Part 5 out of 12
Exhibition, the writer says: "The performances were enlivened with
an excellent piece of music, sung by Harvard Singing Club,
accompanied with a band of music." From this time to the present
day, music, either vocal or instrumental, has formed a very
entertaining part of the Exhibition performances.
The exercises for exhibitions are assigned by the Faculty to
meritorious students, usually of the two higher classes. The
exhibitions are held under the direction of the President, and a
refusal to perform the part assigned is regarded as a high
offence.--_Laws of Univ. at Cam., Mass._, 1848, p. 19. _Laws Yale
Coll._, 1837, p. 16.
2. Allowance of meat and drink; pension; benefaction settled for
the maintenance of scholars in the English Universities, not
depending on the foundation.--_Encyc._
What maintenance he from his friends receives,
Like _exhibition_ thou shalt have from me.
_Two Gent. Verona_, Act. I. Sc. 3.
This word was formerly used in American colleges.
I order and appoint ... ten pounds a year for one _exhibition_, to
assist one pious young man.--_Quincy's Hist. Harv. Univ._, Vol. I.
As to the extending the time of his _exhibitions_, we agree to it.
--_Ibid._, Vol. I. p. 532.
In the yearly "Statement of the Treasurer" of Harvard College, the
word is still retained.
"A _school exhibition_," says a writer in the Literary World, with
reference to England, "is a stipend given to the head boys of a
school, conditional on their proceeding to some particular college
in one of the universities."--Vol. XII. p. 285.
EXHIBITIONER. One who has a pension or allowance, granted for the
encouragement of learning; one who enjoys an exhibition. Used
principally in the English universities.
2. One who performs a part at an exhibition in American colleges
is sometimes called an _exhibitioner_.
EXPEL. In college government, to command to leave; to dissolve the
connection of a student; to interdict him from further connection.
EXPULSION. In college government, expulsion is the highest
censure, and is a final separation from the college or university.
In the Diary of Mr. Leverett, who was President of Harvard College
from 1707 to 1724, is an account of the manner in which the
punishment of expulsion was then inflicted. It is as follows:--"In
the College Hall the President, after morning prayers, the
Fellows, Masters of Art, and the several classes of Undergraduates
being present, after a full opening of the crimes of the
delinquents, a pathetic admonition of them, and solemn obtestation
and caution to the scholars, pronounced the sentence of expulsion,
ordered their names to be rent off the tables, and them to depart
the Hall."--_Quincy's Hist. Harv. Univ._, Vol. I. p. 442.
In England, "an expelled man," says Bristed, "is shut out from the
learned professions, as well as from all Colleges at either
University."--_Five Years in an Eng. Univ._, Ed. 2d, p. 131.
FACILITIES. The means by which the performance of anything is
Among students, a general name for what are technically called
_ponies_ or translations.
All such subsidiary helps in learning lessons, he classed ...
under the opprobrious name of "_facilities_," and never scrupled
to seize them as contraband goods.--_Memorial of John S. Popkin,
D.D._, p. lxxvii.
FACULTY. In colleges, the masters and professors of the several
In America, the _faculty_ of a college or university consists of
the president, professors, and tutors.--_Webster_.
The duties of the faculty are very extended. They have the general
control and direction of the studies pursued in the college. They
have cognizance of all offences committed by undergraduates, and
it is their special duty to enforce the observance of all the laws
and regulations for maintaining discipline, and promoting good
order, virtue, piety, and good learning in the institution with
which they are connected. The faculty hold meetings to communicate
and compare their opinions and information, respecting the conduct
and character of the students and the state of the college; to
decide upon the petitions or requests which may be offered them by
the members of college, and to consider and suggest such measures
as may tend to the advancement of learning, and the improvement of
the college. This assembly is called a _Faculty-meeting_, a word
very often in the mouths of students.--_Coll. Laws_.
2. One of the members or departments of a university.
"In the origin of the University of Paris," says Brande, "the
seven liberal arts (grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic,
geometry, astronomy, and music) seem to have been the subjects of
academic instruction. These constituted what was afterwards
designated the Faculty of Arts. Three other faculties--those of
divinity, law, and medicine--were subsequently added. In all these
four, lectures were given, and degrees conferred by the
University. The four Faculties were transplanted to Oxford and
Cambridge, where they are still retained; although, in point of
fact, the faculty of arts is the only one in which substantial
instruction is communicated in the academical course."--_Brande's
Dict._, Art. FACULTY.
In some American colleges, these four departments are established,
and sometimes a fifth, the Scientific, is added.
FAG. Scotch, _faik_, to fail, to languish. Ancient Swedish,
_wik-a_, cedere. To drudge; to labor to weariness; to become
2. To study hard; to persevere in study.
Place me 'midst every toil and care,
A hapless undergraduate still,
To _fag_ at mathematics dire, &c.
_Gradus ad Cantab._, p. 8.
Dee, the famous mathematician, appears to have _fagged_ as
intensely as any man at Cambridge. For three years, he declares,
he only slept four hours a night, and allowed two hours for
refreshment. The remaining eighteen hours were spent in
study.--_Ibid._, p. 48.
How did ye toil, and _fagg_, and fume, and fret,
And--what the bashful muse would blush to say.
But, now, your painful tremors are all o'er,
Cloath'd in the glories of a full-sleev'd gown,
Ye strut majestically up and down,
And now ye _fagg_, and now ye fear, no more!
_Gent. Mag._, 1795, p. 20.
FAG. A laborious drudge; a drudge for another. In colleges and
schools, this term is applied to a boy of a lower form who is
forced to do menial services for another boy of a higher form or
But who are those three by-standers, that have such an air of
submission and awe in their countenances? They are
_fags_,--Freshmen, poor fellows, called out of their beds, and
shivering with fear in the apprehension of missing morning
prayers, to wait upon their lords the Sophomores in their midnight
revellings.--_Harvardiana_, Vol. II. p. 106.
His _fag_ he had well-nigh killed by a blow.
_Wallenstein in Bohn's Stand. Lib._, p. 155.
