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A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents: Ulysses S. Grant by James D. Richardson

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A COMPILATION OF THE MESSAGES AND PAPERS OF THE PRESIDENTS

BY JAMES D. RICHARDSON

A REPRESENTATIVE FROM THE STATE OF TENNESSEE

VOLUME VII

ULYSSES S. GRANT

Prefatory Note

The election of General Grant to the Presidency by the people of the
United States was another instance illustrating the gratitude of a
republic to a successful soldier. But for the great civil war no one
supposes he would ever have been elevated to this exalted post. His
services in that heroic struggle were such as to win the highest
encomiums from his countrymen, and naturally at the first opportunity
after the closing of the war when a Chief Executive was to be chosen
they turned their eyes to the most conspicuous figure in that war and
made him President of the United States. This volume, the seventh of the
series, comprises his eight years and the four years of his successor,
Mr. Hayes. During this period of twelve years--that is, from March 4,
1869, to March 4, 1881--the legislation for the restoration of the
Southern States to their original positions in the Union was enacted,
the reunion of the States was perfected, and all sections of the land
again given full and free representation in Congress. Much of the
bitterness engendered by the war, and which had been left alive at its
closing, and which was not diminished to any appreciable extent during
President Johnson's term, was largely assuaged during President Grant's
Administration, and under that of President Hayes was further softened
and almost entirely dissipated.

It will be seen that President Grant in his papers dwelt especially
upon the duty of paying the national debt in gold and returning to
specie payments; that he urged upon Congress a proposition to annex
Santo Domingo; that during his Administration the "Quaker Peace
Commission" was appointed to deal with the Indians, the fifteenth
amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proclaimed, the
treaty of Washington was negotiated, and, with a subsequent arbitration
at Geneva, a settlement was provided of the difficulties relating to the
Alabama claims and the fisheries; that in 1870 and frequently afterwards
he urged upon Congress the need of reform in the civil service. His
appeals secured the passage of the law of March 3, 1871, under which
he appointed a civil service commission. This commission framed rules,
which were approved by the President. They provided for open competitive
examination, and went into effect January 1, 1872; and out of these grew
the present civil-service rules. One of his most important papers was
the message vetoing the "inflation bill."

The closing months of his public life covered the stormy and exciting
period following the Presidential election of 1876, when the result as
between Mr. Tilden and Mr. Hayes was so long in doubt. There is very
little, however, in any Presidential paper of that period to indicate
the great peril to the country and the severe strain to which our
institutions were subjected in that memorable contest.

The Administration of Mr. Hayes, though it began amid exciting scenes
and an unprecedented situation which threatened disasters, was rather
marked by moderation and a sympathy with what he considered true reform.
Some of his vetoes are highly interesting, and indicate independence of
character and that he was not always controlled by mere party politics.
One of the most famous and best remembered of his messages is that
vetoing the Bland-Allison Act, which restored the legal-tender quality
to the silver dollar and provided for its limited coinage.

Other papers of interest are his message recommending the resumption of
specie payments; vetoes of a bill to restrict Chinese immigration, of
an Army appropriation bill, of a legislative, executive, and judicial
appropriation bill, and of the act known as the "funding act of 1881."
It was during Mr. Hayes's Administration, when the Forty-fifth Congress
met in extraordinary session on March 18, 1879, that for the first time
since the Congress that was chosen with Mr. Buchanan in 1856 the
Democratic party was in control of both Houses.

JAMES D. RICHARDSON,

FEBRUARY 22, 1898.

Ulysses S. Grant

March 4, 1869, to March 4, 1877

Ulysses S. Grant

Ulysses S. Grant was born at Point Pleasant, Clermont County, Ohio,
April 27, 1822. He was of Scotch ancestry, but his family had been
American in all its branches for several generations. Was a descendant
of Mathew Grant, who arrived at Dorchester, Mass., in May, 1630. His
father was Jesse R. Grant and his mother Hannah Simpson; they were
married in Clermont County, Ohio, in June, 1821. In the fall of 1823 his
parents removed to Georgetown, the county seat of Brown County, Ohio.
Ulysses, the eldest of six children, spent his boyhood in assisting his
father on the farm, which was more congenial than working in the tannery
of which his father was proprietor. From an early age until 17 years
old attended the subscription schools of Georgetown, except during
the winters of 1836-37 and 1838-39, which were spent at schools in
Maysville, Ky., and Ripley, Ohio. In the spring of 1839, at the age of
17, was appointed to a cadetship in the Military Academy at West Point
by Thomas L. Hamer, a Member of Congress, and entered the Academy July
1, 1839. The name given him at birth was Hiram Ulysses, but he was
always called by his middle name. Mr. Hamer, thinking Ulysses his first
name, and that his middle name was probably that of his mother's family,
inserted in the official appointment the name of Ulysses S. Grant. The
officials of the Academy were notified by Cadet Grant of the error, but
they did not feel authorized to correct it, and it was acquiesced in and
became the name by which he was always known. Graduated from the Academy
in 1843, twenty-first in a class of thirty-nine members. Was attached to
the Fourth United States Infantry as brevet second lieutenant July 1,
1843; was appointed second lieutenant, Seventh Infantry, September 30,
1845, and transferred to the Fourth Infantry November 15, 1845. During
the Mexican War (1846-1848) took part with his regiment in active
service, and was in all the battles fought by Generals Scott and Taylor
except that of Buena Vista. Was brevetted for gallant conduct at the
battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, but declined the honor. At
the battle of Monterey distinguished himself by volunteering to run the
gantlet and bring ammunition for the troops into the city. September 8,
1847, was appointed brevet first lieutenant for gallant conduct at
Molino del Rey. Acted as regimental quartermaster April 1, 1847, to July
23, 1848, and from November 17, 1848, to August 5, 1853. September 13,
1847, was brevetted captain for gallant conduct at the battle of
Chapultepec, and on September 16 was appointed first lieutenant. At San
Cosme was mentioned in special orders by his commanders--regimental,
brigade, and division. After the Mexican War his regiment was sent to
Pascagoula, Miss., and afterwards to Sacketts Harbor, N.Y., and Detroit,
Mich. August 22, 1848, married Miss Julia Dent, of St. Louis, Mo. In
1852 his regiment was sent to the Pacific Coast. August 5, 1853, was
appointed captain. Resigned July 31, 1854, and went to live on a farm
near St. Louis, but in 1858 gave up farming on account of his health,
and entered into the real-estate business in St. Louis. In May, 1860,
removed to Galena, Ill., and became a clerk in his father's store.
In April, 1861, after President Lincoln's call for troops, presided
at a public meeting in Galena, which resulted in the organization of a
company of volunteers, which he drilled and accompanied to Springfield,
Ill. Was employed by Governor Yates in the adjutant-general's office,
and appointed mustering officer. Offered his services to the National
Government in a letter written May 24, 1861, but no answer was ever
made to it. June 17, 1861, was appointed colonel of the Twenty-first
Illinois Volunteers, and served until August 7, when he was appointed
brigadier-general of volunteers by the President, his commission to date
from May 17, 1861. Was assigned September 1 to command the District
of Southeastern Missouri. September 4 established his headquarters at
Cairo, and on the 6th captured Paducah, Ky. February 2, 1862, advanced
from Cairo; on the 6th captured Fort Henry, and on the 16th Fort
Donelson. Soon afterwards was made a major-general of volunteers, his
commission dating from February 16. March 4 was relieved from his
command and ordered to remain at Fort Henry, but on the 13th was
restored. Commanded at the battle of Shiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862.
General Halleck on April 11 assumed command of the combined armies, and
General Grant became second in command during the advance upon and the
siege of Corinth. In July Halleck became general in chief of all the
armies, and General Grant was placed in command of the District of West
Tennessee. In September fought the battle of Iuka, Miss., and in October
the battle of Corinth. January 29, 1863, moved down the Mississippi
River and took command of the troops opposite Vicksburg. On March 29
sent one corps of his army across the peninsula opposite Vicksburg, and
on April 16 ran the batteries with seven gunboats and three transports.
April 22 six other transports ran the batteries. His army was now below
Vicksburg, and on the 29th bombarded Grand Gulf. May 1 fought the battle
at Port Gibson, and on May 3 captured Grand Gulf. May 12 defeated the
Confederates at Raymond; and on the 14th captured Jackson, Miss. After
several engagements the Confederates were driven by him into Vicksburg,
when he began the siege of that city, which was surrendered July 4,
1863. On the same day was commissioned a major-general in the United
States Army. In August went to New Orleans to confer with General Banks,
and while reviewing the troops there was injured by his horse falling on
him. About the middle of October was assigned to the command of the
Military Division of the Mississippi, which included Rosecran's army at
Chattanooga, Tenn. Arrived at Chattanooga October 23, and the next day
issued orders which resulted in the battle of Wauhatchie on the 29th.
Attacked the Confederates under General Bragg on November 23, and
after three days' fighting captured Missionary Ridge, whereupon the
Confederates retreated to Dalton, Ga. For his successes Congress, in
December, 1863, passed a resolution of thanks to him and the officers
and soldiers of his command, and presented him with a gold medal. The
bill restoring the grade of lieutenant-general became a law in February,
1864, and on March 1 he was nominated for the position and was confirmed
the succeeding day. On March 12 assumed command of all the armies of the
United States, and immediately began the plan of campaign that kept all
of the armies in motion until the war ended. About May 4, 1864, this
campaign, the greatest of the war, began, and lasted until the surrender
of the Confederates in April, 1865. During this period there were fought
some of the bloodiest battles of the world. On April 9, 1865, General
Lee surrendered his army at Appomattox, Va., to General Grant, who then
displayed the greatest magnanimity to the Confederates, and won for
himself from his late enemies their warmest gratitude. His magnanimity
will always be remembered by the Confederate soldiers, and will stand
in history as long as nobility of character shall be appreciated by
mankind. On the closing of the war directed his attention to mustering
out of service the great army under his command and the disposal of the
enormous quantity of stores of the Government. In the discharge of his
duties visited different sections of the country and was received
everywhere with enthusiasm. The citizens of Philadelphia presented him
with a handsome residence in that city; his old neighbors in Galena gave
him a pretty home in their town; the people of New York presented to him
a check for $105,000. In November and December, 1865, traveled through
the Southern States, and made a report to the President upon the
conditions there. In May, 1866, submitted a plan to the Government for
the reorganization of the Regular Army of the United States, which
became the basis of its reorganization. July 25 Congress passed an act
creating the grade of general of the armies of the United States,
and on the same day he was appointed to this rank. August 12, 1867, was
appointed by President Johnson Secretary of War _ad interim_, which
position he held until January 14, 1868. At the national convention
of the Republican party which met in Chicago on May 20, 1868, was
unanimously nominated for President on the first call of States. His
letter of acceptance of that nomination was brief, and contained the
famous sentence, "Let us have peace." At the election in November was
chosen to be President, receiving 214 electoral votes, while Horatio
Seymour received 80. Was renominated by his party in national convention
in Philadelphia June 6, 1872, and at the election in November received
286 electoral votes, against 66 which would have been cast for Horace
Greeley if he had lived. Retired from office March 4, 1877. After his
retirement made a journey into foreign countries, and was received with
great distinction and pomp by all the governments and peoples he
visited. An earnest effort was made to nominate him for a third term,
but it failed. By special act of Congress passed March 3, 1885, was
placed as general on the retired list of the Army. He died July 23,
1885, at Mount McGregor, N.Y., and was buried at Riverside Park, New
York City, on the Hudson River.

