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A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents by James D. Richardson

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wide at the water line and not less than 7 feet in depth of water, and
with capacity for vessels of at least 280 tons burden; and also a survey
of the Illinois and Michigan Canal and an estimate of the cost of
enlarging it to the dimensions of the proposed canal between Hennepin
and the Mississippi River.

The surveys ordered in the above act have been completed and the report
upon them is included in the last annual report of the Secretary of War,
and a copy is herewith submitted. It is estimated in the report that by
the enlargement of the Illinois and Michigan Canal and the construction
of the proposed canal by the shortest route between Hennepin and the
Mississippi River a direct and convenient thoroughfare for vessels of
280 tons burden may be opened from the Mississippi River to Lake
Michigan at a cost of $8,110,286.65, and that the annual charge for
maintenance would be $138,600.

It appears from these papers that the estimated yield of corn, wheat,
and oats for 1882 in the States of Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota,
Kansas, and Nebraska was more than 1,000,000,000 bushels. It is claimed
that if the cheap water transportation route which is now continuous
from the Atlantic Ocean to Chicago is extended to the Upper Mississippi
by such a canal a great benefit in the reduction of freight charges
would result to the people of the Upper Mississippi Valley, whose
productions I have only partly noted, not only upon their own shipments,
but upon the articles of commerce used by them, which are now taken from
the Eastern States by water only as far as Chicago.

As a matter of great interest, especially to the citizens of that part
of the country, I commend the general subject to your consideration.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, January 8, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

In answer to the resolution of the House of Representatives of the 7th
instant, respecting the alleged distribution of circulars in some of the
Departments asking contributions for political purposes, I hereby
transmit the reply of the Secretary of State.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 8, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith to the House of Representatives a communication from
the Secretary of War, submitting the annual report of the Mississippi
River Commission.

I take this occasion to invite the early attention of Congress to the
continuation of the work on the Mississippi River which is being carried
on under the plans of the commission. My sense of the importance of the
improvement of this river, not only to the people of the Northwest, but
especially to the inhabitants of the Lower Mississippi Valley, has
already been expressed in a special communication to the last Congress.
The harvests of grain and cotton produced in the region bordering upon
the Mississippi are so vast as to be of national importance, and the
project now being executed for their cheap transportation should be
sufficiently provided for.

The commission report that the results due to the still uncompleted
works have been remarkable, and give the highest encouragement for
expecting the ultimate success of the improvement.

The act of August 2, 1882, appropriated $4,123,000 for the work on that
part of the river below Cairo. The estimates of the commission already
transmitted to Congress call for $3,000,000 for the continuation of the
work below Cairo, and it appears from their report that all of the last
appropriation available for active operations has been exhausted and
that there is urgently needed an immediate appropriation of $1,000,000
to continue the work without loss of time, in view of the approach of
the flood season, with its attendant dangers.

I therefore recommend to Congress the early passage of a separate bill
on this subject.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 9, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a letter from
the Secretary of War of the 7th instant, inclosing a copy of one from
the Quartermaster-General of the Army submitting plans and estimates
for the construction of walls, etc., at the Schuylkill Arsenal,
Philadelphia, Pa., rendered necessary by the opening of Peltz street,
and recommending that an appropriation be made of the amount estimated
to be requisite for the work referred to.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 14, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of the Interior,
submitting, with accompanying papers, an estimate of appropriation in
the sum of $25,000 for the settlement under existing treaties of certain
freedmen and their descendants upon lands known as the Oklahoma
district, within the Indian Territory.

The matter is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 14, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication of the 11th instant from the
Secretary of the Interior, submitting, with accompanying papers, an item
of appropriation in the sum of $3,000 for the location and survey of
boundary lines of certain lands purchased by the United States from the
Creek Indians for the use of the Seminole Indians in the Indian
Territory.

The matter is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 14, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of the Interior,
submitting, with accompanying papers, a draft of a bill "for the relief
of the Mission Indians in the State of California."

The subject is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, January 15, 1884_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

In response to the resolution of the Senate of the 8th instant, calling
for the correspondence on file upon the subject of discriminating duties
upon commerce between the United States and Cuba and Puerto Rico, I
transmit herewith a report made to me by the Secretary of State, with
accompanying papers.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 16, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a copy of a
letter from the secretary of state of the State of Pennsylvania, dated
November 26, 1883, inclosing a duly authenticated copy of an act
of the legislature of that State entitled "An act to provide for the
preservation, use, custody, and disposition of the marine hospital at
Erie, and making an appropriation for the repair of the same," approved
July 5, 1883, and tendering to the United States Government, on behalf
of the governor, in pursuance of the provisions of the act, the said
marine hospital for use as a soldiers' and sailors' home.

The papers having upon their receipt been referred by me to the
Secretary of War, I inclose also a copy of his letter of the 12th
instant returning the same, together with a copy of the report of
Captain Edward Maguire, Corps of Engineers, dated the 10th ultimo,
giving a description of the property referred to and expressing his
views as to its adaptability for a soldiers and sailors' home.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 16, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a letter from the Secretary of the Interior, dated
the 11th instant, suggesting further action by Congress in the matter of
granting leases of bath houses and bath-house sites at the Hot Springs
Reservation, Ark.

The subject is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 17, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit, for the consideration of Congress, a communication from the
Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy, on the subject of an
expedition for the relief of Lieutenant A.W. Greely and his party,
composing what is known as the "Lady Franklin Bay Expedition," which was
sent to the arctic regions in 1881 under the provisions of the acts of
Congress approved May 1, 1880, and March 3, 1881.

In the plans for the relief of this party, as arranged with Lieutenant
Greely, it was contemplated that an effort would be made to communicate
with him and furnish him any needed assistance in 1882 and again in
1883.

Subsequently legislation was enacted which required the expedition of
1883 to bring the party home. It was a part of the arrangement that
if communication should not be made with him on or before the 1st of
September, 1883, he should, with his party, abandon his station at
Lady Franklin Bay not later than the above-mentioned date and proceed
south-ward, and would find a well-supplied relief station at the
entrance to Smiths Sound, a point where it would not be difficult
to reach him during a part of each year. The expeditions of 1882 and
1883 were sent, but neither one of them was able to communicate with
Lieutenant Greely; and the last one failed to accomplish any part of
its object beyond leaving a very small quantity of stores in the
neighborhood of the entrance to Smiths Sound.