A sixth-form schoolboy is not a little astonished to find his
_fags_ becoming his masters.--_Lond. Quar. Rev._, Am. Ed., Vol.
LXXIII, p. 53.
Under the title FRESHMAN SERVITUDE will be found as account of the
manner in which members of that class were formerly treated in the
older American colleges.
2. A diligent student, i.e. a _dig_.
FAG. Time spent in, or period of, studying.
The afternoon's _fag_ is a pretty considerable one, lasting from
three till dark.--_Alma Mater_, Vol. I. p. 248.
After another _hard fag_ of a week or two, a land excursion would
be proposed.--_Ibid._, Vol. II. p. 56.
FAGGING. Laborious drudgery; the acting as a drudge for another at
a college or school.
2. Studying hard, equivalent to _digging, grubbing, &c._
Thrice happy ye, through toil and dangers past,
Who rest upon that peaceful shore,
Where all your _fagging_ is no more,
And gain the long-expected port at last.
_Gent. Mag._, 1795, p. 19.
To _fagging_ I set to, therefore, with as keen a relish as ever
alderman sat down to turtle.--_Alma Mater_, Vol. I. p. 123.
See what I pay for liberty to leave school early, and to figure in
every ball-room in the country, and see the world, instead of
_fagging_ at college.--_Collegian's Guide_, p. 307.
FAIR HARVARD. At the celebration of the era of the second century
from the origin of Harvard College, which was held at Cambridge,
September 8th, 1836, the following Ode, written by the Rev. Samuel
Gilman, D.D., of Charleston, S.C., was sung to the air, "Believe
me, if all those endearing young charms."
"FAIR HARVARD! thy sons to thy Jubilee throng,
And with blessings surrender thee o'er,
By these festival-rites, from the Age that is past,
To the Age that is waiting before.
O Relic and Type of our ancestors' worth,
That hast long kept their memory warm!
First flower of their wilderness! Star of their night,
Calm rising through change and through storm!
"To thy bowers we were led in the bloom of our youth,
From the home of our free-roving years,
When our fathers had warned, and our mothers had prayed,
And our sisters had blest, through their tears.
_Thou_ then wert our parent,--the nurse of our souls,--
We were moulded to manhood by thee,
Till, freighted with treasure-thoughts, friendships, and hopes,
Thou didst launch us on Destiny's sea.
"When, as pilgrims, we come to revisit thy halls,
To what kindlings the season gives birth!
Thy shades are more soothing, thy sunlight more dear,
Than descend on less privileged earth:
For the Good and the Great, in their beautiful prime,
Through thy precincts have musingly trod,
As they girded their spirits, or deepened the streams
That make glad the fair City of God.
"Farewell! be thy destinies onward and bright!
To thy children the lesson still give,
With freedom to think, and with patience to bear,
And for right ever bravely to live.
Let not moss-covered Error moor _thee_ at its side,
As the world on Truth's current glides by;
Be the herald of Light, and the bearer of Love,
Till the stock of the Puritans die."
Since the occasion on which this ode was sung, it has been the
practice with the odists of Class Day at Harvard College to write
the farewell class song to the tune of "Fair Harvard," the name by
which the Irish air "Believe me" has been adopted. The deep pathos
of this melody renders it peculiarly appropriate to the
circumstances with which it has been so happily connected, and
from which it is to be hoped it may never be severed.
See CLASS DAY.
FAIR LICK. In the game of football, when the ball is fairly caught
or kicked beyond the bounds, the cry usually heard, is _Fair lick!
"_Fair lick_!" he cried, and raised his dreadful foot,
Armed at all points with the ancestral boot.
_Harvardiana_, Vol. IV. p. 22.
FANTASTICS. At Princeton College, an exhibition on Commencement
evening, of a number of students on horseback, fantastically
dressed in masks, &c.
FAST. An epithet of one who is showy in dress, expensive or
apparently so in his mode of living, and inclined to spree.
Formerly used exclusively among students; now of more general
Speaking of the student signification of the word, Bristed
remarks: "A _fast man_ is not necessarily (like the London fast
man) a _rowing_ man, though the two attributes are often combined
in the same person; he is one who dresses flashily, talks big, and
spends, or affects to spend, money very freely."--_Five Years in
an Eng. Univ._, Ed. 2d, p. 23.
The _Fast_ Man comes, with reeling tread,
Cigar in mouth, and swimming head.
_MS. Poem_, F.E. Felton.
FAT. At Princeton College, a letter with money or a draft is thus
FATHER or PRAELECTOR. In the University of Cambridge, Eng., one of
the fellows of a college, who attends all the examinations for the
Bachelor's degree, to see that justice is done to the candidates
from his own college, who are at that time called his
_sons_.--_Gradus ad Cantab._
The _Fathers_ of the respective colleges, zealous for the credit
of the societies of which they are the guardians, are incessantly
employed in examining those students who appear most likely to
contest the palm of glory with their _sons_.--_Gent. Mag._, 1773,
FEBRUARY TWENTY-SECOND. At Shelby, Centre, and Bacon Colleges, in
Kentucky, it is customary to select the best orators and speakers
from the different literary societies to deliver addresses on the
twenty-second of February, in commemoration of the birthday of
Washington. At Bethany College, in Virginia, this day is observed
in a similar manner.
FEEZE. Usually spelled PHEEZE, q.v.
Under FLOP, another, but probably a wrong or obsolete,
signification is given.
FELLOW. A member of a corporation; a trustee. In the English
universities, a residence at the college, engagement in
instruction, and receiving therefor a stipend, are essential
requisites to the character of a _fellow_. In American colleges,
it is not necessary that a _fellow_ should be a resident, a
stipendiary, or an instructor. In most cases the greater number of
the _Fellows of the Corporation_ are non-residents, and have no
part in the instruction at the college.
