviate the sensation of hunger,
they tie a ligature tightly around the belly, as I have often seen
our soldiers do from the same cause.
Let us, however, suppose them successful in procuring fish. The wife returns
to land with her booty, and the husband quitting the rock joins his stock
to hers; and they repair either to some neighbouring cavern or to their hut.
This last is composed of pieces of bark, very rudely piled together,
in shape as like a soldier's tent as any known image to which I can compare it:
too low to admit the lord of it to stand upright, but long and wide enough
to admit three or four persons to lie under it. "Here shelters himself
a being, born with all those powers which education expands, and all those
sensations which culture refines." With a lighted stick brought from
the canoe they now kindle a small fire at the mouth of the hut and prepare
to dress their meal. They begin by throwing the fish exactly in the state
in which it came from the water, on the fire. When it has become
a little warmed they take it off, rub away the scales, and then peal off
with their teeth the surface, which they find done and eat. Now,
and not before, they gut it; but if the fish be a mullet or any other
which has a fatty substance about the intestines, they carefully guard
that part and esteem it a delicacy. The cooking is now completed
by the remaining part being laid on the fire until it be sufficiently done.
A bird, a lizard, a rat, or any other animal, they treat in the same manner.
The feathers of the one and the fur of the other, they thus get rid of.*
[*They broil indiscriminately all substances which they eat. Though they boil
water in small quantities in oyster shells for particular purposes,
they never conceived it possible until shown by us, to dress meat
by this method, having no vessel capable of containing a fish or a bird
which would stand fire. Two of them once stole twelve pounds of rice
and carried it off. They knew how we cooked it, and by way of putting it
in practice they spread the rice on the ground before a fire,
and as it grew hot continued to throw water on it. Their ingenuity was
however very ill rewarded, for the rice became so mingled with the dirt
and sand on which it was laid, that even they could not eat it,
and the whole was spoiled.]
Unless summoned away by irresistable necessity, sleep always follows the
repast. They would gladly prolong it until the following day; but the
canoe wants repair, the fish-gig must be barbed afresh, new lines must be
twisted, and new hooks chopped out. They depart to their respective
tasks, which end only with the light.
Such is the general life of an Indian. But even he has his hours of
relaxation, in seasons of success, when fish abounds. Wanton with plenty,
he now meditates an attack upon the chastity of some neighbouring fair
one; and watching his opportunity he seizes her and drags her away
to complete his purpose. The signal of war is lighted; her lover,
her father, her brothers, her tribe, assemble, and vow revenge on the
spoiler. He tells his story to his tribe. They judge the case to be
a common one and agree to support him. Battle ensues; they discharge
their spears at each other, and legs and arms are transpierced.
When the spears are expended the combatants close and every species
of violence is practiced. They seize their antagonist and snap like
enraged dogs, they wield the sword and club, the bone shatters beneath
their fall and they drop the prey of unsparing vengeance.
Too justly, as my observations teach me has Hobbes defined a state of
nature to be a state of war. In the method of waging it among these
people, one thing should not, however, escape notice. Unlike all other
Indians, they never carry on operations in the night, or seek to destroy
by ambush and surprise. Their ardent fearless character, seeks fair
and open combat only.
But enmity has its moments of pause. Then they assemble to sing and dance.
We always found their songs disagreeable from their monotony. They are
numerous, and vary both in measure and time. They have songs of war,
of hunting, of fishing, for the rise and set of the sun, for rain,
for thunder and for many other occasions. One of these songs, which may
be termed a speaking pantomime, recites the courtship between the sexes
and is accompanied with acting highly expressive. I once heard and saw
Nanbaree and Abaroo perform it. After a few preparatory motions she
gently sunk on the ground, as if in a fainting fit. Nanbaree applying his
mouth to her ear, began to whisper in it, and baring her bosom, breathed
on it several times. At length, the period of the swoon having expired,
with returning animation she gradually raised herself. She now began
to relate what she had seen in her vision, mentioning several of her
countrymen by name, whom we knew to be dead; mixed with other strange
incoherent matter, equally new and inexplicable, though all tending to one
leading point--the sacrifice of her charms to her lover.