The situation of Lieutenant Greely and his party under these
circumstances is one of great peril, and in presenting the preliminary
views of the board appointed by me to take into consideration an
expedition for their relief I urgently recommend prompt action by
Congress to enable the recommendations of the Secretary of War and the
Secretary of the Navy to be carried out without delay.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 22, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, in response to the resolution of the House dated
January 11, 1883, a letter, dated the 21st instant, from the Secretary
of War, together with a report submitted to him by the Chief of
Engineers, embodying the information, so far as the same can be
furnished from the records of his office, and a statement prepared in
the Treasury Department, respecting the expenditures for rivers and
harbors, called for by the said resolution.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 28, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit to Congress a communication from the Secretary of War, in
relation to the necessity of an immediate appropriation of not less
than $42,000 to enable the engineer in charge to make next autumn the
explosion required for the removal of Flood Rock, in the East River,
New York. The importance of the work is well known, and as it appears
that without a speedy appropriation a delay of a year must follow,
accompanied by large expenses to protect from injury the work already
done, I commend the subject to the early and favorable consideration
of Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, January 30, 1884_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

In further response to the resolution of the Senate of the 8th
instant, calling for the correspondence on file upon the subject of
discriminating duties upon commerce between the United States and Cuba
and Puerto Rico, I transmit certain papers additional to the papers
which accompanied the report sent to you on the 15th instant.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 31, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication of the 29th instant from the
Secretary of the Interior, submitting, with accompanying papers, a
report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs upon the subject of the
right of way of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway Company
through the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation, in Dakota.

The subject is commended to the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 31, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives of the United States:_

I transmit herewith, in response to the resolutions of the House of
Representatives, the following report of the Secretary of State, with
accompanying papers, relative to the restrictions upon the importation
of American hog products into Germany and France.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 6, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication,
under date of the 2d instant, from the Secretary of the Interior,
transmitting the last annual report of the Government directors of the
Union Pacific Railway Company.

The report accompanying the Secretary's communication has been sent to
the House of Representatives.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, February 7, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a report of the Secretary of State, in response to
the resolution of the House of Representatives of the 16th ultimo,
respecting the arrest and imprisonment of John E. Wheelock in Venezuela
in 1879.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, February 7, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, in response to a resolution of the House of
Representatives of the 15th instant [ultimo], a report of the Secretary
of State, with accompanying papers, in relation to the reported arrest
at Lodz, in Russian Poland, of Reinhardt Wagner, a citizen of the United
States.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

WASHINGTON, _February 7, 1884_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

I transmit herewith to the Senate, for its consideration with a view to
its ratification, an agreement concerning trade-marks between the United
States and Italy, signed June 1, 1882, provided the terms thereof commend
themselves to the Senate.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 11, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit a communication, under date of the 8th instant, addressed to
me by the Secretary of the Navy, covering a report of Professor Simon
Newcomb, United States Navy, on the subject of recent improvements in
astronomical observatories, instruments, and methods of observations, as
noted during his visit to the principal observatories of Europe in the
year 1883, made in pursuance of orders of the Navy Department.

The request of the Secretary is commended to the consideration of
Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, February 12, 1884_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of the Senate in connection
with the commercial convention of January 20, 1883, between the United
States and Mexico, now pending before the Senate, a protocol of an
agreement, signed on the 11th instant by the Secretary of State and the
representative of Mexico at this capital, explaining and correcting an
error of translation found in the Spanish text of said convention.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 12, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication of the 8th ultimo from the
Secretary of the Interior, and the accompanying papers, relating to the
establishment of the boundary line between the United States and the
State of Texas.

The matter is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 13, 1884_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

In compliance with the resolution of the Senate of February 6, 1884,
directing "that the President be requested, if in his judgment not
incompatible with the public interests, to communicate to the Senate
the record of the proceedings, testimony, and findings of the court of
inquiry in relation to the events connected with the loss of the steamer
_Proteus_ in the Arctic Ocean," I have the honor to transmit herewith
a copy of the record, etc., called for in said resolution, together with
the letter of the Secretary of War, dated the 12th instant, submitting
the same to me.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, February 13, 1884_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

In reply to the resolution of the Senate of the 11th instant, I have the
honor to inclose a communication[16] from the Secretary of State.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

[Footnote 16: Relating to the demand of Mexico for the extradition of
Alexander Trimble.]

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 18, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith the report of a board of Army and Navy officers
appointed by me in accordance with the act of Congress approved March 3,
1883, "for the purpose of examining and reporting to Congress which of
the navy-yards or arsenals owned by the Government has the best location
and is best adapted for the establishment of a Government foundry, or
what other method, if any, should be adopted for the manufacture of
heavy ordnance adapted to modern warfare, for the use of the Army and
Navy of the United States, the cost of all buildings, tools, and
implements necessary to be used in the manufacture thereof, including
the cost of a steam hammer or apparatus of sufficient size for the
manufacture of the heaviest guns."

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 21, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a report of the Secretary of State of the 21st
instant, whereby your honorable body, and through you the people of the
United States, may become apprised of the generous contribution made by
Her Britannic Majesty's Government toward the efforts for the relief of
Lieutenant Greely's arctic exploring party by presenting to the United
States the arctic steamship _Alert_.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, _Washington, February 21, 1884_.

The PRESIDENT:

In the search for vessels suitable for the expedition now preparing to
relieve Lieutenant Greely and his party, attention was early directed to
the _Alert_, which is the property of the British Government, and
was the advance ship of the expedition under Sir George Nares. It was
desirable to secure this vessel, as she is peculiarly fitted for the
intended service, and as the inspecting officers recommended her Mr.
Lowell was therefore instructed to ask whether she could be spared for
the service.

Information of the wish of this Government having previously and
informally reached the British admiralty, a private intimation was
conveyed to the United States minister to the effect that the British
Government had not forgotten the very considerate conduct of this
Government on the occasion of the recovery of the _Resolute_, and
that should any suggestion be made that the vessel would be of use to
the expedition she would be presented. The _Resolute_, a vessel, as
the President remembers, formerly belonging to Her Majesty's navy,
having been abandoned in the arctic region, was discovered and brought
to the United States by American seamen, and thereupon was purchased by
this Government of her sailors, repaired, and returned to Great Britain.
On her arrival in England the vessel was received by the Queen in
person, and the officers of the United States Navy who took the ship
thither were treated with every official and personal courtesy.

