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A Collection of College Words and Customs by Benjamin Homer Hall

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attacti, Med. Fac. que honorarii."

"Gulielmus Grimke, et quadraginta sodales qui 'omnes in uno' Conic
Sections sine Tabulis aspernati sunt, et contra Facultatem, Col.
Yal. rebellaverunt, posteaque expulsi et 'obumbrati' sunt et Med.
Fac. honorarii."

"MARTIN VAN BUREN, _Armig._, Civitatis Scriba Reipub. Foed. apud
Aul. Brit. Legat. Extraord. sibi constitutus. Reip. Nov. Ebor.
Gub. 'Don Whiskerandos'; 'Little Dutchman'; atque 'Great
Rejected.' Nunc (1832), Rerumpub. Foed. Vice-Praeses et 'Kitchen
Cabinet' Moderator, M.D. et Med. Fac. honorarius."

"Magnus Serpens Maris, suppositus, aut porpoises aut
horse-mackerel, grex; 'very like a whale' (Shak.); M.D. et
peculiariter M.U.D. Med. Fac. honorarius."

"Timotheus Tibbets et Gulielmus J. Snelling 'par nobile sed
hostile fratrum'; 'victor et victus,' unus buster et rake, alter
lupinarum cockpitsque purgator, et nuper Edit. Nov. Ang. Galax.
Med. Fac. honorarii."[55]

"Capt. Basil Hall, Tabitha Trollope, atque _Isaacus Fiddler_
Reverendus; semi-pay centurio, famelica transfuga, et semicoctus
grammaticaster, qui scriptitant solum ut prandere possint. Tres in
uno Mend. Munch. Prof. M.D., M.U.D. et Med. Fac. Honorarium."

A college poet thus laments the fall of this respected society:--

"Gone, too, for aye, that merry masquerade,
Which danced so gayly in the evening shade,
And Learning weeps, and Science hangs her head,
To mourn--vain toil!--their cherished offspring dead.
What though she sped her honors wide and far,
Hailing as son Muscovia's haughty Czar,
Who in his palace humbly knelt to greet,
And laid his costly presents at her feet?[56]
Relentless fate her sudden fall decreed,
Dooming each votary's tender heart to bleed,
And yet, as if in mercy to atone,
That fate hushed sighs, and silenced many a _groan_."
_Winslow's Class Poem_, 1835.

MERIT ROLL. At Union College, "the _Merit Rolls_ of the several
classes," says a correspondent, "are sheets of paper put up in the
College post-office, at the opening of each term, containing a
list of all students present in the different classes during the
previous term, with a statement of the conduct, attendance, and
scholarship of each member of the class. The names are numbered
according to the standing of the student, all the best scholars
being clustered at the head, and the poorer following in a
melancholy train. To be at the head, or 'to head the roll,' is an
object of ambition, while 'to foot the roll' is anything but
desirable."

MIDDLE BACHELOR. One who is in his second year after taking the
degree of Bachelor of Arts.

A Senior Sophister has authority to take a Freshman from a
Sophomore, a _Middle Bachelor_ from a Junior Sophister.--_Quincy's
Hist. Harv. Univ._, Vol. II. p. 540.

MIGRATE. In the English universities, to remove from one college
to another.

One of the unsuccessful candidates _migrated_.--_Bristed's Five
Years in an Eng. Univ._, Ed. 2d, p. 100.

MIGRATION. In the English universities, a removal from one college
to another.

"_A migration_," remarks Bristed, "is generally tantamount to a
confession of inferiority, and an acknowledgment that the migrator
is not likely to become a Fellow in his own College, and therefore
takes refuge in another, where a more moderate Degree will insure
him a Fellowship. A great deal of this _migration_ goes on from
John's to the Small Colleges."--_Five Years in an Eng. Univ._, Ed.
2d, p. 100.

MIGRATOR. In the English universities, one who removes from one
college to another.

MILD. A student epithet of depreciation, answering nearly to the
phrases, "no great shakes," and "small potatoes."--_Bristed_.

Some of us were very heavy men to all appearance, and our first
attempts _mild_ enough.--_Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ._,
Ed. 2d, p. 169.

MINGO. Latin. At Harvard College, this word was formerly used to
designate a chamber-pot.

To him that occupies my study,
I give for use of making toddy,
A bottle full of _white-face Stingo_,
Another, handy, called a _mingo_.
_Will of Charles Prentiss_, in _Rural Repository_, 1795.

Many years ago, some of the students of Harvard College wishing to
make a present to their Tutor, Mr. Flynt, called on him, informed
him of their intention, and requested him to select a gift which
would be acceptable to him. He replied that he was a single man,
that he already had a well-filled library, and in reality wanted
nothing. The students, not all satisfied with this answer,
determined to present him with a silver chamber-pot. One was
accordingly made, of the appropriate dimensions, and inscribed
with these words:
"Mingere cum bombis
Res est saluberrima lumbis."

On the morning of Commencement Day, this was borne in procession,
in a morocco case, and presented to the Tutor. Tradition does not
say with what feelings he received it, but it remained for many
years at a room in Quincy, where he was accustomed to spend his
Saturdays and Sundays, and finally disappeared, about the
beginning of the Revolutionary War. It is supposed to have been
carried to England.

MINOR. A privy. From the Latin _minor_, smaller; the word _house_
being understood. Other derivations are given, but this seems to
be the most classical. This word is peculiar to Harvard College.

MISS. An omission of a recitation, or any college exercise. An
instructor is said _to give a miss_, when he omits a recitation.

A quaint Professor of Harvard College, being once asked by his
class to omit the recitation for that day, is said to have replied
in the words of Scripture: "Ye ask and receive not, for ye ask
a-_miss_."

In the "Memorial of John S. Popkin, D.D.," Professor Felton has
referred to this story, and has appended to it the contradiction
of the worthy Doctor. "Amusing anecdotes, some true and many
apocryphal, were handed down in College from class to class, and,
so far from being yet forgotten, they are rather on the increase.
One of these mythical stories was, that on a certain occasion one
of the classes applied to the Doctor for what used to be called,
in College jargon, a _miss_, i.e. an omission of recitation. The
Doctor replied, as the legend run, 'Ye ask, and ye receive not,
because ye ask a-_miss_.' Many years later, this was told to him.
'It is not true,' he exclaimed, energetically. 'In the first
place, I have not wit enough; in the next place, I have too much
wit, for I mortally hate a pun. Besides, _I never allude
irreverently to the Scriptures_.'"--p. lxxvii.

Or are there some who scrape and hiss
Because you never give a _miss_.--_Rebelliad_, p. 62.

---- is good to all his subjects,
_Misses_ gives he every hour.--_MS. Poem_.

MISS. To be absent from a recitation or any college exercise. Said
of a student. See CUT.

Who will recitations _miss_!--_Rebelliad_, p. 53.

At every corner let us hiss 'em;
And as for recitations,--_miss_ 'em.--_Ibid._, p. 58.

Who never _misses_ declamation,
Nor cuts a stupid recitation.
_Harvardiana_, Vol. III. p. 283.

_Missing_ chambers will be visited with consequences more to be
dreaded than the penalties of _missing_ lecture.--_Collegian's
Guide_, p. 304.

MITTEN. At the Collegiate Institute of Indiana, a student who is
expelled is said _to get the mitten_.

MOCK-PART. At Harvard College, it is customary, when the parts for
the first exhibition in the Junior year have been read, as
described under PART, for the part-reader to announce what are
called the _mock-parts_. These mock-parts which are burlesques on
the regular appointments, are also satires on the habits,
character, or manners of those to whom they are assigned. They are
never given to any but members of the Junior Class. It was
formerly customary for the Sophomore Class to read them in the
last term of that year when the parts were given out for the
Sophomore exhibition but as there is now no exhibition for that
class, they are read only in the Junior year. The following may do
as specimens of the subjects usually assigned:--The difference
between alluvial and original soils; a discussion between two
persons not noted for personal cleanliness. The last term of a
decreasing series; a subject for an insignificant but conceited
fellow. An essay on the Humbug, by a dabbler in natural history. A
conference on the three dimensions, length, breadth, and
thickness, between three persons, one very tall, another very
broad, and the third very fat.

MODERATE. In colleges and universities, to superintend the
exercises and disputations in philosophy, and the Commencements
when degrees are conferred.

They had their weekly declamations on Friday, in the Colledge
Hall, besides publick disputations, which either the Praesident or
the Fellows _moderated_.--_Mather's Magnalia_, B. IV. p. 127.

Mr. Mather _moderated_ at the Masters'
disputations.--_Hutchinson's Hist. of Mass._, Vol. I. p. 175,
note.

Mr. Andrew _moderated_ at the Commencements.--_Clap's Hist. of
Yale Coll._, p. 15.

President Holyoke was of a noble, commanding presence. He was
perfectly acquainted with academic matters, and _moderated_ at
Commencements with great dignity.--_Holmes's Life of Ezra Stiles_,
p. 26.

Mr. Woodbridge _moderated_ at Commencement, 1723.--_Woolsey's
Hist. Disc._, p. 103.

MODERATOR. In the English universities, one who superintends the
exercises and disputations in philosophy, and the examination for
the degree of B.A.--_Cam. Cal._

The disputations at which the _Moderators_ presided in the English
universities "are now reduced," says Brande, "to little more than
matters of form."

The word was formerly in use in American colleges.

Five scholars performed public exercises; the Rev. Mr. Woodbridge
acted as _Moderator_.--_Clap's Hist. of Yale Coll._, p. 27.

He [the President] was occasionally present at the weekly
declamations and public disputations, and then acted as
_Moderator_; an office which, in his absence, was filled by one of
the Tutors.--_Quincy's Hist. of Harv. Univ._, Vol. I. p. 440.

MONITOR. In schools or universities, a pupil selected to look to
the scholars in the absence of the instructor, or to notice the
absence or faults of the scholars, or to instruct a division or
class.--_Webster_.