At their dances I have often been present; but I confess myself unable
to convey in description an accurate account of them. Like their songs,
they are conceived to represent the progress of the passions and the
occupations of life. Full of seeming confusion, yet regular and systematic,
their wild gesticulations, and frantic distortions of body are calculated
rather to terrify, than delight, a spectator. These dances consist of
short parts, or acts, accompanied with frequent vociferations, and a kind
of hissing, or whizzing noise. They commonly end with a loud rapid shout,
and after a short respite are renewed. While the dance lasts, one of them
(usually a person of note and estimation) beats time with a stick on a
wooden instrument held in the left hand, accompanying the music with his
voice; and the dancers sometimes sing in concert.
I have already mentioned that white is the colour appropriated to the
dance, but the style of painting is left to every one's fancy. Some are
streaked with waving lines from head to foot; others marked by broad
cross-bars, on the breast, back, and thighs, or encircled with spiral
lines, or regularly striped like a zebra. Of these ornaments, the face
never wants its share, and it is hard to conceive any thing in the shape
of humanity more hideous and terrific than they appear to a stranger--seen,
perhaps, through the livid gleam of a fire, the eyes surrounded by large
white circles, in contrast with the black ground, the hair stuck full
of pieces of bone and in the hand a grasped club, which they occasionally
brandish with the greatest fierceness and agility. Some dances are
performed by men only, some by women only, and in others the sexes mingle.
In one of them I have seen the men drop on their hands and knees and kiss
the earth with the greatest fervor, between the kisses looking up to
Heaven. They also frequently throw up their arms, exactly in the manner
in which the dancers of the Friendly Islands are depicted in one of the
plates of Mr. Cook's last voyage.
Courtship here, as in other countries, is generally promoted by this
exercise, where every one tries to recommend himself to attention and
applause. Dancing not only proves an incentive, but offers an opportunity
in its intervals. The first advances are made by the men, who strive
to render themselves agreeable to their favourites by presents of
fishing-tackle and other articles which they know will prove acceptable.
Generally speaking, a man has but one wife, but infidelity on the side
of the husband, with the unmarried girls, is very frequent. For the most
part, perhaps, they intermarry in their respective tribes. This rule is
not, however, constantly observed, and there is reason to think that a
more than ordinary share of courtship and presents, on the part of the
man, is required in this case. Such difficulty seldom operates to
extinguish desire, and nothing is more common than for the unsuccessful
suitor to ravish by force that which he cannot accomplish by entreaty.
I do not believe that very near connections by blood ever cohabit.
We knew of no instance of it.
But indeed the women are in all respects treated with savage barbarity
Condemned not only to carry the children but all other burthens, they meet
in return for submission only with blows, kicks and every other mark
of brutality. When an Indian is provoked by a woman, he either spears her
or knocks her down on the spot. On this occasion he always strikes
on the head, using indiscriminately a hatchet, a club or any other weapon
which may chance to be in his hand. The heads of the women are always
consequently seen in the state which I found that of Gooreedeeana.
Colbee, who was certainly, in other respects a good tempered merry fellow,
made no scruple of treating Daringa, who was a gentle creature, thus.
Baneelon did the same to Barangaroo, but she was a scold and a vixen,
and nobody pitied her. It must nevertheless be confessed that the women
often artfully study to irritate and inflame the passions of the men,
although sensible that the consequence will alight on themselves.
Many a matrimonial scene of this sort have I witnessed. Lady Mary Wortley
Montague, in her sprightly letters from Turkey, longs for some of the
advocates for passive obedience and unconditional submission then existing
in England to be present at the sights exhibited in a despotic government.
A thousand times, in like manner, have I wished that those European
philosophers whose closet speculations exalt a state of nature above
a state of civilization, could survey the phantom which their heated
imaginations have raised. Possibly they might then learn that a state
of nature is, of all others, least adapted to promote the happiness of
a being capable of sublime research and unending ratiocination. That a
savage roaming for prey amidst his native deserts is a creature deformed
by all those passions which afflict and degrade our nature, unsoftened by
the influence of religion, philosophy and legal restriction: and that the
more men unite their talents, the more closely the bands of society are
drawn and civilization advanced, inasmuch is human felicity augmented,
and man fitted for his unalienable station in the universe.