The Government of Her Majesty has now given the _Alert_ to the
United States unconditionally, with her anchors, chains, and such of her
equipment as can be utilized.

Recognizing this graceful and opportune act of courtesy on the part of
Her Majesty's Government, the undersigned to-day instructed Mr. Lowell
as follows, by telegraph:

"Her Majesty's Government having presented to the Government of the
United States the ship _Alert_ to aid in the relief of Lieutenant
Greely and his party, you will inform the secretary of state for foreign
affairs that the spirit which prompts this act of generosity, and this
evidence of sympathy with the object in view, receives the highest
appreciation of the President, as it will that of the people of the
United States. The President sends his cordial thanks for the opportune
gift of this vessel, which he accepts in the name of the United States,
and which will be used in the humane enterprise for which it is so
peculiarly adapted."

Respectfully submitted.

FREDK. T. FRELINGHUYSEN.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 21, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a letter from
the Secretary of War, dated the 19th instant, submitting a letter from
the Chief Signal Officer of the Army, dated the 2d instant, and its
accompanying plan of a proposed meteorological observatory at Fort Myer,
Va., together with an estimate of the cost of the same in the sum of
$4,000 and a statement giving various reasons why the said observatory
should be established.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 25, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

In answer to so much of the resolution of the House of Representatives
of the 17th ultimo as calls for the correspondence with the Mexican
Government respecting the payment of claims specified in the fifth
section of the act of Congress approved June 17, 1878, I transmit
herewith the report of the Secretary of State and its accompanying
papers.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 29, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

In compliance with the act of Congress approved January 16, 1883,
entitled "An act to regulate and improve the civil service of the United
States," the Civil Service Commission has made to the President its
first annual report.

That report is herewith transmitted, together with communications from
the heads of the several Executive Departments of the Government
respecting the practical workings of the law under which the Commission
has been acting.

Upon the good results which that law has already accomplished I
congratulate Congress and the people, and I avow my conviction that it
will henceforth prove to be of still more signal benefit to the public
service.

I heartily commend the zeal and fidelity of the Commissioners and their
suggestion for further legislation, and I advise the making of such an
appropriation as shall be adequate for their needs.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, February 29, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a report of the
Secretary of State, accompanying a report made by the commission lately
designated by me to examine and report upon the asserted unhealthfulness
of the swine products of this country. The views and conclusions of the
commission deserve the most careful consideration of Congress, to the
end that if any path be legitimately open for removing the prohibition
which closes important foreign markets to those products it may be
followed and appropriate legislation devised.

I earnestly recommend that Congress provide for reimbursing the expenses
incurred by the commissioners in this praiseworthy service, and I should
be glad also if some remunerative recognition of their public-spirited
action in accepting the onerous and responsible duties imposed on them
were to suggest itself to Congress. At all events, in view of the
conflicting theories touching the origin and propagation of trichiniasis
and the means of isolating and extirpating it among domestic swine, and
considering the important bearing which precise knowledge on these
points would have on the commercial aspects of the matter, I recommend
provision for special research in this direction.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, March 5, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

In further response to the resolution of the House of Representatives of
the 15th January last, calling for copies of correspondence on file in
the Department of State in relation to the reported arrest at Lodz, in
Russia, of Reinhardt Wagner, a citizen of the United States, I transmit,
in addition to the papers sent you on the 7th ultimo, a copy of a
dispatch subsequently received.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, March 6, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives of the United States:_

I transmit herewith to the House of Representatives a report from the
Secretary of State, in response to a resolution of that body of the 5th
ultimo, calling for correspondence concerning the representations made
to this Government in relation to the existing tariff discrimination
against the works of foreign artists.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, March 10, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith the following documents, received from the Secretary
of State, relative to the resolution of the House of Representatives
upon the death of Mr. Edward Lasker.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, March 11, 1884_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

I submit herewith, for the consideration of the Senate with a view to
obtaining its advice and consent thereto, a draft of a proclamation
whereby the United States accede and adhere to an international
convention for the protection of industrial property, signed at Paris
March 20, 1883, and in explanation of the purport of that convention and
the proposed mode of effecting the adhesion of the United States thereto
I subjoin a report of the Secretary of State.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _March 14, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
from the Secretary of War of the 12th instant, and accompanying papers,
requesting an appropriation of $230,869.44 for the erection at the
Presidio of San Francisco of additional buildings at headquarters
Military Division of the Pacific, rendered necessary in consequence of
the proposed increase of the garrison by removal of troops from points
in San Francisco Harbor.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _March 18, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
from the Secretaries of War and the Navy, concerning the expediency of
offering rewards for the rescue of Lieutenant Greely and party by the
independent efforts of private vessels, in addition to sending the three
ships constituting the national relief expedition.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, March 18, 1884_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

In answer to the resolution of the Senate of the 15th of January last,
respecting the discovery of phosphates upon the coast of Brazil by a
citizen of the United States, I transmit herewith a report from the
Secretary of State upon the subject, together with the accompanying
papers.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _March 20, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

In accordance with the provisions of the act making appropriations for
the diplomatic and consular service for the year ending June 30, 1883,
I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of State in
relation to the consular service.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _March 20, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of War of the
18th instant, submitting a letter from Colonel A.F. Rockwell, United
States Army, in charge of public buildings and grounds, embodying an
estimate in the sum of $30,000 for a pedestal for the statue of General
James A. Garfield, to be erected in the city of Washington by the
Society of the Army of the Cumberland, together with a letter upon the
subject from General Anson G. McCook, on behalf of the Society of the
Army of the Cumberland, the object in view being the procurement of an
appropriation by Congress of the amount of the accompanying estimate.

I commend the subject to the favorable consideration of Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _March 26, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

In my annual message I impressed upon Congress the necessity of
continued progress in the reconstruction of the Navy. The
recommendations in this direction of the Secretary of the Navy and of
the Naval Advisory Board were submitted by me unaccompanied by specific
expressions of approval. I now deem it my duty to advise that
appropriations be made at the present session toward designing and
commencing the construction of at least the three additional steel
cruisers and the four gunboats thus recommended, the cost of which,
including their armament, will not exceed $4,283,000, of which sum
one-half should be appropriated for the next fiscal year.

