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A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents by James D. Richardson

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A COMPILATION OF THE MESSAGES AND PAPERS OF THE PRESIDENTS

BY JAMES D. RICHARDSON

Andrew Johnson

April 15, 1865, to March 4, 1869

Andrew Johnson

Andrew Johnson was born in Raleigh, N.C., December 29, 1808. His parents
were very poor. When he was 4 years old his father died of injuries
received in rescuing a person from drowning. At the age of 10 years
Andrew was apprenticed to a tailor. His early education was almost
entirely neglected, and, notwithstanding his natural craving to learn,
he never spent a day in school. Was taught the alphabet by a
fellow-workman, borrowed a book, and learned to read. In 1824 removed to
Laurens Court-House, S.C., where he worked as a journeyman tailor. In
May, 1826, returned to Raleigh, and in September, with his mother and
stepfather, set out for Greeneville, Tenn., in a two-wheeled cart drawn
by a blind pony. Here he married Eliza McCardle, a woman of refinement,
who taught him to write, and read to him while he was at work during the
day. It was not until he had been in Congress that he learned to write
with ease. From Greeneville went to the West, but returned after the
lapse of a year. In 1828 was elected alderman; was reelected in 1829 and
1830, and in 1830 was advanced to the mayoralty, which office he held
for three years. In 1831 was appointed by the county court a trustee
of Rhea Academy, and about this time participated in the debates of a
society at Greeneville College. In 1834 advocated the adoption of a new
State constitution, by which the influence of the large landholders was
abridged. In 1835 represented Greene and Washington counties in the
legislature. Was defeated for the legislature in 1837, but in 1839 was
reelected. In 1836 supported Hugh L. White for the Presidency, and in
the political altercations between John Bell and James K. Polk, which
distracted Tennessee at the time, supported the former. Mr. Johnson was
the only ardent follower of Bell that failed to go over to the Whig
party. Was an elector for the State at large on the Van Buren ticket in
1840, and made a State reputation by the force of his oratory. In 1841
was elected to the State senate from Greene and Hawkins counties, and
while in that body was one of the "immortal thirteen" Democrats who,
having it in their power to prevent the election of a Whig Senator, did
so by refusing to meet the house in joint convention; also proposed that
the basis of representation should rest upon white votes, without regard
to the ownership of slaves. Was elected to Congress in 1843 over John A.
Asken, a United States Bank Democrat, who was supported by the Whigs.
His first speech was in support of the resolution to restore to General
Jackson the fine imposed upon him at New Orleans; also supported the
annexation of Texas. In 1845 was reelected, and supported Polk's
Administration. Was regularly reelected to Congress until 1853. During
this period opposed all expenditures for internal improvements that were
not general; resisted and defeated the proposed contingent tax of 10 per
cent on tea and coffee; made his celebrated defense of the veto power;
urged the adoption of the homestead law, which was obnoxious to the
extreme Southern element of his party; supported the compromise measures
of 1850 as a matter of expediency, but opposed compromises in general
as a sacrifice of principle. Was elected governor of Tennessee in 1853
over Gustavus A. Henry, the "Eagle Orator" of the State. In his message
to the legislature he dwelt upon the homestead law and other measures
for the benefit of the working classes, and earned the title of
the "Mechanic Governor." Opposed the Know-nothing movement with
characteristic vehemence. Was reelected governor in 1855, defeating
Meredith P. Gentry, the Whig-American candidate, after a most remarkable
canvass. The Kansas-Nebraska bill received his earnest support. In 1857
was elected to the United States Senate, where he urged the passage of
the homestead bill, and on May 20, 1858, made his greatest speech on
this subject. Opposed the grant of aid for the construction of a Pacific
railroad. Was prominent in debate, and frequently clashed with Southern
supporters of the Administration. His pronounced Unionism estranged him
from the extremists on the Southern side, while his acceptance of
slavery as an institution guaranteed by the Constitution caused him
to hold aloof from the Republicans on the other. At the Democratic
convention at Charleston, S.C., in 1860 was a candidate for the
Presidential nomination, but received only the vote of Tennessee, and
when the convention reassembled in Baltimore withdrew his name. In the
canvass that followed supported John C. Breckinridge. At the session
of Congress beginning in December, 1860, took decided and unequivocal
grounds in opposition to secession, and on December 13 introduced a
joint resolution proposing to amend the Constitution so as to elect the
President and Vice-President by district votes, Senators by a direct
popular vote, and to limit the terms of Federal judges to twelve
years, the judges to be equally divided between slaveholding and
non-slaveholding States. In his speech on this resolution, December 18
and 19, declared his unyielding opposition to secession and announced
his intention to stand by and act under the Constitution. Retained
his seat in the Senate until appointed by President Lincoln military
governor of Tennessee, March 4, 1862. March 12 reached Nashville, and
organized a provisional government for the State; March 18 issued a
proclamation in which he appealed to the people to return to their
allegiance, to uphold the law, and to accept "a full and complete
amnesty for all past acts and declarations;" April 5 removed the mayor
and other officials of Nashville for refusing to take the oath of
allegiance to the United States, and appointed others; urged the holding
of Union meetings throughout the State, and frequently attended them in
person; completed the railroad from Nashville to the Tennessee River;
raised twenty-five regiments for service in the State; December 8, 1862,
issued a proclamation ordering Congressional elections, and on the 15th
levied an assessment upon the richer Southern sympathizers "in behalf of
the many helpless widows, wives, and children in the city of Nashville
who have been reduced to poverty and wretchedness in consequence of
their husbands, sons, and fathers having been forced into the armies of
this unholy and nefarious rebellion." Was nominated for Vice-President
of the United States at the national Republican convention at Baltimore
June 8, 1864, and was elected on November 8. In his letter of acceptance
of the nomination Mr. Johnson virtually disclaimed any departure from
his principles as a Democrat, but placed his acceptance upon the ground
of "the higher duty of first preserving the Government." On the night of
the 14th of April, 1865, President Lincoln was shot by an assassin and
died the next morning. At 11 o'clock a.m. April 15 Mr. Johnson was sworn
in as President, at his rooms in the Kirkwood House, Washington, by
Chief Justice Chase, in the presence of nearly all the Cabinet officers
and others. April 29, 1865, issued a proclamation for the removal of
trade restrictions in most of the insurrectionary States, which, being
in contravention of an act of Congress, was subsequently modified.
May 9 issued an Executive order restoring Virginia to the Union. May 22
proclaimed all ports, except four in Texas, opened to foreign commerce
on July 1, 1865. May 29 issued a general amnesty proclamation, after
which the fundamental and irreconcilable differences between President
Johnson and the party that had elevated him to power became more
apparent. He exercised the veto power to a very great extent, but it was
generally nullified by the two-thirds votes of both Houses. From May 29
to July 13, 1865, proclaimed provisional governors for North Carolina,
Mississippi, Georgia, Texas, Alabama, South Carolina, and Florida, whose
duties were to reorganize the State governments. The State governments
were reorganized, but the Republicans claimed that the laws passed were
so stringent in reference to the negroes that it was a worse form of
slavery than the old. The thirteenth amendment to the Constitution
became a law December 18, 1865, with Mr. Johnson's concurrence. The first
breach between the President and the party in power was the veto of the
Freedmen's Bureau bill, in February, 1866, which was designed to protect
the negroes. March 27 vetoed the civil-rights bill, but it was passed
over his veto. In a message of June 22, 1866, opposed the joint
resolution proposing the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution. In
June, 1866, the Republicans in Congress brought forward their plan of
reconstruction, called the "Congressional plan," in contradistinction
to that of the President. The chief features of the Congressional plan
were to give the negroes the right to vote, to protect them in this
right, and to prevent Confederate leaders from voting. January 5, 1867,
vetoed the act giving negroes the right of suffrage in the District
of Columbia, but it was passed over his veto. An attempt was made to
impeach the President, but it failed. In January, 1867, a bill was
passed to deprive the President of the power to proclaim general
amnesty, which he disregarded. Measures were adopted looking to the
meeting of the Fortieth and all subsequent Congresses immediately after
the adjournment of the preceding. The President was deprived of the
command of the Army by a rider to the army appropriation bill, which
provided that his orders should only be given through the General, who
was not to be removed without the previous consent of the Senate. The
bill admitting Nebraska, providing that no law should ever be passed in
that State denying the right of suffrage to any person because of his
color or race, was vetoed by the President, but passed over his veto.
March 2, 1867, vetoed the act to provide for the more efficient
government of the rebel States, but it was passed over his veto.
It embodied the Congressional plan of reconstruction, and divided the
Southern States into five military districts, each under an officer of
the Army not under the rank of brigadier-general, who was to exercise
all the functions of government until the citizens had "formed a
constitution of government in conformity with the Constitution
of the United States in all respects." On the same day vetoed the
tenure-of-office act, which was also passed over his veto. It provided
that civil officers should remain in office until the confirmation of
their successors; that the members of the Cabinet should be removed
only with the consent of the Senate, and that when Congress was not in
session the President could suspend but not remove any official, and in
case the Senate at the next session should not ratify the suspension the
suspended official should be reinducted into his office. August 5, 1867,
requested Edwin M. Stanton to resign his office as Secretary of War.
Mr. Stanton refused, was suspended, and General Grant was appointed
Secretary of War _ad interim_. When Congress met, the Senate
refused to ratify the suspension. General Grant then resigned, and Mr.
Stanton resumed the duties of his office. The President removed him and
appointed Lorenzo Thomas, Adjutant-General of the Army, Secretary of War
_ad interim_. The Senate declared this act illegal, and Mr. Stanton
refused to comply, and notified the Speaker of the House. On February
24, 1868, the House of Representatives resolved to impeach the
President, and on March 2 and 3 articles of impeachment were agreed upon
by the House of Representatives, and on the 4th were presented to the
Senate. The trial began on March 30. May 16 the test vote was had;
thirty-five Senators voted for conviction and nineteen for acquittal. A
change of one vote would have carried conviction. A verdict of acquittal
was entered, and the Senate sitting as a court of impeachment adjourned
_sine die_. After the expiration of his term the ex-President
returned to Tennessee. Was a candidate for the United States Senate, but
was defeated. In 1872 was an unsuccessful candidate for Congressman from
the State at large. In January, 1875, was elected to the United States
Senate, and took his seat at the extra session of that year. Shortly
after the session began made a speech which was a skillful but bitter
attack upon President Grant. While visiting his daughter near
Elizabethton, in Carter County, Tenn., was stricken with paralysis July
30, 1875, and died the following day. He was buried at Greeneville, Tenn.

