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A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents by James D. Richardson

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shall at all times be open to examination as the Commission shall
direct, and upon its request shall be forwarded to the Commission for
inspection and revision.

RULE XI.

Every application, in order to entitle the applicant to appear for
examination or to be examined, must state under oath the facts on the
following subjects: (1) Full name, residence, and post-office address;
(2) citizenship; (3) age; (4) place of birth; (5) health and physical
capacity for the public service; (6) right of preference by reason
of military or naval service; (7) previous employment in the public
service; (8) business or employment and residence for the previous five
years; (9) education. Such other information shall be furnished as the
Commission may reasonably require touching the applicant's fitness for
the public service. The applicant must also state the number of members
of his family in the public service and where employed, and must also
assert that he is not disqualified under section 3 of the civil-service
act, which is as follows:

"That no person habitually using intoxicating beverages to excess shall
be appointed to or retained in any office, appointment, or employment
to which the provisions of this act are applicable."

RULE XII.

1. Every regular application must be supported by proper certificates of
good moral character, health, and physical and mental capacity for doing
the public work, the certificates to be in such form and number as the
regulations of the Commission shall provide; but no certificate will be
received which is inconsistent with the tenth section of the
civil-service act.

2. No one shall be entitled to be examined for admission to the
classified postal service if under 16 or over 35 years of age, or to
the classified customs service or to the classified departmental service
if under 18 or over 45 years of age; but no one shall be examined for
appointment to any place in the classified customs service, except
that of clerk or messenger, who is under 21 years of age; but these
limitations of age shall not apply to honorably discharged soldiers
and sailors of the last war who are otherwise duly qualified.

RULE XIII.

1. The date of the reception of all regular applications for the
classified departmental service shall be entered of record by the
Commission, and of all other regular applications by the proper
examining boards of the district or office for which they are made;
and applicants, when in excess of the number that can be examined at
a single examination, shall be notified to appear in their order on
the respective records. But any applicants in the several States and
Territories for appointment in the classified departmental service
may be notified to appear for examination at any place at which an
examination is to be held, whether in any State or Territory or in
Washington, which shall be deemed most convenient for them.

2. The Commission is authorized, in aid of the apportionment among
the States and Territories, to hold examinations at places convenient
for applicants from different States and Territories, or for those
examination districts which it may designate and which the President
shall approve.

RULE XIV.

Those examined shall be graded, and shall have their grade marked
upon a register after those previously thereon, in the order of their
excellence as shown by their examination papers, except that those from
the same State or Territory may be entered upon the register together,
in the order of relative excellence, to facilitate apportionment.
Separate registers may be kept of those seeking to enter any part of
the service in which special qualifications are required.

RULE XV.

The Commission may give a certificate to any person examined, stating
the grade which such person attained and the proficiency in the several
subjects, shown by the markings.

RULE XVI.

1. Whenever any officer having the power of appointment or employment
shall so request, there shall be certified to him by the Commission or
the proper examining board four names for the vacancy specified, to be
taken from those graded highest on the proper register of those in his
branch of the service and remaining eligible, regard being had to the
apportionment of appointments to States and Territories; and from the
said four a selection shall be made for the vacancy.

2. These certifications for the service at Washington shall be made
in such order as to apportion, as nearly as may be practicable, the
original appointments thereto among the States and Territories and the
District of Columbia upon the basis of population as ascertained at the
last preceding census.

3. In case the request for any such certification or any law or
regulation shall call for those of either sex, the four highest of that
sex shall be certified; otherwise sex shall be disregarded in such
certification.

4. No person upon any register shall be certified more than three times
to the same officer in the customs or postal service or more than twice
to any department at Washington, unless upon request of the appointing
officer; nor shall anyone remain eligible more than one year upon any
register. And no person while remaining eligible on any register shall
be admitted to a new examination of the same grade.

RULE XVII.

1. Every original appointment or employment in said classified service
shall be for the probationary period of six months, at the end of which
time, if the conduct and capacity of the person appointed have been
found satisfactory, the probationer shall be absolutely appointed or
employed, but otherwise be deemed out of the service.

2. Every officer under whom any probationer shall serve during any part
of the probation provided for by these rules shall carefully observe the
quality and value of the service rendered by such probationer, and shall
report to the proper appointing officer, in writing, the facts observed
by him, showing the character and qualifications of such probationer and
of the service performed by him; and such reports shall be preserved on
file.

3. Every false statement knowingly made by any person in his application
for examination and every connivance by him at any false statement made
in any certificate which may accompany his application shall be regarded
as good cause for the removal or discharge of such person during his
probation.

RULE XVIII.

Every head of a Department or office shall notify the Commission of the
name of every person appointed to or employed in the classified service
under him (giving the date of the appointment and the designation of the
office or place) from those examined under the Commission, and shall
also inform the Commission of the date of any rejection or final
appointment or employment of any probationer and of the promotion,
removal, discharge, resignation, transfer, or death of any such person
after probation.

RULE XIX.

There are excepted from examination the following: (1) The confidential
clerk or secretary of any head of a Department or office; (2) cashiers
of collectors; (3) cashiers of postmasters; (4) superintendents of
money-order divisions in post-offices; (5) the direct custodians of
money for whose fidelity another officer is under official bond, but
these exceptions shall not extend to any official below the grade of
assistant cashier or teller; (6) persons employed exclusively in the
secret service of the Government, or as translators or interpreters or
stenographers; (7) persons whose employment is exclusively professional;
(8) chief clerks, superintendents, and chiefs of divisions or bureaus.
But no person so excepted shall be either transferred, appointed, or
promoted, unless to some excepted place, without an examination under
the Commission. Promotions may be made without examinations in offices
where examinations for promotion are not now held until rules on the
subject shall be promulgated.

RULE XX.

If the failure of competent persons to attend and be examined or the
prevalence of contagious disease or other sufficient cause shall make it
impracticable to supply in due season for any appointment the names of
persons who have passed a competitive examination, the appointment may
be made of a person who has passed a noncompetitive examination, which
examination the Commission may provide for; but its next report shall
give the reason for such resort to noncompetitive examination.

RULE XXI.

The Civil Service Commission will make appropriate regulations for
carrying these rules into effect.

RULE XXII.

Every violation by any officer in the executive civil service of these
rules or of the eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, or fourteenth section of
the civil-service act, relating to political assessments, shall be good
cause for removal.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 21, 1883_.

Under the provisions of section 4 of the act approved March 3, 1883, it
is hereby ordered that the several Executive Departments, the Department
of Agriculture, and the Government Printing Office be closed on
Wednesday, the 30th instant, to enable the employees to participate in
the decoration of the graves of the soldiers who fell during the
rebellion.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

WAR DEPARTMENT, _October 13, 1883_.

I. The President, having acceded to the request of General William
T. Sherman to be relieved from the command of the Army on the 1st of
November, 1883, preparatory to his retirement from active service,
directs the following changes and assignments to command:

General William T. Sherman will be relieved from the command of the Army
on the above-mentioned date and will repair to his home, St. Louis, Mo.,
to await his retirement. The General will be attended prior to his
retirement by those of his aids-de-camp whom he may designate to the
Adjutant-General.

Lieutenant-General Philip H. Sheridan will proceed to Washington, and on
the above-mentioned date assume command of the Army.

Major-General John M. Schofield will proceed to Chicago, Ill., and will
on the above-mentioned date assume command of the Military Division of
the Missouri.

Major-General John Pope will proceed to the Presidio of San Francisco,
Cal., and will on the above-mentioned date assume command of the
Military Division of the Pacific and of the Department of California.

Brigadier-General Christopher C. Augur will proceed to Fort Leavenworth,
and will on the above-mentioned date assume command of the Department of
the Missouri.

Brigadier-General Ranald S. Mackenzie will proceed to San Antonio, Tex.,
and will on the above-mentioned date assume command of the Department of
Texas.

II. The Department of the South will on the 1st day of November, 1883,
be merged in the Department of the East, under the command of
Major-General Hancock, commanding the Military Division of the Atlantic
and the Department of the East.

ROBERT T. LINCOLN,

_Secretary of War_.

In the exercise of the power vested in the President by the
Constitution, and by virtue of the seventeen hundred and fifty-third
section of the Revised Statutes and of the civil-service act approved
January 16, 1883, the following rules for the regulation and improvement
of the executive civil service are hereby amended and promulgated, as
follows:

RULE VI.