FIRST INAUGURAL ADDRESS.

_Citizens of the United States_:

Your suffrages having elected me to the office of President of the
United States, I have, in conformity to the Constitution of our country,
taken the oath of office prescribed therein. I have taken this oath
without mental reservation and with the determination to do to the best
of my ability all that is required of me. The responsibilities of the
position I feel, but accept them without fear. The office has come to me
unsought; I commence its duties untrammeled. I bring to it a conscious
desire and determination to fill it to the best of my ability to the
satisfaction of the people.

On all leading questions agitating the public mind I will always express
my views to Congress and urge them according to my judgment, and when
I think it advisable will exercise the constitutional privilege of
interposing a veto to defeat measures which I oppose; but all laws will
be faithfully executed, whether they meet my approval or not.

I shall on all subjects have a policy to recommend, but none to enforce
against the will of the people. Laws are to govern all alike--those
opposed as well as those who favor them. I know no method to secure the
repeal of bad or obnoxious laws so effective as their stringent
execution.

The country having just emerged from a great rebellion, many
questions will come before it for settlement in the next four years
which preceding Administrations have never had to deal with. In meeting
these it is desirable that they should be approached calmly, without
prejudice, hate, or sectional pride, remembering that the greatest good
to the greatest number is the object to be attained.

This requires security of person, property, and free religious and
political opinion in every part of our common country, without regard
to local prejudice. All laws to secure these ends will receive my best
efforts for their enforcement.

A great debt has been contracted in securing to us and our posterity
the Union. The payment of this, principal and interest, as well as the
return to a specie basis as soon as it can be accomplished without
material detriment to the debtor class or to the country at large,
must be provided for. To protect the national honor, every dollar
of Government indebtedness should be paid in gold, unless otherwise
expressly stipulated in the contract. Let it be understood that no
repudiator of one farthing of our public debt will be trusted in public
place, and it will go far toward strengthening a credit which ought to
be the best in the world, and will ultimately enable us to replace the
debt with bonds bearing less interest than we now pay. To this should be
added a faithful collection of the revenue, a strict accountability to
the Treasury for every dollar collected, and the greatest practicable
retrenchment in expenditure in every department of Government.

When we compare the paying capacity of the country now, with the ten
States in poverty from the effects of war, but soon to emerge, I trust,
into greater prosperity than ever before, with its paying capacity
twenty-five years ago, and calculate what it probably will be
twenty-five years hence, who can doubt the feasibility of paying every
dollar then with more ease than we now pay for useless luxuries? Why,
it looks as though Providence had bestowed upon us a strong box in the
precious metals locked up in the sterile mountains of the far West, and
which we are now forging the key to unlock, to meet the very contingency
that is now upon us.

Ultimately it may be necessary to insure the facilities to reach these
riches, and it may be necessary also that the General Government should
give its aid to secure this access; but that should only be when a
dollar of obligation to pay secures precisely the same sort of dollar
to use now, and hot before. Whilst the question of specie payments is
in abeyance the prudent business man is careful about contracting debts
payable in the distant future. The nation should follow the same rule.
A prostrate commerce is to be rebuilt and all industries encouraged.

The young men of the country--those who from their age must be its
rulers twenty-five years hence--have a peculiar interest in maintaining
the national honor. A moment's reflection as to what will be our
commanding influence among the nations of the earth in their day, if
they are only true to themselves, should inspire them with national
pride. All divisions--geographical, political, and religious--can join
in this common sentiment. How the public debt is to be paid or specie
payments resumed is not so important as that a plan should be adopted
and acquiesced in. A united determination to do is worth more than
divided counsels upon the method of doing. Legislation upon this subject
may not be necessary now, nor even advisable, but it will be when the
civil law is more fully restored in all parts of the country and trade
resumes its wonted channels.

It will be my endeavor to execute all laws in good faith, to collect
all revenues assessed, and to have them properly accounted for and
economically disbursed. I will to the best of my ability appoint to
office those only who will carry out this design.

In regard to foreign policy, I would deal with nations as equitable law
requires individuals to deal with each other, and I would protect the
law-abiding citizen, whether of native or foreign birth, wherever his
rights are jeopardized or the flag of our country floats. I would
respect the rights of all nations, demanding equal respect for our own.
If others depart from this rule in their dealings with us, we may be
compelled to follow their precedent.

The proper treatment of the original occupants of this land--the
Indians--is one deserving of careful study. I will favor any course
toward them which tends to their civilization and ultimate citizenship.

The question of suffrage is one which is likely to agitate the public
so long as a portion of the citizens of the nation are excluded from
its privileges in any State. It seems to me very desirable that this
question should be settled now, and I entertain the hope and express
the desire that it may be by the ratification of the fifteenth article
of amendment to the Constitution.

In conclusion I ask patient forbearance one toward another throughout
the land, and a determined effort on the part of every citizen to do his
share toward cementing a happy union; and I ask the prayers of the
nation to Almighty God in behalf of this consummation.

MARCH 4, 1869.

[NOTE.--The Forty-first Congress, first session, met March 4, 1869,
in accordance with the act of January 22, 1867.]

SPECIAL MESSAGES.

WASHINGTON, D.C., _March 6, 1869_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

Since the nomination and confirmation of Alexander T. Stewart to the
office of Secretary of the Treasury I find that by the eighth section
of the act of Congress approved September 2, 1789, it is provided as
follows, to wit:

_And be it further enacted_, That no person appointed to any office
instituted by this act shall, directly or indirectly, be concerned or
interested in carrying on the business of trade or commerce; or be
owner, in whole or in part, of any sea vessel; or purchase, by himself
or another in trust for him, any public lands or other public property;
or be concerned in the purchase or disposal of any public securities of
any State or of the United States; or take or apply to his own use any
emolument or gain for negotiating or transacting any business in the
said Department other than what shall be allowed by law; and if any
person shall offend against any of the prohibitions of this act he shall
be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor and forfeit to the United States
the penalty of $3,000, and shall upon conviction be removed from office
and forever thereafter incapable of holding any office under the United
States: _Provided_, That if any other person than a public prosecutor
shall give information of any such offense, upon which a prosecution and
conviction shall be had, one-half the aforesaid penalty of $3,000, when
recovered, shall be for the use of the person giving such information.