In American colleges, the monitors are usually appointed by the
President, their duty being to keep bills of absence from, and
tardiness at, devotional and other exercises. See _Laws of Harv.
and Yale Colls._, &c.

Let _monitors_ scratch as they please,
We'll lie in bed and take our ease.
_Harvardiana_, Vol. III. p. 123.

MOONLIGHT. At Williams College, the prize rhetorical exercise is
called by this name; the reason is not given. The students speak
of "making a rush for _moonlight_," i.e. of attempting to gain the
prize for elocution.

In the evening comes _Moonlight_ Exhibition, when three men from
each of the three lower classes exhibit their oratorical powers,
and are followed by an oration before the Adelphic Union, by Ralph
Waldo Emerson.--_Boston Daily Evening Traveller_, July 12, 1854.

MOONLIGHT RANGERS. At Jefferson College, in Pennsylvania, a title
applied to a band composed of the most noisy and turbulent
students, commanded by a captain and sub-officer, who, in the most
fantastic disguises, or in any dress to which the moonlight will
give most effect, appear on certain nights designated, prepared to
obey any command in the way of engaging in any sport of a pleasant
nature. They are all required to have instruments which will make
the loudest noise and create the greatest excitement.

MOSS-COVERED HEAD. In the German universities, students during the
sixth and last term, or _semester_, are called _Moss-covered
Heads_, or, in an abbreviated form, _Mossy Heads_.

MOUNTAIN DAY. The manner in which this day is observed at Williams
College is described in the accompanying extracts.

"Greylock is to the student in his rambles, what Mecca is to the
Mahometan; and a pilgrimage to the summit is considered necessary,
at least once during the collegiate course. There is an ancient
and time-honored custom, which has existed from the establishment
of the College, of granting to the students, once a year, a
certain day of relaxation and amusement, known by the name of
'_Mountain Day_.' It usually occurs about the middle of June, when
the weather is most favorable for excursions to the mountains and
other places of interest in the vicinity. It is customary, on this
and other occasions during the summer, for parties to pass the
night upon the summit, both for the novelty of the thing, and also
to enjoy the unrivalled prospect at sunrise next
morning."--_Sketches of Will. Coll._, 1847, pp. 85-89.

"It so happens that Greylock, in our immediate vicinity, is the
highest mountain in the Commonwealth, and gives a view from its
summit 'that for vastness and sublimity is equalled by nothing in
New England except the White Hills.' And it is an ancient
observance to go up from this valley once in the year to 'see the
world.' We were not of the number who availed themselves of this
_lex non scripta_, forasmuch as more than one visit in time past
hath somewhat worn off the novelty of the thing. But a goodly
number 'went aloft,' some in wagons, some on horseback, and some,
of a sturdier make, on foot. Some, not content with a mountain
_day_, carried their knapsacks and blankets to encamp till morning
on the summit and see the sun rise. Not in the open air, however,
for a magnificent timber observatory has been set up,--a
rough-hewn, sober, substantial 'light-house in the skies,' under
whose roof is a limited portion of infinite space shielded from
the winds."--_Williams Monthly Miscellany_, 1845, Vol. I. p. 555.

"'_Mountain day_,' the date to which most of the imaginary _rows_
have been assigned, comes at the beginning of the summer term, and
the various classes then ascend Greylock, the highest peak in the
State, from which may be had a very fine view. Frequently they
pass the night there, and beds are made of leaves in the old
tower, bonfires are built, and they get through it quite
comfortable."--_Boston Daily Evening Traveller_, July 12, 1854.

MOUTH. To recite in an affected manner, as if one knew the lesson,
when in reality he does not.

Never shall you allow yourself to think of going into the
recitation-room, and there trust to "skinning," as it is called in
some colleges, or "phrasing," as in others, or "_mouthing_ it," as
in others.--_Todd's Student's Manual_, p. 115.

MRS. GOFF. Formerly a cant phrase for any woman.

But cease the touching chords to sweep,
For _Mrs. Goff_ has deigned to weep.
_Rebelliad_, p. 21.

MUFF. A foolish fellow.

Many affected to sneer at him, as a "_muff_" who would have been
exceedingly flattered by his personal acquaintance.--_Blackwood's
Mag._, Eng. ed., Vol. LX. p. 147.

MULE. In Germany, a student during the vacation between the time
of his quitting the gymnasium and entering the university, is
known as a mule.

MUS.B. An abbreviation for _Musicae Baccalaureus_, Bachelor of
Music. In the English universities, a Bachelor of Music must enter
his name at some college, and compose and perform a solemn piece
of music, as an exercise before the University.

MUS.D. An abbreviation for _Musicae Doctor_, Doctor of Music. A
Mus.D. is generally a Mus.B., and his exercise is the same.

MUSES. A college or university is often designated the _Temple,
Retreat, Seat_, &c. _of the Muses_.

Having passed this outer court of the _Temple of the Muses_, you
are ushered into the Sanctum Sanctorum itself.--_Alma Mater_, Vol.
I. p. 87.

Inviting ... such distinguished visitors as happen then to be on a
tour to this attractive _retreat of the Muses_.--_Ibid._, Vol. I,
p. 156.

My instructor ventured to offer me as a candidate for admission
into that renowned _seat of the Muses_, Harvard College.--_New
England Mag._, Vol. III. p. 237.

A student at a college or university is sometimes called a _Son of
the Muses_.

It might perhaps suit some inveterate idlers, smokers, and
drinkers, but no true _son of the Muses_.--_Yale Lit. Mag._, Vol.
XV. p. 3.

While it was his earnest desire that the beloved _sons of the
Muses_ might leave the institutions enriched with the erudition,
&c.--_Judge Kent's Address before [Greek: Phi Beta Kappa] of Yale
Coll._, p. 39, 1831.

_N_.

NAVY CLUB. The Navy Club, or the Navy, as it was formerly called,
originated among the students of Harvard College about the year
1796, but did not reach its full perfection until several years
after. What the primary design of the association was is not
known, nor can the causes be ascertained which led to its
formation. At a later period its object seems to have been to
imitate, as far as possible, the customs and discipline peculiar
to the flag-ship of a navy, and to afford some consolation to
those who received no appointments at Commencement, as such were
always chosen its officers. The _Lord High Admiral_ was appointed
by the admiral of the preceding class, but his election was not
known to any of the members of his class until within six weeks of
Commencement, when the parts for that occasion were assigned. It
was generally understood that this officer was to be one of the
poorest in point of scholarship, yet the jolliest of all the
"Jolly Blades." At the time designated, he broke the seal of a
package which had been given him by his predecessor in office, the
contents of which were known only to himself; but these were
supposed to be the insignia of his office, and the instructions
pertaining to the admiralty. He then appointed his assistant
officers, a vice-admiral, rear-admiral, captain, sailing-master,
boatswain, &c. To the boatswain a whistle was given, transmitted,
like the admiral's package, from class to class.

The Flag-ship for the year 1815 was a large marquee, called "The
Good Ship Harvard," which was moored in the woods, near the place
where the residence of the Hon. John G. Palfrey now stands. The
floor was arranged like the deck of a man-of-war, being divided
into the main and quarter decks. The latter was occupied by the
admiral, and no one was allowed to be there with him without
special order or permission. In his sway he was very despotic, and
on board ship might often have been seen reclining on his couch,
attended by two of his subordinates (classmates), who made his
slumbers pleasant by guarding his sacred person from the visits of
any stray mosquito, and kept him cool by the vibrations of a fan.
The marquee stood for several weeks, during which time meetings
were frequently held in it. At the command of the admiral, the
boatswain would sound his whistle in front of Holworthy Hall, the
building where the Seniors then, as now, resided, and the student
sailors, issuing forth, would form in procession, and march to the
place of meeting, there to await further orders. If the members of
the Navy remained on board ship over night, those who had received
appointments at Commencement, then called the "Marines," were
obliged to keep guard while the members slept or caroused.

The operations of the Navy were usually closed with an excursion
down the harbor. A vessel well stocked with certain kinds of
provisions afforded, with some assistance from the stores of old
Ocean, the requisites for a grand clam-bake or a mammoth chowder.
The spot usually selected for this entertainment was the shores of
Cape Cod. On the third day the party usually returned from their
voyage, and their entry into Cambridge was generally accompanied
with no little noise and disorder. The Admiral then appointed
privately his successor, and the Navy was disbanded for the year.

The exercises of the association varied from year to year. Many of
the old customs gradually went out of fashion, until finally but
little of the original Navy remained. The officers were, as usual,
appointed yearly, but the power of appointing them was transferred
to the class, and a public parade was substituted for the forms
and ceremonies once peculiar to the society. The excursion down
the harbor was omitted for the first time the present year,[57]
and the last procession made its appearance in the year 1846.

At present the Navy Club is organized after the parts for the last
Senior Exhibition have been assigned. It is composed of three
classes of persons; namely, the true NAVY, which consists of those
who have _never_ had parts; the MARINES, those who have had a
_major_ or _second_ part in the Senior year, but no _minor_ or
_first_ part in the Junior; and the HORSE-MARINES, those who have
had a _minor_ or _first_ part in the Junior year, but have
subsequently fallen off, so as not to get a _major_ or _second_
part in the Senior. Of the Navy officers, the Lord High Admiral is
usually he who has been sent from College the greatest number of
times; the Vice-Admiral is the poorest scholar in the class; the
Rear-Admiral the laziest fellow in the class; the Commodore, one
addicted to boating; the Captain, a jolly blade; the Lieutenant
and Midshipman, fellows of the same description; the Chaplain, the
most profane; the Surgeon, a dabbler in surgery, or in medicine,
or anything else; the Ensign, the tallest member of the class; the
Boatswain, one most inclined to obscenity; the Drum Major, the
most aristocratic, and his assistants, fellows of the same
character. These constitute the Band. Such are the general rules
of choice, but they are not always followed. The remainder of the
class who have had no parts and are not officers of the Navy Club
are members, under the name of Privates. On the morning when the
parts for Commencement are assigned, the members who receive
appointments resign the stations which they have held in the Navy
Club. This resignation takes place immediately after the parts
have been read to the class. The door-way of the middle entry of
Holworthy Hall is the place usually chosen for this affecting
scene. The performance is carried on in the mock-oratorical style,
a person concealed under a white sheet being placed behind the
speaker to make the gestures for him. The names of those members
who, having received Commencement appointments, have refused to
resign their trusts in the Navy Club, are then read by the Lord
High Admiral, and by his authority they are expelled from the
society. This closes the exercises of the Club.