The _Chicago, Boston, Atlanta,_ and _Dolphin_ have been designed
and are being built with care and skill, and there is every reason to
believe that they will prove creditable and serviceable modern cruisers.
Technical questions concerning the details of these or of additional
vessels can not wisely be settled except by experts, and the Naval
Advisory Board, organized by direction of Congress under the act of
August 5, 1882, and consisting of three line officers, a naval
constructor, and a naval engineer, selected "with reference only to
character, experience, knowledge, and skill," and a naval architect and
a marine engineer from civil life "of established reputation and
standing as experts in naval or marine construction," is an appropriate
authority to decide finally all such questions. I am unwilling to see
the gradual reconstruction of our naval cruisers, now happily begun in
conformity with modern requirements, delayed one full year for any
unsubstantial reason.

Whatever conditions Congress may see fit to impose in order to secure
judicious designs and honest and economical construction will be
acceptable to me, but to relinquish or postpone the policy already
deliberately declared will be, in my judgment, an act of national
imprudence.

Appropriations should also be made without delay for finishing the four
double-turreted monitors, the _Puritan, Amphitrite, Terror,_ and
_Monadnock_, and for procuring their armament and that of the
_Miantonomoh_. Their hulls are built, and their machinery is under
contract and approaching completion, except that of the _Monadnock_,
on the Pacific coast. This should also be built, and the armor and heavy
guns of all should be procured at the earliest practicable moment.

The total amount appropriated up to this time for the four vessels is
$3,546,941.41. A sum not exceeding $3,838,769.62, including $866,725
for four powerful rifled cannon and for the remainder of the ordnance
outfit, will complete and equip them for service. Of the sum required,
only two millions need be appropriated for the next fiscal year. It is
not expected that one of the monitors will be a match for the heaviest
broadside ironclads which certain other Governments have constructed at
a cost of four or five millions each, but they will be armored vessels
of an approved and useful type, presenting limited surfaces for the shot
of an enemy, and possessed of such seagoing capacity and offensive power
as fully to answer our immediate necessities. Their completion having
been determined upon in the recent legislation of Congress, no time
should be lost in accomplishing the necessary object.

The Gun Foundry Board, appointed by direction of Congress, consisting
of three army and three navy officers, has submitted its report, duly
transmitted on the 20th day of February, 1884, recommending that the
Government should promote the production at private steel works of the
required material for heavy cannon, and that two Government factories,
one for the Army and one for the Navy, should be established for the
fabrication of guns from such material. An early consideration of the
report is recommended, together with such action as will enable the
Government to construct its ordnance upon its own territory and so to
provide the armaments demanded by considerations which concern the
national safety and honor.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 1, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

In response to a resolution of the House of Representatives of
January 15, 1884, requesting the President to forward to the House
information, including reports from consuls and others, concerning the
undervaluation, false classification, and other irregular practices
in the importation of foreign merchandise, and to recommend what
legislation, if any, is needed to prevent such frauds on the revenue,
I have the honor to transmit herewith a letter of the Secretary of the
Treasury of the 28th ultimo, inclosing a draft of a bill on the subject,
together with copies of reports taken from the files of the Treasury
Department concerning the information desired.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, April 1, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a report of the Secretary of State and accompanying
papers, furnished in response to a resolution of the House of
Representatives of January 16, 1884, calling for information as to the
payments made by Spain in accordance with the terms of its treaty with
the United States concluded February 17, 1834.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 2, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit to Congress a communication from the Secretary of War,
embodying the views of the president of the Mississippi River Commission
upon a report from Major Stickney, of the Engineer Corps, in relation to
the protection of existing levees from destruction by the floods in the
lower part of the Mississippi River. It appears that there is an urgent
need of an appropriation of $100,000 to be used for this purpose,
and that an enormous destruction of property may be thereby averted.
I recommend an immediate appropriation of the sum required for the
purpose, to be expended under the direction of the Mississippi River
Commission.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 2, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

In response to the resolution of the House of Representatives of 5th
of February last, respecting the arrest and imprisonment of certain
American citizens by the authorities of Colombia, at Aspinwall,
I transmit a report of the Secretary of State.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 11, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

The condition of our seacoast defenses and their armament has been
brought to the attention of Congress in my annual messages, and I now
submit a special estimate of the Chief of Ordnance, United States
Army, transmitted by the Secretary of War, for a permanent annual
appropriation of $1,500,000 to provide the necessary armament for
our fortifications.

This estimate is founded upon the report of the Gun Foundry Board
recently transmitted, to which I have heretofore invited the early
attention of Congress.

In presenting this estimate I do not think it necessary to enumerate the
considerations which make it of the highest importance that there should
be no unnecessary delay in entering upon the work, which must be
commensurate with the public interests to be guarded, and which will
take much time.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 14, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
from the Secretary of War of the 5th instant, submitting copies of
certain papers, consisting of a letter, dated February 16 last, from Mr.
Haughwout Howe, of New York City, presenting a proposition for the sale
to the Government for the sum of $5,500 of certain hospital and other
records pertaining to an association founded in New York City in April,
1862, for the purpose of extending relief to soldiers of the late war;
a report of an examination made of these records by a representative
of the War Department, and a report of the Adjutant-General stating
that the records would prove of great value to the Department in the
settlement of claims of deserving soldiers, as well as in detecting
fraudulent claims, as the books, etc., contain information not now
of record in the War Department.

The Secretary of War, it will be observed, recommends that an
appropriation be made by Congress of the necessary sum for the
purchase of the records referred to.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, April 14, 1884_.

_To the Senate of the United States of America:_

I transmit herewith to the Senate, for its consideration with a view
to ratification, a convention concluded between the United States of
America and France and the twenty-four other powers named in said
convention for the protection of submarine cables, concluded at Paris on
the 14th day of March, A.D. 1884. I also inclose, for the information of
the Senate, a copy of Mr. Morton's dispatch No. 518, of the 18th ultimo,
in relation to the subject.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

WASHINGTON, _April 14, 1884_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

I transmit to the Senate, for its consideration with a view to
ratification, a convention concerning trade-marks and trade-labels
between the United States and Belgium, signed on the 7th instant.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, April 18, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of State of the
16th instant, relative to the approaching visit of a special embassy
from Siam to the United States, and recommend that the appropriation
asked by the Secretary of State to suitably defray the expenses of such
embassy while in this country be made.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, April 18, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a copy of a report of the Secretary of State of the
16th instant, in relation to the final award made by the late French and
American Claims Commission against the United States for the sum of
$625,566.35, for the payment of the claims of French citizens against
this Government. I recommend that an appropriation of the above sum be
made to enable the Government to fulfill its obligations under the
treaty of January 15, 1880, between this country and France.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, April 18, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of State, dated
the 16th instant, respecting the approaching international conference at
Washington, D.C., for the purpose of fixing upon a meridian proper to be
employed as a common zero of longitude and standard of time reckoning
throughout the globe, and recommend that the sum of $10,000 be
appropriated to enable the Secretary of State to meet the expenses of
the same.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, April 18, 1884_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