1. There shall be open competitive examinations for testing the fitness
of applicants for admission to the service. Such examinations shall be
practical in their character and, so far is may be, shall relate to
those matters which will fairly test the relative capacity and fitness
of the persons examined to discharge the duties of the branch of the
service which they seek to enter.

2. There shall, so far as they may be deemed useful, be competitive
examinations of a suitable character to test the fitness of persons for
promotion in the service.

RULE VII.

1. The general examinations under the first clause of Rule VI for
admission to the service shall be limited to the following subjects:
(1) Orthography, penmanship, and copying; (2) arithmetic--fundamental
rules, fractions, and percentage; (3) interest, discount, and elements
of bookkeeping and of accounts; (4) elements of the English language,
letter writing, and the proper construction of sentences; (5) elements
of the geography, history, and government of the United States.

2. Proficiency in each of these subjects shall be credited in grading
the standing of the persons examined in proportion to the value of a
knowledge of such subjects in the branch or part of the service which
the applicant seeks to enter.

3. No one shall be entitled to be certified for appointment whose
standing upon a just grading in the general examination shall be less
than 65 per cent of complete proficiency in the first three subjects
mentioned in this rule, and that measure of proficiency shall be deemed
adequate.

4. But for places in which a lower degree of education will suffice the
Commission may limit the examinations to less than the five subjects
above mentioned, but no person shall be certified for appointment under
this clause whose grading shall be less than an average of 65 per cent
on such of the first three subjects or parts thereof as the examination
may embrace.

5. The Commission may also order examinations upon other subjects,
of a technical or special character, to test the capacity which may be
needed in any part of the classified service which requires peculiar
information or skill. Examinations hereunder may be competitive or
noncompetitive, and the maximum limitations of age contained in the
twelfth rule shall not apply to applicants for the same. The application
for and notice of these special examinations, the records thereof,
and the certification of those found competent shall be such as the
Commission may provide for. After consulting the head of any Department
or office the Commission may from time to time designate, subject to the
approval of the President, the positions therein for which applicants
may be required to pass this special examination.

RULE VIII.

No question in any examination or proceeding by or under the Commission
or examiners shall call for the expression or disclosure of any
political or religious opinion or affiliation, and if such opinion of
affiliation be known no discrimination shall be made by reason thereof
by the examiners, the Commission, or the appointing power. The
Commission and its examiners shall discountenance all disclosure before
either of them of such opinion by or concerning any applicant for
examination or by or concerning anyone whose name is on any register
awaiting appointment.

RULE XI.

Every application, in order to entitle the applicant to appear for
examination or to be examined, must state under oath the facts on the
following subjects: (1) Full name, residence, and post-office address;
(2) citizenship; (3) age; (4) place of birth; (5) health and physical
capacity for the public service; (6) right of preference by reason
of military or naval service; (7) previous employment in the public
service; (8) business or employment and residence for the previous five
years; (9) education. Such other information shall be furnished as the
Commission may reasonably require touching the applicant's fitness for
the public service. The applicant must also state the number of members
of his family in the public service and where employed, and must also
assert that he is not disqualified under section 8 of the civil-service
act, which is as follows:

"That no person habitually using intoxicating beverages to excess shall
be appointed to or retained in any office, appointment, or employment to
which the provisions of this act are applicable."

No person under enlistment in the Army or Navy of the United States
shall be examined under these rules.

RULE XIII.

1. The date of the reception of all regular applications for the
classified departmental service shall be entered of record by the
Commission, and of all other regular applications by the proper
examining boards of the district or office for which they are made;
and applicants, when in excess of the number that can be examined at
a single examination, shall, subject to the needs of apportionment,
be notified to appear in their order on the respective records.
But any applicants in the several States and Territories for appointment
in the classified departmental service may be notified to appear for
examination at any place at which an examination is to be held, whether
in any State or Territory or in Washington, which shall be deemed most
convenient for them.

2. The Compassion is authorized, in aid of the apportionment among
the States and Territories, to hold examinations at places convenient
for applicants from different States and Territories, or for those
examination districts which it may designate and which the President
shall approve.

RULE XVI.

1. Whenever any officer having the power of appointment or employment
shall so request, there shall be certified to him by the Commission or
the proper examining board four names for the vacancy specified, to be
taken from those graded highest on the proper register of those in his
branch of the service and remaining eligible, regard being had to the
apportionment of appointments to States and Territories; and from the
said four a selection shall be made for the vacancy.

2. These certifications for the service at Washington shall be made
in such order as to apportion, as nearly as may be practicable, the
original appointments thereto among the States and Territories and the
District of Columbia upon the basis of population as ascertained at the
last preceding census.

3. In case the request for any such certification or any law or
regulation shall call for those of either sex, the four highest of that
sex shall be certified; otherwise sex shall be disregarded in such
certification.

4. No person upon any register shall be certified more than four
times to the same officer in the customs or postal service or more
than twice to any Department at Washington, unless upon request of the
appointing officer; nor shall anyone remain eligible more than one year
upon any register. No person while remaining eligible on any register
shall be admitted to a new examination, and no person having failed
upon any examination shall within six months thereafter be admitted
to another examination without the consent of the Commission; but
these restrictions shall not extend to examinations under clause 5
of Rule VII.

RULE XVIII.

Every head of a Department or office shall notify the Commission of the
name of every person appointed to or employed in the classified service
under him (giving the date of the appointment and the designation of the
office or place) from those examined under the Commission, and shall
also inform the Commission of the date of any rejection or final
appointment or employment of any probationer, and of the promotion,
removal, discharge, resignation, transfer, or death of any such person
after probation. Every head of an office in the postal or customs
service shall give such information on these subjects to the board of
examiners for his office as the regulations of the Commission may
provide for.

RULE XIX.

There are excepted from examination the following: (1) The confidential
clerk or secretary of any head of Department or office; (2) cashiers of
collectors; (3) cashiers of postmasters; (4) superintendents of
money-order divisions in post-offices; (5) the direct custodians of
money for whose fidelity another officer is under official bond, but
these exceptions shall not extend to any official below the grade of
assistant cashier or teller; (6) persons employed exclusively in the
secret service of the Government, or as translators or interpreters or
stenographers; (7) persons whose employment is exclusively professional;
(8) chief clerks, deputy collectors, and superintendents or chiefs of
divisions or bureaus. But no person so excepted shall be either
transferred, appointed, or promoted, unless to some excepted place,
without an examination under the Commission. Promotions may be made
without examinations in offices where examinations for promotion are not
now held until rules on the subject shall be promulgated.

Approved, November 7, 1883.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

THIRD ANNUAL MESSAGE.

WASHINGTON, _December 4, 1883_.

_To the Congress of the United States:_

At the threshold of your deliberations I congratulate you upon the
favorable aspect of the domestic and foreign affairs of this Government.

Our relations with other countries continue to be upon a friendly
footing. With the Argentine Republic, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Denmark,
Hayti, Italy, Santo Domingo, and Sweden and Norway no incident has
occurred which calls for special comment. The recent opening of new
lines of telegraphic communication with Central America and Brazil
permitted the interchange of messages of friendship with the Governments
of those countries.

During the year there have been perfected and proclaimed consular and
commercial treaties with Servia and a consular treaty with Roumania,
thus extending our intercourse with the Danubian countries, while our
Eastern relations have been put upon a wider basis by treaties with
Korea and Madagascar. The new boundary-survey treaty with Mexico, a
trade-marks convention and a supplementary treaty of extradition with
Spain, and conventions extending the duration of the Franco-American
Claims Commission have also been proclaimed.

Notice of the termination of the fisheries articles of the treaty of
Washington was duly given to the British Government, and the reciprocal
privileges and exemptions of the treaty will accordingly cease on July
1, 1885. The fisheries industries, pursued by a numerous class of our
citizens on the northern coasts, both of the Atlantic and Pacific
oceans, are worthy of the fostering care of Congress. Whenever brought
into competition with the like industries of other countries, our
fishermen, as well as our manufacturers of fishing appliances and
preparers of fish products, have maintained a foremost place. I suggest
that Congress create a commission to consider the general question of
our rights in the fisheries and the means of opening to our citizens,
under just and enduring conditions, the richly stocked fishing waters
and sealing grounds of British North America.