With reference to the University of Cambridge, Eng., Bristed
remarks: "The Fellows, who form the general body from which the
other college officers are chosen, consist of those four or five
Bachelor Scholars in each year who pass the best examination in
classics, mathematics, and metaphysics. This examination being a
severe one, and only the last of many trials which they have gone
through, the inference is allowable that they are the most learned
of the College graduates. They have a handsome income, whether
resident or not; but if resident, enjoy the additional advantages
of a well-spread table for nothing, and good rooms at a very low
price. The only conditions of retaining their Fellowships are,
that they take orders after a certain time and remain unmarried.
Of those who do not fill college offices, some occupy themselves
with private pupils; others, who have property of their own,
prefer to live a life of literary leisure, like some of their
predecessors, the monks of old. The eight oldest Fellows at any
time in residence, together with the Master, have the government
of the college vested in them."--_Five Years in an Eng. Univ._,
Ed. 2d, p. 16.
For some remarks on the word Fellow, see under the title COLLEGE.
FELLOW-COMMONER. In the University of Cambridge, England,
_Fellow-Commoners_ are generally the younger sons of the nobility,
or young men of fortune, and have the privilege of dining at the
Fellows' table, whence the appellation originated.
"Fellow-Commoners," says Bristed, "are 'young men of fortune,' as
the _Cambridge Calendar_ and _Cambridge Guide_ have it, who, in
consideration of their paying twice as much for everything as
anybody else, are allowed the privilege of sitting at the Fellows'
table in hall, and in their seats at chapel; of wearing a gown
with gold or silver lace, and a velvet cap with a metallic tassel;
of having the first choice of rooms; and as is generally believed,
and believed not without reason, of getting off with a less number
of chapels per week. Among them are included the Honorables _not_
eldest sons,--only these wear a hat instead of the velvet cap, and
are thence popularly known as _Hat_ Fellow-Commoners."--_Five
Years in an Eng. Univ._, Ed. 2d, p. 13.
A _Fellow-Commoner_ at Cambridge is equivalent to an Oxford
_Gentleman-Commoner_, and is in all respects similar to what in
private schools and seminaries is called a _parlor boarder_. A
fuller account of this, the first rank at the University, will be
found in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1795, p. 20, and in the Gradus
ad Cantabrigiam, p. 50.
"Fellow-Commoners have been nicknamed '_Empty Bottles_'! They have
been called, likewise, 'Useless Members'! 'The licensed Sons of
Ignorance.'"--_Gradus ad Cantab._
The Fellow-Commoners, alias _empty bottles_, (not so called
because they've let out anything during the examination,) are then
presented.--_Alma Mater_, Vol. II. p. 101.
In the old laws of Harvard College we find the following: "None
shall be admitted a _Fellow-Commoner_ unless he first pay thirteen
pounds six and eight pence to the college. And every
_Fellow-Commoner_ shall pay double tuition money. They shall have
the privilege of dining and supping with the Fellows at their
table in the hall; they shall be excused from going on errands,
and shall have the title of Masters, and have the privilege of
wearing their hats as the Masters do; but shall attend all duties
and exercises with the rest of their class, and be alike subject
to the laws and government of the College," &c. The Hon. Paine
Wingate, a graduate of the class of 1759, says in reference to
this subject: "I never heard anything about _Fellow-Commoners_ in
college excepting in this paragraph. I am satisfied there has been
no such description of scholars at Cambridge since I have known
anything about the place."--_Peirce's Hist. Harv. Coll._, p. 314.
In the Appendix to "A Sketch of the History of Harvard College,"
by Samuel A. Eliot, is a memorandum, in the list of donations to
that institution, under the date 1683, to this effect. "Mr. Joseph
Brown, Mr. Edward Page, Mr. Francis Wainwright,
_fellow-commoners_, gave each a silver goblet." Mr. Wainwright
graduated in 1686. The other two do not appear to have received a
degree. All things considered, it is probable that this order,
although introduced from the University of Cambridge, England,
into Harvard College, received but few members, on account of the
evil influence which such distinctions usually exert.
FELLOW OF THE HOUSE. See under HOUSE.
FELLOW, RESIDENT. At Harvard College, the tutors were formerly
called _resident fellows_.--_Quincy's Hist. Harv. Univ._, Vol. I.
The _resident fellows_ were tutors to the classes, and instructed
them in Hebrew, "and led them through all the liberal arts before
the four years were expired."--_Harv. Reg._, p. 249.
FELLOWSHIP. An establishment in colleges, for the maintenance of a
In Harvard College, tutors were formerly called Fellows of the
House or College, and their office, _fellowships_. In this sense
that word is used in the following passage.
Joseph Stevens was chosen "Fellow of the College, or House," and
as such was approved by that board [the Corporation], in the
language of the records, "to supply a vacancy in one of the
_Fellowships_ of the House."--_Quincy's Hist. Harv. Univ._, Vol.
I. p. 279.
FELLOWS' ORCHARD. See TUTORS' PASTURE.
FEMUR. Latin; _a thigh-bone_. At Yale College, a _femur_ was
formerly the badge of a medical bully.
When hand in hand all joined in band,
With clubs, umbrellas, _femurs_,
Declaring death and broken teeth
'Gainst blacksmiths, cobblers, seamers.
_The Crayon_, Yale Coll., 1823, p. 14.
"One hundred valiant warriors, who
(My Captain bid me say)
Three _femurs_ wield, with one to fight,
With two to run away,
"Wait in Scull Castle, to receive,
With open gates, your men;
Their right arms nerved, their _femurs_ clenched,
Safe to protect ye then!"--_Ibid._, p. 23.
FERG. To lose the heat of excitement or passion; to become less
angry, ardent; to cool. A correspondent from the University of
Vermont, where this word is used, says: "If a man gets angry, we
'let him _ferg_,' and he feels better."
FESS. Probably abbreviated for CONFESS. In some of the Southern
Colleges, to fail in reciting; to silently request the teacher not
to put farther queries.
This word is in use among the cadets at West Point, with the same
And when you and I, and Benny, and General Jackson too,
Are brought before a final board our course of life to view,
May we never "_fess_" on any "point," but then be told to go
To join the army of the blest, with Benny Havens, O!