Of the language of New South Wales I once hoped to have subjoined to this
work such an exposition as should have attracted public notice, and have
excited public esteem. But the abrupt departure of Mr. Dawes, who,
stimulated equally by curiosity and philanthropy, had hardly set foot
on his native country when he again quitted it to encounter new perils
in the service of the Sierra Leona company, precludes me from executing
this part of my original intention, in which he had promised to co-operate
with me; and in which he had advanced his researches beyond the reach
of competition. The few remarks which I can offer shall be concisely
We were at first inclined to stigmatised this language as harsh and
barbarous in its sounds. Their combinations of words in the manner they
utter them, frequently convey such an effect. But if not only their
proper names of men and places, but many of their phrases and a majority
of their words, be simply and unconnectedly considered, they will be found
to abound with vowels and to produce sounds sometimes mellifluous and
sometimes sonorous. What ear can object to the names of Colbee,
(pronounced exactly as Colby is with us) Bereewan, Bondel, Imeerawanyee,
Deedora, Wolarawaree, or Baneelon, among the men; or to Wereeweea,
Gooreedeeana, Milba*, or Matilba, among the women. Parramatta, Gweea,
Cameera, Cadi, and Memel, are names of places. The tribes derive their
appellations from the places they inhabit. Thus Cemeeragal, means the men
who reside in the bay of Cameera; Cedigal, those who reside in the bay
of Cadi; and so of the others. The women of the tribe are denoted by
adding 'eean' to any of the foregoing words. A Cadigaleean imports a woman
living at Cadi, or of the tribe of Cadigal. These words, as the reader
will observe, are accented either on the first syllable or the penultima.
In general, however, they are partial to the emphasis being laid as near
the beginning of the word as possible.
[*Mrs. Johnson, wife of the chaplain of the settlement, was so pleased
with this name that she christened her little girl, born in Port Jackson,
Milba Maria Johnson.]
Of compound words they seem fond. Two very striking ones appear in the
journal to the Hawkesbury. Their translations of our words into their
language are always apposite, comprehensive, and drawn from images
familiar to them. A gun, for instance, they call 'gooroobeera', that is,
a stick of fire. Sometimes also, by a licence of language, they call
those who carry guns by the same name. But the appellation by which they
generally distinguished us was that of 'bereewolgal', meaning men come from
afar. When they salute any one they call him 'dameeli', or namesake, a term
which not only implies courtesy and good-will, but a certain degree of
affection in the speaker. An interchange of names with any one is also
a symbol of friendship. Each person has several names; one of which,
there is reason to believe, is always derived from the first fish
or animal which the child, in accompanying its father to the chase or a
fishing, may chance to kill.
Not only their combinations, but some of their simple sounds, were
difficult of pronunciation to mouths purely English. Diphthongs often
occur. One of the most common is that of 'ae', or perhaps, 'ai',
pronounced not unlike those letters in the French verb 'hair', to hate.
The letter 'y' frequently follows 'd' in the same syllable. Thus the word
which signifies a woman is 'dyin'; although the structure of our language
requires us to spell it 'deein'.
But if they sometimes put us to difficulty, many of our words were to them
unutterable. The letters 's' and 'v' they never could pronounce. The
latter became invariably 'w', and the former mocked all their efforts,
which in the instance of Baneelon has been noticed; and a more unfortunate
defect in learning our language could not easily be pointed out.
They use the ellipsis in speaking very freely; always omitting as many
words as they possibly can, consistent with being understood. They
inflect both their nouns and verbs regularly; and denote the cases of the
former and the tenses of the latter, not like the English by auxiliary
words, but like the Latins by change of termination. Their nouns, whether
substantive or adjective, seem to admit of no plural. I have heard
Mr. Dawes hint his belief of their using a dual number, similar to the
Greeks, but I confess that I never could remark aught to confirm it.
The method by which they answer a question that they cannot resolve is
similar to what we sometimes use. Let for example the following question
be put: 'Waw Colbee yagoono?'--Where is Colbee to-day? 'Waw, baw!'--Where,
indeed! would be the reply. They use a direct and positive negative,
but express the affirmative by a nod of the head or an inclination
of the body.
Opinions have greatly differed, whether or not their language be copious.