INAUGURAL ADDRESS.

[From the Sunday Morning Chronicle, Washington, April 16, 1865, and
The Sun, Baltimore, April 17, 1865.]

GENTLEMEN: I must be permitted to say that I have been almost
overwhelmed by the announcement of the sad event which has so recently
occurred. I feel incompetent to perform duties so important and
responsible as those which have been so unexpectedly thrown upon me.
As to an indication of any policy which may be pursued by me in the
administration of the Government, I have to say that that must be left
for development as the Administration progresses. The message or
declaration must be made by the acts as they transpire. The only
assurance that I can now give of the future is reference to the past.
The course which I have taken in the past in connection with this
rebellion must be regarded as a guaranty of the future. My past public
life, which has been long and laborious, has been founded, as I in good
conscience believe, upon a great principle of right, which lies at the
basis of all things. The best energies of my life have been spent in
endeavoring to establish and perpetuate the principles of free
government, and I believe that the Government in passing through its
present perils will settle down upon principles consonant with popular
rights more permanent and enduring than heretofore. I must be permitted
to say, if I understand the feelings of my own heart, that I have long
labored to ameliorate and elevate the condition of the great mass of the
American people. Toil and an honest advocacy of the great principles of
free government have been my lot. Duties have been mine; consequences
are God's. This has been the foundation of my political creed, and I
feel that in the end the Government will triumph and that these great
principles will be permanently established.

In conclusion, gentlemen, let me say that I want your encouragement and
countenance. I shall ask and rely upon you and others in carrying the
Government through its present perils. I feel in making this request
that it will be heartily responded to by you and all other patriots
and lovers of the rights and interests of a free people.

APRIL 15, 1865.

PROCLAMATIONS.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, by my direction, the Acting Secretary of State, in a notice to
the public of the 17th, requested the various religious denominations
to assemble on the 19th instant, on the occasion of the obsequies of
Abraham Lincoln, late President of the United States, and to observe the
same with appropriate ceremonies; but

Whereas our country has become one great house of mourning, where the
head of the family has been taken away, and believing that a special
period should be assigned for again humbling ourselves before Almighty
God, in order that the bereavement may be sanctified to the nation:

Now, therefore, in order to mitigate that grief on earth which can
only be assuaged by communion with the Father in heaven, and in
compliance with the wishes of Senators and Representatives in Congress,
communicated to me by resolutions adopted at the National Capitol,
I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, do hereby appoint
Thursday, the 25th day of May next, to be observed, wherever in the
United States the flag of the country may be respected, as a day of
humiliation and mourning, and I recommend my fellow citizens then to
assemble in their respective places of worship, there to unite in solemn
service to Almighty God in memory of the good man who has been removed,
so that all shall be occupied at the same time in contemplation of his
virtues and in sorrow for his sudden and violent end.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, the 25th day of April, A.D. 1865, and
of the Independence of the United States of America the eighty-ninth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
W. HUNTER,
_Acting Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by my proclamation of the 25th instant Thursday, the 25th day of
next month, was recommended as a day for special humiliation and prayer
in consequence of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, late President
of the United States; but

Whereas my attention has since been called to the fact that the day
aforesaid is sacred to large numbers of Christians as one of rejoicing
for the ascension of the Savior:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Andrew Johnson, President of the
United States, do hereby suggest that the religious services recommended
as aforesaid should be postponed until Thursday, the 1st day of June
next.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 29th day of April, A.D. 1865, and
of the Independence of the United States of America the eighty-ninth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
W. HUNTER,
_Acting Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it appears from evidence in the Bureau of Military Justice that
the atrocious murder of the late President, Abraham Lincoln, and the
attempted assassination of the Hon. William H. Seward, Secretary of
State, were incited, concerted, and procured by and between Jefferson
Davis, late of Richmond, Va., and Jacob Thompson, Clement C. Clay,
Beverley Tucker, George N. Sanders, William C. Cleary, and other rebels
and traitors against the Government of the United States harbored in
Canada:

Now, therefore, to the end that justice may be done, I, Andrew Johnson,
President of the United States, do offer and promise for the arrest of
said persons, or either of them, within the limits of the United States,
so that they can be brought to trial, the following rewards:

One hundred thousand dollars for the arrest of Jefferson Davis.

Twenty-five thousand dollars for the arrest of Clement C. Clay.

Twenty-five thousand dollars for the arrest of Jacob Thompson, late of
Mississippi.

Twenty-five thousand dollars for the arrest of George N. Sanders.

Twenty-five thousand dollars for the arrest of Beverley Tucker.

Ten thousand dollars for the arrest of William C. Cleary, late clerk of
Clement C. Clay.

The Provost-Marshal-General of the United States is directed to cause
a description of said persons, with notice of the above rewards, to be
published.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 2d day of May, A.D. 1865, and of
the Independence of the United States of America the eighty-ninth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
W. HUNTER,
_Acting Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas the President of the United States, by his proclamation of the
19th day of April, 1861, did declare certain States therein mentioned in
insurrection against the Government of the United States; and

Whereas armed resistance to the authority of this Government in the said
insurrectionary States may be regarded as virtually at an end, and the
persons by whom that resistance, as well as the operations of insurgent
cruisers, was directed are fugitives or captives; and

Whereas it is understood that some of those cruisers are still infesting
the high seas and others are preparing to capture, burn, and destroy
vessels of the United States:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Andrew Johnson, President of the
United States, hereby enjoin all naval, military, and civil officers of
the United States diligently to endeavor, by all lawful means, to arrest
the said cruisers and to bring them into a port of the United States, in
order that they may be prevented from committing further depredations on
commerce and that the persons on board of them may no longer enjoy
impunity for their crimes.