Question has arisen touching the deportation to the United States from
the British Islands, by governmental or municipal aid, of persons unable
there to gain a living and equally a burden on the community here. Such
of these persons as fall under the pauper class as defined by law have
been sent back in accordance with the provisions of our statutes. Her
Majesty's Government has insisted that precautions have been taken
before shipment to prevent these objectionable visitors from coming
hither without guaranty of support by their relatives in this country.
The action of the British authorities in applying measures for relief
has, however, in so many cases proved ineffectual, and especially so
in certain recent instances of needy emigrants reaching our territory
through Canada, that a revision of our legislation upon this subject
may be deemed advisable.

Correspondence relative to the Clayton-Bulwer treaty has been continued
and will be laid before Congress.

The legislation of France against the importation of prepared swine
products from the United States has been repealed. That result is due
no less to the friendly representations of this Government than to a
growing conviction in France that the restriction was not demanded by
any real danger to health.

Germany still prohibits the introduction of all swine products from
America. I extended to the Imperial Government a friendly invitation to
send experts to the United States to inquire whether the use of those
products was dangerous to health. This invitation was declined. I have
believed it of such importance, however, that the exact facts should be
ascertained and promulgated that I have appointed a competent commission
to make a thorough investigation of the subject. Its members have shown
their public spirit by accepting their trust without pledge of
compensation, but I trust that Congress will see in the national and
international bearings of the matter a sufficient motive for providing
at least for reimbursement of such expenses as they may necessarily
incur.

The coronation of the Czar at Moscow afforded to this Government an
occasion for testifying its continued friendship by sending a special
envoy and a representative of the Navy to attend the ceremony.

While there have arisen during the year no grave questions affecting the
status in the Russian Empire of American citizens of other faith than
that held by the national church, this Government remains firm in its
conviction that the rights of its citizens abroad should be in no wise
affected by their religious belief.

It is understood that measures for the removal of the restrictions which
now burden our trade with Cuba and Puerto Rico are under consideration
by the Spanish Government.

The proximity of Cuba to the United States and the peculiar methods of
administration which there prevail necessitate constant discussion and
appeal on our part from the proceedings of the insular authorities. I
regret to say that the just protests of this Government have not as yet
produced satisfactory results.

The commission appointed to decide certain claims of our citizens
against the Spanish Government, after the recognition of a satisfactory
rule as to the validity and force of naturalization in the United
States, has finally adjourned. Some of its awards, though made more than
two years ago, have not yet been paid. Their speedy payment is expected.

Claims to a large amount which were held by the late commission to be
without its jurisdiction have been diplomatically presented to the
Spanish Government. As the action of the colonial authorities which has
given rise to these claims was admittedly illegal, full reparation for
the injury sustained by our citizens should be no longer delayed.

The case of the _Masonic_ has not yet reached a settlement. The
Manila court has found that the proceedings of which this Government has
complained were unauthorized, and it is hoped that the Government of
Spain will not withhold the speedy reparation which its sense of justice
should impel it to offer for the unusual severity and unjust action of
its subordinate colonial officers in the case of this vessel.

The Helvetian Confederation has proposed the inauguration of a class
of international treaties for the referment to arbitration of grave
questions between nations. This Government has assented to the proposed
negotiation of such a treaty with Switzerland.

Under the treaty of Berlin liberty of conscience and civil rights
are assured to all strangers in Bulgaria. As the United States have
no distinct conventional relations with that country and are not a
party to the treaty, they should, in my opinion, maintain diplomatic
representation at Sofia for the improvement of intercourse and the
proper protection of the many American citizens who resort to that
country as missionaries and teachers. I suggest that I be given
authority to establish an agency and consulate-general at the
Bulgarian capital.

The United States are now participating in a revision of the tariffs of
the Ottoman Empire. They have assented to the application of a license
tax to foreigners doing business in Turkey, but have opposed the
oppressive storage tax upon petroleum entering the ports of that
country.

The Government of the Khedive has proposed that the authority of the
mixed judicial tribunals in Egypt be extended so as to cover citizens of
the United States accused of crime, who are now triable before consular
courts. This Government is not indisposed to accept the change, but
believes that its terms should be submitted for criticism to the
commission appointed to revise the whole subject.

At no time in our national history has there been more manifest need of
close and lasting relations with a neighboring state than now exists
with respect to Mexico. The rapid influx of our capital and enterprise
into that country shows, by what has already been accomplished, the vast
reciprocal advantages which must attend the progress of its internal
development. The treaty of commerce and navigation of 1848 has been,
terminated by the Mexican Government, and in the absence of conventional
engagements the rights of our citizens in Mexico now depend upon the
domestic statutes of that Republic. There have been instances of harsh
enforcement of the laws against our vessels and citizens in Mexico and
of denial of the diplomatic resort for their protection. The initial
step toward a better understanding has been taken in the negotiation by
the commission authorized by Congress of a treaty which is still before
the Senate awaiting its approval.

The provisions for the reciprocal crossing of the frontier by the troops
in pursuit of hostile Indians have been prolonged for another year. The
operations of the forces of both Governments against these savages have
been successful, and several of their most dangerous bands have been
captured or dispersed by the skill and valor of United States and
Mexican soldiers fighting in a common cause.

The convention for the resurvey of the boundary from the Rio Grande
to the Pacific having been ratified and exchanged, the preliminary
reconnoissance therein stipulated has been effected. It now rests with
Congress to make provision for completing the survey and relocating the
boundary monuments.

A convention was signed with Mexico on July 13, 1882, providing for
the rehearing of the cases of Benjamin Weil and the Abra Silver Mining
Company, in whose favor awards were made by the late American and
Mexican Claims Commission. That convention still awaits the consent of
the Senate. Meanwhile, because of those charges of fraudulent awards
which have made a new commission necessary, the Executive has directed
the suspension of payments of the distributive quota received from
Mexico.

Our geographical proximity to Central America and our political and
commercial relations with the States of that country justify, in my
judgment, such a material increase of our consular corps as will place
at each capital a consul-general.

The contest between Bolivia, Chile, and Peru has passed from the stage
of strategic hostilities to that of negotiation, in which the counsels
of this Government have been exercised. The demands of Chile for
absolute cession of territory have been maintained and accepted by the
party of General Iglesias to the extent of concluding a treaty of peace
with the Government of Chile in general conformity with the terms of the
protocol signed in May last between the Chilean commander and General
Iglesias. As a result of the conclusion of this treaty General Iglesias
has been formally recognized by Chile as President of Peru and his
government installed at Lima, which has been evacuated by the Chileans.
A call has been issued by General Iglesias for a representative
assembly, to be elected on the 13th of January, and to meet at Lima on
the 1st of March next. Meanwhile the provisional government of General
Iglesias has applied for recognition to the principal powers of America
and Europe. When the will of the Peruvian people shall be manifested,
I shall not hesitate to recognize the government approved by them.

Diplomatic and naval representatives of this Government attended at
Caracas the centennial celebration of the birth of the illustrious
Bolivar. At the same time the inauguration of the statue of Washington
in the Venezuelan capital testified to the veneration in which his
memory is there held.

Congress at its last session authorized the Executive to propose to
Venezuela a reopening of the awards of the mixed commission of Caracas.
The departure from this country of the Venezuelan minister has delayed
the opening of negotiations for reviving the commission. This Government
holds that until the establishment of a treaty upon this subject the
Venezuelan Government must continue to make the payments provided for
in the convention of 1866.

There is ground for, believing that the dispute growing out of the
unpaid obligations due from Venezuela to France will be satisfactorily
adjusted. The French cabinet has proposed a basis of settlement which
meets my approval, but as it involves a recasting of the annual quotas
of the foreign debt it has been deemed advisable to submit the proposal
to the judgment of the cabinets of Berlin, Copenhagen, The Hague,
London, and Madrid.

At the recent coronation of His Majesty King Kalakaua this Government
was represented both diplomatically and by the formal visit of a vessel
of war.

The question of terminating or modifying the existing reciprocity treaty
with Hawaii is now before Congress. I am convinced that the charges of
abuses and frauds under that treaty have been exaggerated, and I renew
the suggestion of last year's message that the treaty be modified
wherever its provisions have proved onerous to legitimate trade between
the two countries. I am not disposed to favor the entire cessation of
the treaty relations which have fostered good will between the countries
and contributed toward the equality of Hawaii in the family of nations.