In response to the resolution of the Senate of the 5th of December last,
respecting the execution by the United States of the ninth article of
the treaty of 1819 with Spain, I transmit herewith a report of the
Secretary of State and its accompanying papers.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, April 22, 1884_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

I transmit herewith a report of the Secretary of State, in response to
a resolution of the Senate of February 29, 1884, requesting information
concerning the respective average production, consumption, exportation,
and importation of wheat, rye, corn, and cotton in foreign countries,
together with statistics showing the production and surplus or
deficiency in the crops of the past two years in each of such countries,
an estimate of the probable requirements of such products from the
United States to meet the wants of these countries before the crops
of the coming crop year are ready for market, and other available
information concerning the questions to which the resolution refers.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, April 24, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, in answer to a resolution of the House of
Representatives of the 21st instant, a report of the Secretary of State,
with the accompanying papers, in relation to the threatened confiscation
of the American college at Rome by the Italian Government.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, April 28, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a report of the Secretary of State, in relation to
the bill for the support of the diplomatic and consular services.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, May 3, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for your consideration, a communication from
the Secretary of State, recommending the appropriation of the sum of
$22,500, or so much thereof as may be necessary, to meet the proper
obligations of the Government on account of the courteous services
of the various umpires of the late American-Spanish Commission.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, May 6, 1884_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

In answer to the resolution of the Senate of March 12, 1884, requesting
to be furnished with a copy of correspondence between this Government
and that of China respecting the Ward claims and the claim of Charles
E. Hill, I herewith submit a letter of the Secretary of State, together
with its accompanying papers.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, May 6, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the information of Congress, a communication
from the Secretary of the Interior, submitting a copy of the report of
the Utah Commission.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, May 6, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the information of Congress, a copy of the
preliminary report of the board of management of the World's Industrial
and Cotton Centennial Exposition, showing their operations and
containing observations upon other matters concerning the project deemed
of importance.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 6, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

In answer to that part of the resolution of the House of Representatives
of the 17th of January last respecting the question of boundaries
between the Republics of Mexico and Guatemala, I transmit herewith the
report of the Secretary of State and its accompanying papers.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, May 12, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, in answer to the resolution of the House of
Representatives of the 6th of February last, a communication from the
Secretary of State, respecting the extradition of criminals under the
treaty of 1842 with Great Britain.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, May 12, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of State,
transmitting a draft of a resolution providing for the presentation
of a testimonial to Mr. E.L. Oxenham, British consul at Chin-Kiang,
in acknowledgment of services rendered the United States.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, May 14, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of State of the
14th instant, with accompanying papers, relative to the necessity of
an appropriation by Congress to enable this Government to execute the
provisions of the convention between the United States and Mexico of
July 29, 1882, for the relocation of the monuments marking the boundary
line between the two countries, and recommend that the amount asked,
$224,556.75, immediately provided.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, May 15, 1884_.

_To the Senate:_

I transmit herewith to the Senate, for consideration with a view to
advising and consenting thereto, an agreement, signed May 14, 1884,
between the Secretary of State and the minister plenipotentiary of Siam,
for the regulation of the liquor traffic in Siam when citizens of the
United States engage in the importation or sale of liquors there.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 19, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for such action as is deemed proper, a
communication from the Secretary of State, recommending an additional
appropriation of $6,000 for the construction of a wharf and roadway
as a means of approach to the monument to be erected at Wakefield,
Westmoreland County, Va., to mark the birthplace of George Washington.

I commend the matter to your favorable attention.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 19, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a report from the Secretary of State, with
accompanying copies of correspondence, in further response to the
resolution of the House of Representatives of January 16, 1884,
respecting the arrest and imprisonment of John E. Wheelock in Venezuela
in 1879.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 29, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for such action as is deemed proper, a
communication from the Secretary of State, accompanied by several
inclosures, in which he recommends an appropriation for rewarding the
services of the Osette Indians in rescuing and caring for the crew of
the American steamer _Umatilla_, which vessel was wrecked in
February last near the coast of Vancouvers Island.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, May 29, 1884_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

I transmit herewith, in response to the resolution of the Senate of
March 10 last, a report from the Secretary of State, with accompanying
papers, in regard to the claim of Edward H. Ladd against the Government
of Colombia.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, June 9, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a letter and
its accompanying estimate, submitted by the board charged with preparing
a departmental exhibit for the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial
Exposition to be held at New Orleans, beginning December 1, 1884.
This board was appointed by Executive order of May 13, 1884,[17] and
is composed of representatives of the several Executive Departments,
the Department of Agriculture, and the Smithsonian Institution. It is
charged with the important and responsible duty of making arrangements
for a complete and harmonious collection of the articles and materials
deemed desirable to place on exhibition, in illustration of the
resources of the country, its methods of governmental administration,
and its means of offense and defense.

The board submits an estimate calling for an appropriation of
$588,000 to accomplish the desired end. That amount is distributed
among the Departments as shown in the table. The War, Navy, and Interior
Departments call for the largest share, representing as they do the
national defenses by land and sea, the progress of naval architecture
and ordnance, the geological survey and mineral wealth of the
Territories, the treatment of the Indians, and the education of the
masses, all of which admit of varied and instructive exhibits. The
Smithsonian Institution, having under its general care the National
Museum and the Fish Commission, is prepared to make a display second
in interest to none of modern days. The remaining Departments can
present instructive and interesting exhibits, which will attract popular
attention and convey an idea of their extensively ramified duties and of
the many points where they beneficially affect the life of the people as
a nation and as individuals.

The exhibit of the Government at the Centennial Exhibition held at
Philadelphia in 1876 was admitted to be one of the most attractive
features of that great national undertaking and a valuable addition to
it. From men of intelligence and scientific attainments, at home and
abroad, it received the highest encomiums, showing the interest it
awakened among those whose lives are given to the improvement of the
social and material condition of the people.

The reproduction of such a display now on a more extensive plan is
rendered possible by the advancement of science and invention during
the eight years that have passed since the Philadelphia exhibit was
collected.