And I do further proclaim and declare that if, after a reasonable time
shall have elapsed for this proclamation to become known in the ports of
nations claiming to have been neutrals, the said insurgent cruisers and
the persons on board of them shall continue to receive hospitality in
the said ports, this Government will deem itself justified in refusing
hospitality to the public vessels of such nations in ports of the United
States and in adopting such other measures as may be deemed advisable
toward vindicating the national sovereignty.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 10th day of May, A.D. 1865, and
of the Independence of the United States of America the eighty-ninth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
W. HUNTER,
_Acting Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by the proclamation of the President of the 11th day of April
last certain ports of the United States therein specified, which had
previously been subject to blockade, were, for objects of public safety,
declared, in conformity with previous special legislation of Congress,
to be closed against foreign commerce during the national will, to be
thereafter expressed and made known by the President; and

Whereas events and circumstances have since occurred which, in my
judgment, render it expedient to remove that restriction, except as to
the ports of Galveston, La Salle, Brazos de Santiago (Point Isabel), and
Brownsville, in the State of Texas:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Andrew Johnson, President of the
United States, do hereby declare that the ports aforesaid, not excepted
as above, shall be open to foreign commerce from and after the 1st day
of July next; that commercial intercourse with the said ports may from
that time be carried on, subject to the laws of the United States and in
pursuance of such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary of
the Treasury. If, however, any vessel from a foreign port shall enter
any of the before-named excepted ports in the State of Texas, she will
continue to be held liable to the penalties prescribed by the act of
Congress approved on the 13th day of July, 1861, and the persons on
board of her to such penalties as may be incurred, pursuant to the laws
of war, for trading or attempting to trade with an enemy.

And I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, do hereby declare
and make known that the United States of America do henceforth disallow
to all persons trading or attempting to trade in any ports of the United
States in violation of the laws thereof all pretense of belligerent
rights and privileges; and I give notice that from the date of this
proclamation all such offenders will be held and dealt with as pirates.

It is also ordered that all restrictions upon trade heretofore imposed
in the territory of the United States east of the Mississippi River,
save those relating to contraband of war, to the reservation of the
rights of the United States to property purchased in the territory of an
enemy, and to the 25 per cent upon purchases of cotton be removed. All
provisions of the internal-revenue law will be carried into effect under
the proper officers.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 22d day of May, A.D. 1865, and of
the Independence of the United States of America the eighty-ninth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
W. HUNTER,
_Acting Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas the President of the United States, on the 8th day of December,
A.D. 1863, and on the 26th day of March, A.D. 1864, did, with the object
to suppress the existing rebellion, to induce all persons to return to
their loyalty, and to restore the authority of the United States, issue
proclamations offering amnesty and pardon to certain persons who had,
directly or by implication, participated in the said rebellion; and

Whereas many persons who had so engaged in said rebellion have, since
the issuance of said proclamations, failed or neglected to take the
benefits offered thereby; and

Whereas many persons who have been justly deprived of all claim to
amnesty and pardon thereunder by reason of their participation, directly
or by implication, in said rebellion and continued hostility to the
Government of the United States since the date of said proclamations now
desire to apply for and obtain amnesty and pardon.

To the end, therefore, that the authority of the Government of the
United States may be restored and that peace, order, and freedom may
be established, I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States,
do proclaim and declare that I hereby grant to all persons who have,
directly or indirectly, participated in the existing rebellion, except
as hereinafter excepted, amnesty and pardon, with restoration of all
rights of property, except as to slaves and except in cases where legal
proceedings under the laws of the United States providing for the
confiscation of property of persons engaged in rebellion have been
instituted; but upon the condition, nevertheless, that every such person
shall take and subscribe the following oath (or affirmation) and
thenceforward keep and maintain said oath inviolate, and which oath
shall be registered for permanent preservation and shall be of the tenor
and effect following, to wit:

I ---- ---- do solemnly swear (or affirm), in presence of Almighty
God, that I will henceforth faithfully support, protect, and defend
the Constitution of the United States and the Union of the States
thereunder, and that I will in like manner abide by and faithfully
support all laws and proclamations which have been made during the
existing rebellion with reference to the emancipation of slaves.
So help me God.

The following classes of persons are excepted from the benefits of this
proclamation:

First. All who are or shall have been pretended civil or diplomatic
officers or otherwise domestic or foreign agents of the pretended
Confederate government.

Second. All who left judicial stations under the United States to aid
the rebellion.

Third. All who shall have been military or naval officers of said
pretended Confederate government above the rank of colonel in the army
or lieutenant in the navy.

Fourth. All who left seats in the Congress of the United States to aid
the rebellion.

Fifth. All who resigned or tendered resignations of their commissions in
the Army or Navy of the United States to evade duty in resisting the
rebellion.

Sixth. All who have engaged in any way in treating otherwise than
lawfully as prisoners of war persons found in the United States service
as officers, soldiers, seamen, or in other capacities.

Seventh. All persons who have been or are absentees from the United
States for the purpose of aiding the rebellion.

Eighth. All military and naval officers in the rebel service who were
educated by the Government in the Military Academy at West Point or the
United States Naval Academy.

Ninth. All persons who held the pretended offices of governors of States
in insurrection against the United States.

Tenth. All persons who left their homes within the jurisdiction and
protection of the United States and passed beyond the Federal military
lines into the pretended Confederate States for the purpose of aiding
the rebellion.

Eleventh. All persons who have been engaged in the destruction of the
commerce of the United States upon the high seas and all persons who
have made raids into the United States from Canada or been engaged in
destroying the commerce of the United States upon the lakes and rivers
that separate the British Provinces from the United States.

Twelfth. All persons who, at the time when they seek to obtain the
benefits hereof by taking the oath herein prescribed, are in military,
naval, or civil confinement or custody, or under bonds of the civil,
military, or naval authorities or agents of the United States as
prisoners of war, or persons detained for offenses of any kind, either
before or after conviction.

Thirteenth. All persons who have voluntarily participated in said
rebellion and the estimated value of whose taxable property is over
$20,000.

Fourteenth. All persons who have taken the oath of amnesty as prescribed
in the President's proclamation of December 8, A.D. 1863, or an oath of
allegiance to the Government of the United States since the date of said
proclamation and who have not thenceforward kept and maintained the same
inviolate.

_Provided_, That special application may be made to the President
for pardon by any person belonging to the excepted classes, and such
clemency will be liberally extended as may be consistent with the facts
of the case and the peace and dignity of the United States.

The Secretary of State will establish rules and regulations for
administering and recording the said amnesty oath, so as to insure its
benefit to the people and guard the Government against fraud.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal
of the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, the 29th day of May, A.D. 1865, and
of the Independence of the United States the eighty-ninth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
WILLIAM H. SEWARD,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas the fourth section of the fourth article of the Constitution of
the United States declares that the United States shall guarantee to
every State in the Union a republican form of government and shall
protect each of them against invasion and domestic violence; and

Whereas the President of the United States is by the Constitution made
Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, as well as chief civil
executive officer of the United States, and is bound by solemn oath
faithfully to execute the office of President of the United States and
to take care that the laws be faithfully executed; and

Whereas the rebellion which has been waged by a portion of the people of
the United States against the properly constituted authorities of the
Government thereof in the most violent and revolting form, but whose
organized and armed forces have now been almost entirely overcome, has
in its revolutionary progress deprived the people of the State of North
Carolina of all civil government; and

Whereas it becomes necessary and proper to carry out and enforce the
obligations of the United States to the people of North Carolina in
securing them in the enjoyment of a republican form of government:

Now, therefore, in obedience to the high and solemn duties imposed upon
me by the Constitution of the United States and for the purpose of
enabling the loyal people of said State to organize a State government
whereby justice may be established, domestic tranquillity insured, and
loyal citizens protected in all their rights of life, liberty, and
property, I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States and
Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, do hereby
appoint William W. Holden provisional governor of the State of North
Carolina, whose duty it shall be, at the earliest practicable period, to
prescribe such rules and regulations as may be necessary and proper for
convening a convention composed of delegates to be chosen by that
portion of the people of said State who are loyal to the United States,
and no others, for the purpose of altering or amending the constitution
thereof, and with authority to exercise within the limits of said State
all the powers necessary and proper to enable such loyal people of the
State of North Carolina to restore said State to its constitutional
relations to the Federal Government and to present such a republican
form of State government as will entitle the State to the guaranty of
the United States therefor and its people to protection by the United
States against invasion, insurrection, and domestic violence:
_Provided_, That in any election that may be hereafter held for
choosing delegates to any State convention as aforesaid no person shall
be qualified as an elector or shall be eligible as a member of such
convention unless he shall have previously taken and subscribed the oath
of amnesty as set forth in the President's proclamation of May 29, A.D.
1865, and is a voter qualified as prescribed by the constitution and
laws of the State of North Carolina in force immediately before the 20th
day of May, A.D. 1861, the date of the so-called ordinance of secession;
and the said convention, when convened, or the legislature that may be
thereafter assembled, will prescribe the qualification of electors and
the eligibility of persons to hold office under the constitution and
laws of the State--a power the people of the several States composing
the Federal Union have rightfully exercised from the origin of the
Government to the present time.