The following entertaining account of the last procession, in
1846, has been furnished by a graduate of that year:--

"The class had nearly all assembled, and the procession, which
extended through the rooms of the Natural History Society, began
to move. The principal officers, as also the whole band, were
dressed in full uniform. The Rear-Admiral brought up the rear, as
was fitting. He was borne in a sort of triumphal car, composed of
something like a couch, elevated upon wheels, and drawn by a white
horse. On this his excellency, dressed in uniform, and enveloped
in his cloak, reclined at full length. One of the Marines played
the part of driver. Behind the car walked a colored man, with a
most fantastic head-dress, whose duty it was to carry his Honor
the Rear-Admiral's pipe. Immediately before the car walked the
other two Marines, with guns on their shoulders. The 'Digs'[58]
came immediately before the Marines, preceded by the tallest of
their number, carrying a white satin banner, bearing on it, in
gold letters, the word 'HARVARD,' with a _spade_ of gold paper
fastened beneath. The Digs were all dressed in black, with Oxford
caps on their heads, and small iron spades over their shoulders.
They walked two and two, except in one instance, namely, that of
the first three scholars, who walked together, the last of their
brethren, immediately preceding the Marines. The second and third
scholars did not carry spades, but pointed shovels, much larger
and heavier; while the first scholar, who walked between the other
two, carried an enormously great square shovel,--such as is often
seen hung out at hardware-stores for a sign,--with 'SPADES AND
SHOVELS,' or some such thing, painted on one side, and 'ALL SIZES'
on the other. This shovel was about two feet square. The idea of
carrying real, _bona fide_ spades and shovels originated wholly in
our class. It has always been the custom before to wear a spade,
cut out of white paper, on the lapel of the coat. The Navy
Privates were dressed in blue shirts, monkey-jackets, &c., and
presented a very sailor-like appearance. Two of them carried small
kedges over their shoulders. The Ensign bore an old and tattered
flag, the same which was originally presented by Miss Mellen of
Cambridge to the Harvard Washington Corps. The Chaplain was
dressed in a black gown, with an old-fashioned curly white wig on
his head, which, with a powdered face, gave him a very
sanctimonious look. He carried a large French Bible, which by much
use had lost its covers. The Surgeon rode a beast which might well
have been taken for the Rosinante of the world-renowned Don
Quixote. This worthy AEsculapius had an infinite number of
brown-paper bags attached to his person. He was enveloped in an
old plaid cloak, with a huge sign for _pills_ fastened upon his
shoulders, and carried before him a skull on a staff. His nag was
very spirited, so much so as to leap over the chains, posts, &c.,
and put to flight the crowd assembled to see the fun. The
procession, after having cheered all the College buildings, and
the houses of the Professors, separated about seven o'clock, P.M."

At first like a badger the Freshman dug,
Fed on Latin and Greek, in his room kept snug;
And he fondly hoped that on _Navy Club_ day
The highest spade he might bear away.
_MS. Poem_, F.E. Felton, Harv. Coll.

NECK. To _run one's neck_, at Williams College, to trust to luck
for the success of any undertaking.

NESCIO. Latin; literally, _I do not know_. At the University of
Cambridge, England, _to sport a nescio_, to shake the head, a
signal that one does not understand or is ignorant of the subject.
"After the Senate-House examination for degrees," says Grose, in
his Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, "the students
proceed to the schools, to be questioned by the proctor. According
to custom immemorial, the answers _must_ be _Nescio_. The
following is a translated specimen:--

"_Ques._ What is your, name? _Ans._ I do not know.

"_Ques._ What is the name of this University? _Ans._ I do not
know.

"_Ques._ Who was your father? _Ans._ I do not know.

"The last is probably the only true answer of the three!"

NEWLING. In the German universities, a Freshman; one in his first
half-year.

NEWY. At Princeton College, a fresh arrival.

NIGHTGOWN. A dressing-gown; a _deshabille_.

No student shall appear within the limits of the College, or town
of Cambridge, in any other dress than in the uniform belonging to
his respective class, unless he shall have on a _nightgown_, or
such an outside garment as may be necessary over a coat.--_Laws
Harv. Coll._, 1790.

NOBLEMAN. In the English universities, among the Undergraduates,
the nobleman enjoys privileges and exemptions not accorded to
others. At Oxford he wears a black-silk gown with full sleeves
"couped" at the elbows, and a velvet cap with gold tassel, except
on full-dress occasions, when his habit is of violet-figured
damask silk, richly bedight with gold lace. At Cambridge he wears
the plain black-silk gown and the hat of an M.A., except on feast
days and state occasions, when he appears in a gown still more
gorgeous than that of a Fellow-Commoner.--_Oxford Guide. Bristed_.

NO END OF. Bristed records this phrase as an intensive peculiar to
the English Cantabs. Its import is obvious "They have _no end of_
tin; i.e. a great deal of money. He is _no end of_ a fool; i.e.
the greatest fool possible."--_Five Years in an Eng. Univ._, Ed.
2d, p. 24.

The use of this expression, with a similar signification, is
common in some portions of the United States.

NON ENS. Latin; literally _not being_. At the University of
Cambridge, Eng., one who has not been matriculated, though he has
resided some time at the University; consequently is not
considered as having any being. A Freshman in embryo.--_Grad. ad
Cantab._

NON PARAVI. Latin; literally, _I have not prepared_. When Latin
was spoken in the American colleges, this excuse was commonly
given by scholars not prepared for recitation.

With sleepy eyes and countenance heavy,
With much excuse of _non paravi_.
_Trumbull's Progress of Dullness_, 1794, p. 8.

The same excuse is now frequently given in English.

The same individuals were also observed to be "_not prepared_" for
the morning's recitation.--_Harvardiana_, Vol. II. p. 261.

I hear you whispering, with white lips, "_Not prepared_,
sir."--_Burial of Euclid_, 1850, p. 9.

NON PLACET. Latin; literally, _It is not pleasing_. In the
University of Cambridge, Eng., the term in which a _negative_ vote
is given in the Senate-House.

To _non-placet_, with the meaning of the verb _to reject_, is
sometimes used in familiar language.

A classical examiner, having marked two candidates belonging to
his own College much higher than the other three examiners did,
was suspected of partiality to them, and _non-placeted_ (rejected)
next year when he came up for approval.--_Bristed's Five Years in
an Eng. Univ._, Ed. 2d, p. 231.

NON-READING MAN. See READING MAN.

The result of the May decides whether he will go out in honors or
not,--that is, whether he will be a reading or a _non-reading
man_.--_Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ._, Ed. 2d, p. 85.

NON-REGENT. In the English universities, a term applied to those
Masters of Arts whose regency has ceased.--_Webster_.

See REGENT. SENATE.

NON-TERM. "When any member of the Senate," says the Gradus ad
Cantabrigiam, "dies within the University during term, on
application to the Vice-Chancellor, the University bell rings an
hour; from which period _Non-Term_, as to public lectures and
disputations, commences for three days."

NON VALUI. Latin; literally, _I was sick_. At Harvard College,
when the students were obliged to speak Latin, it was usual for
them to give the excuse _non valui_ for almost every absence or
omission. The President called upon delinquents for their excuses
in the chapel, after morning prayers, and these words were often
pronounced so broadly as to sound like _non volui_, I did not wish
[to go]. The quibble was not perceived for a long time, and was
heartily enjoyed, as may be well supposed, by those who made use
of it.

[Greek: Nous]. Greek; _sense_. A word adopted by, and in use
among, students.

He is a lad of more [Greek: nous], and keeps better
company.--_Pref. to Grad. ad Cantab._

Getting the better of them in anything which required the smallest
exertion of [Greek: nous], was like being first in a donkey-race.
--_Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ._, Ed. 2d, p. 30.

NUMBER FIFTY, NUMBER FORTY-NINE. At Trinity College, Hartford, the
privies are known by these names. Jarvis Hall contains forty-eight
rooms, and the numbers forty-nine and fifty follow in numerical
continuation, but with a different application.

NUMBER TEN. At the Wesleyan University, the names "No. 10, and, as
a sort of derivative, No. 1001, are applied to the privy." The
former title is used also at the University of Vermont, and at
Dartmouth College.

NUTS. A correspondent from Williams College says, "We speak of a
person whom we despise as being a _nuts_." This word is used in
the Yorkshire dialect with the meaning of a "silly fellow." Mr.
Halliwell, in his Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words,
remarks: "It is not applied to an idiot, but to one who has been
doing a foolish action."

_O_.

OAK. In the English universities, the outer door of a student's
room.

No man has a right to attack the rooms of one with whom he is not
in the habit of intimacy. From ignorance of this axiom I had near
got a horse-whipping, and was kicked down stairs for going to a
wrong _oak_, whose tenant was not in the habit of taking jokes of
this kind.--_The Etonian_, Vol. II. p. 287.

A pecker, I must explain, is a heavy pointed hammer for splitting
large coals; an instrument often put into requisition to force
open an _oak_ (an outer door), when the key of the spring latch
happens to be left inside, and the scout has gone away.--_The
Collegian's Guide_, p. 119.