_Song, Benny Havens, O!_
FINES. In many of the colleges in the United States it was
formerly customary to impose fines upon the students as a
punishment for non-compliance with the laws. The practice is now
very generally abolished.
About the middle of the eighteenth century, the custom of
punishing by pecuniary mulets began, at Harvard College, to be
considered objectionable. "Although," says Quincy, "little
regarded by the students, they were very annoying to their
parents." A list of the fines which were imposed on students at
that period presents a curious aggregate of offences and
L s. d.
Absence from prayers, 0 0 2
Tardiness at prayers, 0 0 1
Absence from Professor's public lecture, 0 0 4
Tardiness at do. 0 0 2
Profanation of Lord's day, not exceeding 0 3 0
Absence from public worship, 0 0 9
Tardiness at do. 0 0 3
Ill behavior at do. not exceeding 0 1 6
Going to meeting before bell-ringing, 0 0 6
Neglecting to repeat the sermon, 0 0 9
Irreverent behavior at prayers, or public divinity
lectures, 0 1 6
Absence from chambers, &c., not exceeding 0 0 6
Not declaiming, not exceeding 0 1 6
Not giving up a declamation, not exceeding 0 1 6
Absence from recitation, not exceeding 0 1 6
Neglecting analyzing, not exceeding 0 3 0
Bachelors neglecting disputations, not exceeding 0 1 6
Respondents neglecting do. from 1s. 6d. to 0 3 0
Undergraduates out of town without leave, not exceeding 0 2 6
Undergraduates tarrying out of town without leave, not
exceeding _per diem_, 0 1 3
Undergraduates tarrying out of town one week without
leave, not exceeding 0 10 0
Undergraduates tarrying out of town one month without
leave, not exceeding 2 10 0
Lodging strangers without leave, not exceeding 0 1 6
Entertaining persons of ill character, not exceeding 0 1 6
Going out of College without proper garb, not exceeding 0 0 6
Frequenting taverns, not exceeding 0 1 6
Profane cursing, not exceeding 0 2 6
Graduates playing cards, not exceeding 0 5 0
Undergraduates playing cards, not exceeding 0 2 6
Undergraduates playing any game for money, not exceeding 0 1 6
Selling and exchanging without leave, not exceeding 0 1 6
Lying, not exceeding 0 1 6
Opening door by pick-locks, not exceeding 0 5 0
Drunkenness, not exceeding 0 1 6
Liquors prohibited under penalty, not exceeding 0 1 6
Second offence, not exceeding 0 3 0
Keeping prohibited liquors, not exceeding 0 1 6
Sending for do. 0 0 6
Fetching do. 0 1 6
Going upon the top of the College, 0 1 6
Cutting off the lead, 0 1 6
Concealing the transgression of the 19th Law, 0 1 6
Tumultuous noises, 0 1 6
Second offence, 0 3 0
Refusing to give evidence, 0 3 0
Rudeness at meals, 0 1 0
Butler and cook to keep utensils clean, not
exceeding 0 5 0
Not lodging at their chambers, not exceeding 0 1 6
Sending Freshmen in studying time, 0 0 9
Keeping guns, and going on skating, 0 1 0
Firing guns or pistols in College yard, 0 2 6
Fighting or hurting any person, not exceeding 0 1 6
In 1761, a committee, of which Lieutenant-Governor Hutchinson was
a member, was appointed to consider of some other method of
punishing offenders. Although they did not altogether abolish
mulets, yet "they proposed that, in lieu of an increase of mulcts,
absences without justifiable cause from any exercise of the
College should subject the delinquent to warning, private
admonition, exhortation to duty, and public admonition, with a
notification to parents; when recitations had been omitted,
performance of them should be exacted at some other time; and, by
way of punishment for disorders, confinement, and the performance
of exercises during its continuance, should be
enjoined."--_Quincy's Hist. Harv. Univ._, Vol. II. pp. 135, 136.
By the laws of 1798, fines not exceeding one dollar were imposed
by a Professor or Tutor, or the Librarian; not exceeding two
dollars, by the President; all above two dollars, by the
President, Professors, and Tutors, at a meeting.
Upon this subject, with reference to Harvard College, Professor
Sidney Willard remarks: "For a long period fines constituted the
punishment of undergraduates for negligence in attendance at the
exercises and in the performance of the lessons assigned to them.
A fine was the lowest degree in the gradation of punishment. This
mode of punishment or disapprobation was liable to objections, as
a tax on the father rather than a rebuke of the son, (except it
might be, in some cases, for the indirect moral influence produced
upon the latter, operating on his filial feeling,) and as a
mercenary exaction, since the money went into the treasury of the
College. It was a good day for the College when this punishment
through the purse was abandoned as a part of the system of
punishments; which, not confined to neglect of study, had been
extended also to a variety of misdemeanors more or less aggravated
and aggravating."--_Memories of Youth and Manhood_, Vol. I. p.
"Of fines," says President Woolsey, in his Historical Discourse
relating to Yale College, "the laws are full, and other documents
show that the laws did not sleep. Thus there was in 1748 a fine of
a penny for the absence of an undergraduate from prayers, and of a
half-penny for tardiness or coming in after the introductory
collect; of fourpence for absence from public worship; of from two
to six pence for absence from one's chamber during the time of
study; of one shilling for picking open a lock the first time, and
two shillings the second; of two and sixpence for playing at cards
or dice, or for bringing strong liquor into College; of one
shilling for doing damage to the College, or jumping out of the
windows,--and so in many other cases.