And I do hereby direct--

First. That the military commander of the department and all officers
and persons in the military and naval service aid and assist the said
provisional governor in carrying into effect this proclamation; and they
are enjoined to abstain from in any way hindering, impeding, or
discouraging the loyal people from the organization of a State
government as herein authorized.

Second. That the Secretary of State proceed to put in force all laws
of the United States the administration whereof belongs to the State
Department applicable to the geographical limits aforesaid.

Third. That the Secretary of the Treasury proceed to nominate for
appointment assessors of taxes and collectors of customs and internal
revenue and such other officers of the Treasury Department as are
authorized by law and put in execution the revenue laws of the United
States within the geographical limits aforesaid. In making appointments
the preference shall be given to qualified loyal persons residing within
the districts where their respective duties are to be performed; but if
suitable residents of the districts shall not be found, then persons
residing in other States or districts shall be appointed.

Fourth. That the Postmaster-General proceed to establish post-offices
and post routes and put into execution the postal laws of the United
States within the said State, giving to loyal residents the preference
of appointment; but if suitable residents are not found, then to appoint
agents, etc., from other States.

Fifth. That the district judge for the judicial district in which North
Carolina is included proceed to hold courts within said State in
accordance with the provisions of the act of Congress. The
Attorney-General will instruct the proper officers to libel and bring to
judgment, confiscation, and sale property subject to confiscation and
enforce the administration of justice within said State in all matters
within the cognizance and jurisdiction of the Federal courts.

Sixth. That the Secretary of the Navy take possession of all public
property belonging to the Navy Department within said geographical
limits and put in operation all acts of Congress in relation to naval
affairs having application to the said State.

Seventh. That the Secretary of the Interior put in force the laws
relating to the Interior Department applicable to the geographical
limits aforesaid.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 29th day of May, A.D. 1865, and
of the Independence of the United States the eighty-ninth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
WILLIAM H. SEWARD,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas the fourth section of the fourth article of the Constitution of
the United States declares that the United States shall guarantee to
every State in the Union a republican form of government and shall
protect each of them against invasion and domestic violence; and

Whereas the President of the United States is by the Constitution made
Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, as well as chief civil
executive officer of the United States, and is bound by solemn oath
faithfully to execute the office of President of the United States and
to take care that the laws be faithfully executed; and

Whereas the rebellion which has been waged by a portion of the people of
the United States against the properly constituted authorities of the
Government thereof in the most violent and revolting form, but whose
organized and armed forces have now been almost entirely overcome, has
in its revolutionary progress deprived the people of the State of
Mississippi of all civil government; and

Whereas it becomes necessary and proper to carry out and enforce the
obligations of the United States to the people of Mississippi in
securing them in the enjoyment of a republican form of government:

Now, therefore, in obedience to the high and solemn duties imposed upon
me by the Constitution of the United States and for the purpose of
enabling the loyal people of said State to organize a State government
whereby justice may be established, domestic tranquillity insured, and
loyal citizens protected in all their rights of life, liberty, and
property, I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States and
Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, do
hereby appoint William L. Sharkey, of Mississippi, provisional governor
of the State of Mississippi, whose duty it shall be, at the earliest
practicable period, to prescribe such rules and regulations as may be
necessary and proper for convening a convention composed of delegates
to be chosen by that portion of the people of said State who are loyal
to the United States, and no others, for the purpose of altering or
amending the constitution thereof, and with authority to exercise within
the limits of said State all the powers necessary and proper to enable
such loyal people of the State of Mississippi to restore said State to
its constitutional relations to the Federal Government and to present
such a republican form of State government as will entitle the State to
the guaranty of the United States therefor and its people to protection
by the United States against invasion, insurrection, and domestic
violence: _Provided_, That in any election that may be hereafter
held for choosing delegates to any State convention as aforesaid no
person shall be qualified as an elector or shall be eligible as a member
of such convention unless he shall have previously taken and subscribed
the oath of amnesty as set forth in the President's proclamation of
May 29, A.D. 1865, and is a voter qualified as prescribed by the
constitution and laws of the State of Mississippi in force immediately
before the 9th of January, A.D. 1861, the date of the so-called
ordinance of secession; and the said convention, when convened, or
the legislature that may be thereafter assembled, will prescribe the
qualification of electors and the eligibility of persons to hold office
under the constitution and laws of the State--a power the people of the
several States composing the Federal Union have rightfully exercised
from the origin of the Government to the present time.

And I do hereby direct--

First. That the military commander of the department and all officers
and persons in the military and naval service aid and assist the said
provisional governor in carrying into effect this proclamation; and they
are enjoined to abstain from in any way hindering, impeding, or
discouraging the loyal people from the organization of a State
government as herein authorized.

Second. That the Secretary of State proceed to put in force all laws
of the United States the administration whereof belongs to the State
Department applicable to the geographical limits aforesaid.

Third. That the Secretary of the Treasury proceed to nominate for
appointment assessors of taxes and collectors of customs and internal
revenue and such other officers of the Treasury Department as are
authorized by law and put in execution the revenue laws of the United
States within the geographical limits aforesaid. In making appointments
the preference shall be given to qualified loyal persons residing within
the districts where their respective duties are to be performed; but if
suitable residents of the districts shall not be found, then persons
residing in other States or districts shall be appointed.

Fourth. That the Postmaster-General proceed to establish post-offices
and post routes and put into execution the postal laws of the United
States within the said State, giving to loyal residents the preference
of appointment; but if suitable residents are not found, then to appoint
agents, etc., from other States.

Fifth. That the district judge for the judicial district in which
Mississippi is included proceed to hold courts within said State
in accordance with the provisions of the act of Congress. The
Attorney-General will instruct the proper officers to libel and bring to
judgment, confiscation, and sale property subject to confiscation and
enforce the administration of justice within said State in all matters
within the cognizance and jurisdiction of the Federal courts.

Sixth. That the Secretary of the Navy take possession of all public
property belonging to the Navy Department within said geographical
limits and put in operation all acts of Congress in relation to naval
affairs having application to the said State.

Seventh. That the Secretary of the Interior put in force the laws
relating to the Interior Department applicable to the geographical
limits aforesaid.

[SEAL.]

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal
of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the city of Washington, this 13th day of June, A.D. 1865, and
of the Independence of the United States the eighty-ninth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
WILLIAM H. SEWARD,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by my proclamation[1] of the 29th of April, 1865, all
restrictions upon internal, domestic, and commercial intercourse,
with certain exceptions therein specified and set forth, were removed
"in such parts of the States of Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina,
South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and so much of
Louisiana as lies east of the Mississippi River as shall be embraced
within the lines of national military occupation;" and

[Footnote 1: Executive order.]

Whereas by my proclamation of the 22d of May, 1865, for reasons therein
given, it was declared that certain ports of the United States which had
been previously closed against foreign commerce should, with certain
specified exceptions, be reopened to such commerce on and after the
1st day of July next, subject to the laws of the United States, and in
pursuance of such regulations as might be prescribed by the Secretary
of the Treasury; and

Whereas I am satisfactorily informed that dangerous combinations against
the laws of the United States no longer exist within the State of
Tennessee; that the insurrection heretofore existing within said State
has been suppressed; that within the boundaries thereof the authority of
the United States is undisputed, and that such officers of the United
States as have been duly commissioned are in the undisturbed exercise of
their official functions:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Andrew Johnson, President of the
United States, do hereby declare that all restrictions upon internal,
domestic, and coastwise intercourse and trade and upon the removal of
products of States heretofore declared in insurrection, reserving and
excepting only those relating to contraband of war, as hereinafter
recited, and also those which relate to the reservation of the rights
of the United States to property purchased in the territory of an enemy
heretofore imposed in the territory of the United States east of the
Mississippi River, are annulled, and I do hereby direct that they be
forthwith removed; and that on and after the 1st day of July next all
restrictions upon foreign commerce with said ports, with the exception
and reservation aforesaid, be likewise removed; and that the commerce of
said States shall be conducted under the supervision of the regularly
appointed officers of the customs provided by law, and such officers of
the customs shall receive any captured and abandoned property that may
be turned over to them under the law by the military or naval forces of
the United States and dispose of such property as shall be directed by
the Secretary of the Treasury. The following articles, contraband of
war, are excepted from the effect of this proclamation: Arms,
ammunition, all articles from which ammunition is made, and gray
uniforms and cloth.