Every set of rooms is provided with an _oak_ or outer door, with a
spring lock, of which the master has one latch-key, and the
servant another.--_Ibid._, p. 141.

"To _sport oak_, or a door," says the Gradus ad Cantabrigiam, "is,
in the modern phrase, to exclude duns, or other unpleasant
intruders." It generally signifies, however, nothing more than
locking or fastening one's door for safety or convenience.

I always "_sported my oak_" whenever I went out; and if ever I
found any article removed from its usual place, I inquired for it;
and thus showed I knew where everything was last
placed.--_Collegian's Guide_, p. 141.

If you persist, and say you cannot join them, you must _sport your
oak_, and shut yourself into your room, and all intruders
out.--_Ibid._, p. 340.

Used also in some American colleges.

And little did they dream who knocked hard and often at his _oak_
in vain, &c.--_Yale Lit. Mag._, Vol. X. p. 47.

OATHS. At Yale College, those who were engaged in the government
were formerly required to take the oaths of allegiance and
abjuration appointed by the Parliament of England. In his
Discourse before the Graduates of Yale College, President Woolsey
gives the following account of this obligation:--

"The charter of 1745 imposed another test in the form of a
political oath upon all governing officers in the College. They
were required before they undertook the execution of their trusts,
or within three months after, 'publicly in the College hall [to]
take the oaths, and subscribe the declaration, appointed by an act
of Parliament made in the first year of George the First,
entitled, An Act for the further security of his Majesty's person
and government, and the succession of the Crown in the heirs of
the late Princess Sophia, being Protestants, and for extinguishing
the hopes of the pretended Prince of Wales, and his open and
secret abettors.' We cannot find the motive for prescribing this
oath of allegiance and abjuration in the Protestant zeal which was
enkindled by the second Pretender's movements in England,--for,
although belonging to this same year 1745, these movements were
subsequent to the charter,--but rather in the desire of removing
suspicion of disloyalty, and conforming the practice in the
College to that required by the law in the English universities.
This oath was taken until it became an unlawful one, when the
State assumed complete sovereignty at the Revolution. For some
years afterwards, the officers took the oath of fidelity to the
State of Connecticut, and I believe that the last instance of this
occurred at the very end of the eighteenth century."--p. 40.

In the Diary of President Stiles, under the date of July 8, 1778,
is the annexed entry, in which is given the formula of the oath
required by the State:--

"The oath of fidelity administered to me by the Hon. Col. Hamlin,
one of the Council of the State of Connecticut, at my
inauguration.

"'You, Ezra Stiles, do swear by the name of the ever-living God,
that you will be true and faithful to the State of Connecticut, as
a free and independent State, and in all things do your duty as a
good and faithful subject of the said State, in supporting the
rights, liberties, and privileges of the same. So help you God.'

"This oath, substituted instead of that of allegiance to the King
by the Assembly of Connecticut, May, 1777, to be taken by all in
this State; and so it comes into use in Yale College."--_Woolsey's
Hist. Discourse_, Appendix, p. 117.

[Greek: Hoi Aristoi.] Greek; literally, _the bravest_. At
Princeton College, the aristocrats, or would-be aristocrats, are
so called.

[Greek: Hoi Polloi.] Greek; literally, _the many_.

See POLLOI.

OLD BURSCH. A name given in the German universities to a student
during his fourth term. Students of this term are also designated
_Old Ones_.

As they came forward, they were obliged to pass under a pair of
naked swords, held crosswise by two _Old Ones_.--_Longfellow's
Hyperion_, p. 110.

OLD HOUSE. A name given in the German universities to a student
during his fifth term.

OPPONENCY. The opening of an academical disputation; the
proposition of objections to a tenet; an exercise for a
degree.--_Todd_.

Mr. Webster remarks, "I believe not used in America."

In the old times, the university discharged this duty [teaching]
by means of the public readings or lectures,... and by the keeping
of acts and _opponencies_--being certain _viva voce_ disputations
--by the students.--_The English Universities and their Reforms_,
in _Blackwood's Magazine_, Feb. 1849.

OPPONENT. In universities and colleges, where disputations are
carried on, the opponent is, in technical application, the person
who begins the dispute by raising objections to some tenet or
doctrine.

OPTIME. The title of those who stand in the second and third ranks
of honors, immediately after the Wranglers, in the University of
Cambridge, Eng. They are called respectively _Senior_ and _Junior
Optimes_.

See JUNIOR OPTIME, POLLOI, and SENIOR OPTIME.

OPTIONAL. At some American colleges, the student is obliged to
pursue during a part of the course such studies as are prescribed.
During another portion of the course, he is allowed to select from
certain branches those which he desires to follow. The latter are
called _optional_ studies. In familiar conversation and writing,
the word _optional_ is used alone.

For _optional_ will come our way,
And lectures furnish time to play,
'Neath elm-tree shade to smoke all day.
_Songs, Biennial Jubilee_, Yale Coll., 1855.

ORIGINAL COMPOSITION. At the University of Cambridge, Eng., an
essay or theme written by a student in Latin, Greek, or Hebrew, is
termed _original_ composition.

Composition there is of course, but more Latin than Greek, and
some _original Composition_.--_Bristed's Five Years in an Eng.
Univ._, Ed. 2d, p. 137.

_Original Composition_--that is, Composition in the true sense of
the word--in the dead languages is not much practised.--_Ibid._,
p. 185.

OVERSEER. The general government of the colleges in the United
States is vested in some instances in a Corporation, in others in
a Board of Trustees or Overseers, or, as in the case of Harvard
College, in the two combined. The duties of the Overseers are,
generally, to pass such orders and statutes as seem to them
necessary for the prosperity of the college whose affairs they
oversee, to dispose of its funds in such a manner as will be most
advantageous, to appoint committees to visit it and examine the
students connected with it, to ratify the appointment of
instructors, and to hear such reports of the proceedings of the
college government as require their concurrence.

OXFORD. The cap worn by the members of the University of Oxford,
England, is called an _Oxford_ or _Oxford cap_. The same is worn
at some American colleges on Exhibition and Commencement Days. In
shape, it is square and flat, covered with black cloth; from the
centre depends a tassel of black cord. It is further described in
the following passage.

My back equipped, it was not fair
My head should 'scape, and so, as square
As chessboard,
A _cap_ I bought, my skull to screen,
Of cloth without, and all within
Of pasteboard.
_Terrae-Filius_, Vol. II. p. 225.

Thunders of clapping!--As he bows, on high
"Praeses" his "_Oxford_" doffs, and bows reply.
_Childe Harvard_, p. 36.

It is sometimes called a _trencher cap_, from its shape.

See CAP.

OXFORD-MIXED. Cloth such as is worn at the University of Oxford,
England. The students in Harvard College were formerly required to
wear this kind of cloth as their uniform. The color is given in
the following passage: "By black-mixed (called also
_Oxford-mixed_) is understood, black with a mixture of not more
than one twentieth, nor less than one twenty-fifth, part of
white."--_Laws of Harv. Coll._, 1826, p. 25.

He generally dresses in _Oxford-mixed_ pantaloons, and a brown
surtout.--_Collegian_, p. 240.

It has disappeared along with Commons, the servility of Freshmen
and brutality of Sophomores, the _Oxford-mixed_ uniform and
buttons of the same color.--_Harv. Mag._, Vol. I. p. 263.

OXONIAN. A student or graduate of the University of Oxford,
England.

_P_.

PANDOWDY BAND. A correspondent writing from Bowdoin College says:
"We use the word _pandowdy_, and we have a custom of
_pandowdying_. The Pandowdy Band, as it is called, has no regular
place nor time of meeting. The number of performers varies from
half a dozen and less to fifty or more. The instruments used are
commonly horns, drums, tin-kettles, tongs, shovels, triangles,
pumpkin-vines, &c. The object of the band is serenading Professors
who have rendered themselves obnoxious to students; and sometimes
others,--frequently tutors are entertained by 'heavenly music'
under their windows, at dead of night. This is regarded on all
hands as an unequivocal expression of the feelings of the
students.

"The band corresponds to the _Calliathump_ of Yale. Its name is a
burlesque on the _Pandean Band_ which formerly existed in this
college."

See HORN-BLOWING.

PAPE. Abbreviated from PAPER, q.v.

Old Hamlen, the printer, he got out the _papes_.
_Presentation Day Songs_, Yale Coll., June 14, 1854.

But Soph'more "_papes_," and Soph'more scrapes,
Have long since passed away.--_Ibid._

PAPER. In the English Universities, a sheet containing certain
questions, to which answers are to be given, is called _a paper_.

_To beat a paper_, is to get more than full marks for it. In
explanation of this "apparent Hibernicism," Bristed remarks: "The
ordinary text-books are taken as the standard of excellence, and a
very good man will sometimes express the operations more neatly
and cleverly than they are worded in these books, in which case he
is entitled to extra marks for style."--_Five Years in an Eng.
Univ._, Ed. 2d, p. 238.

2. This name is applied at Yale College to the printed scheme
which is used at the Biennial Examinations. Also, at Harvard
College, to the printed sheet by means of which the examination
for entrance is conducted.

PARCHMENT. A diploma, from the substance on which it is usually
printed, is in familiar language sometimes called a _parchment_.

There are some, who, relying not upon the "_parchment_ and seal"
as a passport to favor, bear that with them which shall challenge
notice and admiration.--_Yale Lit. Mag._, Vol. III. p. 365.

The passer-by, unskilled in ancient lore,
Whose hands the ribboned _parchment_ never bore.
_Class Poem at Harv. Coll._, 1835, p. 7.

See SHEEPSKIN.

PARIETAL. From Latin _paries_, a wall; properly, _a
partition-wall_, from the root of _part_ or _pare_. Pertaining to
a wall.--_Webster_.