"In the year 1759, a somewhat unfair pamphlet was written, which
gave occasion to several others in quick succession, wherein,
amidst other complaints of President Clap's administration,
mention is made of the large amount of fines imposed upon
students. The author, after mentioning that in three years' time
over one hundred and seventy-two pounds of lawful money was
collected in this way, goes on to add, that 'such an exorbitant
collection by fines tempts one to suspect that they have got
together a most disorderly set of young men training up for the
service of the churches, or that they are governed and corrected
chiefly by pecuniary punishments;--that almost all sins in that
society are purged and atoned for by money.' He adds, with
justice, that these fines do not fall on the persons of the
offenders,--most of the students being minors,--but upon their
parents; and that the practice takes place chiefly where there is
the least prospect of working a reformation, since the thoughtless
and extravagant, being the principal offenders against College
law, would not lay it to heart if their frolics should cost them a
little more by way of fine. He further expresses his opinion, that
this way of punishing the children of the College has but little
tendency to better their hearts and reform their manners; that
pecuniary impositions act only by touching the shame or
covetousness or necessities of those upon whom they are levied;
and that fines had ceased to become dishonorable at College, while
to appeal to the love of money was expelling one devil by another,
and to restrain the necessitous by fear of fine would be extremely
cruel and unequal. These and other considerations are very
properly urged, and the same feeling is manifested in the laws by
the gradual abolition of nearly all pecuniary mulcts. The
practice, it ought to be added, was by no means peculiar to Yale
College, but was transferred, even in a milder form, from the
colleges of England."--pp. 47, 48.
In connection with this subject, it may not be inappropriate to
mention the following occurrence, which is said to have taken
place at Harvard College.
Dr. ----, _in propria persona_, called upon a Southern student one
morning in the recitation-room to define logic. The question was
something in this form. "Mr. ----, what is logic?" Ans. "Logic,
Sir, is the art of reasoning." "Ay; but I wish you to give the
definition in the exact words of the _learned author_." "O, Sir,
he gives a very long, intricate, confused definition, with which I
did not think proper to burden my memory." "Are you aware who the
learned author is?" "O, yes! your honor, Sir." "Well, then, I fine
you one dollar for disrespect." Taking out a two-dollar note, the
student said, with the utmost _sang froid_, "If you will change
this, I will pay you on the spot." "I fine you another dollar,"
said the Professor, emphatically, "for repeated disrespect." "Then
'tis just the change, Sir," said the student, coolly.
FIRST-YEAR MEN. In the University of Cambridge, England, the title
of _First-Year Men_, or _Freshmen_, is given to students during
the first year of their residence at the University.
FISH. At Harvard College, to seek or gain the good-will of an
instructor by flattery, caresses, kindness, or officious
civilities; to curry favor. The German word _fischen_ has a
secondary meaning, to get by cunning, which is similar to the
English word _fish_. Students speak of fishing for parts,
appointments, ranks, marks, &c.
I give to those that _fish for parts_,
Long, sleepless nights, and aching hearts,
A little soul, a fawning spirit,
With half a grain of plodding merit,
Which is, as Heaven I hope will say,
Giving what's not my own away.
_Will of Charles Prentiss, in Rural Repository_, 1795.
Who would let a Tutor knave
Screw him like a Guinea slave!
Who would _fish_ a fine to save!
Let him turn and flee.--_Rebelliad_, p. 35.
Did I not promise those who _fished_
And pimped most, any part they wished?--_Ibid._, p. 33.
'T is all well here; though 't were a grand mistake
To write so, should one "_fish_" for a "forty-eight!"
_Childe Harvard_, p. 33.
Still achieving, still intriguing,
Learn to labor and to _fish_.
_Poem before Y.H._, 1849.
The following passage explains more clearly, perhaps, the meaning
of this word. "Any attempt to raise your standing by ingratiating
yourself with the instructors, will not only be useless, but
dishonorable. Of course, in your intercourse with the Professors
and Tutors, you will not be wanting in that respect and courtesy
which is due to them, both as your superiors and as
gentlemen."--_Harvardiana_, Vol. III. p. 79.
Washington Allston, who graduated at Harvard College in the year
1800, left a painting of a fishing scene, to be transmitted from
class to class. It was in existence in the year 1828, but has
disappeared of late.
FISH, FISHER. One who attempts to ingratiate himself with his
instructor, thereby to obtain favor or advantage; one who curries
You besought me to respect my teachers, and to be attentive to my
studies, though it shall procure me the odious title of a
"_fisher_."--_Monthly Anthology_, Boston, 1804, Vol. I. p. 153.
FISHING. The act performed by a _fisher_. The full force of this
word is set forth in a letter from Dr. Popkin, a Professor at
Harvard College, to his brother William, dated Boston, October
"I am sensible that the good conduct which I have advised you, and
which, I doubt not, you are inclined to preserve, may expose you
to the opprobrious epithet, _fishing_. You undoubtedly understand,
by this time, the meaning of that frightful term, which has done
more damage in college than all the bad wine, and roasted pigs,
that have ever fired the frenzy of Genius! The meaning of it, in
short, is nothing less than this, that every one who acts as a
reasonable being in the various relations and duties of a scholar
is using the basest means to ingratiate himself with the
government, and seeking by mean compliances to purchase their
honors and favors. At least, I thought this to be true when I was
in the government. If times and manners are altered, I am heartily
glad of it; but it will not injure you to hear the tales of former
times. If a scholar appeared to perform his exercises to his best
ability, if there were not a marked contempt and indifference in
his manner, I would hear the whisper run round the class,
_fishing_. If one appeared firm enough to perform an unpopular
duty, or showed common civility to his instructors, who certainly
wished him well, he was _fishing_. If he refused to join in some
general disorder, he was insulted with _fishing_. If he did not
appear to despise the esteem and approbation of his instructors,
and to disclaim all the rewards of diligence and virtue, he was
suspected of _fishing_. The fear of this suspicion or imputation
has, I believe, perverted many minds which, from good and
honorable motives, were better disposed."--_Memorial of John S.
Popkin, D.D._, pp. xxvi., xxvii.
To those who've parts at exhibition,
Obtained by long, unwearied _fishing_,
I say, to such unlucky wretches,
I give, for wear, a brace of breeches.
_Will of Charles Prentiss, in Rural Repository_, 1795.
And, since his _fishing_ on the land was vain,
To try his luck upon the azure main.--_Class Poem_, 1835.