And I hereby also proclaim and declare that the insurrection, so far as
it relates to and within the State of Tennessee and the inhabitants of
the said State of Tennessee as reorganized and constituted under their
recently adopted constitution and reorganization and accepted by them,
is suppressed, and therefore, also, that all the disabilities and
disqualifications attaching to said State and the inhabitants thereof
consequent upon any proclamation issued by virtue of the fifth section
of the act entitled "An act further to provide for the collection of
duties on imports and for other purposes," approved the 13th day of
July, 1861, are removed.

But nothing herein contained shall be considered or construed as in any
wise changing or impairing any of the penalties and forfeitures for
treason heretofore incurred under the laws of the United States or any
of the provisions, restrictions, or disabilities set forth in my
proclamation bearing date the 29th day of May, 1865, or as impairing
existing regulations for the suspension of the _habeas corpus_ and
the exercise of military law in cases where it shall be necessary for
the general public safety and welfare during the existing insurrection;
nor shall this proclamation affect or in any way impair any laws
heretofore passed by Congress and duly approved by the President or any
proclamations or orders issued by him during the aforesaid insurrection
abolishing slavery or in any way affecting the relations of slavery,
whether of persons or property; but, on the contrary, all such laws and
proclamations heretofore made or issued are expressly saved and declared
to be in full force and virtue.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal
of the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 13th day of June, A.D. 1865, and
of the Independence of the United States of America the eighty-ninth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
WILLIAM H. SEWARD,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas the fourth section of the fourth article of the Constitution of
the United States declares that the United States shall guarantee to
every State in the Union a republican form of government and shall
protect each of them against invasion and domestic violence; and

Whereas the President of the United States is by the Constitution made
Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, as well as chief civil
executive officer of the United States, and is bound by solemn oath
faithfully to execute the office of President of the United States and
to take care that the laws be faithfully executed; and

Whereas the rebellion which has been waged by a portion of the people of
the United States against the properly constituted authorities of the
Government thereof in the most violent and revolting form, but whose
organized and armed forces have now been almost entirely overcome, has
in its revolutionary progress deprived the people of the State of
Georgia of all civil government; and

Whereas it becomes necessary and proper to carry out and enforce the
obligations of the United States to the people of Georgia in securing
them in the enjoyment of a republican form of government:

Now, therefore, in obedience to the high and solemn duties imposed upon
me by the Constitution of the United States and for the purpose of
enabling the loyal people of said State to organize a State government
whereby justice may be established, domestic tranquillity insured, and
loyal citizens protected in all their rights of life, liberty, and
property, I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States and
Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, do hereby
appoint James Johnson, of Georgia, provisional governor of the State of
Georgia, whose duty it shall be, at the earliest practicable period,
to prescribe such rules and regulations as may be necessary and proper
for convening a convention composed of delegates to be chosen by that
portion of the people of said State who are loyal to the United States,
and no others, for the purpose of altering or amending the constitution
thereof, and with authority to exercise within the limits of said State
all the powers necessary and proper to enable such loyal people of the
State of Georgia to restore said State to its constitutional relations
to the Federal Government and to present such a republican form of State
government as will entitle the State to the guaranty of the United
States therefor and its people to protection by the United States
against invasion, insurrection, and domestic violence: _Provided_,
That in any election that may be hereafter held for choosing delegates
to any State convention as aforesaid no person shall be qualified as an
elector or shall be eligible as a member of such convention unless he
shall have previously taken and subscribed the oath of amnesty as set
forth in the President's proclamation of May 29, A.D. 1865, and is a
voter qualified as prescribed by the constitution and laws of the State
of Georgia in force immediately before the 19th of January, A.D. 1861,
the date of the so-called ordinance of secession; and the said
convention, when convened, or the legislature that may be thereafter
assembled, will prescribe the qualification of electors and the
eligibility of persons to hold office under the constitution and laws
of the State--a power the people of the several States composing the
Federal Union have rightfully exercised from the origin of the
Government to the present time.

And I do hereby direct--

First. That the military commander of the department and all officers
and persons in the military and naval service aid and assist the said
provisional governor in carrying into effect this proclamation; and they
are enjoined to abstain from in any way hindering, impeding, or
discouraging the loyal people from the organization of a State
government as herein authorized.

Second. That the Secretary of State proceed to put in force all laws
of the United States the administration whereof belongs to the State
Department applicable to the geographical limits aforesaid.

Third. That the Secretary of the Treasury proceed to nominate for
appointment assessors of taxes and collectors of customs and internal
revenue and such other officers of the Treasury Department as are
authorized by law and put in execution the revenue laws of the United
States within the geographical limits aforesaid. In making appointments
the preference shall be given to qualified loyal persons residing within
the districts where their respective duties are to be performed; but if
suitable residents of the districts shall not be found, then persons
residing in other States or districts shall be appointed.

Fourth. That the Postmaster-General proceed to establish post-offices
and post routes and put into execution the postal laws of the United
States within the said State, giving to loyal residents the preference
of appointment; but if suitable residents are not found, then to appoint
agents, etc., from other States.

Fifth. That the district judge for the judicial district in which
Georgia is included proceed to hold courts within said State in
accordance with the provisions of the act of Congress. The
Attorney-General will instruct the proper officers to libel and bring to
judgment, confiscation, and sale property subject to confiscation and
enforce the administration of justice within said State in all matters
within the cognizance and jurisdiction of the Federal courts.

Sixth. That the Secretary of the Navy take possession of all public
property belonging to the Navy Department within said geographical
limits and put in operation all acts of Congress in relation to naval
affairs having application to the said State.

Seventh. That the Secretary of the Interior put in force the laws
relating to the Interior Department applicable to the geographical
limits aforesaid.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal
of the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 17th day of June, A.D. 1865, and
of the Independence of the United States the eighty-ninth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
WILLIAM H. SEWARD,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas the fourth section of the fourth article of the Constitution of
the United States declares that the United States shall guarantee to
every State in the Union a republican form of government and shall
protect each of them against invasion and domestic violence; and

Whereas the President of the United States is by the Constitution
made Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, as well as chief civil
executive officer of the United States, and is bound by solemn oath
faithfully to execute the office of President of the United States and
to take care that the laws be faithfully executed; and

Whereas the rebellion which has been waged by a portion of the people of
the United States against the properly constituted authorities of the
Government thereof in the most violent and revolting form, but whose
organized and armed forces have now been almost entirely overcome, has
in its revolutionary progress deprived the people of the State of Texas
of all civil government; and

Whereas it becomes necessary and proper to carry out and enforce the
obligations of the United States to the people of the State of Texas in
securing them in the enjoyment of a republican form of government:

Now, therefore, in obedience to the high and solemn duties imposed upon
me by the Constitution of the United States and for the purpose of
enabling the loyal people of said State to organize a State government
whereby justice may be established, domestic tranquillity insured, and
loyal citizens protected in all their rights of life, liberty, and
property, I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States and
Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, do hereby
appoint Andrew J. Hamilton, of Texas, provisional governor of the State
of Texas, whose duty it shall be, at the earliest practicable period, to
prescribe such rules and regulations as may be necessary and proper for
convening a convention composed of delegates to be chosen by that
portion of the people of said State who are loyal to the United States,
and no others, for the purpose of altering or amending the constitution
thereof, and with authority to exercise within the limits of said State
all the powers necessary and proper to enable such loyal people of the
State of Texas to restore said State to its constitutional relations to
the Federal Government and to present such a republican form of State
government as will entitle the State to the guaranty of the United
States therefor and its people to protection by the United States
against invasion, insurrection, and domestic violence: _Provided_,
That in any election that may be hereafter held for choosing delegates
to any State convention as aforesaid no person shall be qualified as an
elector or shall be eligible as a member of such convention unless he
shall have previously taken and subscribed the oath of amnesty as set
forth in the President's proclamation of May 29, A.D. 1865, and is a
voter qualified as prescribed by the constitution and laws of the State
of Texas in force immediately before the 1st day of February, A.D. 1861,
the date of the so-called ordinance of secession; and the said
convention, when convened, or the legislature that may be thereafter
assembled, will prescribe the qualification of electors and the
eligibility of persons to hold office under the constitution and laws of
the State--a power the people of the several States composing the
Federal Union have rightfully exercised from the origin of the
Government to the present time.

And I do hereby direct--

First. That the military commander of the department and all officers
and persons in the military and naval service aid and assist the said
provisional governor in carrying into effect this proclamation; and they
are enjoined to abstain from in any way hindering, impeding, or
discouraging the loyal people from the organization of a State
government as herein authorized.