The importance, purposes, and benefits of the New Orleans Exhibition
are continental in their scope. Standing at the threshold of the almost
unopened markets of Spanish and Portuguese America, New Orleans is a
natural gateway to their trade, and the exhibition offers to the people
of Mexico and Central and South America an adequate knowledge of our
farming implements, metal manufactures, cotton and woolen goods, and the
like necessities of existence, in respect to which those countries are
either deficient or supplied to a limited extent. The breaking down of
the barriers which still separate us from the Republics of America whose
productions so entirely complement our own will aid greatly in removing
the disparity of commercial intercourse under which less than 10 per
cent of our exports go to American countries.

I trust that Congress will realize the urgency of this recommendation
and make its appropriation immediately available, so that the board may
lose no time in undertaking the extensive preparations necessary to
spread a more intimate knowledge of our Government institutions and
national resources among the people of our country and of neighboring
states in a way to command the respect due it in the family of nations.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

[Footnote 17: See pp. 230-231.]

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, June 9, 1884_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

I transmit herewith, for consideration by the Senate and appropriate
action thereon, a report of the Secretary of State, communicating the
proposal of the King of Hawaii that the duration of the existing
reciprocity treaty with the United States be extended for a further
definite period of seven years.

The treaty having been heretofore under consideration by your honorable
body, I deem it fitting to consult the Senate in the matter before
directing the negotiations to proceed.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, June 11, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

In compliance with the resolution of the House of Representatives of
the 10th instant, I return House bill No. 2344, entitled "An act for
the relief of Melissa G. Polar."

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, June 11, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith to the House of Representatives, in response to
a resolution of that body of the 21st of April last, a copy of the
material correspondence on file in the Department of State relative to
the claim of W.J. Hale against the Argentine Republic, and a list of
the papers.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, June 12, 1884_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

I transmit herewith, in response to a resolution of the Senate dated May
2, 1884, the following report of the Secretary of State, with an
accompanying paper, relative to the latest law of the Mexican Republic
creating or modifying the _zona libre_ in relation to importations
of merchandise.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, June 13, 1884_.

_To the Senate:_

I transmit to the Senate, for its consideration with a view to
ratification, a convention signed on the 11th instant, supplementary to
the extradition convention concluded between the United States and Italy
on the 23d of March, 1868.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, June 19, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, in answer to the resolution of the House of
Representatives of the 3ist of March last, a communication from the
Secretary of State, with accompanying papers, concerning the rent of
consular premises in China.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 21, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I have permitted House bill No. 4689, entitled "An act for the relief of
Eliza W. Patterson," to become a law by withholding action upon it for
ten days after it was presented to me.

The affairs and interests of the District of Columbia are committed to
Congress as its legislature. I do not question the constitutional right
of Congress to pass a law relieving the family of an officer, in view of
the services he had rendered his country, from the burdens of taxation,
bat I submit to Congress that this just gift of the nation to the family
of such faithful officer should come from the National Treasury rather
than from that of this District, and I therefore recommend that an
appropriation be made to reimburse the District for the amount of taxes
which would have been due to it had this act not become a law.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, June 24, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

In answer to a resolution of the House of Representatives of the
7th instant, making an inquiry regarding the expenditure of moneys
appropriated by Congress to meet the expenses of the French and American
Claims Commission, I transmit herewith a report of the Secretary of
State upon the subject.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 28, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of the Interior,
calling attention to certain omissions, etc., in the act (H.R. 1340)
entitled "An act to establish a Bureau of Labor Statistics," and invite
the attention of the Congress to the same.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, June 30, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, in compliance with resolutions of the House of
Representatives respectively dated March 22 and April 19, 1884, a report
from the Secretary of State, communicating information in regard to
moneys received from Venezuela under the treaty of April 25, 1866, and
their distribution to holders of awards by the Department of State.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, July 3, 1884_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

I transmit herewith, in response to a resolution of the Senate of the
11th of February last, a report of the Secretary of State, relative to
the papers on file in the Department of State touching the unsettled
claims of citizens of the United States against France for spoliations
prior to July 31, 1801.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 7, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

In compliance with the concurrent resolution of the Senate and House of
Representatives of the 5th instant, I return herewith House bill 6770,
entitled "An act making appropriations for the consular and diplomatic
service of the Government for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1885, and
for other purposes."

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

VETO MESSAGE.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 2, 1884_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

After careful consideration of the bill entitled "An act for the relief
of Fitz John Porter," I herewith return it with my objections to that
House of Congress in which it originated. Its enacting clause is in
terms following:

That the President be, and he is hereby, authorized to nominate and,
by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to appoint Fitz John
Porter, late a major-general of the United States Volunteers and a
brevet brigadier-general and colonel of the Army, to the position of
colonel in the Army of the United States, of the same grade and rank
held by him at the time of his dismissal from the Army by sentence of
court-martial promulgated January 27, 1863. * * *

It is apparent that should this bill become a law it will create
a new office which can be filled by the appointment of the particular
individual whom it specifies, and can not be filled otherwise; or it
may be said with perhaps greater precision of statement that it will
create a new office upon condition that the particular person designated
shall be chosen to fill it. Such an act, as it seems to me, is either
unnecessary and ineffective or it involves an encroachment by the
legislative branch of the Government upon the authority of the
Executive. As the Congress has no power under the Constitution to
nominate or appoint an officer and can not lawfully impose upon the
President the duty of nominating or appointing to office any particular
individual of its own selection, this bill, if it can fairly be
construed as requiring the President to make the nomination and, by and
with the advice and consent of the Senate, the appointment which it
authorizes, is in manifest violation of the Constitution. If such be
not its just interpretation, it must be regarded as a mere enactment of
advice and counsel, which lacks in the very nature of things the force
of positive law and can serve no useful purpose upon the statute books.

There are other causes that deter me from giving this bill the sanction
of my approval. The judgment of the court-martial by which more than
twenty years since General Fitz John Porter was tried and convicted
was pronounced by a tribunal composed of nine general officers of
distinguished character and ability. Its investigation of the charges of
which it found the accused guilty was thorough and conscientious, and
its findings and sentence were in due course of law approved by Abraham
Lincoln, then President of the United States. Its legal competency, its
jurisdiction of the accused and of the subject of the accusation, and
the substantial regularity of all of its proceedings are matters which
have never been brought into question. Its judgment, therefore, is final
and conclusive in its character.