Whenever I needed advice or assistance, I did not hesitate,
through any fear of the charge of what, in the College cant, was
called "_fishing_," to ask it of Dr. Popkin.--_Memorial of John S.
Popkin, D.D._, p. ix.
At Dartmouth College, the electioneering for members of the secret
societies was formerly called _fishing_. At the same institution,
individuals in the Senior Class were said to be _fishing for
appointments_, if they tried to gain the good-will of the Faculty
by any special means.
FIVES. A kind of play with a ball against the side of a building,
resembling tennis; so named, because three _fives_ or _fifteen_
are counted to the game.--_Smart_.
A correspondent, writing of Centre College, Ky., says: "Fives was
a game very much in vogue, at which the President would often take
a hand, and while the students would play for ice-cream or some
other refreshment, he would never fail to come in for his share."
FIZZLE. Halliwell says: "The half-hiss, half-sigh of an animal."
In many colleges in the United States, this word is applied to a
bad recitation, probably from the want of distinct articulation
which usually attends such performances. It is further explained
in the Yale Banger, November 10, 1846: "This figure of a wounded
snake is intended to represent what in technical language is
termed a _fizzle_. The best judges have decided, that to get just
one third of the meaning right constitutes a _perfect fizzle_."
With a mind and body so nearly at rest, that naught interrupted my
inmost repose save cloudy reminiscences of a morning "_fizzle_"
and an afternoon "flunk," my tranquillity was sufficiently
enviable.--_Yale Lit. Mag._, Vol. XV. p. 114.
Here he could _fizzles_ mark without a sigh,
And see orations unregarded die.
_The Tomahawk_, Nov., 1849.
Not a wail was heard, or a "_fizzle's_" mild sigh,
As his corpse o'er the pavement we hurried.
_The Gallinipper_, Dec., 1849.
At Princeton College, the word _blue_ is used with _fizzle_, to
render it intensive; as, he made a _blue fizzle_, he _fizzled
FIZZLE. To fail in reciting; to recite badly. A correspondent from
Williams College says: "Flunk is the common word when some
unfortunate man makes an utter failure in recitation. He _fizzles_
when he stumbles through at last." Another from Union writes: "If
you have been lazy, you will probably _fizzle_." A writer in the
Yale Literary Magazine thus humorously defines this word:
"_Fizzle_. To rise with modest reluctance, to hesitate often, to
decline finally; generally, to misunderstand the question."--Vol.
XIV. p. 144.
My dignity is outraged at beholding those who _fizzle_ and flunk
in my presence tower above me.--_The Yale Banger_, Oct. 22, 1847.
I "skinned," and "_fizzled_" through.
_Presentation Day Songs_, June 14, 1854.
The verb _to fizzle out_, which is used at the West, has a little
stronger signification, viz. to be quenched, extinguished; to
prove a failure.--_Bartlett's Dict. Americanisms_.
The factious and revolutionary action of the fifteen has
interrupted the regular business of the Senate, disgraced the
actors, and _fizzled out_.--_Cincinnati Gazette_.
2. To cause one to fail in reciting. Said of an instructor.
_Fizzle_ him tenderly,
Bore him with care,
Fitted so slenderly,
_Yale Lit. Mag._, Vol. XIII. p. 321.
FIZZLING. Reciting badly; the act of making a poor recitation.
Of this word, a writer jocosely remarks: "_Fizzling_ is a somewhat
_free_ translation of an intricate sentence; proving a proposition
in geometry from a wrong figure. Fizzling is caused sometimes by a
too hasty perusal of the pony, and generally by a total loss of
memory when called upon to recite."--_Sophomore Independent_,
Union College, Nov. 1854.
_Yale Lit. Mag._, Vol. XV. p. 212.
FLAM. At the University of Vermont, in student phrase, to _flam_
is to be attentive, at any time, to any lady or company of ladies.
E.g. "He spends half his time _flamming_" i.e. in the society of
the other sex.
FLASH-IN-THE-PAN. A student is said to make a _flash-in-the-pan_
when he commences to recite brilliantly, and suddenly fails; the
latter part of such a recitation is a FIZZLE. The metaphor is
borrowed from a gun, which, after being primed, loaded, and ready
to be discharged, _flashes in the pan_.
FLOOR. Among collegians, to answer such questions as may be
propounded concerning a given subject.
Then Olmsted took hold, but he couldn't make it go,
For we _floored_ the Bien. Examination.
_Presentation Day Songs_, Yale Coll., June 14, 1854.
To _floor a paper_, is to answer every question in it.--_Bristed_.
Somehow I nearly _floored the paper_, and came out feeling much
more comfortable than when I went in.--_Bristed's Five Years in an
Eng. Univ._, Ed. 2d, p. 12.
Our best classic had not time to _floor_ the _paper_.--_Ibid._, p.
FLOP. A correspondent from the University of Vermont writes: "Any
'cute' performance by which a man is sold [deceived] is a _good
flop_, and, by a phrase borrowed from the ball ground, is 'rightly
played.' The discomfited individual declares that they 'are all on
a side,' and gives up, or 'rolls over' by giving his opponent
'gowdy.'" "A man writes cards during examination to 'feeze the
profs'; said cards are 'gumming cards,' and he _flops_ the
examination if he gets a good mark by the means." One usually
_flops_ his marks by feigning sickness.
FLOP A TWENTY. At the University of Vermont, to _flop a twenty_ is
to make a perfect recitation, twenty being the maximum mark for
FLUMMUX. Any failure is called a _flummux_. In some colleges the
word is particularly applied to a poor recitation. At Williams
College, a failure on the play-ground is called a _flummux_.
FLUMMUX. To fail; to recite badly. Mr. Bartlett, in his Dictionary
of Americanisms, has the word _flummix_, to be overcome; to be
frightened; to give way to.
Perhaps Parson Hyme didn't put it into Pokerville for two mortal
hours; and perhaps Pokerville didn't mizzle, wince, and finally
_flummix_ right beneath him.--_Field, Drama in Pokerville_.
FLUNK. This word is used in some American colleges to denote a
complete failure in recitation.