In view of these provisions and the fact that Mr. Stewart has been
unanimously confirmed by the Senate, I would ask that he be exempted by
joint resolution of the two Houses of Congress from the operations of
the same.

U.S. GRANT.

WASHINGTON, _March 9, 1869_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

I transmit to the Senate, in compliance with its resolution of the 5th
instant, a report from the Secretary of State, communicating a list of
the public and private acts and resolutions passed at the third session
of the Fortieth Congress which have become laws, either by approval or
otherwise.

U.S. GRANT.

WASHINGTON, _March 9, 1869_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

I have the honor to request to be permitted to withdraw from the Senate
of the United States my message of the 6th instant, requesting the
passage of a joint resolution of the two Houses of Congress to relieve
the Secretary of the Treasury from the disabilities imposed by section 8
of the act of Congress approved September 2, 1789.

U.S. GRANT.

WASHINGTON, _March 15, 1869_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I invite the attention of Congress to the accompanying communication[1]
of this date, which I have received from the Secretary of the Interior.

U.S. GRANT.

[Footnote 1: Report of the Government directors of the Union Pacific
Railroad relative to an injunction issued by Judge Barnard, of the
supreme court of the city of New York, restraining and prohibiting an
election of officers or directors on the day directed by the law of
December 20, 1867.]

WASHINGTON, _March 16, 1869_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

In compliance with the resolution of the Senate of the 11th instant,
asking if the first installment due from the Government of Venezuela
pursuant to the convention of April 25, 1866, has been paid, I transmit
a report from the Secretary of State, to whom the resolution was
referred.

U.S. GRANT.

WASHINGTON, _March 24, 1869_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

I transmit to the Senate, in answer to their resolution of the
1st instant, a report from the Secretary of State, together with
accompanying papers.[2]

U.S. GRANT.

[Footnote 2: Correspondence with the United states minister and the
secretary of legation at Madrid.]

WASHINGTON, _March 29, 1869_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

In compliance with the request contained in the resolution of the Senate
of the 17th instant, in regard to certain correspondence[3] between
James Buchanan, then President of the United States, and Lewis Cass,
Secretary of State, I transmit a report from the Department of State,
which is accompanied by a copy of the correspondence referred to.

U.S. GRANT.

[Footnote 3: Regarding the policy to be pursued to avert civil war, then
threatening, which correspondence led to the resignation of Mr. Cass.]

WASHINGTON, _March 31, 1869_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

In compliance with a resolution of the House of Representatives of the
30th of January last, calling for the papers relative to the claim of
Owen Thorn and others against the British Government, I transmit a
report from the Secretary of State, together with copies of the papers
referred to in said resolution.

U.S. GRANT.

WASHINGTON, _April 3, 1869_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

In answer to the resolution of the House of Representatives of the
28th of January last, requesting information concerning the destruction
during the late war by rebel vessels of certain merchant vessels of
the United States, and concerning the damages and claims resulting
therefrom, I transmit a report from the Secretary of State and the
tabular statement which accompanied it.

U.S. GRANT.

WASHINGTON, D.C., _April 5, 1869_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

I transmit herewith, for the constitutional action of the Senate,
certain articles of agreement made and concluded at the Kaw Indian
Agency, Kans., on the 13th ultimo, between the commissioners on the part
of the United States and certain chiefs or headmen of the Kansas or Kaw
tribe of Indians on behalf of said tribe, together with a letter from
the Secretary of the Interior, to which attention is invited.

U.S. GRANT.

WASHINGTON, _April 7, 1869_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

In answer to the resolution of the Senate of the 27th of May last, in
relation to the subject of claims against Great Britain, I transmit a
report from the Secretary of State and the papers which accompanied it.

U.S. GRANT.

WASHINGTON, D.C., _April 7, 1869_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

While I am aware that the time in which Congress proposes now to remain
in session is very brief, and that it is its desire, as far as is
consistent with the public interest, to avoid entering upon the general
business of legislation, there is one subject which concerns so deeply
the welfare of the country that I deem it my duty to bring it before
you.

I have no doubt that you will concur with me in the opinion that
it is desirable to restore the States which were engaged in the
rebellion to their proper relations to the Government and the country
at as early a period as the people of those States shall be found
willing to become peaceful and orderly communities and to adopt and
maintain such constitutions and laws as will effectually secure the
civil and political rights of all persons within their borders.
The authority of the United States, which has been vindicated and
established by its military power, must undoubtedly be asserted for the
absolute protection of all its citizens in the full enjoyment of the
freedom and security which is the object of a republican government; but
whenever the people of a rebellious State are ready to enter in good
faith upon the accomplishment of this object, in entire conformity with
the constitutional authority of Congress, it is certainly desirable that
all causes of irritation should be removed as promptly as possible, that
a more perfect union may be established and the country be restored to
peace and prosperity.

The convention of the people of Virginia which met in Richmond on
Tuesday, December 3, 1867, framed a constitution for that State, which
was adopted by the convention on the 17th of April, 1868, and I desire
respectfully to call the attention of Congress to the propriety of
providing by law for the holding of an election in that State at some
time during the months of May and June next, under the direction of
the military commander of that district, at which the question of the
adoption of that constitution shall be submitted to the citizens of
the State; and if this should seem desirable, I would recommend that a
separate vote be taken upon such parts as may be thought expedient, and
that at the same time and under the same authority there shall be an
election for the officers provided under such constitution, and that
the constitution, or such parts thereof as shall have been adopted by
the people, be submitted to Congress on the first Monday of December
next for its consideration, so that if the same is then approved the
necessary steps will have been taken for the restoration of the State
of Virginia to its proper relations to the Union. I am led to make this
recommendation from the confident hope and belief that the people of
that State are now ready to cooperate with the National Government in
bringing it again into such relations to the Union as it ought as soon
as possible to establish and maintain, and to give to all its people
those equal rights under the law which were asserted in the Declaration
of Independence in the words of one of the most illustrious of its sons.

I desire also to ask the consideration of Congress to the question
whether there is not just ground for believing that the constitution
framed by a convention of the people of Mississippi for that State, and
once rejected, might not be again submitted to the people of that State
in like manner, and with the probability of the same result.

U.S. GRANT.

PROCLAMATION.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas objects of interest to the United States require that the Senate
should be convened at 12 o'clock on the 12th day of April, 1869, to
receive and act upon such communications as may be made to it on the
part of the Executive:

Now, therefore, I, U.S. Grant, President of the United States, have
considered it to be my duty to issue this my proclamation, declaring
that an extraordinary occasion requires the Senate of the United States
to convene for the transaction of business at the Capitol, in the city
of Washington, on the 12th day of April, 1869, at 12 o'clock noon on
that day, of which all who shall at that time be entitled to act as
members of that body are hereby required to take notice.

Given under my hand and the seal of the United States, at Washington,
the 8th day of April, A.D. 1869, and of the Independence of the United
States of America the ninety-third.

[SEAL.]

U.S. GRANT.

By the President:
HAMILTON FISH,
_Secretary of State_.

SPECIAL MESSAGES.

WASHINGTON, _April 16, 1869_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

I transmit to the Senate, for consideration with a view to ratification,
a convention between the United States and the Emperor of the French,
signed this day by the plenipotentiaries of the parties, for the mutual
protection of trade-marks of their respective citizens and subjects.

U.S. GRANT.

WASHINGTON, _April 21, 1869_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

I transmit to the Senate, in answer to their resolution adopted in
executive session on the 16th of February last, requesting copy of the
official correspondence of Mr. Buchanan during his residence at St.
Petersburg as minister of the United States, a report from the Secretary
of State, with the accompanying papers.

U.S. GRANT.

PROCLAMATIONS.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

In pursuance of the provisions of the act of Congress approved April
10, 1869, I hereby designate the 6th day of July, 1869, as the time
for submitting the constitution passed by the convention which met in
Richmond, Va., on Tuesday, the 3d day of December, 1867, to the voters
of said State registered at the date of such submission, viz, July 6,
1869, for ratification or rejection.

And I submit to a separate vote the fourth clause of section I of
article 3 of said constitution, which is in the following words:

Every person who has been a Senator or Representative in Congress, or
elector of President or Vice-President, or who held any office, civil
or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having
previously taken an oath as a member of Congress, or as an officer of
the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an
executive or judicial officer of any State, shall have engaged in
insurrection or rebellion against the same or given aid or comfort to
the enemies thereof. This clause shall include the following officers:
Governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, auditor of public
accounts, second auditor, register of the land office, State treasurer,
attorney-general, sheriffs, sergeant of a city or town, commissioner
of the revenue, county surveyors, constables, overseers of the poor,
commissioner of the board of public works, judges of the supreme court,
judges of the circuit court, judges of the court of hustings, justices
of the county courts, mayor, recorder, alderman, councilmen of a city
or town, coroners, escheators, inspectors of tobacco, flour, etc.,
clerks of the supreme, district, circuit, and county courts and of the
court of hustings, and attorneys for the Commonwealth: _Provided_,
That the legislature may, by a vote of three-fifths of both houses,
remove the disabilities incurred by this clause from any person
included therein, by a separate vote in each case.