Second. That the Secretary of State proceed to put in force all laws
of the United States the administration whereof belongs to the State
Department applicable to the geographical limits aforesaid.

Third. That the Secretary of the Treasury proceed to nominate for
appointment assessors of taxes and collectors of customs and internal
revenue and such other officers of the Treasury Department as are
authorized by law and put in execution the revenue laws of the United
States within the geographical limits aforesaid. In making appointments
the preference shall be given to qualified loyal persons residing within
the districts where their respective duties are to be performed; but if
suitable residents of the districts shall not be found, then persons
residing in other States or districts shall be appointed.

Fourth. That the Postmaster-General proceed to establish post-offices
and post routes and put into execution the postal laws of the United
States within the said State, giving to loyal residents the preference
of appointment; but if suitable residents are not found, then to appoint
agents, etc., from other States.

Fifth. That the district judge for the judicial district in which Texas
is included proceed to hold courts within said State in accordance with
the provisions of the act of Congress. The Attorney-General will
instruct the proper officers to libel and bring to judgment,
confiscation, and sale property subject to confiscation and enforce the
administration of justice within said State in all matters within the
cognizance and jurisdiction of the Federal courts.

Sixth. That the Secretary of the Navy take possession of all public
property belonging to the Navy Department within said geographical
limits and put in operation all acts of Congress in relation to naval
affairs having application to the said State.

Seventh. That the Secretary of the Interior put in force the laws
relating to the Interior Department applicable to the geographical
limits aforesaid.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 17th day of June, A.D. 1865, and of
the Independence of the United States the eighty-ninth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
WILLIAM H. SEWARD,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas the fourth section of the fourth article of the Constitution of
the United States declares that the United States shall guarantee to
every State in the Union a republican form of government and shall
protect each of them against invasion and domestic violence; and

Whereas the President of the United States is by the Constitution made
Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, as well as chief civil
executive officer of the United States, and is bound by solemn oath
faithfully to execute the office of President of the United States and
to take care that the laws be faithfully executed; and

Whereas the rebellion which has been waged by a portion of the people of
the United States against the properly constituted authorities of the
Government thereof in the most violent and revolting form, but whose
organized and armed forces have now been almost entirely overcome, has
in its revolutionary progress deprived the people of the State of
Alabama of all civil government; and

Whereas it becomes necessary and proper to carry out and enforce the
obligations of the United States to the people of Alabama in securing
them in the enjoyment of a republican form of government:

Now, therefore, in obedience to the high and solemn duties imposed upon
me by the Constitution of the United States and for the purpose of
enabling the loyal people of said State to organize a State government
whereby justice may be established, domestic tranquillity insured, and
loyal citizens protected in all their rights of life, liberty, and
property, I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States and
Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, do hereby
appoint Lewis E. Parsons, of Alabama, provisional governor of the State
of Alabama, whose duty it shall be, at the earliest practicable period,
to prescribe such rules and regulations as may be necessary and proper
for convening a convention composed of delegates to be chosen by that
portion of the people of said State who are loyal to the United States,
and no others, for the purpose of altering or amending the constitution
thereof, and with authority to exercise within the limits of said State
all the powers necessary and proper to enable such loyal people of the
State of Alabama to restore said State to its constitutional relations
to the Federal Government and to present such a republican form of State
government as will entitle the State to the guaranty of the United
States therefor and its people to protection by the United States
against invasion, insurrection, and domestic violence: _Provided_,
That in any election that may be hereafter held for choosing delegates
to any State convention as aforesaid no person shall be qualified as an
elector or shall be eligible as a member of such convention unless he
shall have previously taken and subscribed the oath of amnesty as set
forth in the President's proclamation of May 29, A.D. 1865, and is a
voter qualified as prescribed by the constitution and laws of the State
of Alabama in force immediately before the 11th day of January, A.D.
1861, the date of the so-called ordinance of secession; and the said
convention, when convened, or the legislature that may be thereafter
assembled, will prescribe the qualification of electors and the
eligibility of persons to hold office under the constitution and laws of
the State, a power the people of the several States composing the
Federal Union have rightfully exercised from the origin of the
Government to the present time.

And I do hereby direct--

First. That the military commander of the department and all officers
and persons in the military and naval service aid and assist the said
provisional governor in carrying into effect this proclamation; and they
are enjoined to abstain from in any way hindering, impeding, or
discouraging the loyal people from the organization of a State
government as herein authorized.

Second. That the Secretary of State proceed to put in force all laws
of the United States the administration whereof belongs to the State
Department applicable to the geographical limits aforesaid.

Third. That the Secretary of the Treasury proceed to nominate for
appointment assessors of taxes and collectors of customs and internal
revenue and such other officers of the Treasury Department as are
authorized by law and put in execution the revenue laws of the United
States within the geographical limits aforesaid. In making appointments
the preference shall be given to qualified loyal persons residing within
the districts where their respective duties are to be performed; but if
suitable residents of the districts shall not be found, then persons
residing in other States or districts shall be appointed.

Fourth. That the Postmaster-General proceed to establish post-offices
and post routes and put into execution the postal laws of the United
States within the said State, giving to loyal residents the preference
of appointment; but if suitable residents are not found, then to appoint
agents, etc., from other States.

Fifth. That the district judge for the judicial district in which
Alabama is included proceed to hold courts within said State in
accordance with the provisions of the act of Congress. The
Attorney-General will instruct the proper officers to libel and bring to
judgment, confiscation, and sale property subject to confiscation and
enforce the administration of justice within said State in all matters
within the cognizance and jurisdiction of the Federal courts.

Sixth. That the Secretary of the Navy take possession of all public
property belonging to the Navy Department within said geographical
limits and put in operation all acts of Congress in relation to naval
affairs having application to the said State.

Seventh. That the Secretary of the Interior put in force the laws
relating to the Interior Department applicable to the geographical
limits aforesaid.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal
of the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 21st day of June, A.D. 1865, and
of the Independence of the United States the eighty-ninth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
WILLIAM H. SEWARD,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by the proclamations of the President of the 19th and 27th of
April, 1861, a blockade of certain ports of the United States was set on
foot; but

Whereas the reasons for that measure have ceased to exist:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Andrew Johnson, President of the
United States, do hereby declare and proclaim the blockade aforesaid to
be rescinded as to all the ports aforesaid, including that of Galveston
and other ports west of the Mississippi River, which ports will be open
to foreign commerce on the 1st of July next on the terms and conditions
set forth in my proclamation of the 22d of May last.

It is to be understood, however, that the blockade thus rescinded was an
international measure for the purpose of protecting the sovereign rights
of the United States. The greater or less subversion of civil authority
in the region to which it applied and the impracticability of at once
restoring that in due efficiency may for a season make it advisable to
employ the Army and Navy of the United States toward carrying the laws
into effect wherever such employment may be necessary.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 23d day of June, A.D. 1865, and of
the Independence of the United States of America the eighty-ninth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
W. HUNTER,
_Acting Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it has been the desire of the General Government of the United
States to restore unrestricted commercial intercourse between and in the
several States as soon as the same could be safely done in view of
resistance to the authority of the United States by combinations of
armed insurgents; and

Whereas that desire has been shown in my proclamations of the 29th of
April, 1865, the 13th of June, 1865, and the 23d of June, 1865; and

Whereas it now seems expedient and proper to remove restrictions upon
internal, domestic, and coastwise trade and commercial intercourse
between and within the States and Territories west of the Mississippi
River:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Andrew Johnson, President of the
United States, do hereby declare that all restrictions upon internal,
domestic, and coastwise intercourse and trade and upon the purchase and
removal of products of States and parts of States and Territories
heretofore declared in insurrection, lying west of the Mississippi River
(excepting only those relating to property heretofore purchased by the
agents or captured by or surrendered to the forces of the United States
and to the transportation thereto or therein on private account of arms,
ammunition, all articles from which ammunition is made, gray uniforms,
and gray cloth), are annulled; and I do hereby direct that they be
forthwith removed, and also that the commerce of such States and parts
of States shall be conducted under the supervision of the regularly
appointed officers of the customs, [who] shall receive any captured and
abandoned property that may be turned over to them under the law by the
military or naval forces of the United States and dispose of the same in
accordance with instructions on the subject issued by the Secretary of
the Treasury.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