This, O, [signifying neither beginning nor end,] Tutor H---- said
meant a perfect _flunk_.--_The Yale Banger_, Nov. 10, 1846.
I've made some twelve or fourteen _flunks_.--_The Gallinipper_,
And that bold man must bear a _flunk_, or die,
Who, when John pleased be captious, dared reply.
_Yale Tomahawk_, Nov. 1849.
The Sabbath dawns upon the poor student burdened with the thought
of the lesson, or _flunk_ of the morrow morning.--_Ibid._, Feb.
He thought ...
First of his distant home and parents, tunc,
Of tutors' note-books, and the morrow's _flunk_.
_Ibid._, Feb. 1851.
In moody meditation sunk,
Reflecting on my future _flunk_.
_Songs of Yale_, 1853, p. 54.
And so, in spite of scrapes and _flunks_,
I'll have a sheep-skin too.
_Presentation Day Songs_, June 14, 1854.
Some amusing anecdotes are told, such as the well-known one about
the lofty dignitary's macaronic injunction, "Exclude canem, et
shut the door"; and another of a tutor's dismal _flunk_ on
faba.--_Harv. Mag._, Vol. I. p. 263.
FLUNK. To make a complete failure when called on to recite. A
writer in the Yale Literary Magazine defines it, "to decline
peremptorily, and then to whisper, 'I had it all, except that
confounded little place.'"--Vol. XIV. p. 144.
They know that a man who has _flunked_, because too much of a
genius to get his lesson, is not in a state to appreciate joking.
--_Amherst Indicator_, Vol. I. p. 253.
Nestor was appointed to deliver a poem, but most ingloriously
_flunked_.--_Ibid._, Vol. I. p. 256.
The phrase _to flunk out_, which Bartlett, in his Dictionary of
Americanisms, defines, "to retire through fear, to back out," is
of the same nature as the above word.
Why, little one, you must be cracked, if you _flunk out_ before we
It was formerly used in some American colleges as is now the word
We must have, at least, as many subscribers as there are students
in College, or "_flunk out."--The Crayon_, Yale Coll., 1823, p. 3.
FLUNKEY. In college parlance, one who makes a complete failure at
recitation; one who _flunks_.
I bore him safe through Horace,
Saved him from the _flunkey's_ doom.
_Yale Lit. Mag._, Vol. XX. p. 76.
FLUNKING. Failing completely in reciting.
_Flunking_ so gloomily,
Crushed by contumely.
_Yale Lit. Mag._, Vol. XIII. p. 322.
We made our earliest call while the man first called up in the
division-room was deliberately and gracefully
"_flunking_."--_Ibid._, Vol. XIV. p. 190.
See what a spot a _flunking_ Soph'more made!
_Yale Gallinipper_, Nov. 1848.
FLUNKOLOGY. A farcical word, designed to express the science _of
The ---- scholarship, is awarded to the student in each Freshman
Class who passes the poorest examination in
_Flunkology_.--_Burlesque Catalogue_, Yale Coll., 1852-53, p. 28.
FOOTBALL. For many years, the game of football has been the
favorite amusement at some of the American colleges, during
certain seasons of the year. At Harvard and Yale, it is customary
for the Sophomore Class to challenge the Freshmen to a trial game,
soon after their entrance into College. The interest excited on
this occasion is always very great, the Seniors usually siding
with the former, and the Juniors with the latter class. The result
is generally in favor of the Sophomores. College poets and
prose-writers have often chosen the game of football as a topic on
which to exercise their descriptive powers. One invokes his muse,
in imitation of a great poet, as follows:--
"The Freshmen's wrath, to Sophs the direful spring
Of shins unnumbered bruised, great goddess, sing!"
Another, speaking of the size of the ball in ancient times
compared with what it is at present, says:--
"A ball like this, so monstrous and so hard,
Six eager Freshmen scarce could kick a yard!"
Further compositions on this subject are to be found in the
Harvard Register, Harvardiana, Yale Banger, &c.
FORENSIC. A written argument, maintaining either the affirmative
or the negative side of a question.
In Harvard College, the two senior classes are required to write
_forensics_ once in every four weeks, on a subject assigned by the
Professor of Moral Philosophy; these they read before him and the
division of the class to which they belong, on appointed days. It
was formerly customary for the teacher to name those who were to
write on the affirmative and those on the negative, but it is now
left optional with the student which side he will take. This word
was originally used as an adjective, and it was usual to speak of
a forensic dispute, which has now been shortened into _forensic_.
For every unexcused omission of a _forensic_, or of reading a
_forensic_, a deduction shall be made of the highest number of
marks to which that exercise is entitled. Seventy-two is the
highest mark for _forensics_.--_Laws of Univ. at Cam., Mass._,
What with themes, _forensics_, letters, memoranda, notes on
lectures, verses, and articles, I find myself considerably
hurried.--_Collegian_, 1830, p. 241.
I call to mind _Forensics_ numberless,
With arguments so grave and erudite,
I never understood their force myself,
But trusted that my sage instructor would.
_Harvardiana_, Vol. III. p. 403.
FORK ON. At Hamilton College, _to fork on_, to appropriate to
FORTS. At Jefferson and at Washington Colleges in Pennsylvania,
the boarding-houses for the students are called _forts_.
FOUNDATION. A donation or legacy appropriated to support an
institution, and constituting a permanent fund, usually for a
In America it is also applied to a donation or legacy appropriated
especially to maintain poor and deserving, or other students, at a
In the selection of candidates for the various beneficiary
_foundations_, the preference will be given to those who are of
exemplary conduct and scholarship.--_Laws of Univ. at Cam.,
Mass._, 1848, p. 19.
Scholars on this _foundation_ are to be called "scholars of the
house."--_Sketches of Yale Coll._, p. 86.
FOUNDATIONER. One who derives support from the funds or foundation
of a college or a great school.--_Jackson_.
This word is not in use in the _United States_.
FOUNDATION SCHOLAR. At the University of Cambridge, Eng., a
scholar who enjoys certain privileges, and who is of that class
whence Fellows are taken.