And I also submit to a separate vote the seventh section of article 3 of
the said constitution, which is in the words following:

In addition to the foregoing oath of office, the governor,
lieutenant-governor, members of the general assembly, secretary of
state, auditor of public accounts, State treasurer, attorney-general,
and all persons elected to any convention to frame a constitution for
this State or to amend or revise this constitution in any manner, and
mayor and council of any city or town, shall, before they enter on the
duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the following
oath or affirmation: _Provided_, The disabilities therein contained may
be individually removed by a three-fifths vote of the general assembly:

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I have never voluntarily borne
arms against the United States since I have been a citizen thereof;
that I have voluntarily given no aid, countenance, counsel, or
encouragement to persons engaged in armed hostility thereto; that I
have never sought nor accepted nor attempted to exercise the functions
of any office whatever under any authority or pretended authority in
hostility to the United States; that I have not yielded a voluntary
support to any pretended government, authority, power, or constitution
within the United States hostile or inimical thereto. And I do further
swear (or affirm) that, to the best of my knowledge and ability, I
will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against
all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and
allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without
any mental reservation or purpose of evasion, and that I will well and
faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to
enter. So help me God."

The above oath shall also be taken by all the city and county officers
before entering upon their duties, and by all other State officers not
included in the above provision. I direct the vote to be taken upon each
of the above-cited provisions alone, and upon the other portions of the
said constitution in the following manner, viz:

Each voter favoring the ratification of the constitution (excluding the
provisions above quoted) as framed by the convention of December 3,
1867, shall express his judgment by voting for the constitution.

Each voter favoring the rejection of the constitution (excluding the
provisions above quoted) shall express his judgment by voting against
the constitution.

Each voter will be allowed to cast a separate ballot for or against
either or both of the provisions above quoted.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

Done at the city of Washington, this 14th day of May, A.D. 1869, and of
the Independence of the United States of America the ninety-third.

U.S. GRANT.

By the President:
HAMILTON FISH,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas the act of Congress approved June 25, 1868, constituted, on and
after that date, eight hours a day's work for all laborers, workmen, and
mechanics employed by or on behalf of the Government of the United
States, and repealed all acts and parts of acts inconsistent therewith:

Now, therefore, I, Ulysses S. Grant, President of the United States, do
hereby direct that from and after this date no reduction shall be made
in the wages paid by the Government by the day to such laborers,
workmen, and mechanics on account of such reduction of the hours of
labor.

In testimony whereof I have hereto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

Done at the city of Washington, this 19th day of May, A.D. 1869, and of
the Independence of the United States the ninety-third.

U.S. GRANT.

By the President:
HAMILTON FISH,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas satisfactory evidence has been received by me from His
Majesty the Emperor of France, through the Count Faverney, his charge
d'affaires, that on and after this date the discriminating duties
heretofore levied in French ports upon merchandise imported from the
countries of its origin in vessels of the United States are to be
discontinued and abolished:

Now, therefore, I, U.S. Grant, President of the United States of
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by an act of Congress
of the 7th day of January, 1824, and by an act in addition thereto of
the 24th day of May, 1828, do hereby declare and proclaim that on and
after this date, so long as merchandise imported from the countries of
its origin into French ports in vessels belonging to citizens of the
United States is admitted into French ports on the terms aforesaid, the
discriminating duties heretofore levied upon merchandise imported from
the countries of its origin into ports of the United States in French
vessels shall be, and are hereby, discontinued and abolished.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

Done at the city of Washington, this 12th day of June, A.D. 1869, and of
the Independence of the United States of America the ninety-third.

U.S. GRANT.

By the President:
HAMILTON FISH,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

In pursuance of the provisions of the act of Congress approved April
10, 1869, I hereby designate Tuesday, the 30th day of November, 1869,
as the time for submitting the constitution adopted on the 15th day of
May, 1868, by the convention which met in Jackson, Miss., to the voters
of said State registered at the date of such submission, viz, November
30, 1869.

And I submit to a separate vote that part of section 3 of Article VII of
said constitution which is in the following words:

That I am not disfranchised in any of the provisions of the acts known
as the reconstruction acts of the Thirty-ninth and Fortieth Congress,
and that I admit the political and civil equality of all men. So help me
God: _Provided_, If Congress shall at any time remove the disabilities
of any person disfranchised in said reconstruction acts of the said
Thirty-ninth and Fortieth Congress (and the legislature of this State
shall concur therein), then so much of this oath, and so much only, as
refers to the said reconstruction acts shall not be required of such
person so pardoned to entitle him to be registered.

And I further submit to a separate vote section 5 of the same article
of said constitution, which is in the following words:

No person shall be eligible to any office of profit or trust, civil or
military, in this State who, as a member of the legislature, voted for
the call of the convention that passed the ordinance of secession, or
who, as a delegate to any convention, voted for or signed any ordinance
of secession, or who gave voluntary aid, countenance, counsel, or
encouragement to persons engaged in armed hostility to the United
States, or who accepted or attempted to exercise the functions of any
office, civil or military, under any authority or pretended government,
authority, power, or constitution within the United States hostile or
inimical thereto, except all persons who aided reconstruction by voting
for this convention or who have continuously advocated the assembling
of this convention and shall continuously and in good faith advocate
the acts of the same; but the legislature may remove such disability:
_Provided_, That nothing in this section, except voting for or signing
the ordinance of secession, shall be so construed as to exclude from
office the private soldier of the late so-called Confederate States
army.

And I further submit to a separate vote section 5 of Article XII of the
said constitution, which is in the following words:

The credit of the State shall not be pledged or loaned in aid of any
person, association, or corporation; nor shall the State hereafter
become a stockholder in any corporation or association.

And I further submit to a separate vote part of the oath of office
prescribed in section 26 of Article XII of the said constitution, which
is in the following words:

That I have never, as a member of any convention, voted for or signed
any ordinance of secession; that I have never, as a member of any State
legislature, voted for the call of any convention that passed any such
ordinance.

The above oath shall also be taken by all the city and county officers
before entering upon their duties, and by all other State officials not
included in the above provision. I direct the vote to be taken upon each
of the above-cited provisions alone, and upon the other portions of the
said constitution in the following manner, viz:

Each voter favoring the ratification of the constitution (excluding the
provisions above quoted), as adopted by the convention of May 15, 1868,
shall express his judgment by voting for the constitution.

Each voter favoring the rejection of the constitution (excluding the
provisions above quoted) shall express his judgment by voting against
the constitution.

Each voter will be allowed to cast a separate ballot for or against
either or both of the provisions above quoted.

It is understood that sections 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,
and 15 of Article XIII, under the head of "Ordinance," are considered
as forming no part of the said constitution.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 13th day of July, A.D. 1869, and of
the Independence of the United States of America the ninety-fourth.

U.S. GRANT.

By the President:
HAMILTON FISH,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

In pursuance of the provisions of the act of Congress approved April 10,
1869, I hereby designate Tuesday, the 30th day of November, 1869, as the
time for submitting the constitution adopted by the convention which met
in Austin, Tex., on the 15th day of June, 1868, to the voters of said
State registered at the date of such submission, viz:

I direct the vote to be taken upon the said constitution in the
following manner, viz:

Each voter favoring the ratification of the constitution as adopted by
the convention of the 15th of June, 1868, shall express his judgment by
voting for the constitution.

Each voter favoring the rejection of the constitution shall express his
judgment by voting against the constitution.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 15th day of July, A.D. 1869, and of
the Independence of the United States of America the ninety-fourth.

U.S. GRANT.

By the President:
HAMILTON FISH,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

The year which is drawing to a close has been free from pestilence;
health has prevailed throughout the land; abundant crops reward the
labors of the husbandman; commerce and manufactures have successfully
prosecuted their peaceful paths; the mines and forests have yielded
liberally; the nation has increased in wealth and in strength; peace has
prevailed, and its blessings have advanced every interest of the people
in every part of the Union; harmony and fraternal intercourse restored
are obliterating the marks of past conflict and estrangement; burdens
have been lightened; means have been increased; civil and religious
liberty are secured to every inhabitant of the land, whose soil is trod
by none but freemen.

It becomes a people thus favored to make acknowledgment to the Supreme
Author from whom such blessings flow of their gratitude and their
dependence, to render praise and thanksgiving for the same, and devoutly
to implore a continuance of God's mercies.

Therefore I, Ulysses S. Grant, President of the United States, do
recommend that Thursday, the 18th day of November next, be observed as
a day of thanksgiving and of praise and of prayer to Almighty God, the
creator and the ruler of the universe; and I do further recommend to
all the people of the United States to assemble on that day in their
accustomed places of public worship and to unite in the homage and
praise due to the bountiful Father of All Mercies and in fervent prayer
for the continuance of the manifold blessings he has vouchsafed to us
as a people.