The Supreme Court of the United States has recently declared that a
court-martial such as this was is the organism provided by law and
clothed with the duty of administering justice in this class of cases.
Its judgments, when approved, rest on the same basis and are surrounded
by the same considerations which give conclusiveness to the judgments of
other legal tribunals, including as well the lowest as the highest. It
follows, accordingly, that when a lawfully constituted court-martial has
duly declared its findings and its sentence and the same have been duly
approved neither the President nor the Congress has any power to set
them aside. The existence of such power is not openly asserted, nor
perhaps is it necessarily implied, in the provisions of the bill which
is before me, but when its enacting clauses are read in the light of the
recitations of its preamble it will be seen that it seeks in effect the
practical annulment of the findings and the sentence of a competent
court-martial.

A conclusion at variance with these findings has been reached after
investigation by a board consisting of three officers of the Army. This
board was not created in pursuance of any statutory authority and was
powerless to compel the attendance of witnesses or to pronounce a
judgment which could have been lawfully enforced. The officers who
constituted it, in their report to the Secretary of War, dated March
19, 1879, state that in their opinion--

Justice requires * * * such action as may be necessary to annul and set
aside the findings and sentence of the court-martial in the case of
Major-General Fitz John Porter and to restore him to the positions of
which that sentence deprived him, such restoration to take effect from
the date of his dismissal from the service.

The provisions of the bill now under consideration are avowedly based
on the assumption that the findings of the court-martial have been
discovered to be erroneous; but it will be borne in mind that the
investigation which is claimed to have resulted in this discovery was
made many years after the events to which that evidence related and
under circumstances that made it impossible to reproduce the evidence
on which they were based.

It seems to me that the proposed legislation would establish a dangerous
precedent, calculated to imperil in no small measure the binding force
and effect of the judgments of the various tribunals established under
our Constitution and laws.

I have already, in the exercise of the pardoning power with which the
President is vested by the Constitution, remitted the continuing penalty
which had made it impossible for Fitz John Porter to hold any office of
trust or profit under the Government of the United States; but I am
unwilling to give my sanction to any legislation which shall practically
annul and set at naught the solemn and deliberate conclusions of the
tribunal by which he was convicted and of the President by whom its
findings were examined and approved.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

PROCLAMATIONS.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas both Houses of Congress did on the 20th instant request the
commemoration, on the 23d instant, of the one hundredth anniversary of
the surrender by George Washington, at Annapolis, of his commission as
Commander in Chief of the patriot forces of America; and

Whereas it is fitting that this memorable act, which not only signalized
the termination of the heroic struggle of seven years for independence,
but also manifested Washington's devotion to the great principle that
ours is a civic government of and by the people, should be generally
observed throughout the United States:

Now, therefore, I, Chester A. Arthur, President of the United States, do
hereby recommend that either by appropriate exercises in connection with
the religious services of the 23d instant or by such public observances
as may be deemed proper on Monday, the 24th instant, this signal event
in the history of American liberty be commemorated; and further, I
hereby direct that at 12 o'clock noon on Monday next the national salute
be fired from all the forts throughout the country.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done this 21st day of December, A.D. 1883, and of the Independence of
the United States the one hundred and eighth.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

By the President:
FREDK. T. FRELINGHUYSEN,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by a memorandum of an agreement executed at Madrid on the 13th
day of February, A.D. 1884, by and between the duly authorized agents
and representatives of the Government of the United States of America
and of the Government of His Majesty the King of Spain, satisfactory
evidence has been given to me that the Government of that country has
abolished the discriminating customs duty heretofore imposed upon the
products of and articles proceeding from the United States of America
imported into the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico, said abolition to
take effect on and after the 1st day of March next:

Now, therefore, I, Chester A. Arthur, President of the United States of
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by section 4228 of the
Revised Statutes, do hereby declare and proclaim that on and after the
said 1st day of March next, so long as the products of and articles
proceeding from the United States imported into the islands of Cuba and
Puerto Rico shall be exempt from discriminating customs duties, any such
duties on the products of and articles proceeding from Cuba and Puerto
Rico under the Spanish flag shall be suspended and discontinued.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 14th day of February, A.D. 1884,
and of the Independence, of the United States the one hundred and
eighth.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

By the President:
FREDK. T. FRELINGHUYSEN,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it is alleged that certain persons have within the territory and
jurisdiction of the United States begun and set on foot preparations for
an organized and forcible possession of and settlement upon the lands
of what is known as the Oklahoma lands, in the Indian Territory, which
Territory is designated, recognized, and described by the treaties and
laws of the United States and by the executive authorities as Indian
country, and as such is subject to occupation by Indian tribes only; and

Whereas the laws of the United States provide for the removal of all
persons residing or being found in said Indian Territory without express
permission of the Interior Department:

Now, therefore, for the purpose of properly protecting the interests of
the Indian nations and tribes in said Territory, and that settlers may
not be induced to go into a country, at great expense to themselves,
where they can not be allowed to remain, I, Chester A. Arthur, President
of the United States, do admonish and warn all such persons so intending
or preparing to remove upon said lands or into said Territory against
any attempt to so remove or settle upon any of the lands of said
Territory; and I do further warn and notify any and all such persons
who do so offend that they will be speedily and immediately removed
therefrom by the proper officers of the Interior Department, and, if
necessary, the aid and assistance of the military forces of the United
States will be invoked to remove all such intruders from the said Indian
Territory.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 1st day of July, A.D. 1884, and
of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and eighth.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

By the President:
FREDK. T. FRELINGHUYSEN,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

While quarantine regulations are committed to the several States, the
General Government has reposed certain powers in the President, to be
used at his discretion in preventing a threatened epidemic.

Feeling it my duty, I hereby call upon all persons who under existing
systems in the several States are intrusted with the execution of
quarantine regulations to be diligent and on the alert in order to
prevent the introduction of the pestilence which we all regret to learn
has made its appearance in some of the countries of Europe between which
and the ports of the United States intercourse is direct and frequent.

I further advise that the cities and towns of the United States, whether
on the coast or on the lines of interior communication, by sound
sanitary regulations and the promotion of cleanliness, be prepared to
resist the power of the disease and to mitigate its severity.

And I further direct the consuls of the United States in the ports where
the pestilence has made or may make its appearance to exercise vigilance
in carrying out the instructions heretofore given and in communicating
to the Government of the United States any information of value relating
to the progress or treatment of the disease.

[SEAL.]