In one particular it is notoriously defective. They cannot count with
precision more than four. However as far as ten, by holding up the
fingers, they can both comprehend others and explain themselves. Beyond
four every number is called great; and should it happen to be very large,
great great, which is an Italian idiom also. This occasions their
computations of time and space to be very confused and incorrect. Of the
former they have no measure but the visible diurnal motion of the sun
or the monthly revolution of the moon.
To conclude the history of a people for whom I cannot but feel some share
of affection. Let those who have been born in more favoured lands and who
have profited by more enlightened systems, compassionate, but not despise
their destitute and obscure situation. Children of the same omniscient
paternal care, let them recollect that by the fortuitous advantage
of birth alone they possess superiority: that untaught, unaccommodated
man is the same in Pall Mall as in the wilderness of New South Wales.
And ultimately let them hope and trust that the progress of reason and the
splendor of revelation will in their proper and allotted season
be permitted to illumine and transfuse into these desert regions,
knowledge, virtue and happiness.
Observations on the Convicts.
A short account of that class of men for whose disposal and advantage
the colony was principally, if not totally, founded, seems necessary.
If it be recollected how large a body of these people are now congregated
in the settlement of Port Jackson and at Norfolk Island, it will, I think,
not only excite surprise but afford satisfaction, to learn, that in a
period of four years few crimes of a deep dye or of a hardened nature
have been perpetrated. Murder and unnatural sins rank not hitherto in the
catalogue of their enormities, and one suicide only has been committed.
To the honour of the female part of our community let it be recorded
that only one woman has suffered capital punishment. On her condemnation
she pleaded pregnancy, and a jury of venerable matrons was impanneled
on the spot, to examine and pronounce her state, which the forewoman,
a grave personage between sixty and seventy years old, did, by this short
address to the court; 'Gentlemen! she is as much with child as I am.'
Sentence was accordingly passed, and she was executed.
Besides the instance of Irving, two other male convicts, William
Bloodsworth, of Kingston upon Thames, and John Arscott, of Truro,
in Cornwall, were both emancipated for their good conduct, in the years
1790 and 1791. Several men whose terms of transportation had expired,
and against whom no legal impediment existed to prevent their departure,
have been permitted to enter in merchant ships wanting hands: and
as my Rose Hill journals testify, many others have had grants of land
assigned to them, and are become settlers in the country.
In so numerous a community many persons of perverted genius and of
mechanical ingenuity could not but be assembled. Let me produce the
following example. Frazer was an iron manufacturer, bred at Sheffield,
of whose abilities as a workman we had witnessed many proofs. The
governor had written to England for a set of locks to be sent out for the
security of the public stores, which were to be so constructed as to be
incapable of being picked. On their arrival his excellency sent for
Frazer and bade him examine them telling him at the same time that they
could not be picked. Frazer laughed and asked for a crooked nail only,
to open them all. A nail was brought, and in an instant he verified his
assertion. Astonished at his dexterity, a gentleman present determined
to put it to farther proof. He was sent for in a hurry, some days after,
to the hospital, where a lock of still superior intricacy and expense to
the others had been provided. He was told that the key was lost and that
the lock must be immediately picked. He examined it attentively, remarked
that it was the production of a workman, and demanded ten minutes to make
an instrument 'to speak with it.' Without carrying the lock with him,
he went directly to his shop, and at the expiration of his term returned,
applied his instrument, and open flew the lock. But it was not only in
this part of his business that he excelled: he executed every branch
of it in superior style. Had not his villainy been still more notorious
than his skill, he would have proved an invaluable possession to a new
country. He had passed through innumerable scenes in life, and had played
many parts. When too lazy to work at his trade he had turned thief in
fifty different shapes, was a receiver of stolen goods, a soldier and a
travelling conjurer. He once confessed to me that he had made a set of
tools, for a gang of coiners, every man of whom was hanged.
Were the nature of the subject worthy of farther illustration, many
similar proofs of misapplied talents might be adduced.
Their love of the marvellous has been recorded in an early part of this
work. The imposture of the gold finder, however prominent and glaring,
nevertheless contributed to awaken attention and to create merriment.
He enjoyed the reputation of a discoverer, until experiment detected the
imposition. But others were less successful to acquire even momentary
admiration. The execution of forgery seems to demand at least neatness
of imitation and dexterity of address. On arrival of the first fleet
of ships from England, several convicts brought out recommendatory letters
from different friends. Of these some were genuine, and many owed their
birth to the ingenuity of the bearers. But these last were all such
bungling performances as to produce only instant detection and succeeding
contempt. One of them addressed to the governor, with the name of
Baron Hotham affixed to it, began 'Honored Sir!'