[SEAL.]

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed, this 5th day of October, A.D. 1869, and
of the Independence of the United States of America the ninety-fourth.

U.S. GRANT.

By the President:
HAMILTON FISH,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by the proclamation of the President of the United States of the
12th day of June last the levying of discriminating duties on
merchandise imported into the United States in French vessels from the
countries of its origin was discontinued; and

Whereas satisfactory information has since been received by me that the
levying of such duties on all merchandise imported into France in
vessels of the United States, whether from the countries of its origin
or from other countries, has been discontinued:

Now, therefore, I, U.S. Grant, President of the United States of
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by an act of Congress
of the 7th day of January, 1824, and by an act in addition thereto of
the 24th day of May, 1828, do hereby declare and proclaim that on and
after this date, so long as merchandise imported into France in vessels
of the United States, whether from the countries of its origin or from
other countries, shall be admitted into the ports of France on the terms
aforesaid, the discriminating duties heretofore levied upon merchandise
imported into the United States in French vessels, either from the
countries of its origin or from any other country, shall be, and are,
discontinued and abolished.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 20th day of November, A.D. 1869,
and of the Independence of the United States of America the
ninety-fourth.

U.S. GRANT.

By the President:
HAMILTON FISH,
_Secretary of State_.

EXECUTIVE ORDERS.

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 10.

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,

_Washington, March 5, 1869_.

The President of the United States directs that the following orders be
carried into execution as soon as practicable:

1. The Department of the South will be commanded by Brigadier and Brevet
Major General A.H. Terry.

2. Major-General G.G. Meade is assigned to command the Military Division
of the Atlantic, and will transfer his headquarters to Philadelphia,
Pa. He will turn over his present command temporarily to Brevet
Major-General T.H. Ruger, colonel Thirty-third Infantry, who is assigned
to duty according to his brevet of major-general while in the exercise
of this command.

3. Major-General P.H. Sheridan is assigned to command the Department of
Louisiana, and will turn over the command of the Department of the
Missouri temporarily to the next senior officer.

4. Major-General W.S. Hancock is assigned to command the Department of
Dakota.

5. Brigadier and Brevet Major General E.R.S. Canby is assigned to
command the First Military District, and will proceed to his post as
soon as relieved by Brevet Major-General Reynolds.

6. Brevet Major-General A.C. Gillem, colonel Twenty-fourth Infantry,
will turn over the command of the Fourth Military District to the next
senior officer and join his regiment.

7. Brevet Major-General J.J. Reynolds, colonel Twenty-sixth Infantry, is
assigned to command the Fifth Military District, according to his brevet
of major-general.

8. Brevet Major-General W.H. Emory, colonel Fifth Cavalry, is assigned
to command the Department of Washington, according to his brevet of
major-general.

By command of the General of the Army:

E.D. TOWNSEND,

_Assistant Adjutant-General_.

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 11.

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,

ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE,

_Washington, March 8, 1869_.

The following orders of the President of the United States are published
for the information and government of all concerned:

WAR DEPARTMENT,

_Washington City, March 5, 1869_.

By direction of the President, General William T. Sherman will assume
command of the Army of the United States.

The chiefs of staff corps, departments, and bureaus will report to and
act under the immediate orders of the General Commanding the Army.

All official business which by law or regulations requires the action of
the President or Secretary of War will be submitted by the General of
the Army to the Secretary of War, and in general all orders from the

President or Secretary of War to any portion of the Army, line or staff,
will be transmitted through the General of the Army.

J.M. SCHOFIELD, _Secretary of War_.

By command of the General of the Army:

E.D. TOWNSEND,

_Assistant Adjutant-General_.

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 55.

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,

_Washington, March 9, 1869_.

* * * * *

6. By direction of the President, Brevet Major-General Adelbert Ames,
lieutenant-colonel Twenty-fourth United States Infantry, is hereby
assigned to command the Fourth Military District, according to his
brevet rank.

* * * * *

By command of General Sherman:

E.D. TOWNSEND,

_Assistant Adjutant-General_.

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 18.

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,

_Washington, March 16, 1869_.

By direction of the President of the United States, the following
changes are made in military divisions and department commands:

I. Lieutenant-General P.H. Sheridan is assigned to command the Military
Division of the Missouri.

II. Major-General H.W. Halleck is assigned to the command of the
Military Division of the South, to be composed of the Departments of
the South and Louisiana, of the Fourth Military District, and of the
States composing the present Department of the Cumberland; headquarters,
Louisville, Ky. Major-General Halleck will proceed to his new command as
soon as relieved by Major-General Thomas.

III. Major-General G.H. Thomas is assigned to command the Military
Division of the Pacific.

IV. Major-General J.M. Schofield is assigned to command the Department
of the Missouri. The State of Illinois and post of Fort Smith, Ark., are
transferred to this department.

V. Brigadier and Brevet Major General O.O. Howard is assigned to command
the Department of Louisiana. Until his arrival the senior officer,
Brevet Major-General J.A. Mower, will command, according to his brevet
of major-general.

VI. The Department of Washington will be discontinued and merged in the
Department of the East. The records will be sent to the Adjutant-General
of the Army.

VII. The First Military District will be added to the Military Division
of the Atlantic.

VIII. As soon as Major-General Thomas is ready to relinquish command of
the Department of the Cumberland, the department will be discontinued,
and the States composing it will be added to other departments, to be
hereafter designated. The records will be forwarded to the
Adjutant-General of the Army.

By command of General Sherman:

E.D. TOWNSEND,

_Assistant Adjutant-General_.

WAR DEPARTMENT, _Washington City, March 26, 1869_.

By direction of the President, the order of the Secretary of War dated
War Department, March 5, 1869, and published in General Orders, No. 11,
Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant-General's Office, dated March 8,
1869, except so much as directs General W.T. Sherman to "assume command
of the Army of the United States," is hereby rescinded.

All official business which by law or regulations requires the action of
the President or Secretary of War will be submitted by the chiefs of
staff corps, departments, and bureaus to the Secretary of War.

All orders and instructions relating to military operations issued by
the President or Secretary of War will be issued through the General of
the Army.

JNO. A. RAWLINS,

_Secretary of War_.

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 75.

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,

_Washington, March 31, 1869_.

* * * * *

16. By direction of the President of the United States, Brevet
Major-General A.S. Webb, United States Army, is assigned to command the
First Military District, according to his brevet of major-general, until
the arrival of Brevet Major-General Canby to relieve him. He will
accordingly repair to Richmond, Va., without delay.

17. By direction of the President, Brevet Major-General George Stoneman,
colonel Twenty-first United States Infantry, is hereby relieved from the
temporary command of the First Military District, and will accompany his
regiment to the Military Division of the Pacific.

* * * * * *

By command of General Sherman:

E.D. TOWNSEND,

_Assistant Adjutant-General_.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, D.C., June 3, 1869_.

A commission of citizens having been appointed under the authority of
law to cooperate with the administrative departments in the management
of Indian affairs, consisting of William Welsh, of Philadelphia; John V.
Farwell, of Chicago; George H. Stuart, of Philadelphia; Robert Campbell,
St. Louis; W.E. Dodge, New York; E.S. Tobey, Boston; Felix R. Brunot,
Pittsburg; Nathan Bishop, New York, and Henry S. Lane, of Indiana, the
following regulations will till further directions control the action of
said commission and of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in matters coming
under their joint supervision:

1. The commission will make its own organization and employ its own
clerical assistants, keeping its "necessary expenses of transportation,
subsistence, and clerk hire when actually engaged in said service"
within the amount appropriated therefor by Congress.

2. The commission shall be furnished with full opportunity to inspect
the records of the Indian Office and to obtain full information as to
the conduct of all parts of the affairs thereof.

3. They shall have full power to inspect, in person or by subcommittee,
the various Indian superintendencies and agencies in the Indian country,
to be present at payment of annuities, at consultations or councils with
the Indians, and when on the ground to advise superintendents and agents
in the performance of their duties.

4. They are authorized to be present, in person or by subcommittee, at
purchases of goods for Indian purposes, and inspect said purchases,
advising the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in regard thereto.

5. Whenever they shall deem it necessary or advisable that instructions
of superintendents or agents be changed or modified, they will
communicate such advice through the office of Commissioner of Indian
Affairs to the Secretary of the Interior, and in like manner their
advice as to changes in modes of purchasing goods or conducting the
affairs of the Indian Bureau proper. Complaints against superintendents
or agents or other officers will in the same manner be forwarded to the
Indian Bureau or Department of the Interior for action.

6. The commission will at their board meetings determine upon the
recommendations to be made as to the plans of civilizing or dealing
with the Indians, and submit the same for action in the manner above
indicated, and all plans involving the expenditure of public money will
be acted upon by the Executive or the Secretary of the Interior before
expenditure is made under the same.