In pursuance of the policy declared by this Government of extending our
intercourse with the Eastern nations, legations have during the past
year been established in Persia, Siam, and Korea. It is probable that
permanent missions of those countries will ere long be maintained in the
United States. A special embassy from Siam is now on its way hither.

Treaty relations with Korea were perfected by the exchange at Seoul,
on the 19th of May last, of the ratifications of the lately concluded
convention, and envoys from the King of Tah Chosen have visited this
country and received a cordial welcome. Korea, as yet unacquainted with
the methods of Western civilization, now invites the attention of those
interested in the advancement of our foreign trade, as it needs the
implements and products which the United States are ready to supply. We
seek no monopoly of its commerce and no advantages over other nations,
but as the Chosenese, in reaching for a higher civilization, have
confided in this Republic, we can not regard with indifference any
encroachment on their rights.

China, by the payment of a money indemnity, has settled certain of the
long-pending claims of our citizens, and I have strong hopes that the
remainder will soon be adjusted.

Questions have arisen touching the rights of American and other foreign
manufacturers in China under the provisions of treaties which permit
aliens to exercise their industries in that country. On this specific
point our own treaty is silent, but under the operation of the
most-favored-nation clause we have like privileges with those of other
powers. While it is the duty of the Government to see that our citizens
have the full enjoyment of every benefit secured by treaty, I doubt
the expediency of leading in a movement to constrain China to admit an
interpretation which we have only an indirect treaty right to exact.
The transference to China of American capital for the employment there
of Chinese labor would in effect inaugurate a competition for the
control of markets now supplied by our home industries.

There is good reason to believe that the law restricting the immigration
of Chinese has been violated, intentionally or otherwise, by the
officials of China upon whom is devolved the duty of certifying that the
immigrants belong to the excepted classes.

Measures have been taken to ascertain the facts incident to this
supposed infraction, and it is believed that the Government of China
will cooperate with the United States in securing the faithful
observance of the law.

The same considerations which prompted Congress at its last session to
return to Japan the Simonoseki indemnity seem to me to require at its
hands like action in respect to the Canton indemnity fund, now amounting
to $300,000.

The question of the general revision of the foreign treaties of Japan
has been considered in an international conference held at Tokyo, but
without definite result as yet. This Government is disposed to concede
the requests of Japan to determine its own tariff duties, to provide
such proper judicial tribunals as may commend themselves to the Western
powers for the trial of causes to which foreigners are parties, and to
assimilate the terms and duration of its treaties to those of other
civilized states.

Through our ministers at London and at Monrovia this Government has
endeavored to aid Liberia in its differences with Great Britain touching
the northwestern boundary of that Republic. There is a prospect of
adjustment of the dispute by the adoption of the Mannah River as the
line. This arrangement is a compromise of the conflicting territorial
claims and takes from Liberia no country over which it has maintained
effective jurisdiction.

The rich and populous valley of the Kongo is being opened to commerce
by a society called the International African Association, of which the
King of the Belgians is the president and a citizen of the United States
the chief executive officer. Large tracts of territory have been ceded
to the association by native chiefs, roads have been opened, steamboats
placed on the river, and the nuclei of states established at twenty-two
stations under one flag which offers freedom to commerce and prohibits
the slave trade. The objects of the society are philanthropic. It does
not aim at permanent political control, but seeks the neutrality of the
valley. The United States can not be indifferent to this work nor to the
interests of their citizens involved in it. It may become advisable for
us to cooperate with other commercial powers in promoting the rights of
trade and residence in the Kongo Valley free from the interference or
political control of any one nation.

In view of the frequency of invitations from foreign governments to
participate in social and scientific congresses for the discussion of
important matters of general concern, I repeat the suggestion of my last
message that provision be made for the exercise of discretionary power
by the Executive in appointing delegates to such convocations. Able
specialists are ready to serve the national interests in such capacity
without personal profit or other compensation than the defrayment of
expenses actually incurred, and this a comparatively small annual
appropriation would suffice to meet.

I have alluded in my previous messages to the injurious and vexatious
restrictions suffered by our trade in the Spanish West Indies, Brazil,
whose natural outlet for its great national staple, coffee, is in and
through the United States, imposes a heavy export duty upon that
product. Our petroleum exports are hampered in Turkey and in other
Eastern ports by restrictions as to storage and by onerous taxation.
For these mischiefs adequate relief is not always afforded by
reciprocity treaties like that with Hawaii or that lately negotiated
with Mexico and now awaiting the action of the Senate. Is it not
advisable to provide some measure of equitable retaliation in our
relations with governments which discriminate against our own? If, for
example, the Executive were empowered to apply to Spanish vessels and
cargoes from Cuba and Puerto Rico the same rules of treatment and scale
of penalties for technical faults which are applied to our vessels and
cargoes in the Antilles, a resort to that course might not be barren of
good results.

The report of the Secretary of the Treasury gives a full and interesting
exhibit of the financial condition of the country.

It shows that the ordinary revenues from all sources for the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1883, amounted to $398,287,581.95, whereof there was
received--

From customs $214,706,496.93
From internal revenue 144,720,368.98
From sales of public lands 7,955,864.42
From tax on circulation and deposits of national banks 9,111,008.85
From profits on coinage, bullion deposits, and assays 4,460,205.17
From other sources 17,333,637.60
______________
Total 398,287,581.95

For the same period the ordinary expenditures were:

For civil expenses $22,343,285.76
For foreign intercourse 2,419,275.24
For Indians 7,362,590.34
For pensions $66,012,573.64
For the military establishment, including river and
harbor improvements and arsenals 48,911,382.93
For the naval establishment, including vessels,
machinery, and improvements at navy-yards 15,283,437.17
For miscellaneous expenditures, including public
buildings, light-houses, and collecting the revenue 40,098,432.73
For expenditures on account of the District of Columbia 3,817,028.48
For interest on the public debt 59,160,131.25
______________
Total 265,408,137.54

Leaving a surplus revenue of $132,879,444.41, which, with an amount
drawn from the cash balance in the Treasury of $1,299,312.55, making
$134,178,756.96, was applied to the redemption--

Of bonds for the sinking fund $44,850,700.00
Of fractional currency for the sinking fund 46,556.96
Of funded loan of 1881, continued at 3-1/2 per cent. 65,380,250.00
Of loan of July and August, 1861,
continued at 3-1/2 per cent. 20,594,600.00
Of funded loan of 1907 1,418,850.00
Of funded loan of 1881 719,150.00
Of loan of February, 1861 18,000.00
Of loan of July and August, 1861 266,600.00
Of loan of March, 1863 116,850.00
Of loan of July, 1882 47,650.00
Of five-twenties of 1862 10,300.00
Of five-twenties of 1864 7,050.00
Of five-twenties of 1865 9,600.00
Of ten-forties of 1864 133,550.00
Of consols of 1865 40,800.00
Of consols of 1867 235,700.00
Of consols of 1868 154,650.00
Of Oregon War debt 5,450.00
Of refunding certificates 109,150.00
Of old demand, compound-interest, and other notes 13,300.00
______________
Total 134,178,756.96

The revenue for the present fiscal year, actual and estimated, is as
follows:

=======================================================================
For the
Source For the quarter remaining
ended September three quarters
30, 1883 of the year
(actual) (estimated)

From customs $57,402,975 67 $137,597,024 33
From internal revenue 29,662,078.60 90,337,921.40
From sales of public lands 2,932,635.17 5,067,364.83
From tax on circulation and deposits
of national banks 1,557,800.88 1,542,199.12
From repayment of interest and sinking
fund, Pacific Railway companies 521,059.51 1,478,940.49
From customs fees, fines, penalties, etc. 298,696.78 901,303.22
From fees--consular, letters patent,
and lands 863,209.80 2,436,790.20
From proceeds of sales of Government
property 112,562.23 167,437.77
From profits on coinage, etc. 950,229.46 3,149,770.54
From deposits for surveying public lands 172,461.31 327,538.69
From revenues of the District of Columbia 256,017.99 1,643,982.01
From miscellaneous sources 1,237,189.63 2,382,810.37
____________ ____________
Total receipts 95,966,917.03 247,033,082.97
=======================================================================