A leading distinction, which marked the convicts on their outset in the
colony, was an use of what is called the 'flash', or 'kiddy' language.
In some of our early courts of justice an interpreter was frequently
necessary to translate the deposition of the witness and the defence of
the prisoner. This language has many dialects. The sly dexterity of the
pickpocket, the brutal ferocity of the footpad, the more elevated career
of the highwayman and the deadly purpose of the midnight ruffian is each
strictly appropriate in the terms which distinguish and characterize it.
I have ever been of opinion that an abolition of this unnatural jargon
would open the path to reformation. And my observations on these people
have constantly instructed me that indulgence in this infatuating cant
is more deeply associated with depravity and continuance in vice than is
generally supposed. I recollect hardly one instance of a return to honest
pursuits, and habits of industry, where this miserable perversion of our
noblest and peculiar faculty was not previously conquered.
Those persons to whom the inspection and management of our numerous
and extensive prisons in England are committed will perform a service
to society by attending to the foregoing observation. Let us always keep
in view, that punishment, when not directed to promote reformation,
is arbitrary, and unauthorised.
Facts relating to the probability of establishing a whale fishery
on the coast of New South Wales, with Thoughts on the same.
In every former part of this publication I have studiously avoided
mentioning a whale fishery, as the information relating to it will,
I conceive, be more acceptably received in this form, by those to whom it
is addressed, than if mingled with other matter.
Previous to entering on this detail, it must be observed that several of
the last fleet of ships which had arrived from England with convicts,
were fitted out with implements for whale fishing, and were intended to
sail for the coast of Brazil to pursue the fishery, immediately on having
landed the convicts.
On the 14th of October, 1791, the 'Britannia', Captain Melville, one of
these ships, arrived at Sydney. In her passage between Van Diemen's Land
and Port Jackson, the master reported that he had seen a large shoal
of spermaceti whales. His words were, 'I saw more whales at one time
around my ship than in the whole of six years which I have fished on the
coast of Brazil.'
This intelligence was no sooner communicated than all the whalers were
eager to push to sea. Melville himself was among the most early; and on
the 10th of November, returned to Port Jackson, more confident of success
than before. He assured me that in the fourteen days which he had been
out, he had seen more spermaced whales than in all his former life.
They amounted, he said to many thousands, most of them of enormous
magnitude; and had he not met with bad weather he could have killed
as many as he pleased. Seven he did kill, but owing to the stormy
agitated state of the water, he could not get any of them aboard. In one
however, which in a momentary interval of calm, was killed and secured
by a ship in company, he shared. The oil and head matter of this fish,
he extolled as of an extraordinary fine quality. He was of opinion the
former would fetch ten pounds per ton more in London than that procured
on the Brazil coast. He had not gone farther south than 37 degrees;
and described the latitude of 35 degrees to be the place where the whales
most abounded, just on the edge of soundings, which here extends about
fifteen leagues from the shore; though perhaps, on other parts of the
coast the bank will be found to run hardly so far off.
On the following day (November 11th) the 'Mary Anne', Captain Munro,
another of the whalers, returned into port, after having been out sixteen
days. She had gone as far south as 41 degrees but saw not a whale,
and had met with tremendously bad weather, in which she had shipped a sea
that had set her boiling coppers afloat and had nearly carried them
November 22d. The 'William and Anne', Captain Buncker, returned after
having been more than three weeks out, and putting into Broken Bay.
This is the ship that had killed the fish in which Melville shared.
Buncker had met with no farther success, owing, he said, entirely, to
gales of wind; for he had seen several immense shoals and was of opinion
that he should have secured fifty tons of oil, had the weather been
tolerably moderate. I asked him whether he thought the whales he had seen
were fish of passage. "No" he answered, "they were going on every point
of the compass, and were evidently on feeding ground, which I saw no
reason to doubt that they frequent." Melville afterwards confirmed to me
this observation. December 3rd, the 'Mary Anne' and 'Matilda' again
returned. The former had gone to the southward, and off Port Jervis
had fallen in with two shoals of whales, nine of which were killed, but
owing to bad weather, part of five only were got on board. As much,
the master computed, as would yield thirty barrels of oil. He said the
whales were the least shy of any he had ever seen, "not having been
cut up". The latter had gone to the northward, and had seen no whales
but a few fin-backs.