7. The usual modes of accounting with the Treasury can not be changed,
and all expenditures, therefore, must be subject to the approvals now
required by law and the regulations of the Treasury Department, and all
vouchers must conform to the same laws and requirements and pass through
the ordinary channels.

8. All the officers of the Government connected with the Indian service
are enjoined to afford every facility and opportunity to said commission
and their subcommittees in the performance of their duties, and to give
the most respectful heed to their advice within the limits of such
officers' positive instructions from their superiors; to allow such
commissioners full access to their records and accounts, and to
cooperate with them in the most earnest manner to the extent of their
proper powers in the general work of civilizing the Indians, protecting
them in their legal rights, and stimulating them to become industrious
citizens in permanent homes, instead of following a roving and savage
life.

9. The commission will keep such records or minutes of their proceedings
as may be necessary to afford evidence of their action, and will provide
for the manner in which their communications with and advice to the
Government shall be made and authenticated.

U.S. GRANT.

[From the Daily Morning Chronicle, Washington, September 8, 1869.]

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, _Washington, September 7, 1869_. [4]

It is my melancholy duty to inform you that the Hon. John A. Rawlins,
Secretary of War, departed this life at twelve minutes past 4 o'clock
on yesterday afternoon. In consequence of this afflicting event the
President directs that the Executive Departments of the Government
will be careful to manifest every observance of honor which custom has
established as appropriate to the memory of one so eminent as a public
functionary and so distinguished as a citizen.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HAMILTON FISH.

[Footnote 4: Addressed to the heads of the Executive Departments.]

[From the Daily Morning Chronicle, Washington, September 8, 1869.]

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, _Washington, September 7, 1869_.

SIR:[5] I have the honor to inform you that the President directs me to
communicate to you his order that in honor of the memory of the Hon.
John A. Rawlins, late Secretary of War, who died yesterday at twelve
minutes past 4 o'clock p.m., the Executive Departments shall be draped
in mourning for a period of thirty days, and that they be closed from
the morning of the 8th instant until after the obsequies of the deceased
shall have been solemnized.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

HAMILTON FISH.

[Footnote 5: Addressed to the heads of the Executive Departments.]

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, _Washington, September 7, 1869_.

The remains of the Hon. John A. Rawlins, late Secretary of War, will be
interred with military honors, under the direction of the General of the
Army, on Thursday, the 9th instant, at 10 o'clock a.m. The following
persons will officiate as pallbearers on the occasion:

Brevet Major-General Edward D. Townsend, Adjutant-General; Brevet
Major-General Randolph B. Marcy, Inspect or-General; Brevet
Major-General Joseph Holt, Judge-Advocate-General; Brevet Major-General
Montgomery C. Meigs, Quartermaster-General; Brevet Major-General Amos B.
Eaton, Commissary-General; Brevet Major-General Joseph K. Barnes,
Surgeon-General; Brevet Major-General B.W. Brice, Paymaster-General;
Brevet Major-General A.A. Humphreys, Chief of Engineers; Brevet
Major-General Alexander B. Dyer, Chief of Ordnance; Brevet
Brigadier-General Albert J. Myer, Chief Signal Officer; Brevet
Major-General O.O. Howard; Brevet Major-General John E. Smith; Commodore
Melancton Smith, Chief Bureau Equipment; Brigadier-General Jacob Zeilin,
Marine Corps; Brigadier-General Giles A. Smith, Second Assistant
Postmaster-General; Hon. Sayles J. Bowen, mayor of Washington.

On the day of the funeral the customary number of guns will be fired
from all arsenals, forts, and navy-yards in the United States and from
the Military and Naval Academies. Flags will be kept at half-mast,
custom-houses closed, and all public work suspended during the day.

The General of the Army and heads of the several Executive Departments
will issue the orders necessary for carrying these directions into
effect.

By order of the President:

HAMILTON FISH, _Secretary of State_.

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 69.

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,

_Washington, October 9, 1869_.

I. The following order of the President has been received from the War
Department:

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, October 8, 1869_.

The painful duty devolves upon the President of announcing to the people
of the United States the death of one of his honored predecessors,
Franklin Pierce, which occurred at Concord early this morning.

Eminent in the public councils and universally beloved in private life,
his death will be mourned with a sorrow befitting the loss which his
country sustains in his decease.

As a mark of respect to his memory, it is ordered that the Executive
Mansion and the several Departments at Washington be draped in mourning,
and all business suspended on the day of the funeral.

It is further ordered that the War and Navy Departments cause suitable
military and naval honors to be paid on the occasion to the memory of
this illustrious citizen who has passed from us.

U.S. GRANT.

II. In compliance with the instructions of the President and of the
Secretary of War, on the day after the receipt of this order at each
military post the troops will be paraded at 10 o'clock a.m. and the
order read to them, after which all labors for the day will cease.

The national flag will be displayed at half-staff.

At dawn of day thirteen guns will be fired, and afterwards at intervals
of thirty minutes between the rising and setting sun a single gun, and
at the close of the day a national salute of thirty-seven guns.

The officers of the Army will wear crape on the left arm and on their
swords and the colors of the several regiments will be put in mourning
for the period of thirty days.

By command of General Sherman:

J.C. KELTON,

_Assistant Adjutant-General_.

GENERAL ORDER.

NAVY DEPARTMENT, _Washington, October 9, 1869_.

The death of ex-President Franklin Pierce is announced in the following
order of the President of the United States:

[For order see preceding page.]

In pursuance of the foregoing order, it is hereby directed that
twenty-one guns be fired, at intervals of one minute each, at the
several navy-yards and stations, on the day of the funeral where this
order may be received in time, otherwise on the day after its receipt,
commencing at noon, and also on board the flagships in each fleet. The
flags at the several navy-yards, naval stations, marine barracks, and
vessels in commission will be placed at half-mast from sunrise to sunset
on the day when the minute guns are fired.

All officers of the Navy and Marine Corps will wear the usual badge of
mourning attached to the sword hilt and on the left arm for thirty days.

GEO. M. ROBESON, _Secretary of the Navy_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

EXECUTIVE ORDER.

WASHINGTON, _October 19, 1869_.

All communications in writing intended for the executive department
of this Government and relating to public business of whatever kind,
including suggestions for legislation, claims, contracts, employment,
appointments, and removals from office, and pardons, must be transmitted
through the Department to which the care of the subject-matter of the
communication properly belongs. Communications otherwise transmitted
will not receive attention.

By order of the President:

HAMILTON FISH, _Secretary of State_.

FIRST ANNUAL MESSAGE.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, D.C., December 6, 1869_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

In coming before you for the first time as Chief Magistrate of this
great nation, it is with gratitude to the Giver of All Good for the many
benefits we enjoy. We are blessed with peace at home, and are without
entangling alliances abroad to forebode trouble; with a territory
unsurpassed in fertility, of an area equal to the abundant support of
500,000,000 people, and abounding in every variety of useful mineral in
quantity sufficient to supply the world for generations; with exuberant
crops; with a variety of climate adapted to the production of every
species of earth's riches and suited to the habits, tastes, and
requirements of every living thing; with a population of 40,000,000 free
people, all speaking one language; with facilities for every mortal to
acquire an education; with institutions closing to none the avenues to
fame or any blessing of fortune that may be coveted; with freedom of
the pulpit, the press, and the school; with a revenue flowing into the
National Treasury beyond the requirements of the Government. Happily,
harmony is being rapidly restored within our own borders. Manufactures
hitherto unknown in our country are springing up in all sections,
producing a degree of national independence unequaled by that of any
other power.

These blessings and countless others are intrusted to your care and
mine for safe-keeping for the brief period of our tenure of office.
In a short time we must, each of us, return to the ranks of the people,
who have conferred upon us our honors, and account to them for our
stewardship. I earnestly desire that neither you nor I may be condemned
by a free and enlightened constituency nor by our own consciences.

Emerging from a rebellion of gigantic magnitude, aided, as it was,
by the sympathies and assistance of nations with which we were at
peace, eleven States of the Union were, four years ago, left without
legal State governments. A national debt had been contracted; American
commerce was almost driven from the seas; the industry of one-half of
the country had been taken from the control of the capitalist and placed
where all labor rightfully belongs--in the keeping of the laborer. The
work of restoring State governments loyal to the Union, of protecting
and fostering free labor, and providing means for paying the interest
on the public debt has received ample attention from Congress. Although
your efforts have not met with the success in all particulars that might
have been desired, yet on the whole they have been more successful than
could have been reasonably anticipated.