Done at the city of Washington, this 24th day of June, A.D. 1865, and of
the Independence of the United States of America the eighty-ninth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
W. HUNTER,
_Acting Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas the fourth section of the fourth article of the Constitution of
the United States declares that the United States shall guarantee to
every State in the Union a republican form of government and shall
protect each of them against invasion and domestic violence; and

Whereas the President of the United States is by the Constitution made
Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, as well as chief civil
executive officer of the United States, and is bound by solemn oath
faithfully to execute the office of President of the United States and
to take care that the laws be faithfully executed; and

Whereas the rebellion which has been waged by a portion of the people of
the United States against the properly constituted authorities of the
Government thereof in the most violent and revolting form, but whose
organized and armed forces have now been almost entirely overcome, has
in its revolutionary progress deprived the people of the State of South
Carolina of all civil government; and

Whereas it becomes necessary and proper to carry out and enforce the
obligations of the United States to the people of South Carolina in
securing them in the enjoyment of a republican form of government:

Now, therefore, in obedience to the high and solemn duties imposed upon
me by the Constitution of the United States and for the purpose of
enabling the loyal people of said State to organize a State government
whereby justice may be established, domestic tranquillity insured, and
loyal citizens protected in all their rights of life, liberty, and
property, I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States and
Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, do hereby
appoint Benjamin F. Perry, of South Carolina, provisional governor of
the State of South Carolina, whose duty it shall be, at the earliest
practicable period, to prescribe such rules and regulations as may be
necessary and proper for convening a convention composed of delegates
to be chosen by that portion of the people of said State who are loyal
to the United States, and no others, for the purpose of altering or
amending the constitution thereof, and with authority to exercise within
the limits of said State all the powers necessary and proper to enable
such loyal people of the State of South Carolina to restore said State
to its constitutional relations to the Federal Government and to present
such a republican form of State government as will entitle the State to
the guaranty of the United States therefor and its people to protection
by the United States against invasion, insurrection, and domestic
violence: _Provided_, That in any election that may be hereafter
held for choosing delegates to any State convention as aforesaid no
person shall be qualified as an elector or shall be eligible as a member
of such convention unless he shall have previously taken and subscribed
the oath of amnesty as set forth in the President's proclamation
of May 29, A.D. 1865, and is a voter qualified as prescribed by
the constitution and laws of the State of South Carolina in force
immediately before the 17th day of November, A.D. 1860, the date of
the so-called ordinance of secession; and the said convention, when
convened, or the legislature that may be thereafter assembled, will
prescribe the qualification of electors and the eligibility of persons
to hold office under the constitution and laws of the State--a power the
people of the several States composing the Federal Union have rightfully
exercised from the origin of the Government to the present time.

And I do hereby direct--

First. That the military commander of the department and all officers
and persons in the military and naval service aid and assist the said
provisional governor in carrying into effect this proclamation; and they
are enjoined to abstain from in any way hindering, impeding, or
discouraging the loyal people from the organization of a State
government as herein authorized.

Second. That the Secretary of State proceed to put in force all laws
of the United States the administration whereof belongs to the State
Department applicable to the geographical limits aforesaid.

Third. That the Secretary of the Treasury proceed to nominate for
appointment assessors of taxes and collectors of customs and internal
revenue and such other officers of the Treasury Department as are
authorized by law and put in execution the revenue laws of the United
States within the geographical limits aforesaid. In making appointments
the preference shall be given to qualified loyal persons residing within
the districts where their respective duties are to be performed; but if
suitable residents of the districts shall not be found, then persons
residing in other States or districts shall be appointed.

Fourth. That the Postmaster-General proceed to establish post-offices
and post routes and put into execution the postal laws of the United
States within the said State, giving to loyal residents the preference
of appointment; but if suitable residents are not found, then to appoint
agents, etc., from other States.

Fifth. That the district judge for the judicial district in which
South Carolina is included proceed to hold courts within said
State in accordance with the provisions of the act of Congress. The
Attorney-General will instruct the proper officers to libel and bring to
judgment, confiscation, and sale property subject to confiscation and
enforce the administration of justice within said State in all matters
within the cognizance and jurisdiction of the Federal courts.

Sixth. That the Secretary of the Navy take possession of all public
property belonging to the Navy Department within said geographical
limits and put in operation all acts of Congress in relation to naval
affairs having application to the said State.

Seventh. That the Secretary of the Interior put in force the laws
relating to the Interior Department applicable to the geographical
limits aforesaid.

[SEAL.]

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal
of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the city of Washington, this 30th day of June, A.D. 1865, and
of the Independence of the United States the eighty-ninth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
WILLIAM H. SEWARD,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas the fourth section of the fourth article of the Constitution of
the United States declares that the United Stales shall guarantee to
every State in the Union a republican form of government and shall
protect each of them against invasion and domestic violence; and

Whereas the President of the United States is by the Constitution made
Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, as well as chief civil
executive officer of the United States, and is bound by solemn oath
faithfully to execute the office of President of the United States and
to take care that the laws be faithfully executed; and

Whereas the rebellion which has been waged by a portion of the people of
the United States against the properly constituted authorities of the
Government thereof in the most violent and revolting form, but whose
organized and armed forces have now been almost entirely overcome, has
in its revolutionary progress deprived the people of the State of
Florida of all civil government; and

Whereas it becomes necessary and proper to carry out and enforce the
obligations of the United States to the people of Florida in securing
them in the enjoyment of a republican form of government:

Now, therefore, in obedience to the high and solemn duties imposed upon
me by the Constitution of the United States and for the purpose of
enabling the loyal people of said State to organize a State government
whereby justice may be established, domestic tranquillity insured, and
loyal citizens protected in all their rights of life, liberty, and
property, I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States and
Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, do hereby
appoint William Marvin provisional governor of the State of Florida,
whose duty it shall be, at the earliest practicable period, to prescribe
such rules and regulations as may be necessary and proper for convening
a convention composed of delegates to be chosen by that portion of the
people of said State who are loyal to the United States, and no others,
for the purpose of altering or amending the constitution thereof, and
with authority to exercise within the limits of said State all the
powers necessary and proper to enable such loyal people of the State of
Florida to restore said State to its constitutional relations to the
Federal Government and to present such a republican form of State
government as will entitle the State to the guaranty of the United
States therefor and its people to protection by the United States
against invasion, insurrection, and domestic violence: _Provided_,
That in any election that may be hereafter held for choosing delegates
to any State convention as aforesaid no person shall be qualified as an
elector or shall be eligible as a member of such convention unless he
shall have previously taken and subscribed the oath of amnesty as set
forth in the President's proclamation of May 29, A.D. 1865, and is a
voter qualified as prescribed by the constitution and laws of the State
of Florida in force immediately before the 10th day of January, A.D.
1861, the date of the so-called ordinance of secession; and the said
convention, when convened, or the legislature that may be thereafter
assembled, will prescribe the qualification of electors and the
eligibility of persons to hold office under the constitution and laws of
the State--a power the people of the several States composing the
Federal Union have rightfully exercised from the origin of the
Government to the present time.

And I do hereby direct--

First. That the military commander of the department and all officers
and persons in the military and naval service aid and assist the said
provisional governor in carrying into effect this proclamation; and they
are enjoined to abstain from in any way hindering, impeding, or
discouraging the loyal people from the organization of a State
government as herein authorized.

Second. That the Secretary of State proceed to put in force all laws of
the United States the administration whereof belongs to the State
Department applicable to the geographical limits aforesaid.

Third. That the Secretary of the Treasury proceed to nominate for
appointment assessors of taxes and collectors of customs and internal
revenue and such other officers of the Treasury Department as are
authorized by law and put in execution the revenue laws of the United
States within the geographical limits aforesaid. In making appointments
the preference shall be given to qualified loyal persons residing within
the districts where their respective duties are to be performed; but if
suitable residents of the districts shall not be found, then persons
residing in other States or districts shall be appointed.

Fourth. That the Postmaster-General proceed to establish post-offices
and post routes and put into execution the postal laws of the United
States within the said State, giving to loyal residents the preference
of appointment; but if suitable residents are not found, then to appoint
agents, etc., from other States.

Fifth. That the district judge for the judicial district in which
Florida is included proceed to hold courts within said State in
accordance with the provisions of the act of Congress. The
Attorney-General will instruct the proper officers to libel and bring to
judgment, confiscation, and sale property subject to confiscation and
enforce the administration of justice within said State in all matters
within the cognizance and jurisdiction of the Federal courts.

Sixth. That the Secretary of the Navy take possession of all public
property belonging to the Navy Department within said geographical
limits and put in operation all acts of Congress in relation to naval
affairs having application to the said State.