At Harvard College the officers resident within the College walls
constitute a permanent standing committee, called the Parietal
Committee. They have particular cognizance of all tardinesses at
prayers and Sabbath services, and of all offences against good
order and decorum. They are allowed to deduct from the rank of a
student, not exceeding one hundred for one offence. In case any
offence seems to them to require a higher punishment than
deduction, it is reported to the Faculty.--_Laws_, 1850, App.

Had I forgotten, alas! the stern _parietal_ monitions?
_Harvardiana_, Vol. III. p. 98.

The chairman of the Parietal Committee is often called the
_Parietal Tutor_.

I see them shaking their fists in the face of the _parietal
tutor_.--_Oration before H.L. of I.O. of O.F._, 1849.

The members of the committee are called, in common parlance,
_Parietals_.

Four rash and inconsiderate proctors, two tutors, and five
_parietals_, each with a mug and pail in his hand, in their great
haste to arrive at the scene of conflagration, ran over the Devil,
and knocked him down stairs.--_Harvardiana_, Vol. III. p. 124.

And at the loud laugh of thy gurgling throat,
The _parietals_ would forget themselves.
_Ibid._, Vol. III. p. 399 et passim.

Did not thy starting eyeballs think to see
Some goblin _parietal_ grin at thee?
_Ibid._, Vol. IV. p. 197.

The deductions made by the Parietal Committee are also called
_Parietals_.

How now, ye secret, dark, and tuneless chanters,
What is 't ye do? Beware the _parietals_.
_Harvardiana_, Vol. III. p. 44.

Reckon on the fingers of your mind the reprimands, deductions,
_parietals_, and privates in store for you.--_Orat. H.L. of I.O.
of O.F._, 1848.

The accent of this word is on the antepenult; by _poetic license_,
in four of the passages above quoted, it is placed on the penult.

PART. A literary appointment assigned to a student to be kept at
an Exhibition or Commencement. In Harvard College as soon as the
parts for an Exhibition or Commencement are assigned, the subjects
and the names of the performers are given to some member of one of
the higher classes, who proceeds to read them to the students from
a window of one of the buildings, after proposing the usual "three
cheers" for each of the classes, designating them by the years in
which they are to graduate. As the name of each person who has a
part assigned him is read, the students respond with cheers. This
over, the classes are again cheered, the reader of the parts is
applauded, and the crowd disperses except when the mock parts are
read, or the officers of the Navy Club resign their trusts.

Referring to the proceedings consequent upon the announcement of
appointments, Professor Sidney Willard, in his late work, entitled
"Memories of Youth and Manhood," says of Harvard College: "The
distribution of parts to be performed at public exhibitions by the
students was, particularly for the Commencement exhibition, more
than fifty years ago, as it still is, one of the most exciting
events of College life among those immediately interested, in
which parents and near friends also deeply sympathized with them.
These parts were communicated to the individuals appointed to
perform them by the President, who gave to them, severally, a
paper with the name of the person and of the part assigned, and
the subject to be written upon. But they were not then, as in
recent times, after being thus communicated by the President,
proclaimed by a voluntary herald of stentorian lungs, mounted on
the steps of one of the College halls, to the assembled crowd of
students. Curiosity, however, was all alive. Each one's part was
soon ascertained; the comparative merits of those who obtained the
prizes were discussed in groups; prompt judgments were pronounced,
that A had received a higher prize than he could rightfully claim,
and that B was cruelly wronged; that some were unjustly passed
over, and others raised above them through partiality. But at
whatever length their discussion might have been prolonged, they
would have found it difficult in solemn conclave to adjust the
distribution to their own satisfaction, while severally they
deemed themselves competent to measure the degree in the scale of
merit to which each was entitled."--Vol. I. pp. 328, 329.

I took but little pains with these exercises myself, lest I should
appear to be anxious for "_parts_."--_Monthly Anthology_, Boston,
1804, Vol. I. p. 154.

Often, too, the qualifications for a _part_ ... are discussed in
the fireside circles so peculiar to college.--_Harv. Reg._, p.
378.

The refusal of a student to perform the _part_ assigned him will
be regarded as a high offence.--_Laws Univ. at Cam., Mass._, 1848,
p. 19.

Young men within the College walls are incited to good conduct and
diligence, by the system of awarding _parts_, as they are called,
at the exhibitions which take place each year, and at the annual
Commencement.--_Eliot's Sketch of Hist. Harv. Coll._, pp. 114,
115.

It is very common to speak of _getting parts_.

Here
Are acres of orations, and so forth,
The glorious nonsense that enchants young hearts
With all the humdrumology of "_getting parts_."
_Our Chronicle of '26_, Boston, 1827, p. 28.

See under MOCK-PART and NAVY CLUB.

PASS. At Oxford, permission to receive the degree of B.A. after
passing the necessary examinations.

The good news of the _pass_ will be a set-off against the few
small debts.--_Collegian's Guide_, p. 254.

PASS EXAMINATION. At the University of Cambridge, Eng., an
examination which is required for the B.A. degree. Of these
examinations there are three during a student's undergraduateship.

Even the examinations which are disparagingly known as "_pass_"
ones, the Previous, the Poll, and (since the new regulations) the
Junior Optime, require more than half marks on their
papers.--_Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ._, Ed. 2d, p. 319.

PASSMAN. At Oxford, one who merely passes his examination, and
obtains testimonials for a degree, but is not able to obtain any
honors or distinctions. Opposed to CLASSMAN, q.v.

"Have the _passmen_ done their paper work yet?" asked Whitbread.
"However, the schools, I dare say, will not be open to the
classmen till Monday."--_Collegian's Guide_, p. 309.

PATRON. At some of the Colleges in the United States, the patron
is appointed to take charge of the funds, and to regulate the
expenses, of students who reside at a distance. Formerly, students
who came within this provision were obliged to conform to the laws
in reference to the patron; it is now left optional.

P.D. An abbreviation of _Philosophiae Doctor_, Doctor of
Philosophy. "In the German universities," says Brande, "the title
'Doctor Philosophiae' has long been substituted for Baccalaureus
Artium or Literarium."

PEACH. To inform against; to communicate facts by way of
accusation.

It being rather advisable to enter college before twelve, or to
stay out all night, bribing the bed-maker next morning not to
_peach_.--_Alma Mater_, Vol. I. p. 190.

When, by a little spying, I can reach
The height of my ambition, I must _peach_.
_The Gallinipper_, Dec. 1849.

PEMBROKER. At the University of Cambridge, Eng., a member of
Pembroke College.

The _Pembroker_ was booked to lead the Tripos.--_Bristed's Five
Years in an Eng. Univ._, Ed. 2d, p. 158.

PENE. Latin, _almost, nearly_. A candidate for admission to the
Freshman Class is called a _Pene_, that is, _almost_ a Freshman.

PENNILESS BENCH. Archdeacon Nares, in his Glossary, says of this
phrase: "A cant term for a state of poverty. There was a public
seat so called in Oxford; but I fancy it was rather named from the
common saying, than that derived from it."

Bid him bear up, he shall not
Sit long on _penniless bench_.
_Mass. City Mad._, IV. 1.

That everie stool he sate on was _pennilesse bench_, that his
robes were rags.--_Euphues and his Engl._, D. 3.

PENSIONER. French, _pensionnaire_, one who pays for his board. In
the University of Cambridge, Eng., and in that of Dublin, a
student of the second rank, who is not dependent on the foundation
for support, but pays for his board and other charges. Equivalent
to COMMONER at Oxford, or OPPIDANT of Eton school.--_Brande. Gent.
Mag._, 1795.

PERUVIAN. At the University of Vermont, a name by which the
students designate a lady; e.g., "There are two hundred
_Peruvians_ at the Seminary"; or, "The _Peruvians_ are in the
observatory." As illustrative of the use of this word, a
correspondent observes: "If John Smith has a particular regard for
any one of the Burlington ladies, and Tom Brown happens to meet
the said lady in his town peregrinations, when he returns to
College, if he meets John Smith, he (Tom) says to John, 'In yonder
village I espied a _Peruvian_'; by which John understands that Tom
has had the very great pleasure of meeting John's Dulcinea."

PETTY COMPOUNDER. At Oxford, one who pays more than ordinary fees
for his degree.

"A _Petty Compounder_," says the Oxford University Calendar, "must
possess ecclesiastical income of the annual value of five
shillings, or property of any other description amounting in all
to the sum of five pounds, per annum."--Ed. 1832, p. 92.

PHEEZE, or FEEZE. At the University of Vermont, to pledge. If a
student is pledged to join any secret society, he is said to be
_pheezed_ or _feezed_.

PHI BETA KAPPA. The fraternity of the [Greek: Phi Beta Kappa] "was
imported," says Allyn in his Ritual, "into this country from
France, in the year 1776; and, as it is said, by Thomas Jefferson,
late President of the United States." It was originally chartered
as a society in William and Mary College, in Virginia, and was
organized at Yale College, Nov. 13th, 1780. By virtue of a charter
formally executed by the president, officers, and members of the
original society, it was established soon after at Harvard
College, through the influence of Mr. Elisha Parmele, a graduate
of the year 1778. The first meeting in Cambridge was held Sept.
5th, 1781. The original Alpha of Virginia is now extinct.