Seven States which passed ordinances of secession have been fully
restored to their places in the Union. The eighth (Georgia) held an
election at which she ratified her constitution, republican in form,
elected a governor, Members of Congress, a State legislature, and all
other officers required. The governor was duly installed, and the
legislature met and performed all the acts then required of them by the
reconstruction acts of Congress. Subsequently, however, in violation of
the constitution which they had just ratified (as since decided by the
supreme court of the State), they unseated the colored members of the
legislature and admitted to seats some members who are disqualified by
the third clause of the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution--an
article which they themselves had contributed to ratify. Under these
circumstances I would submit to you whether it would not be wise,
without delay, to enact a law authorizing the governor of Georgia to
convene the members originally elected to the legislature, requiring
each member to take the oath prescribed by the reconstruction acts, and
none to be admitted who are ineligible under the third clause of the
fourteenth amendment.

The freedmen, under the protection which they have received, are making
rapid progress in learning, and no complaints are heard of lack of
industry on their part where they receive fair remuneration for their
labor. The means provided for paying the interest on the public debt,
with all other expenses of Government, are more than ample. The loss
of our commerce is the only result of the late rebellion which has not
received sufficient attention from you. To this subject I call your
earnest attention. I will not now suggest plans by which this object may
be effected, but will, if necessary, make it the subject of a special
message during the session of Congress.

At the March term Congress by joint resolution authorized the Executive
to order elections in the States of Virginia, Mississippi, and Texas, to
submit to them the constitutions which each had previously, in convention,
framed, and submit the constitutions, either entire or in separate
parts, to be voted upon, at the discretion of the Executive. Under this
authority elections were called. In Virginia the election took place on
the 6th of July, 1869. The governor and lieutenant-governor elected
have been installed. The legislature met and did all required by this
resolution and by all the reconstruction acts of Congress, and abstained
from all doubtful authority. I recommend that her Senators and
Representatives be promptly admitted to their seats, and that the State
be fully restored to its place in the family of States. Elections were
called in Mississippi and Texas, to commence on the 30th of November,
1869, and to last two days in Mississippi and four days in Texas. The
elections have taken place, but the result is not known. It is to be
hoped that the acts of the legislatures of these States, when they meet,
will be such as to receive your approval, and thus close the work of
reconstruction.

Among the evils growing out of the rebellion, and not yet referred to,
is that of an irredeemable currency. It is an evil which I hope will
receive your most earnest attention. It is a duty, and one of the
highest duties, of Government to secure to the citizen a medium of
exchange of fixed, unvarying value. This implies a return to a specie
basis, and no substitute for it can be devised. It should be commenced
now and reached at the earliest practicable moment consistent with a
fair regard to the interests of the debtor class. Immediate resumption,
if practicable, would not be desirable. It would compel the debtor class
to pay, beyond their contracts, the premium on gold at the date of their
purchase, and would bring bankruptcy and ruin to thousands. Fluctuation,
however, in the paper value of the measure of all values (gold) is
detrimental to the interests of trade. It makes the man of business an
involuntary gambler, for in all sales where future payment is to be made
both parties speculate as to what will be the value of the currency
to be paid and received. I earnestly recommend to you, then, such
legislation as will insure a gradual return to specie payments and put
an immediate stop to fluctuations in the value of currency.

The methods to secure the former of these results are as numerous as are
the speculators on political economy. To secure the latter I see but one
way, and that is to authorize the Treasury to redeem its own paper, at
a fixed price, whenever presented, and to withhold from circulation all
currency so redeemed until sold again for gold.

The vast resources of the nation, both developed and undeveloped, ought
to make our credit the best on earth. With a less burden of taxation
than the citizen has endured for six years past, the entire public debt
could be paid in ten years. But it is not desirable that the people
should be taxed to pay it in that time. Year by year the ability to pay
increases in a rapid ratio. But the burden of interest ought to be
reduced as rapidly as can be done without the violation of contract.
The public debt is represented in great part by bonds having from five
to twenty and from ten to forty years to run, bearing interest at the
rate of 6 per cent and 5 per cent, respectively. It is optional with the
Government to pay these bonds at any period after the expiration of the
least time mentioned upon their face. The time has already expired when
a great part of them may be taken up, and is rapidly approaching when
all may be. It is believed that all which are now due may be replaced by
bonds bearing a rate of interest not exceeding 4-1/2 per cent, and as
rapidly as the remainder become due that they may be replaced in the
same way. To accomplish this it may be necessary to authorize the
interest to be paid at either of three or four of the money centers
of Europe, or by any assistant treasurer of the United States, at
the option of the holder of the bond. I suggest this subject for the
consideration of Congress, and also, simultaneously with this, the
propriety of redeeming our currency, as before suggested, at its market
value at the time the law goes into effect, increasing the rate at which
currency shall be bought and sold from day to day or week to week, at
the same rate of interest as Government pays upon its bonds.

The subjects of tariff and internal taxation will necessarily receive
your attention. The revenues of the country are greater than the
requirements, and may with safety be reduced. But as the funding of
the debt in a 4 or a 4-1/2 per cent loan would reduce annual current
expenses largely, thus, after funding, justifying a greater reduction
of taxation than would be now expedient, I suggest postponement of this
question until the next meeting of Congress.

It may be advisable to modify taxation and tariff in instances where
unjust or burdensome discriminations are made by the present laws, but
a general revision of the laws regulating this subject I recommend the
postponement of for the present. I also suggest the renewal of the tax
on incomes, but at a reduced rate, say of 3 per cent, and this tax to
expire in three years.

With the funding of the national debt, as here suggested, I feel safe in
saying that taxes and the revenue from imports may be reduced safely
from sixty to eighty millions per annum at once, and may be still
further reduced from year to year, as the resources of the country are
developed.

The report of the Secretary of the Treasury shows the receipts of the
Government for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1869, to be $370,943,747,
and the expenditures, including interest, bounties, etc., to be
$321,490,597. The estimates for the ensuing year are more favorable to
the Government, and will no doubt show a much larger decrease of the
public debt.

The receipts in the Treasury beyond expenditures have exceeded
the amount necessary to place to the credit of the sinking fund, as
provided by law. To lock up the surplus in the Treasury and withhold it
from circulation would lead to such a contraction of the currency as to
cripple trade and seriously affect the prosperity of the country. Under
these circumstances the Secretary of the Treasury and myself heartily
concurred in the propriety of using all the surplus currency in the
Treasury in the purchase of Government bonds, thus reducing the
interest-bearing indebtedness of the country, and of submitting to
Congress the question of the disposition to be made of the bonds
so purchased. The bonds now held by the Treasury amount to about
seventy-five millions, including those belonging to the sinking fund.
I recommend that the whole be placed to the credit of the sinking fund.

Your attention is respectfully invited to the recommendations of the
Secretary of the Treasury for the creation of the office of commissioner
of customs revenue; for the increase of salaries to certain classes of
officials; the substitution of increased national-bank circulation to
replace the outstanding 3 per cent certificates; and most especially to
his recommendation for the repeal of laws allowing shares of fines,
penalties, forfeitures, etc., to officers of the Government or to
informers.

The office of Commissioner of Internal Revenue is one of the most
arduous and responsible under the Government. It falls but little, if
any, short of a Cabinet position in its importance and responsibilities.
I would ask for it, therefore, such legislation as in your judgment
will place the office upon a footing of dignity commensurate with its
importance and with the character and qualifications of the class of
men required to fill it properly.

As the United States is the freest of all nations, so, too, its people
sympathize with all people struggling for liberty and self-government;
but while so sympathizing it is due to our honor that we should abstain
from enforcing our views upon unwilling nations and from taking an
interested part, _without invitation_, in the quarrels between different
nations or between governments and their subjects. Our course should
always be in conformity with strict justice and law, international and
local. Such has been the policy of the Administration in dealing with
these questions. For more than a year a valuable province of Spain, and
a near neighbor of ours, in whom all our people can not but feel a deep
interest, has been struggling for independence and freedom. The people
and Government of the United States entertain the same warm feelings
and sympathies for the people of Cuba in their pending struggle that
they manifested throughout the previous struggles between Spain and
her former colonies in behalf of the latter. But the contest has at
no time assumed the conditions which amount to a war in the sense of
international law, or which would show the existence of a _de facto_
political organization of the insurgents sufficient to justify a
recognition of belligerency.

The principle is maintained, however, that this nation is its own judge
when to accord the rights of belligerency, either to a people struggling
to free themselves from a government they believe to be oppressive or to
independent nations at war with each other.

The United States have no disposition to interfere with the existing
relations of Spain to her colonial possessions on this continent. They
believe that in due time Spain and other European powers will find their
interest in terminating those relations and establishing their present
dependencies as independent powers--members of the family of nations.
These dependencies are no longer regarded as subject to transfer from
one European power to another. When the present relation of colonies
ceases, they are to become independent powers, exercising the right of
choice and of self-control in the determination of their future
condition and relations with other powers.