Given under my hand and the seal of the United States, at the city of
Washington, this 19th day of July, A.D. 1884, and of the Independence
of the United States the one hundred and ninth.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

By the President:
FREDK. T. FRELINGHUYSEN,
_Secretary of State_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

The season is nigh when it is the yearly wont of this people to observe
a day appointed for that purpose by the President as an especial
occasion for thanksgiving unto God.

Now, therefore, in recognition of this hallowed custom, I, Chester A.
Arthur, President of the United States, do hereby designate as such day
of general thanksgiving Thursday, the 27th day of this present November.

And I do recommend that throughout the land the people, ceasing from
their accustomed occupations, do then keep holiday at their several
homes and their several places of worship, and with heart and voice pay
reverent acknowledgment to the Giver of All Good for the countless
blessings wherewith He hath visited this nation.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 7th day of November, A.D. 1884, and
of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and ninth.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

By the President:
FREDK. T. FRELINGHUYSEN,
_Secretary of State_.

EXECUTIVE ORDERS.

In the exercise of the power vested in the President by the
Constitution, and by virtue of the seventeen hundred and fifty-third
section of the Revised Statutes and of the civil-service act approved
January 16, 1883, the following rule for the regulation and improvement
of the executive civil service is hereby amended and promulgated, as
follows:

RULE XII.

1. Every regular application must be supported by proper certificates
of good moral character, health, and physical and mental capacity for
doing the public work, the certificates to be in such form and number
as the regulations of the Commission shall provide; but no certificate
will be received which is inconsistent with the tenth section of the
civil-service act.

2. No one shall be entitled to be examined for admission to the
classified postal service if under 16 or over 35 years of age, or
to the classified customs service or to the classified departmental
service if under 18 or over 45 years of age; but no one shall be
examined for appointment to any place in the classified customs
service, except that of clerk or messenger, who is under 21 years
of age; but these limitations of age shall not apply to persons
honorably discharged from the military or naval service of the
country who are otherwise duly qualified.

Approved, December 5, 1883.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 17, 1883_

The following-named officers of the Army and Navy will constitute a
board to consider an expedition to be sent for the relief of Lieutenant
Greely and his party, composing what is known as the "Lady Franklin Bay
Expedition," and to recommend to the Secretaries of War and the Navy,
jointly, the steps the board may consider necessary to be taken for the
equipment and transportation of the relief expedition, and to suggest
such plan for its control and conduct and for the organization of its
personnel as may seem to them best adapted to accomplish its purpose:

Brigadier-General William B. Hazen, Chief Signal Officer, United States
Army; Captain James A. Greer, United States Navy; Lieutenant-Commander
B.H. McCalla, United States Navy; Captain George W. Davis, Fourteenth
Infantry, United States Army.

The board will meet in Washington, D.C., on the 20th instant.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

In the exercise of the power vested in the President by the
Constitution, and by virtue of the seventeen hundred and fifty-third
section of the Revised Statutes and of the civil-service act approved
January 16, 1883, the following rule and the amendment to Rule XVI for
the regulation and improvement of the executive civil service are hereby
promulgated:

RULE XXI.

1. No person shall be promoted, without examination under these rules,
from any position for which an examination is not required to any
position for which an examination is required under the rules; nor shall
any person who has passed only a limited examination under clause 4 of
Rule VII for the lower classes or grades in the departmental or customs
service be promoted within two years after appointment to any position
giving a salary of $1,000 or upward without first passing an examination
under clause I of said rule, and such examination shall not be allowed
within the first year after appointment.

2. But a person who has passed the examination under said clause I and
has accepted a position giving a salary of $900 or less shall have the
same right of promotion as if originally appointed to a position giving
a salary of $1,000 or more.

3. The Commission may at any time certify for a $900 or any lower place
in the classified service any person upon the register who has passed
the examination under clause I of Rule VII if such person does not
object before such certification is made.

II. The following words are added as a fifth clause at the end of Rule
XVI, viz:

5. Any person appointed to or employed in any part of the classified
service, after due certification for the same under these rules, who
shall be dismissed or separated therefrom without fault or delinquency
on his part may be reappointed or reemployed in the same part or grade
of such service at the same office, within eight months next following
such dismissal or separation, without further examination.

III. It is further ordered that the rule heretofore designated XXI be
hereafter designated XXII, and XXII as Rule XXIII.

Approved, January 18, 1884.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 8, 1884_.

General William T. Sherman, General of the Army, having this day reached
the age of 64 years, is, in accordance with law, placed upon the retired
list of the Army without reduction in his current pay and allowances.

The announcement of the severance from the command of the Army of one
who has been for so many years its distinguished chief can but awaken in
the minds, not only of the Army, but of the people of the United States,
mingled emotions of regret and gratitude--regret at the withdrawal from
active military service of an officer whose lofty sense of duty has been
a model for all soldiers since he first entered the Army in July, 1840,
and gratitude, freshly awakened, for the services, of incalculable
value, rendered by him in the war for the Union, which his great
military genius and daring did so much to end.

The President deems this a fitting occasion to give expression
in this manner to the gratitude felt toward General Sherman by his
fellow-citizens, and to the hope that Providence may grant him many
years of health and happiness in the relief from the active duties
of his profession.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, _Washington, March 12, 1884_.

_To the District Attorneys and Marshals of the United States:_

By direction of the President, I have to inform you it is reported that
certain persons are aiding in the prosecution of heinous crimes by
shipping to foreign ports explosives dangerous in the highest degree to
life and property. No proof has been adduced that this rumor is founded
upon fact, and the President can not believe its truth. The honor of
this nation, however, requires that it should not be open to the
imputation, unfounded though it be, of the slightest appearance of
tolerating such crimes, whether to be committed against our people or
those of other countries.

Your attention is therefore called to sections 5353, 5354, 5355, 4278,
and 4279 of the Revised Statutes of the United States, which regulate
the shipment of explosives and the punishment of those who infringe
their provisions; and you are instructed to be diligent in your efforts
to prevent the offenses described and to detect and prosecute those who
have or may commit them.

Very respectfully,

BENJAMIN HARRIS BREWSTER, _Attorney-General_.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

EXECUTIVE ORDER.

Whereas it has been brought to the notice of the President of the
United States that in the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial
Exhibition of Arts, Manufactures, and Products of the Soil and Mines,
to be held in the city of New Orleans, commencing December 1, 1884,
for the purpose of celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of the
production, manufacture, and commerce of cotton, it is desirable that

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