On the 5th of December, both these ships sailed again; and on the 16th
and 17th of the month (just before the author sailed for England) they
and the 'Britannia' and 'William and Anne' returned to Port Jackson
without success having experienced a continuation of the bad weather
and seen very few fish. They all said that their intention was to give
the coast one more trial, and if it miscarried to quit it and steer
to the northward in search of less tempestuous seas.
The only remark which I have to offer to adventurers on the above subject,
is not to suffer discouragement by concluding that bad weather only is
to be found on the coast of New South Wales, where the whales have
hitherto been seen. Tempests happen sometimes there, as in other seas,
but let them feel assured that there are in every month of the year
many days in which the whale fishery may be safely carried on.
The evidence of the abundance in which spermaceti whales are sometimes
seen is incontrovertible: that which speaks to their being 'not fish
of passage' is at least respectable and hitherto uncontradicted.
The prospect merits attention--may it stimulate to enterprise.
The two discoveries of Port Jervis and Matilda Bay (which are to be found
in the foregoing sheets) may yet be wanting in the maps of the coast.
My account of their geographic situation, except possibly in the exact
longitude of the latter (a point not very material) may be safely depended
upon. A knowledge of Oyster Bay, discovered and laid down by the 'Mercury'
store-ship, in the year 1789, would also be desirable. But this I am
incapable of furnishing.
Here terminates my subject. Content with the humble province of detailing
facts and connecting events by undisturbed narration, I leave to others
the task of anticipating glorious, or gloomy, consequences, from the
establishment of a colony, which unquestionably demands serious
investigation, ere either its prosecution or abandonment be determined.
But doubtless not only those who planned, but those who have been
delegated to execute, an enterprise of such magnitude, have deeply
revolved, that "great national expense does not imply the necessity
of national suffering. While revenue is employed with success to some
valuable end, the profits of every adventure being more than sufficient
to repay its costs, the public should gain, and its resources should
continue to multiply. But an expense whether sustained at home or abroad;
whether a waste of the present, or an anticipation of the future, revenue,
if it bring no adequate return, is to be reckoned among the causes
of national ruin."*
[*Ferguson's Essay on the History of Civil Society.]
A list of the Civil and Military Establishments in New South Wales
Governor and Commander in Chief, His Excellency Arthur Phillip, Esq.
Lieutenant Governor, Robert Ross, Esq.
Judge of the Admiralty Court, Robert Ross, Esq.
Chaplain of the Settlement, the Rev. Richard Johnson.
Judge Advocate of the Settlement, David Collins, Esq.
Secretary to the Governor, David Collins, Esq.
Surveyor General, Augustus Alt, Esq.
Commissary of Stores and Provisions, Andrew Miller, Esq.
Assistant Commissary, Mr. Zechariah Clarke.
Provost Martial, who acts as Sheriff of Cumberland County, Mr. Henry Brewer.
Peace Officer, Mr. James Smith.
His Majesty's Ship 'Sirius', John Hunter, Esq. Commander.
Lieutenants, Bradley, King, Maxwell.
His Majesty's armed Brig, 'Supply', Lieutenant Henry Lidgbird Ball, Commander.
FOUR COMPANIES OF MARINES
Major Robert Ross, Commandant.
CAPTAINS COMMANDING COMPANIES
James Campbell, John Shea, Captain Lieutenants, James Meredith, Watkin Tench.
George Johnson, John Johnson, John Creswell, James Maltland Shairp,
Robert Nellow, Thomas Davey, James Furzer, Thomas Timins, John Poulden.
Ralph Clarke, John Long, William Dawes, William Feddy.
Adjutant, John Long.
Quarter Master, James Furzer.
Aide de Camp to the Governor, George Johnson.
Officer of Engineers and Artillery, William Dawes.
Surgeon General of the Settlement, John White, Esq.
First Assistant, Mr. Dennis Considen.
Second Assistant, Mr. Thomas Arndell.
Third Assistant, Mr. William Balmain.