The actual and estimated expenses for the same period are:

=======================================================================
For the
Object For the quarter remaining
ended September three quarters
30, 1883 of the year
(actual) (estimated)

For civil and miscellaneous expenses,
including public buildings,
light-houses, and collecting
the revenue $15,385,799.42 $51,114,200.58
For Indians 2,623,390.54 4,126,609.46
For pensions 16,285,261.98 53,714,738.02
For military establishment, including
fortifications, river and harbor
improvements, and arsenals 13,512,204.33 26,487,795.67
For naval establishment, including
vessels and machinery, and
improvements at navy-yards 4,199,299.69 12,300,700.31
For expenditures on account of the
District of Columbia 1,138,836.41 2,611,163.59
For interest on the public debt 14,797,297.96 39,702,702.04
_____________ ______________
Total ordinary expenditures 67,942,090.33 190,057,909.67
=======================================================================

Total receipts, actual and estimated $343,000,000.00
Total expenditures, actual and estimated 258,000,000.00
______________
85,000,000.00
Estimated amount due the sinking fund 45,816,741.07
______________
Leaving a balance of 39,183,258.93

If the revenue for the fiscal year which will end on June 30, 1885,
be estimated upon the basis of existing laws, the Secretary is of the
opinion that for that year the receipts will exceed by $60,000,000 the
ordinary expenditures including the amount devoted to the sinking fund.

Hitherto the surplus, as rapidly as it has accumulated, has been devoted
to the reduction of the national debt.

As a result the only bonds now outstanding which are redeemable at the
pleasure of the Government are the 3 percents, amounting to about
$305,000,000.

The 4-1/2 percents, amounting to $250,000,000, and the $737,000,000 4
percents are not payable until 1891 and 1907, respectively.

If the surplus shall hereafter be as large as the Treasury estimates now
indicate, the 3 per cent bonds may all be redeemed at least four years
before any of the 4-1/2 percents can be called in. The latter at the
same rate of accumulation of surplus can be paid at maturity, and the
moneys requisite for the redemption of the 4 percents will be in the
Treasury many years before those obligations become payable.

There are cogent reasons, however, why the national indebtedness should
not be thus rapidly extinguished. Chief among them is the fact that only
by excessive taxation is such rapidity attainable.

In a communication to the Congress at its last session I recommended
that all excise taxes be abolished except those relating to distilled
spirits and that substantial reductions be also made in the revenues
from customs. A statute has since been enacted by which the annual tax
and tariff receipts of the Government have been cut down to the extent
of at least fifty or sixty millions of dollars.

While I have no doubt that still further reductions may be wisely made,
I do not advise the adoption at this session of any measures for large
diminution of the national revenues. The results of the legislation of
the last session of the Congress have not as yet become sufficiently
apparent to justify any radical revision or sweeping modifications of
existing law.

In the interval which must elapse before the effects of the act of March
3, 1883, can be definitely ascertained a portion at least of the surplus
revenues may be wisely applied to the long-neglected duty of
rehabilitating our Navy and providing coast defenses for the protection
of our harbors. This is a matter to which I shall again advert.

Immediately associated with the financial subject just discussed is the
important question what legislation is needed regarding the national
currency.

The aggregate amount of bonds now on deposit in the Treasury to support
the national-bank circulation is about $350,000,000. Nearly $200,000,000
of this amount consists of 3 percents, which, as already stated, are
payable at the pleasure of the Government and are likely to be called in
within less than four years unless meantime the surplus revenues shall
be diminished.

The probable effect of such an extensive retirement of the securities
which are the basis of the national-bank circulation would be such a
contraction of the volume of the currency as to produce grave commercial
embarrassments.

How can this danger be obviated? The most effectual plan, and one whose
adoption at the earliest practicable opportunity I shall heartily
approve, has already been indicated.

If the revenues of the next four years shall be kept substantially
commensurate with the expenses, the volume of circulation will not be
likely to suffer any material disturbance; but if, on the other hand,
there shall be great delay in reducing taxation, it will become
necessary either to substitute some other form of currency in place of
the national-bank notes or to make important changes in the laws by
which their circulation is now controlled.

In my judgment the latter course is far preferable. I commend to your
attention the very interesting and thoughtful suggestions upon this
subject which appear in the Secretary's report.

The objections which he urges against the acceptance of any other
securities than the obligations of the Government itself as a foundation
for national-bank circulation seem to me insuperable.

For averting the threatened contraction two courses have been suggested,
either of which is probably feasible. One is the issuance of new bonds,
having many years to run, bearing a low rate of interest, and
exchangeable upon specified terms for those now outstanding. The other
course, which commends itself to my own judgment as the better, is the
enactment of a law repealing the tax on circulation and permitting the
banks to issue notes for an amount equal to 90 per cent of the market
value instead of, as now, the face value of their deposited bonds. I
agree with the Secretary in the belief that the adoption of this plan
would afford the necessary relief.

The trade dollar was coined for the purpose of traffic in countries
where silver passed at its value as ascertained by its weight and
fineness. It never had a legal-tender quality. Large numbers of these
coins entered, however, into the volume of our currency. By common
consent their circulation in domestic trade has now ceased, and they
have thus become a disturbing element. They should not be longer
permitted to embarrass our currency system. I recommend that provision
be made for their reception by the Treasury and the mints, as bullion,
at a small percentage above the current market price of silver of like
fineness.

The Secretary of the Treasury advises a consolidation of certain of the
customs districts of the country, and suggests that the President be
vested with such power in relation thereto as is now given him in
respect to collectors of internal revenue by section 3141 of the Revised
Statutes. The statistics upon this subject which are contained in his
report furnish of themselves a strong argument in defense of his views.

At the adjournment of Congress the number of internal-revenue collection
districts was 126. By Executive order dated June 25, 1883, I directed
that certain of these districts be consolidated. The result has been a
reduction of one-third their number, which at present is but 83.

From the report of the Secretary of War it will be seen that in only a
single instance has there been any disturbance of the quiet condition of
our Indian tribes. A raid from Mexico into Arizona was made in March
last by a small party of Indians, which was pursued by General Crook
into the mountain regions from which it had come. It is confidently
hoped that serious outbreaks will not again occur and that the Indian
tribes which have for so many years disturbed the West will hereafter
remain in peaceable submission.

I again call your attention to the present condition of our
extended seacoast, upon which are so many large cities whose wealth and
importance to the country would in time of war invite attack from modern
armored ships, against which our existing defensive works could give no
adequate protection. Those works were built before the introduction of
modern heavy rifled guns into maritime warfare, and if they are not put
in an efficient condition we may easily be subjected to humiliation
by a hostile power greatly inferior to ourselves. As germane to this
subject, I call your attention to the importance of perfecting our
submarine-torpedo defenses. The board authorized by the last Congress
to report upon the method which should be adopted for the manufacture
of heavy ordnance adapted to modern warfare has visited the principal
iron and steel works in this country and in Europe. It is hoped that
its report will soon be made, and that Congress will thereupon be
disposed to provide suitable facilities and plant for the manufacture
of such guns as are now imperatively needed.

On several occasions during the past year officers of the Army have at
the request of the State authorities visited their militia encampments
for inspection of the troops. From the reports of these officers
I am induced to believe that the encouragement of the State militia
organizations by the National Government would be followed by very
gratifying results, and would afford it in sudden emergencies the aid
of a large body of volunteers educated in the performance of military
duties.

The Secretary of the Navy reports that under the authority of the acts
of August 5, 1882, and March 3, 1883, the work of strengthening our Navy
by the construction of modern vessels has been auspiciously begun. Three
cruisers are in process of construction--the _Chicago_, of 4,500
tons displacement, and the _Boston_ and _Atlanta_, each of 2,500 tons.
They are to be built of steel, with the tensile strength and ductility
prescribed by law, and in the combination of speed, endurance, and
armament are expected to compare favorably with the best unarmored war
vessels of other nations. A fourth vessel, the _Dolphin_, is to be
constructed of similar material, and is intended to serve as a fleet
dispatch boat.

The double-turreted monitors _Puritan, Amphitrite,_ and _Terror_
have been launched on the Delaware River and a contract has been made
for the supply of their machinery. A similar monitor, the _Monadnock_,
has been launched in California.