Seventh. That the Secretary of the Interior put in force the laws
relating to the Interior Department applicable to the geographical
limits aforesaid.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 13th day of July, A.D. 1865, and of
the Independence of the United States the ninetieth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
WILLIAM H. SEWARD,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by my proclamations of the 13th and 24th of June, 1865, removing
restrictions, in part, upon internal, domestic, and coastwise
intercourse and trade with those States recently declared in
insurrection, certain articles were excepted from the effect of said
proclamations as contraband of war; and

Whereas the necessity for restricting trade in said articles has now in
a great measure ceased:

It is hereby ordered that on and after the 1st day of September, 1865.
all restrictions aforesaid be removed, so that the articles declared by
the said proclamations to be contraband of war may be imported into and
sold in said States, subject only to such regulations as the Secretary
of the Treasury may prescribe.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 20th day of August, A.D. 1865, and
of the Independence of the United States of America the ninetieth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
WILLIAM H. SEWARD,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by a proclamation of the 5th day of July, 1864, the President of
the United States, when the civil war was flagrant and when combinations
were in progress in Kentucky for the purpose of inciting insurgent raids
into that State, directed that the proclamation suspending the privilege
of the writ of _habeas corpus_ should be made effectual in Kentucky
and that martial law should be established there and continue until said
proclamation should be revoked or modified; and

Whereas since then the danger from insurgent raids into Kentucky has
substantially passed away:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Andrew Johnson, President of the
United States, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the
Constitution, do hereby declare that the said proclamation of the 5th
day of July, 1864, shall be, and is hereby, modified in so far that
martial law shall be no longer in force in Kentucky from and after the
date hereof.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 12th day of October, A.D. 1865, and
of the Independence of the United States of America the ninetieth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
W. HUNTER,
_Acting Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it has pleased Almighty God during the year which is now coming
to an end to relieve our beloved country from the fearful scourge of
civil war and to permit us to secure the blessings of peace, unity, and
harmony, with a great enlargement of civil liberty; and

Whereas our Heavenly Father has also during the year graciously averted
from us the calamities of foreign war, pestilence, and famine, while our
granaries are full of the fruits of an abundant season; and

Whereas righteousness exalteth a nation, while sin is a reproach to any
people:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Andrew Johnson, President of the
United States, do hereby recommend to the people thereof that they do
set apart and observe the first Thursday of December next as a day of
national thanksgiving to the Creator of the Universe for these great
deliverances and blessings.

And I do further recommend that on that occasion the whole people make
confession of our national sins against His infinite goodness, and with
one heart and one mind implore the divine guidance in the ways of
national virtue and holiness.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 28th day of October, A.D. 1865, and
of the Independence of the United States of America the ninetieth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
WILLIAM H. SEWARD,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by the proclamation of the President of the United States of the
15th day of September, 1863, the privilege of the writ of _habeas
corpus_ was, in certain cases therein set forth, suspended throughout
the United States; and

Whereas the reasons for that suspension may be regarded as having ceased
in some of the States and Territories:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Andrew Johnson, President of the
United States, do hereby proclaim and declare that the suspension
aforesaid and all other proclamations and orders suspending the
privilege of the writ of _habeas corpus_ in the States and
Territories of the United States are revoked and annulled, excepting as
to the States of Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas,
and Texas, the District of Columbia, and the Territories of New Mexico
and Arizona.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 1st day of December, A.D. 1865, and
of the Independence of the United States of America the ninetieth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:
WILLIAM H. SEWARD,
_Secretary of State_.

EXECUTIVE ORDERS.

EXECUTIVE CHAMBER,

_Washington, April 29, 1865_.

Being desirous to relieve all loyal citizens and well-disposed persons
residing in insurrectionary States from unnecessary commercial
restrictions and to encourage them to return to peaceful pursuits--

_It is hereby ordered_, I. That all restrictions upon internal,
domestic, and coastwise commercial intercourse be discontinued in such
parts of the States of Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and so much of
Louisiana as lies east of the Mississippi River as shall be embraced
within the lines of national military occupation, excepting only such
restrictions as are imposed by acts of Congress and regulations in
pursuance thereof prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury and
approved by the President, and excepting also from the effect of this
order the following articles contraband of war, to wit: Arms,
ammunition, all articles from which ammunition is manufactured, gray
uniforms and cloth, locomotives, cars, railroad iron, and machinery for
operating railroads, telegraph wires, insulators, and instruments for
operating telegraphic lines.

II. That all existing military and naval orders in any manner
restricting internal, domestic, and coastwise commercial intercourse and
trade with or in the localities above named be, and the same are hereby,
revoked, and that no military or naval officer in any manner interrupt
or interfere with the same, or with any boats or other vessels engaged
therein under proper authority, pursuant to the regulations of the
Secretary of the Treasury.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

WAR DEPARTMENT,

_Washington City, April 29, 1865_.

The Executive order of January 20, 1865, prohibiting the exportation of
hay, is rescinded from and after the 1st day of May, 1865.

By order of the President:

EDWIN M STANTON.

_Secretary of War_.

EXECUTIVE CHAMBER,

_Washington City, May 1, 1865_.

Whereas the Attorney-General of the United States hath given his opinion
that the persons implicated in the murder of the late President, Abraham
Lincoln, and the attempted assassination of the Hon. William H. Seward,
Secretary of State, and in an alleged conspiracy to assassinate other
officers of the Federal Government at Washington City, and their aiders
and abettors, are subject to the jurisdiction of and lawfully triable
before a military commission--

_It is ordered_:

First. That the assistant adjutant-general detail nine competent
military officers to serve as a commission for the trial of said
parties, and that the Judge-Advocate-General proceed to prefer charges
against said parties for their alleged offenses and bring them to trial
before said military commission; that said trial or trials be conducted
by the said Judge-Advocate-General, and as recorder thereof, in person,
aided by such assistant or special judge-advocate as he may designate,
and that said trials be conducted with all diligence consistent with the
ends of justice; the said commission to sit without regard to hours.

Second. That Brevet Major-General Hartranft be assigned to duty as
special provost-marshal-general for the purpose of said trial, and
attendance upon said commission, and the execution of its mandates.

Third. That the said commission establish such order or rules of
proceeding as may avoid unnecessary delay and conduce to the ends of
public justice.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

Official copy:

W.A. NICHOLS,

_Assistant Adjutant-General_.

WAR DEPARTMENT,

_Washington, D.C., May 3, 1865_.

Order Rescinding Regulations Prohibiting the Exportation of Arms,
Ammunition, Horses, Mules, and Live Stock.

The Executive order of November 21, 1862, prohibiting the exportation of
arms and ammunition from the United States, and the Executive order of
May 13, 1863,[2] prohibiting the exportation of horses, mules, and live
stock, being no longer required by public necessities, the aforesaid
orders are hereby rescinded and annulled.

By order of the President of the United States:

EDWIN M. STANTON,

_Secretary of War_.

[Footnote 2: Order of Secretary of War.]

EXECUTIVE MANSION,

_Washington, May 4, 1865_.

This being the day of the funeral of the late President, Abraham
Lincoln, at Springfield, Ill., the Executive Office and the various
Departments will be closed at 12 m. to-day.

ANDREW JOHNSON,

_President of the United States_.

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 211.

WAR DEPARTMENT,

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,

_Washington, May 6, 1865_.

* * * * *

4. A military commission is hereby appointed to meet at Washington,
D.C., on Monday, the 8th day of May, 1865, at 9 o'clock a.m., or as soon
thereafter as practicable, for the trial of David E. Herold, George A.
Atzerodt, Lewis Payne, Michael O'Laughlin, Edward Spangler, Samuel
Arnold, Mary E. Surratt, Samuel A. Mudd, and such other prisoners as may
be brought before it, implicated in the murder of the late President,
Abraham Lincoln, and the attempted assassination of the Hon. William H.
Seward, Secretary of State, and in an alleged conspiracy to assassinate
other officers of the Federal Government at Washington City, and their
aiders and abettors.

_Detail for the court_.

Major-General David Hunter, United States Volunteers.
Major-General Lewis Wallace, United States Volunteers.
Brevet Major-General August V. Kautz, United States Volunteers.
Brigadier-General Albion P. Howe, United States Volunteers.
Brigadier-General Robert S. Foster, United States Volunteers.
Brevet Brigadier-General Cyrus B. Comstock,[A] United States Volunteers.
Brigadier-General T.M. Harris, United States Volunteers.

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