"Its objects," says Mr. Quincy, in his History of Harvard
University, "were the 'promotion of literature and friendly
intercourse among scholars'; and its name and motto indicate, that
'philosophy, including therein religion as well as ethics, is
worthy of cultivation as the guide of life.' This society took an
early and a deep root in the University; its exercises became
public, and admittance into it an object of ambition; but the
'discrimination' which its selection of members made among
students, became an early subject of question and discontent. In
October, 1789, a committee of the Overseers, of which John Hancock
was chairman, reported to that board, 'that there is an
institution in the University, with the nature of which the
government is not acquainted, which tends to make a discrimination
among the students'; and submitted to the board 'the propriety of
inquiring into its nature and designs.' The subject occasioned
considerable debate, and a petition, of the nature of a complaint
against the society, by a number of the members of the Senior
Class, having been presented, its consideration was postponed, and
it was committed; but it does not appear from the records, that
any further notice was taken of the petition. The influence of the
society was upon the whole deemed salutary, since literary merit
was assumed as the principle on which its members were selected;
and, so far, its influence harmonized with the honorable motives
to exertion which have ever been held out to the students by the
laws and usages of the College. In process of time, its catalogue
included almost every member of the Immediate Government, and
fairness in the selection of members has been in a great degree
secured by the practice it has adopted, of ascertaining those in
every class who stand the highest, in point of conduct and
scholarship, according to the estimates of the Faculty of the
College, and of generally regarding those estimates. Having
gradually increased in numbers, popularity, and importance, the
day after Commencement was adopted for its annual celebration.
These occasions have uniformly attracted a highly intelligent and
cultivated audience, having been marked by a display of learning
and eloquence, and having enriched the literature of the country
with some of its brightest gems."--Vol. II. p. 398.

The immediate members of the society at Cambridge were formerly
accustomed to hold semi-monthly meetings, the exercises of which
were such as are usual in literary associations. At present,
meetings are seldom held except for the purpose of electing
members. Affiliated societies have been established at Dartmouth,
Union, and Bowdoin Colleges, at Brown and the Wesleyan
Universities, at the Western Reserve College, at the University of
Vermont, and at Amherst College, and they number among their
members many of the most distinguished men in our country. The
letters which constitute the name of the society are the initials
of its motto, [Greek: Philosophia, Biou Kubernaetaes], Philosophy,
the Guide of Life.

A further account of this society may be found in Allyn's Ritual
of Freemasonry, ed. 1831, pp. 296-302.

PHILISTINE. In Germany this name, or what corresponds to it in
that country, _Philister_, is given by the students to tradesmen
and others not belonging to the university.

Und hat der Bursch kein Geld im Beutel,
So pumpt er die Philister an.

And has the Bursch his cash expended?
To sponge the _Philistine's_ his plan.
_The Crambambuli Song_.

Mr. Halliwell, in his Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words,
says of this word, "a cant term applied to bailiffs, sheriffs'
officers, and drunkards." The idea of narrowmindedness, a
contracted mode of thinking, and meanness, is usually connected
with it, and in some colleges in the United States the name has
been given to those whose characters correspond with this
description.

See SNOB.

PHRASING. Reciting by, or giving the words or phraseology of the
book, without understanding their meaning.

Never should you allow yourself to think of going into the
recitation-room, and there trust to "skinning it," as it is called
in some colleges, or "_phrasing_," as in others.--_Todd's Students
Manual_, p. 115.

PIECE. "Be it known, at Cambridge the various Commons and other
places open for the gymnastic games, and the like public
amusements, are usually denominated _Pieces_."--_Alma Mater_,
London, 1827, Vol. II. p. 49.

PIETAS ET GRATULATIO. On the death of George the Second, and
accession of George the Third, Mr. Bernard, Governor of
Massachusetts, suggested to Harvard College "the expediency of
expressing sympathy and congratulation on these events, in
conformity with the practice of the English universities."
Accordingly, on Saturday, March 14, 1761, there was placed in the
Chapel of Harvard College the following "Proposal for a
Celebration of the Death of the late King, and the Accession of
his present Majesty, by members of Harvard College."

"Six guineas are given for a prize of a guinea each to the Author
of the best composition of the following several kinds:--1. A
Latin Oration. 2. A Latin Poem, in hexameters. 3. A Latin Elegy,
in hexameters and pentameters. 4 A Latin Ode. 5. An English Poem,
in long verse. 6. An English Ode.

"Other Compositions, besides those that obtain the prizes, that
are most deserving, will be taken particular notice of.

"The candidates are to be, all, Gentlemen who are now members of
said College, or have taken a degree within seven years.

"Any Candidate may deliver two or more compositions of different
kinds, but not more than one of the same kind.

"That Gentlemen may be more encouraged to try their talents upon
this occasion, it is proposed that the names of the Candidates
shall be kept secret, except those who shall be adjudged to
deserve the prizes, or to have particular notice taken of their
Compositions, and even these shall be kept secret if desired.

"For this purpose, each Candidate is desired to send his
Composition to the President, on or before the first day of July
next, subscribed at the bottom with, a feigned name or motto, and,
in a distinct paper, to write his own name and seal it up, writing
the feigned name or motto on the outside. None of the sealed
papers containing the real names will be opened, except those that
are adjudged to obtain the prizes or to deserve particular notice;
the rest will be burned sealed."

This proposal resulted in a work entitled, "Pietas et Gratulatio
Collegii Cantabrigiensis apud Novanglos." In January, 1762, the
Corporation passed a vote, "that the collections in prose and
verse in several languages composed by some of the members of the
College, on the motion of his Excellency our Governor, Francis
Bernard, Esq., on occasion of the death of his late Majesty, and
the accession of his present Majesty, be printed; and that his
Excellency be desired to send, if he shall judge it proper, a copy
of the same to Great Britain, to be presented to his Majesty, in
the name of the Corporation."

Quincy thus speaks of the collection:--"Governor Bernard not only
suggested the work, but contributed to it. Five of the thirty-one
compositions, of which it consists, were from his pen. The Address
to the King is stated to have been written by him, or by
Lieutenant-Governor Hutchinson. Its style and turn of thought
indicate the politician rather than the student, and savor of the
senate-chamber more than of the academy. The classical and poetic
merits of the work bear a fair comparison with those of European
universities on similar occasions, allowance being made for the
difference in the state of science and literature in the
respective countries; and it is the most creditable specimen
extant of the art of printing, at that period, in the Colonies.
The work is respectfully noticed by the 'Critical' and 'Monthly'
Reviews, and an Ode of the President is pronounced by both to be
written in a style truly Horatian. In the address prefixed, the
hope is expressed, that, as 'English colleges have had kings for
their nursing fathers, and queens for their nursing mothers, this
of North America might experience the royal munificence, and look
up to the throne for favor and patronage.' In May, 1763, letters
were received from Jasper Mauduit, agent of the Province,
mentioning 'the presentation to his Majesty of the book of verses
from the College,' but the records give no indication of the
manner in which it was received. The thoughts of George the Third
were occupied, not with patronizing learning in the Colonies, but
with deriving revenue from them, and Harvard College was indebted
to him for no act of acknowledgment or munificence."--_Quincy's
Hist. of Harv. Univ._, Vol. II. pp. 103-105.

The Charleston Courier, in an article entitled "Literary
Sparring," says of this production:--"When, as late as 1761,
Harvard University sent forth, in Greek, Latin, and English, its
congratulations on the accession of George the Third to the
throne, it was called, in England, a curiosity."--_Buckingham's
Miscellanies from the Public Journals_, Vol. I. p. 103.

Mr. Kendall, an English traveller, who visited Cambridge in the
year 1807-8, notices this work as follows:--"In the year 1761, on
the death of George the Second and the accession of his present
Majesty, Harvard College, or, as on this occasion it styles
itself, Cambridge College, produced a volume of tributary verses,
in English, Latin, and Greek, entitled, Pietas et Gratulatio
Collegii Cantabrigiensis apud Novanglos; and this collection, the
first received, and, as it has since appeared, the last to be
received, from this seminary, by an English king, was cordially
welcomed by the critical journals of the time."--_Kendall's
Travels_, Vol. III. p. 12.

For further remarks, consult the Monthly Review, Vol. XXIX. p. 22;
Critical Review, Vol. X. p. 284; and the Monthly Anthology, Vol.
VI. pp. 422-427; Vol. VII. p. 67.

PILL. In English Cantab parlance, twaddle, platitude.--_Bristed_.

PIMP. To do little, mean actions for the purpose of gaining favor
with a superior, as, in college, with an instructor. The verb with
this meaning is derived from the adjective _pimping_, which
signifies _little, petty_.

Did I not promise those who fished
And _pimped_ most, any part they wished.
_The Rebelliad_, p. 33.

PISCATORIAN. From the Latin _piscator_, a fisherman. One who seeks
or gains favor with a teacher by being officious toward him.

This word was much used at Harvard College in the year 1822, and
for a few years after; it is now very seldom heard.

See under FISH.

PIT. In the University of Cambridge, the place in St. Mary's
Church reserved for the accommodation of Masters of Arts and
Fellow-Commoners is jocularly styled the _pit_.--_Grad. ad
Cantab._

PLACE. In the older American colleges, the situation of a student
in the class of which he was a member was formerly decided, in a
measure, by the rank and circumstances of his family; this was
called _placing_. The Hon. Paine Wingate, who graduated at Harvard
College in the year 1759, says, in one of his letters to Mr.
Peirce:--

"You inquire of me whether any regard was paid to a student on
account of the rank of his parent, otherwise than his being
arranged or _placed_ in the order of his class?

"The right of precedence on every occasion is an object of
importance in the state of society. And there is scarce anything
which more sensibly affects the feelings of ambition than the rank
which a man is allowed to hold. This excitement was generally
called up whenever a class in college was _placed_. The parents
were not wholly free from influence; but the scholars were often
enraged beyond bounds for their disappointment in their _place_,
and it was some time before a class could be settled down to an
acquiescence in their allotment. The highest and the lowest in the
class was often ascertained more easily (though not without some
difficulty) than the intermediate members of the class, where
there was room for uncertainty whose claim was best, and where
partiality, no doubt, was sometimes indulged. But I must add,
that, although the honor of a _place_ in the class was chiefly
ideal, yet there were some substantial advantages. The higher part
of the class had generally the most influential friends, and they
commonly had the best chambers in College assigned to them. They
had also a right to help themselves first at table in Commons, and
I believe generally, wherever there was occasional precedence
allowed, it was very freely yielded to the higher of the class by
those who were below.