The United States, in order to put a stop to bloodshed in Cuba, and in
the interest of a neighboring people, proposed their good offices to
bring the existing contest to a termination. The offer, not being
accepted by Spain on a basis which we believed could be received by
Cuba, was withdrawn. It is hoped that the good offices of the United
States may yet prove advantageous for the settlement of this unhappy
strife. Meanwhile a number of illegal expeditions against Cuba have been
broken up. It has been the endeavor of the Administration to execute the
neutrality laws in good faith, no matter how unpleasant the task, made
so by the sufferings we have endured from lack of like good faith toward
us by other nations.

On the 26th of March last the United States schooner _Lizzie Major_ was
arrested on the high seas by a Spanish frigate, and two passengers taken
from it and carried as prisoners to Cuba. Representations of these facts
were made to the Spanish Government as soon as official information of
them reached Washington. The two passengers were set at liberty, and the
Spanish Government assured the United States that the captain of the
frigate in making the capture had acted without law, that he had been
reprimanded for the irregularity of his conduct, and that the Spanish
authorities in Cuba would not sanction any act that could violate the
rights or treat with disrespect the sovereignty of this nation.

The question of the seizure of the brig _Mary Lowell_ at one of
the Bahama Islands by Spanish authorities is now the subject of
correspondence between this Government and those of Spain and Great
Britain.

The Captain-General of Cuba about May last issued a proclamation
authorizing search to be made of vessels on the high seas. Immediate
remonstrance was made against this, whereupon the Captain-General issued
a new proclamation limiting the right of search to vessels of the United
States so far as authorized under the treaty of 1795. This proclamation,
however, was immediately withdrawn.

I have always felt that the most intimate relations should be cultivated
between the Republic of the United States and all independent nations on
this continent. It may be well worth considering whether new treaties
between us and them may not be profitably entered into, to secure more
intimate relations--friendly, commercial, and otherwise.

The subject of an interoceanic canal to connect the Atlantic and Pacific
oceans through the Isthmus of Darien is one in which commerce is greatly
interested. Instructions have been given to our minister to the Republic
of the United States of Colombia to endeavor to obtain authority for a
survey by this Government, in order to determine the practicability of
such an undertaking, and a charter for the right of way to build, by
private enterprise, such a work, if the survey proves it to be
practicable.

In order to comply with the agreement of the United States as to a
mixed commission at Lima for the adjustment of claims, it became
necessary to send a commissioner and secretary to Lima in August last.
No appropriation having been made by Congress for this purpose, it is
now asked that one be made covering the past and future expenses of the
commission.

The good offices of the United States to bring about a peace between
Spain and the South American Republics with which she is at war having
been accepted by Spain, Peru, and Chile, a congress has been invited to
be held in Washington during the present winter.

A grant has been given to Europeans of an exclusive right of transit
over the territory of Nicaragua, to which Costa Rica has given its
assent, which, it is alleged, conflicts with vested rights of citizens
of the United States. The Department of State has now this subject under
consideration.

The minister of Peru having made representations that there was a state
of war between Peru and Spain, and that Spain was constructing, in and
near New York, thirty gunboats, which might be used by Spain in such a
way as to relieve the naval force at Cuba, so as to operate against
Peru, orders were given to prevent their departure. No further steps
having been taken by the representative of the Peruvian Government to
prevent the departure of these vessels, and I not feeling authorized to
detain the property of a nation with which we are at peace on a mere
Executive order, the matter has been referred to the courts to decide.

The conduct of the war between the allies and the Republic of Paraguay
has made the intercourse with that country so difficult that it has been
deemed advisable to withdraw our representative from there.

Toward the close of the last Administration a convention was
signed at London for the settlement of all outstanding claims between
Great Britain and the United States, which failed to receive the
advice and consent of the Senate to its ratification. The time and the
circumstances attending the negotiation of that treaty were unfavorable
to its acceptance by the people of the United States, and its provisions
were wholly inadequate for the settlement of the grave wrongs that had
been sustained by this Government, as well as by its citizens. The
injuries resulting to the United States by reason of the course adopted
by Great Britain during our late civil war--in the increased rates
of insurance; in the diminution of exports and imports, and other
obstructions to domestic industry and production; in its effect upon the
foreign commerce of the country; in the decrease and transfer to Great
Britain of our commercial marine; in the prolongation of the war and the
increased cost (both in treasure and in lives) of its suppression--could
not be adjusted and satisfied as ordinary commercial claims, which
continually arise between commercial nations; and yet the convention
treated them simply as such ordinary claims, from which they differ more
widely in the gravity of their character than in the magnitude of their
amount, great even as is that difference. Not a word was found in the
treaty, and not an inference could be drawn from it, to remove the sense
of the unfriendliness of the course of Great Britain in our struggle for
existence, which had so deeply and universally impressed itself upon the
people of this country.

Believing that a convention thus misconceived in its scope and
inadequate in its provisions would not have produced the hearty, cordial
settlement of pending questions, which alone is consistent with the
relations which I desire to have firmly established between the United
States and Great Britain, I regarded the action of the Senate in
rejecting the treaty to have been wisely taken in the interest of peace
and as a necessary step in the direction of a perfect and cordial
friendship between the two countries. A sensitive people, conscious of
their power, are more at ease under a great wrong wholly unatoned than
under the restraint of a settlement which satisfies neither their ideas
of justice nor their grave sense of the grievance they have sustained.
The rejection of the treaty was followed by a state of public feeling on
both sides which I thought not favorable to an immediate attempt at
renewed negotiations. I accordingly so instructed the minister of the
United States to Great Britain, and found that my views in this regard
were shared by Her Majesty's ministers. I hope that the time may soon
arrive when the two Governments can approach the solution of this
momentous question with an appreciation of what is due to the rights,
dignity, and honor of each, and with the determination not only to
remove the causes of complaint in the past, but to lay the foundation of
a broad principle of public law which will prevent future differences
and tend to firm and continued peace and friendship.

This is now the only grave question which the United States has with any
foreign nation.

The question of renewing a treaty for reciprocal trade between the
United States and the British Provinces on this continent has not been
favorably considered by the Administration. The advantages of such a
treaty would be wholly in favor of the British producer. Except,
possibly, a few engaged in the trade between the two sections, no
citizen of the United States would be benefited by reciprocity. Our
internal taxation would prove a protection to the British producer
almost equal to the protection which our manufacturers now receive from
the tariff. Some arrangement, however, for the regulation of commercial
intercourse between the United States and the Dominion of Canada may be
desirable.

The commission for adjusting the claims of the "Hudsons Bay and Puget
Sound Agricultural Company" upon the United States has terminated
its labors. The award of $650,000 has been made and all rights and
titles of the company on the territory of the United States have been
extinguished. Deeds for the property of the company have been delivered.
An appropriation by Congress to meet this sum is asked.

The commissioners for determining the northwestern land boundary between
the United States and the British possessions under the treaty of 1856
have completed their labors, and the commission has been dissolved.

In conformity with the recommendation of Congress, a proposition was
early made to the British Government to abolish the mixed courts created
under the treaty of April 7, 1862, for the suppression of the slave
trade. The subject is still under negotiation.

It having come to my knowledge that a corporate company, organized under
British laws, proposed to land upon the shores of the United States and
to operate there a submarine cable, under a concession from His Majesty
the Emperor of the French of an exclusive right for twenty years of
telegraphic communication between the shores of France and the United
States, with the very objectionable feature of subjecting all messages
conveyed thereby to the scrutiny and control of the French Government,
I caused the French and British legations at Washington to be made
acquainted with the probable policy of Congress on this subject, as
foreshadowed by the bill which passed the Senate in March last. This
drew from the representatives of the company an agreement to accept as
the basis of their operations the provisions of that bill, or of such
other enactment on the subject as might be passed during the approaching
session of Congress; also, to use their influence to secure from the
French Government a modification of their concession, so as to permit
the landing upon French soil of any cable belonging to any company
incorporated by the authority of the United States or of any State in
the Union, and, on their part, not to oppose the establishment of any
such cable. In consideration of this agreement I directed the withdrawal
of all opposition by the United States authorities to the landing of the
cable and to the working of it until the meeting of Congress. I regret
to say that there has been no modification made in the company's
concession, nor, so far as I can learn, have they attempted to secure
one. Their concession excludes the capital and the citizens of the
United States from competition upon the shores of France. I recommend
legislation to protect the rights of citizens of the United States,
as well as the dignity and sovereignty of the nation, against such
an assumption. I shall also endeavor to secure, by negotiation, an
abandonment of the principle of monopolies in ocean telegraphic cables.
Copies of this correspondence are herewith furnished.

The unsettled political condition of other countries, less fortunate
than our own, sometimes induces their citizens to come to the United
States for the sole purpose of becoming naturalized. Having secured
this, they return to their native country and reside there, without
disclosing their change of allegiance. They accept official positions of
trust or honor, which can only be held by citizens of their native land;
they journey under passports describing them as such citizens; and it
is only when civil discord, after perhaps years of quiet, threatens

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