The Naval Advisory Board and the Secretary recommend the completion
of the monitors, the construction of four gunboats, and also of three
additional steel vessels like the _Chicago, Boston,_ and _Dolphin_.

As an important measure of national defense, the Secretary urges also
the immediate creation of an interior coast line of waterways across the
peninsula of Florida, along the coast from Florida to Hampton Roads,
between the Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware River, and through Cape Cod.

I feel bound to impress upon the attention of Congress the necessity of
continued progress in, the reconstruction of the Navy. The condition of
the public Treasury, as I have already intimated, makes the present an
auspicious time for putting this branch of the service in a state of
efficiency.

It is no part of our policy to create and maintain a Navy able to cope
with that of the other great powers of the world.

We have no wish for foreign conquest, and the peace which we have long
enjoyed is in no seeming danger of interruption.

But that our naval strength should be made adequate for the defense
of our harbors, the protection of our commercial interests, and the
maintenance of our national honor is a proposition from which no
patriotic citizen can withhold his assent.

The report of the Postmaster-General contains a gratifying exhibit of
the condition and prospects of the interesting branch of the public
service committed to his care.

It appears that on June 30, 1883, the whole number of post-offices was
47,863, of which 1,632 were established during the previous fiscal year.
The number of offices operating under the system of free delivery was
154.

At these latter offices the postage on local matter amounted to
$4,195,230.52, a sum exceeding by $1,021,894.01 the entire cost of the
carrier service of the country.

The rate of postage on drop letters passing through these offices is now
fixed by law at 2 cents per half ounce or fraction thereof. In offices
where the carrier system has not been established the rate is only half
as large.

It will be remembered that in 1863, when free delivery was first
established by law, the uniform single-rate postage upon local letters
was 1 cent, and so it remained until 1872, when in those cities where
carrier service was established it was increased in order to defray the
expense of such service.

It seems to me that the old rate may now with propriety be restored, and
that, too, even at the risk of diminishing, for a time at least, the
receipts from postage upon local letters.

I can see no reason why that particular class of mail matter should
be held accountable for the entire cost of not only its own collection
and delivery, but the collection and delivery of all other classes;
and I am confident, after full consideration of the subject, that the
reduction of rate would be followed by such a growing accession of
business as to occasion but slight and temporary loss to the revenues
of the Post-Office. The Postmaster-General devotes much of his report
to the consideration in its various aspects of the relations of the
Government to the telegraph. Such reflection as I have been able to give
to this subject since my last annual message has not led me to change
the views which I there expressed in dissenting from the recommendation
of the then Postmaster-General that the Government assume the same
control over the telegraph which it has always exercised over the mail.

Admitting that its authority in the premises is as ample as has ever
been claimed for it, it would not, in my judgment, be a wise use of that
authority to purchase or assume the control of existing telegraph lines,
or to construct others with a view of entering into general competition
with private enterprise.

The objections which may be justly urged against either of those
projects, and indeed against any system which would require an enormous
increase in the civil-service list, do not, however, apply to some of
the plans which have lately provoked public comment and discussion. It
has been claimed, for example, that Congress might wisely authorize the
Postmaster-General to contract with some private persons or corporation
for the transmission of messages, or of a certain class of messages, at
specified rates and under Government supervision. Various such schemes,
of the same general nature, but widely differing in their special
characteristics, have been suggested in the public prints, and the
arguments by which they have been supported and opposed have doubtless
attracted your attention.

It is likely that the whole subject will be considered by you at the
present session.

In the nature of things it involves so many questions of detail that
your deliberations would probably be aided slightly, if at all, by any
particular suggestions which I might now submit.

I avow my belief, however, that the Government should be authorized by
law to exercise some sort of supervision over interstate telegraphic
communication, and I express the hope that for attaining that end some
measure may be devised which will receive your approbation.

The Attorney-General criticises in his report the provisions of existing
law fixing the fees of jurors and witnesses in the Federal courts. These
provisions are chiefly contained in the act of February 26, 1853, though
some of them were introduced into that act from statutes which had been
passed many years previous. It is manifest that such compensation as
might when these laws were enacted have been just and reasonable would
in many instances be justly regarded at the present day as inadequate.
I concur with the Attorney-General in the belief that the statutes
should be revised by which these fees are regulated.

So, too, should the laws which regulate the compensation of district
attorneys and marshals. They should be paid wholly by salaries instead
of in part by fees, as is now the case.

The change would prove to be a measure of economy and would discourage
the institution of needless and oppressive legal proceedings, which it
is to be feared have in some instances been conducted for the mere sake
of personal gain.

Much interesting and varied information is contained in the report of
the Secretary of the Interior.

I particularly call your attention to his presentation of certain phases
of the Indian question, to his recommendations for the repeal of the
preemption and timber-culture acts, and for more stringent legislation
to prevent frauds under the pension laws. The statutes which prescribe
the defnitions and punishments of crimes relating to pensions could
doubtless be mads more effective by certain amendments and additions
which are pointed out in the Secretary's report.

I have previously referred to the alarming state of illiteracy in
certain portions of the country, and again submit for the consideration
of Congress whether some Federal aid should not be extended to public
primary education wherever adequate provision therefor has not already
been made.

The Utah Commission has submitted to the Secretary of the Interior
its second annual report. As a result of its labors in supervising the
recent election in that Territory, pursuant to the act of March 22,
1882, it appears that persons by that act disqualified to the number of
about 12,000, were excluded from the polls. This fact, however, affords
little cause for congratulation, and I fear that it is far from
indicating any real and substantial progress toward the extirpation of
polygamy. All the members elect of the legislature are Mormons. There
is grave reason to believe that they are in sympathy with the practices
that this Government is seeking to suppress, and that its efforts in
that regard will be more likely to encounter their opposition than to
receive their encouragement and support. Even if this view should
happily be erroneous, the law under which the commissioners have been
acting should be made more effective by the incorporation of some such
stringent amendments as they recommend, and as were included in bill
No. 2238 on the Calendar of the Senate at its last session.

I am convinced, however, that polygamy has become so strongly
intrenched in the Territory of Utah that it is profitless to attack
it with any but the stoutest weapons which constitutional legislation
can fashion. I favor, therefore, the repeal of the act upon which the
existing government depends, the assumption by the National Legislature
of the entire political control of the Territory, and the establishment
of a commission with such powers and duties as shall be delegated to it
by law.

The Department of Agriculture is accomplishing much in the direction
of the agricultural development of the country, and the report of the
Commissioner giving the results of his investigations and experiments
will be found interesting and valuable.

At his instance a convention of those interested in the cattle
industry of the country was lately held at Chicago. The prevalence of
pleuro-pneumonia and other contagious diseases of animals was one of the
chief topics of discussion. A committee of the convention will invite
your cooperation in investigating the causes of these diseases and
providing methods for their prevention and cure.

I trust that Congress will not fail at its present session to put Alaska
under the protection of law. Its people have repeatedly remonstrated
against our neglect to afford them the maintenance and protection
expressly guaranteed by the terms of the treaty whereby that Territory
was ceded to the United States. For sixteen years they have pleaded in
vain for that which they should have received without the asking.

They have no law for the collection of debts, the support of education,
the conveyance of property, the administration of estates, or the
enforcement of contracts; none, indeed, for the punishment of criminals,
except such as offend against certain customs, commerce, and navigation
acts.

The resources of Alaska, especially in fur, mines, and lumber, are
considerable in extent and capable of large development, while its
geographical situation is one of political and commercial importance.

The promptings of interest, therefore, as well as considerations of
honor and good faith, demand the immediate establishment of civil
government in that Territory.

Complaints have lately been numerous and urgent that certain
corporations, controlling in whole or in part the facilities for the
interstate carriage of persons and merchandise over the great railroads
of the country, have resorted in their dealings with the public to
divers measures unjust and oppressive in their character.

In some instances the State governments have attacked and suppressed
these evils, but in others they have been unable to afford adequate
relief because of the jurisdictional limitations which are imposed upon
them by the Federal Constitution.

The question how far the National Government may lawfully interfere in
the premises, and what, if any, supervision or control it ought to
exercise, is one which merits your careful consideration.