"The Freshman Class was, in my day at college, usually _placed_
(as it was termed) within six or nine months after their
admission. The official notice of this was given by having their
names written in a large German text, in a handsome style, and
placed in a conspicuous part of the College _Buttery_, where the
names of the four classes of undergraduates were kept suspended
until they left College. If a scholar was expelled, his name was
taken from its place; or if he was degraded (which was considered
the next highest punishment to expulsion), it was moved
accordingly. As soon as the Freshmen were apprised of their
places, each one took his station according to the new arrangement
at recitation, and at Commons, and in the Chapel, and on all other
occasions. And this arrangement was never afterward altered,
either in College or in the Catalogue, however the rank of their
parents might be varied. Considering how much dissatisfaction was
often excited by placing the classes (and I believe all other
colleges had laid aside the practice), I think that it was a
judicious expedient in Harvard to conform to the custom of putting
the names in _alphabetical_ order, and they have accordingly so
remained since the year 1772."--_Peirce's Hist. of Harv. Univ._,
pp. 308-811.

In his "Annals of Yale College," Ebenezer Baldwin observes on the
subject: "Doctor Dwight, soon after his election to the Presidency
[1795], effected various important alterations in the collegiate
laws. The statutes of the institution had been chiefly adopted
from those of European universities, where the footsteps of
monarchical regulation were discerned even in the walks of
science. So difficult was it to divest the minds of wise men of
the influence of venerable follies, that the printed catalogues of
students, until the year 1768, were arranged according to
respectability of parentage."--p. 147.

See DEGRADATION.

PLACET. Latin; literally, _it is pleasing_. In the University of
Cambridge, Eng., the term in which an _affirmative_ vote is given
in the Senate-House.

PLUCK. In the English universities, a refusal of testimonials for
a degree.

The origin of this word is thus stated in the Collegian's Guide:
"At the time of conferring a degree, just as the name of each man
to be presented to the Vice-Chancellor is read out, a proctor
walks once up and down, to give any person who can object to the
degree an opportunity of signifying his dissent, which is done by
plucking or pulling the proctor's gown. Hence another and more
common mode of stopping a degree, by refusing the testamur, or
certificate of proficiency, is also called plucking."--p. 203.

On the same word, the author in another place remarks as follows:
"As long back as my memory will carry me, down to the present day,
there has been scarcely a monosyllable in our language which
seemed to convey so stinging a reproach, or to let a man down in
the general estimation half as much, as this one word PLUCK."--p.
288.

PLUCKED. A cant term at the English universities, applied to those
who, for want of scholarship, are refused their testimonials for a
degree.--_Oxford Guide_.

Who had at length scrambled through the pales and discipline of
the Senate-House without being _plucked_, and miraculously
obtained the title of A.B.--_Gent. Mag._, 1795, p. 19.

O what a misery is it to be _plucked_! Not long since, an
undergraduate was driven mad by it, and committed suicide.--The
term itself is contemptible: it is associated with the meanest,
the most stupid and spiritless animals of creation. When we hear
of a man being _plucked_, we think he is necessarily a
goose.--_Collegian's Guide_, p. 288.

Poor Lentulus, twice _plucked_, some happy day
Just shuffles through, and dubs himself B.A.
_The College_, in _Blackwood's Mag._, May, 1849.

POKER. At Oxford, Eng., a cant name for a _bedel_.

If the visitor see an unusual "state" walking about, in shape of
an individual preceded by a quantity of _pokers_, or, which is the
same thing, men, that is bedels, carrying maces, jocularly called
_pokers_, he may be sure that that individual is the
Vice-Chancellor. _Oxford Guide_, 1847, p. xii.

POLE. At Princeton and Union Colleges, to study hard, e.g. to
_pole_ out the lesson. To _pole_ on a composition, to take pains
with it.

POLER. One who studies hard; a close student. As a boat is
impelled with _poles_, so is the student by _poling_, and it is
perhaps from this analogy that the word _poler_ is applied to a
diligent student.

POLING. Close application to study; diligent attention to the
specified pursuits of college.

A writer defines poling, "wasting the midnight oil in company with
a wine-bottle, box of cigars, a 'deck of eucre,' and three kindred
spirits," thus leaving its real meaning to be deduced from its
opposite.--_Sophomore Independent_, Union College, Nov., 1854.

POLL. Abbreviated from POLLOI.

Several declared that they would go out in "the _Poll_" (among the
[Greek: polloi], those not candidates for honors).--_Bristed's
Five Years in an Eng. Univ._, Ed. 2d, p. 62.

At Cambridge, those candidates for a degree who do not aspire to
honors are said to go out in the _poll_; this being the
abbreviated term to denote those who were classically designated
[Greek: hoi polloi].--_The English Universities and their
Reforms_, in _Blackwood's Magazine_, Feb. 1849.

POLLOI. [Greek: Hoi Polloi], the many. In the University of
Cambridge, Eng., those who take their degree without any honor.
After residing something more than three years at this University,
at the conclusion of the tenth term comes off the final
examination in the Senate-House. He who passes this examination in
the best manner is called Senior Wrangler. "Then follow about
twenty, all called Wranglers, arranged in the order of merit. Two
other ranks of honors are there,--Senior Optimes and Junior
Optimes, each containing about twenty. The last Junior Optime is
termed the Wooden Spoon. Then comes the list of the large
majority, called the _Hoy Polloi_, the first of whom is named the
_Captain of the Poll_, and the twelve last, the Apostles."--_Alma
Mater_, Vol. I. p. 3.

2. Used by students to denote the rabble.

On Learning's sea, his hopes of safety buoy,
He sinks for ever lost among the [Greek: hoi polloi].
_The Crayon_, Yale Coll., 1823, p. 21.

PONS ASINORUM. Vide ASSES' BRIDGE.

PONY. A translation. So called, it may be, from the fleetness and
ease with which a skilful rider is enabled to pass over places
which to a common plodder present many obstacles.

One writer jocosely defines this literary nag as "the animal that
ambulates so delightfully through all the pleasant paths of
knowledge, from whose back the student may look down on the weary
pedestrian, and 'thank his stars' that 'he who runs may
read.'"--_Sophomore Independent_, Union College, Nov. 1854

And stick to the law, Tom, without a _Pony_.--_Harv. Reg._, p.
194.

And when leaving, leave behind us
_Ponies_ for a lower class;
_Ponies_, which perhaps another,
Toiling up the College hill,
A forlorn, a "younger brother,"
"Riding," may rise higher still.
_Poem before the Y.H. Soc._, 1849, p. 12.

Their lexicons, _ponies_, and text-books were strewed round their
lamps on the table.--_A Tour through College_, Boston, 1832, p.
30.

In the way of "_pony_," or translation, to the Greek of Father
Griesbach, the New Testament was wonderfully convenient.--_New
England Magazine_, Vol. III. p. 208.

The notes are just what notes should be; they are not a _pony_,
but a guide.--_Southern Lit. Mess._

Instead of plodding on foot along the dusty, well-worn McAdam of
learning, why will you take nigh cuts on _ponies_?--_Yale Lit.
Mag._, Vol. XIII. p. 281.

The "board" requests that all who present themselves will bring
along the _ponies_ they have used since their first entrance into
College.--_The Gallinipper_, Dec. 1849.

The tutors with _ponies_ their lessons were learning.
_Yale Banger_, Nov. 1850.

We do think, that, with such a team of "_ponies_" and load of
commentators, his instruction might evince more accuracy.--_Yale
Tomahawk_, Feb. 1851.

In knowledge's road ye are but asses,
While we on _ponies_ ride before.
_Songs of Yale_, 1853, p. 7.

PONY. To use a translation.

We learn that they do not _pony_ their lessons.--_Yale Tomahawk_,
May, 1852.

If you _pony_, he will see,
And before the Faculty
You will surely summoned be.
_Songs of Yale_, 1853, p. 23.

POPPING. At William and Mary College, getting the advantage over
another in argument is called _popping_ him.

POPULARITY. In the college _use_, favor of one's classmates, or of
the members of all the classes, generally. Nowhere is this term
employed so often, and with so much significance, as among
collegians. The first wish of the Freshman is to be popular, and
the desire does not leave him during all his college life. For
remarks on this subject, see the Literary Miscellany, Vol. II. p.
56; Amherst Indicator, Vol. II. p. 123, _et passim_.

PORTIONIST. One who has a certain academical allowance or portion.
--_Webster_.

See POSTMASTER.

POSTED. Rejected in a college examination. Term used at the
University of Cambridge, Eng.--_Bristed_.

Fifty marks will prevent one from being "_posted_" but there are
always two or three too stupid as well as idle to save their
"_Post_." These drones are _posted_ separately, as "not worthy to
be classed," and privately slanged afterwards by the Master and
Seniors. Should a man be _posted_ twice in succession, he is
generally recommended to try the air of some Small College, or
devote his energies to some other walk of life.--_Bristed's Five
Years in an Eng. Univ._, Ed. 2d, p. 74.

POSTMASTER. In Merton College, Oxford, the scholars who are
supported on the foundation are called Postmasters, or Portionists
(_Portionistae_).--_Oxf. Guide_.

The _postmasters_ anciently performed the duties of choristers,
and their payment for this duty was six shillings and fourpence
per annum.--_Oxford Guide_, Ed. 1847, p. 36.

POW-WOW. At Yale College on the evening of Presentation Day, the
Seniors being excused from further attendance at prayers, the
classes who remain change their seats in the chapel. It was
formerly customary for the Freshmen, on taking the Sophomore
seats, to signalize the event by appearing at chapel in grotesque
dresses. The impropriety of such conduct has abolished this
custom, but on the recurrence of the day, a uniformity is
sometimes observable in the paper collars or white neck-cloths of
the in-coming Sophomores, as they file in at vespers. During the
evening, the Freshmen are accustomed to assemble on the steps of
the State-House, and celebrate the occasion by speeches, a
torch-light procession, and the accompaniment of a band of music.