While we can not fail to recognize the importance of the vast railway
systems of the country and their great and beneficent influences upon
the development of our material wealth, we should, on the other hand,
remember that no individual and no corporation ought to be invested
with absolute power over the interest of any other citizen or class
of citizens. The right of these railway corporations to a fair and
profitable return upon their investments and to reasonable freedom in
their regulations must be recognized; but it seems only just that, so
far as its constitutional authority will permit, Congress should protect
the people at large in their interstate traffic against acts of
injustice which the State governments are powerless to prevent.

In my last annual message I called attention to the necessity of
protecting by suitable legislation the forests situated upon the public
domain. In many portions of the West the pursuit of general agriculture
is only made practicable by resort to irrigation, while successful
irrigation would itself be impossible without the aid afforded by
forests in contributing to the regularity and constancy of the supply of
water.

During the past year severe suffering and great loss of property have
been occasioned by profuse floods followed by periods of unusually low
water in many of the great rivers of the country.

These irregularities were in great measure caused by the removal from
about the sources of the streams in question of the timber by which the
water supply had been nourished and protected.

The preservation of such portions of the forests on the national domain
as essentially contribute to the equable flow of important water courses
is of the highest consequence.

Important tributaries of the Missouri, the Columbia, and the
Saskatchewan rise in the mountain region of Montana, near the northern
boundary of the United States, between the Blackfeet and Flathead Indian
reservations. This region is unsuitable for settlement, but upon the
rivers which flow from it depends the future agricultural development
of a vast tract of country. The attention of Congress is called to the
necessity of withdrawing from public sale this part of the public domain
and establishing there a forest preserve.

The industrial exhibitions which have been held in the United States
during the present year attracted attention in many foreign countries,
where the announcement of those enterprises had been made public through
the foreign agencies of this Government. The Industrial Exhibition at
Boston and the Southern Exposition at Louisville were largely attended
by the exhibitors of foreign countries, notwithstanding the absence of
any professed national character in those undertakings.

The Centennial Exposition to be held next year at New Orleans in
commemoration of the centenary of the first shipment of cotton from
a port of the United States bids fair to meet with like gratifying
success. Under the act of Congress of the 10th of February, 1883,
declaring that exposition to be national and international in its
character, all foreign governments with which the United States
maintain relations have been invited to participate.

The promoters of this important undertaking have already received
assurances of the lively interest which it has excited abroad.

The report of the Commissioners of the District of Columbia is herewith
transmitted. I ask for it your careful attention, especially for those
portions which relate to assessments, arrears of taxes, and increase of
water supply.

The commissioners who were appointed under the act of January 16, 1883,
entitled "An act to regulate and improve the civil service of the United
States," entered promptly upon the discharge of their duties.

A series of rules, framed in accordance with the spirit of the statute,
was approved and promulgated by the President.

In some particulars wherein they seemed defective those rules were
subsequently amended. It will be perceived that they discountenance any
political or religious tests for admission to those offices of the
public service to which the statute relates.

The act is limited in its original application to the classified
clerkships in the several Executive Departments at Washington
(numbering about 5,600) and to similar positions in customs districts
and post-offices where as many as fifty persons are employed.
A classification of these positions analogous to that existing in
the Washington offices was duly made before the law went into effect.
Eleven customs districts and twenty-three post-offices were thus
brought under the immediate operation of the statute.

The annual report of the Civil Service Commission which will soon be
submitted to Congress will doubtless afford the means of a more definite
judgment than I am now prepared to express as to the merits of the new
system. I am persuaded that its effects have thus far proved beneficial.
Its practical methods appear to be adequate for the ends proposed, and
there has been no serious difficulty in carrying them into effect.
Since the 16th of July last no person, so far as I am aware, has been
appointed to the public service in the classified portions thereof
at any of the Departments, or at any of the post-offices and customs
districts above named, except those certified by the Commission to be
the most competent on the basis of the examinations held in conformity
to the rules.

At the time when the present Executive entered upon his office his
death, removal, resignation, or inability to discharge his duties would
have left the Government without a constitutional head.

It is possible, of course, that a similar contingency may again arise
unless the wisdom of Congress shall provide against its recurrence.

The Senate at its last session, after full consideration, passed an act
relating to this subject, which will now, I trust, commend itself to the
approval of both Houses of Congress.

The clause of the Constitution upon which must depend any law regulating
the Presidential succession presents also for solution other questions
of paramount importance.

These questions relate to the proper interpretation of the phrase
"inability to discharge the powers and duties of said office," our
organic law providing that when the President shall suffer from such
inability the Presidential office shall devolve upon the Vice-President,
who must himself under like circumstances give place to such officer as
Congress may by law appoint to act as President.

I need not here set forth the numerous and interesting inquiries which
are suggested by these words of the Constitution. They were fully stated
in my first communication to Congress and have since been the subject of
frequent deliberations in that body.

It is greatly to be hoped that these momentous questions will find
speedy solution, lest emergencies may arise when longer delay will be
impossible and any determination, albeit the wisest, may furnish cause
for anxiety and alarm.

For the reasons fully stated in my last annual message I repeat my
recommendation that Congress propose an amendment to that provision of
the Constitution which prescribes the formalities for the enactment of
laws, whereby, in respect to bills for the appropriation of public
moneys, the Executive may be enabled, while giving his approval to
particular items, to interpose his veto as to such others as do not
commend themselves to his judgment.

The fourteenth amendment of the Constitution confers the rights of
citizenship upon all persons born or naturalized in the United States
and subject to the jurisdiction thereof. It was the special purpose of
this amendment to insure to members of the colored race the full
enjoyment of civil and political rights. Certain statutory provisions
intended to secure the enforcement of those rights have been recently
declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

Any legislation whereby Congress may lawfully supplement the guaranties
which the Constitution affords for the equal enjoyment by all the
citizens of the United States of every right, privilege, and immunity
of citizenship will receive my unhesitating approval.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

SPECIAL MESSAGES.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 10, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of the Interior
of the 3d instant, submitting, with accompanying papers, draft of a bill
to accept and ratify certain agreements made with the Sioux Indians and
to grant a right of way to the Dakota Central Railway Company through
the Sioux Reservation in Dakota.

The matter is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 10, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of the Interior
of the 3d instant, with accompanying papers, submitting draft of a bill
to prevent timber depredations on Indian reservations.

The subject is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 10, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication of the 3d instant from the Secretary
of the Interior, in relation to the urgent necessity of action on the
part of the Congress for the more adequate prevention of trespasses
upon Indian lands, with copy of report from the Commissioner of Indian
Affairs upon the subject, draft of bill for the object indicated, and
copy of correspondence from the Secretary of War recommending action
in the premises.

The matter is commended to the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 10, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication of the 3d instant from the
Secretary of the Interior, with the draft of a bill "to accept and
ratify an agreement made by the Pi-Ute Indians, and granting a right of
way to the Carson and Colorado Railroad Company through the Walker River
Reservation, in Nevada," and accompanying papers in relation to the
subject.

The matter is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 10, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of the Interior
of the 3d instant, with accompanying papers, submitting a draft of a
bill "providing for the allotment of lands in severalty to certain
Chippewa Indians of Lake Superior residing in the State of Wisconsin,
and granting patents therefor."

The subject is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 10, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of the Interior
of the 3d instant, with draft of bill for the payment of certain
settlers in the State of Nevada for improvements on lands in Duck
Valley, in that State, taken for the use and occupancy of the Shoshone
Indians, with accompanying papers.

The subject is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 10, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of the Interior
of the 3d instant, submitting, with accompanying papers, draft of a bill
"To provide for the settlement of the estates of deceased Kickapoo
Indians in the State of Kansas, and for other purposes."