The students are forbidden to occupy the State-House steps on the
evening of Presentation Day, since the Faculty design hereafter to
have a _Pow-wow_ there, as on the last.--_Burlesque Catalogue_,
Yale Coll., 1852-53, p. 35.

PRAESES. The Latin for President.

"_Praeses_" his "Oxford" doffs, and bows reply.
_Childe Harvard_, p. 36.

Did not the _Praeses_ himself most kindly and oft reprimand me?
_Harvardiana_, Vol. III. p. 98.

--the good old _Praeses_ cries,
While the tears stand in his eyes,
"You have passed and are classed
With the boys of 'Twenty-Nine.'"
_Knick. Mag._, Vol. XLV. p. 195.

PRAYERS. In colleges and universities, the religious exercises
performed in the chapel at morning and evening, at which all the
students are required to attend.

These exercises in some institutions were formerly much more
extended than at present, and must on some occasions have been
very onerous. Mr. Quincy, in his History of Harvard University,
writing in relation to the customs which were prevalent in the
College at the beginning of the last century, says on this
subject: "Previous to the accession of Leverett to the Presidency,
the practice of obliging the undergraduates to read portions of
the Scripture from Latin or English into Greek, at morning and
evening service, had been discontinued. But in January and May,
1708, this 'ancient and laudable practice was revived' by the
Corporation. At morning prayers all the undergraduates were
ordered, beginning with the youngest, to read a verse out of the
Old Testament from the Hebrew into Greek, except the Freshmen, who
were permitted to use their English Bibles in this exercise; and
at evening service, to read from the New Testament out of the
English or Latin translation into Greek, whenever the President
performed this service in the Hall." In less than twenty years
after the revival of these exercises, they were again
discontinued. The following was then established as the order of
morning and evening worship: "The morning service began with a
short prayer; then a chapter of the Old Testament was read, which
the President expounded, and concluded with prayer. The evening
service was the same, except that the chapter read was from the
New Testament, and on Saturday a psalm was sung in the Hall. On
Sunday, exposition was omitted; a psalm was sung morning and
evening; and one of the scholars, in course, was called upon to
repeat, in the evening, the sermons preached on that day."--Vol.
I. pp. 439, 440.

The custom of singing at prayers on Sunday evening continued for
many years. In a manuscript journal kept during the year 1793,
notices to the following effect frequently occur. "Feb. 24th,
Sunday. The singing club performed Man's Victory, at evening
prayers." "Sund. April 14th, P.M. At prayers the club performed
Brandon." "May 19th, Sabbath, P.M. At prayers the club performed
Holden's Descend ye nine, etc." Soon after this, prayers were
discontinued on Sunday evenings.

The President was required to officiate at prayers, but when
unable to attend, the office devolved on one of the Tutors, "they
taking their turns by course weekly." Whenever they performed this
duty "for any considerable time," they were "suitably rewarded for
their service." In one instance, in 1794, all the officers being
absent, Mr., afterwards Prof. McKean, then an undergraduate,
performed the duties of chaplain. In the journal above referred
to, under date of Feb. 22, 1793, is this note: "At prayers, I
declaimed in Latin"; which would seem to show, that this season
was sometimes made the occasion for exercises of a literary as
well as religious character.

In a late work by Professor Sidney Willard, he says of his father,
who was President of Harvard College: "In the early period of his
Presidency, Mr. Willard not unfrequently delivered a sermon at
evening prayers on Sunday. In the year 1794, I remember he
preached once or twice on that evening, but in the next year and
onward he discontinued the service. His predecessor used to
expound passages of Scripture as a part of the religious service.
These expositions are frequently spoken of in the diary of Mr.
Caleb Gannett when he was a Tutor. On Saturday evening and Sunday
morning and evening, generally the College choir sang a hymn or an
anthem. When these Sunday services were observed in the Chapel,
the Faculty and students worshipped on Lord's day, at the stated
hours of meeting, in the Congregational or the Episcopal Church."
--_Memories of Youth and Manhood_, Vol. I. pp. 137, 138.

At Yale College, one of the earliest laws ordains that "all
undergraduates shall publicly repeat sermons in the hall in their
course, and also bachelors; and be constantly examined on Sabbaths
[at] evening prayer."--_Pres. Woolsey's Discourse_, p. 59.

Prayers at this institution were at one period regulated by the
following rule. "The President, or in his Absence, one of the
Tutors in their Turn, shall constantly pray in the Chapel every
Morning and Evening, and read a Chapter, or some suitable Portion
of Scripture, unless a Sermon, or some Theological Discourse shall
then be delivered. And every Member of College is obliged to
attend, upon the Penalty of one Penny for every Instance of
Absence, without a sufficient Reason, and a half Penny for being
tardy, i.e. when any one shall come in after the President, or go
out before him."--_Laws Yale Coll._, 1774, p. 5.

A writer in the American Literary Magazine, in noticing some of
the evils connected with the American college system, describes
very truthfully, in the following question, a scene not at all
novel in student life. "But when the young man is compelled to
rise at an unusually early hour to attend public prayers, under
all kinds of disagreeable circumstances; when he rushes into the
chapel breathless, with wet feet, half dressed, and with the
prospect of a recitation immediately to succeed the devotions,--is
it not natural that he should be listless, or drowsy, or excited
about his recitation, during the whole sacred exercise?"--Vol. IV.
p. 517.

This season formerly afforded an excellent opportunity, for those
who were so disposed, to play off practical jokes on the person
officiating. On one occasion, at one of our colleges, a goose was
tied to the desk by some of the students, intended as emblematic
of the person who was accustomed to occupy that place. But the
laugh was artfully turned upon them by the minister, who, seeing
the bird with his head directed to the audience, remarked, that he
perceived the young gentlemen were for once provided with a parson
admirably suited to their capacities, and with these words left
them to swallow his well-timed sarcasm. On another occasion, a ram
was placed in the pulpit, with his head turned to the door by
which the minister usually entered. On opening the door, the
animal, diving between the legs of the fat shepherd, bolted down
the pulpit stairs, carrying on his back the sacred load, and with
it rushed out of the chapel, leaving the assemblage to indulge in
the reflections excited by the expressive looks of the astonished
beast, and of his more astonished rider.

The Bible was often kept covered, when not in use, with a cloth.
It was formerly a very common trick to place under this cloth a
pewter plate obtained from the commons hall, which the minister,
on uncovering, would, if he were a shrewd man, quietly slide under
the desk, and proceed as usual with the exercises.

At Harvard College, about the year 1785, two Indian images were
missing from their accustomed place on the top of the gate-posts
which stood in front of the dwelling of a gentleman of Cambridge.
At the same time the Bible was taken from the Chapel, and another,
which was purchased to supply its place, soon followed it, no one
knew where. One day, as a tutor was passing by the room of a
student, hearing within an uncommonly loud noise, he entered, as
was his right and office. There stood the occupant,[59] holding in
his hands one of the Chapel Bibles, while before him on the table
were placed the images, to which he appeared to be reading, but in
reality was vociferating all kinds of senseless gibberish. "What
is the meaning of this noise?" inquired the tutor in great anger.
"Propagating the _Gospel_ among the _Indians_, Sir," replied the
student calmly.

While Professor Ashur Ware was a tutor in Harvard College, he in
his turn, when the President was absent, officiated at prayers.
Inclined to be longer in his devotions than was thought necessary
by the students, they were often on such occasions seized with
violent fits of sneezing, which generally made themselves audible
in the word "A-a-shur," "A-a-shur."

The following lines, written by William C. Bradley when an
undergraduate at Harvard College, cannot fail to be appreciated by
those who have been cognizant of similar scenes and sentiments in
their own experience of student life.

"Hark! the morning Bell is pealing
Faintly on the drowsy ear,
Far abroad the tidings dealing,
Now the hour of prayer is near.
To the pious Sons of Harvard,
Starting from the land of Nod,
Loudly comes the rousing summons,
Let us run and worship God.

"'T is the hour for deep contrition,
'T is the hour for peaceful thought,
'T is the hour to win the blessing
In the early stillness sought;
Kneeling in the quiet chamber,
On the deck, or on the sod,
In the still and early morning,
'T is the hour to worship God.

"But don't _you_ stop to pray in secret,
No time for _you_ to worship there,
The hour approaches, 'Tempus fugit,'
Tear your shirt or miss a prayer.
Don't stop to wash, don't stop to button,
Go the ways your fathers trod;
Leg it, put it, rush it, streak it,
_Run_ and worship God.

"On the staircase, stamping, tramping,
Bounding, sounding, down you go;
Jumping, bumping, crashing, smashing,
Jarring, bruising, heel and toe.
See your comrades far before you
Through the open door-way jam,
Heaven and earth! the bell is stopping!
Now it dies in silence--d**n!"

PRELECTION. Latin, _praelectio_. A lecture or discourse read in
public or to a select company.

Further explained by Dr. Popkin: "In the introductory schools, I
think, _Prelections_ were given by the teachers to the learners.
According to the meaning of the word, the Preceptor went before,
as I suppose, and explained and probably interpreted the lesson or
lection; and the scholar was required to receive it in memory, or
in notes, and in due time to render it in recitation."--_Memorial
of John S. Popkin, D.D._, p. 19.

PRELECTOR. Latin, _praelector_. One who reads an author to others
and adds explanations; a reader; a lecturer.

Their so famous a _prelectour_ doth teach.--_Sheldon, Mir. of
Anti-Christ_, p. 38.

If his reproof be private, or with the cathedrated authority of a
_praelector_ or public reader.--_Whitlock, Mann. of the English_,
p. 385.

2. Same as FATHER, which see.

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