The matter is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 11, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a letter from the Secretary of the Interior,
inclosing a communication from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs
setting forth the necessity of a deficiency appropriation of $60,000
for the immediate wants of his Bureau.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 13, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a letter
from the Secretary of War, inclosing copies of official reports,
etc., by the military authorities touching the necessity for the
acquisition of additional land for the military reservation of Fort
Preble, Me., and expressing his concurrence in the recommendation of the
Lieutenant-General of the Army that the sum of $8,000 be appropriated by
Congress for the purchase of such additional land.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 13, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
from the Secretary of War, touching the question of the reconstruction
of a bridge over the Republican River at or near Fort Riley, in the
State of Kansas, and recommending such legislation as will authorize the
reconstruction of said bridge by the United States in accordance with
the terms and provisions of a joint resolution of the legislature of the
State of Kansas approved March 6, 1883, a copy of which is herewith
inclosed.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 13, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
from the Secretary of War, dated the 4th instant, inclosing and
commending to favorable consideration a letter from the board of
commissioners of the Soldiers' Home, dated Washington, D.C., November
27, 1883, recommending such legislation as will confer upon said board
of commissioners authority to advance a sum not exceeding $40,000
annually from funds found to be due the Soldiers' Home on settlements to
be made in the offices of the Second Comptroller and Second Auditor, to
pay for the services of extra clerks to be employed under the direction
of the Secretary of the Treasury in making such settlements.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 13, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a copy of
a communication from the Secretary of War, dated the 8th instant,
inclosing one from Captain S. M. Mills, Fifth Artillery, indorsed by the
Chief Signal Officer of the Army, recommending that Congress authorize
the printing and binding, for the use of the Signal Office, of 5,000
copies of the Annual Report of the Chief Signal Officer for the fiscal
year 1882, and inclosing a draft of a joint resolution for that purpose.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 13, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a letter from
the Secretary of War, dated the 8th instant, and its accompanying
papers, relative to the reconveyance to Mr. Thomas Mulvihill, of
Pittsburg, Pa., of certain land erroneously conveyed by him to the
United States, the particular facts regarding which are fully set forth
in the inclosed copy of Senate Executive Document No. 46, Forty-seventh
Congress, second session.

It appearing that the land in question was through error alone
transferred to the United States, and that to retransfer the same to Mr.
Mulvihill would be a measure of simple justice, it is recommended that
such legislation be had as may be necessary to restore to Mr. Mulvihill
his rights in the premises.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 17, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of the Interior
of the 4th instant, with accompanying papers, submitting a draft of a
bill "to confirm the title to certain land in the Indian Territory to
the Cheyennes and Arapahoes and the Wichitas and affiliated bands, to
provide for the issuance of patents therefor, and for other purposes."

The subject is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 17, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication of the 11th instant from the
Secretary of the Interior, submitting, with accompanying papers, draft
of a bill "to provide for the issuance of patents for certain lands in
the Indian Territory occupied by the Kickapoo, Iowa, and other Indians."

The matter is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 17, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication of the 6th instant from the
Secretary of the Interior, submitting, with accompanying papers, a draft
of a bill "to accept and ratify an agreement with the confederated
tribes of the Flathead, Kootenay, and Upper Pend d'Oreille Indians for
the sale of a portion of their reservation in the Territory of Montana
required for the use of the Northern Pacific Railroad, and for other
purposes."

The subject is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 17, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of the Interior
of the 4th instant, submitting, with accompanying papers, draft of a
bill "to accept and ratify the agreement submitted by the Shoshones,
Bannocks, and Sheepeaters of the Fort Hall and Lemhi reservations, in
Idaho, May 14, 1880, for the sale of a portion of their land in said
Territory and for other purposes, and to make the necessary
appropriations for carrying out the same."

The matter is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 17, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of the Interior,
submitting a draft of a bill "providing for allotment of lands in
severalty to the Indians residing upon the Chehalis Reservation, in
Washington Territory, and granting patents therefor," with accompanying
report from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs upon the subject.

The matter is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 17, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of the Interior
of the 3d instant, with accompanying papers, submitting a draft of a
bill for the relief of the Nez Perce Indians in the Territory of Idaho
and of the allied tribes residing on the Grande Ronde Indian
Reservation, in the State of Oregon.

The subject is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 17, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of the Interior
of the 4th instant, submitting, with accompanying papers, draft of a
bill to accept and ratify certain agreements made with the Sioux Indians
and to grant a right of way to the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul
Railway Company through the Sioux Reservation in Dakota.

The matter is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 17, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a letter from
the Secretary of War, dated December 13 instant, inclosing one from the
Surgeon-General of the Army submitting a special estimate for funds
in the sum of $200,000 for the erection in this city of a suitable
fireproof building to contain the records, library, and museum of the
Medical Department of the Army, together with preliminary plans for
said building and copies of reports, etc., in relation to the subject.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 17, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
from the Secretary of the Navy, dated the 10th instant, inclosing a
letter from the Surgeon-General of the Navy respecting the advisability
of providing for representation on the part of the United States in any
international convention that may be organized for the purpose of
establishing uniform standards of measure of color perception and
acuteness of vision.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 17, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication of the 3d instant from the Secretary
of the Interior, submitting, with accompanying papers, a draft of a bill
for the payment of the value of certain improvements made by certain
settlers on the Round Valley Indian Reservation, in the State of
California, as appraised under the act approved March 3, 1873.

The subject is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 17, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication of the 12th instant from the
Secretary of the Interior, submitting a report of the Commissioner of
Indian Affairs of December 8, 1883, and accompanying papers, on the
subject of the "Old Settler" or "Western" Cherokees.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 17, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication of the 4th instant from the
Secretary of the Interior, with draft of a bill to accept and ratify an
agreement made with Chief Moses and other Indians for the relinquishment
of certain lands in Washington Territory, and to make the necessary
appropriations for carrying the same into effect, with accompanying
papers.

The subject is presented for the consideration of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 19, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a letter from
the Secretary of War, dated the 15th instant, inclosing one from the
Quartermaster-General setting forth the necessity for the construction
of a fireproof building in this city for the storage of the public
records.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 19, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a letter from the Secretary of the Interior,
inclosing a copy of a communication from the Commissioner of Indian
Affairs setting forth the necessity of a deficiency appropriation of
$78,110 for the purchase of supplies for the balance of the present
fiscal year for the Crow Indians.

CHESTER A ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, December 19, 1883_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

I transmit herewith, in response to the Senate resolution of the 18th
instant, a report of the Secretary of State and accompanying papers,
relating to the treaty between the United States and Great Britain
signed April 19, 1850.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 19, 1883_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
from the Secretary of War, dated December 14, 1883, upon the subject of
abandoned military reservations, and renewing his former recommendation
for such legislation as will provide for the disposal of military sites
that are no longer needed for military purposes.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, December 19, 1883_.

_To the Senate of the United States of America:_

I transmit herewith to the Senate, for its consideration with a view
to ratification, a treaty of extradition between the United States of
America and the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, concluded at Berlin on the
29th of October, A.D. 1883.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, December 24, 1883_.

_To the House of Representatives:_

The House of Representatives having adopted on the 19th instant a
resolution in the following words--

_Resolved_, That the Secretary of State be, and he is hereby,
requested to furnish for the information of this House, without delay,
if not incompatible with the public service, all communications,
documents, and papers in his possession relating to the trial,
conviction, and execution of the late Patrick O'Donnell by the British
Government--

I transmit herewith a report made to me by the Secretary of State, with
the papers enumerated in the subjoined list, as answering said
resolution.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 7, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of the Interior
of the 19th ultimo, submitting, with accompanying papers, a draft of a
bill providing for the allotment of lands in severalty to the Arickaree,
Gros Ventre, and Mandan Indians on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation,
in Dakota, and the granting of patents therefor, and for other purposes.

The matter is presented for the action of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 7, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of the Interior
of the 19th ultimo, submitting, with accompanying papers, a draft of a
bill "to allow Indian homestead entries in certain cases without the
payment of fees and commissions."

The matter is presented for the consideration and action of the Congress.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 7, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a letter from
the Secretary of War, dated the 2d instant, inclosing copies of official
correspondence, reports, etc., in relation to the military post of Fort
Sullivan, Me., and recommending such legislation as will authorize the
sale of the site to the highest bidder after public advertisement, the
same being no longer needed for military purposes.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 8, 1884_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I submit a communication from the governor of the State of Illinois,
with a copy of an act of the general assembly of that State tendering to
the United States the cession of the Illinois and Michigan Canal upon
condition that it shall be enlarged and maintained as a national
waterway for commercial purposes.

The proposed cession is an element of the subject which Congress had
under consideration in directing by the act of August 2, 1882, a survey
for a canal from a point on the Illinois River at or near the town of
Hennepin by the most practicable route to the Mississippi River at or
above the city of Rock Island, the canal to be not less than 70 feet

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