Of the scholars of this name, Bristed remarks: "The table nearer
the door is filled by students in the ordinary Undergraduate blue
gown; but from the better service of their table, and perhaps some
little consequential air of their own, it is plain that they have
something peculiar to boast of. They are the Foundation Scholars,
from whom the future Fellows are to be chosen, in the proportion
of about one out of three. Their Scholarships are gained by
examination in the second or third year, and entitle them to a
pecuniary allowance from the college, and also to their commons
gratis (these latter subject to certain attendance at and service
in chapel), a first choice of rooms, and some other little
privileges, of which they are somewhat proud, and occasionally
they look as if conscious that some Don may be saying to a chance
visitor at the high table, 'Those over yonder are the scholars,
the best men of their year.'"--_Five Years in an Eng. Univ._, Ed.
2d, p. 20.
FOX. In the German universities, a student during the first
half-year is called a Fox (Fuchs), the same as Freshman. To this
the epithet _nasty_ is sometimes added.
On this subject, Howitt remarks: "On entering the University, he
becomes a _Kameel_,--a Camel. This happy transition-state of a few
weeks gone by, he comes forth finally, on entering a Chore, a
_Fox_, and runs joyfully into the new Burschen life. During the
first _semester_ or half-year, he is a gold fox, which means, that
he has _foxes_, or rich gold in plenty yet; or he is a
_Crass-fucks_, or fat fox, meaning that he yet swells or puffs
himself up with gold."--_Student Life of Germany_, Am. ed., p.
"Halloo there, Herdman, _fox_!" yelled another lusty tippler, and
Herdman, thus appealed to, arose and emptied the contents of his
glass.--_Yale Lit. Mag._, Vol. XII. p. 116.
At the same moment, a door at the end of the hall was thrown open,
and a procession of new-comers, or _Nasty Foxes_, as they are
called in the college dialect, entered two by two, looking wild,
and green, and foolish.--_Longfellow's Hyperion_, p. 109.
See also in the last-mentioned work the Fox song.
FREEZE. A correspondent from Williams College writes: "But by far
the most expressive word in use among us is _Freeze_. The meaning
of it might be felt, if, some cold morning, you would place your
tender hand upon some frosty door-latch; it would be a striking
specimen on the part of the door-latch of what we mean by
_Freeze_. Thus we _freeze_ to apples in the orchards, to fellows
whom we electioneer for in our secret societies, and alas! some
even go so far as to _freeze_ to the ladies."
"Now, boys," said Bob, "_freeze on_," and at it they went.--_Yale
Lit. Mag._, Vol. XII. p. 111.
FRESH. An abbreviation for Freshman or Freshmen; FRESHES is
sometimes used for the plural.
When Sophs met _Fresh_, power met opposing power. _Harv. Reg._, p.
The Sophs did nothing all the first fortnight but torment the
_Fresh_, as they call us.--_Harvardiana_, Vol. III. p. 76.
Listen to the low murmurings of some annihilated _Fresh_ upon the
Delta.--_Oration before H.L. of I.O. of O.F._, 1848.
FRESH. Newly come; likewise, awkward, like a Freshman.--_Grad. ad
For their behavior at table, spitting and coughing, and speaking
loud, was counted uncivil in any but a gentleman; as we say in the
university, that nothing is _fresh_ in a Senior, and to him it was
a glory.--_Archaeol. Atticae_, Edit. Oxon., 1675, B. VI.
FRESHMAN, _pl._ FRESHMEN. In England, a student during his first
year's residence at the university. In America, one who belongs to
the youngest of the four classes in college, called the _Freshman
FRESHMAN. Pertaining to a Freshman, or to the class called
FRESHMAN, BUTLER'S. At Harvard and Yale Colleges, a Freshman,
formerly hired by the Butler, to perform certain duties pertaining
to his office, was called by this name.
The Butler may be allowed a Freshman, to do the foregoing duties,
and to deliver articles to the students from the Buttery, who
shall be appointed by the President and Tutors, and he shall be
allowed the same provision in the Hall as the Waiters; and he
shall not be charged in the Steward's quarter-bills under the
heads of Steward and Instruction and Sweepers, Catalogue and
Dinner.--_Laws of Harv. Coll._, 1793, p. 61.
With being _butler's freshman_, and ringing the bell the first
year, waiter the three last, and keeping school in the vacations,
I rubbed through.--_The Algerine Captive_, Walpole, 1797, Vol. I.
See BUTLER, BUTTERY.
FRESHMAN CLUB. At Hamilton College, it is customary for the new
Sophomore Class to present to the Freshmen at the commencement of
the first term a heavy cudgel, six feet long, of black walnut,
brass bound, with a silver plate inscribed "_Freshman Club_." The
club is given to the one who can hold it out at arm's length the
longest time, and the presentation is accompanied with an address
from one of the Sophomores in behalf of his class. He who receives
the club is styled the "leader." The "leader" having been
declared, after an appropriate speech from a Freshman appointed
for that purpose, "the class," writes a correspondent, "form a
procession, and march around the College yard, the leader carrying
the club before them. A trial is then made by the class of the
virtues of the club, on the Chapel door."
FRESHMAN, COLLEGE. In Harvard University, a member of the Freshman
Class, whose duties are enumerated below. "On Saturday, after the
exercises, any student not specially prohibited may go out of
town. If the students thus going out of town fail to return so as
to be present at evening prayers, they must enter their names with
the _College Freshman_ within the hour next preceding the evening
study bell; and all students who shall be absent from evening
prayers on Saturday must in like manner enter their
names."--_Statutes and Laws of the Univ. in Cam., Mass._, 1825, p.
The _College Freshman_ lived in No. 1, Massachusetts Hall, and was
commonly called the _book-keeper_. The duties of this office are
now performed by one of the Proctors.
FRESHMANHOOD. The state of a _Freshman_, or the time in which one
is a Freshman, which is in duration a year.
But yearneth not thy laboring heart, O Tom,
For those dear hours of simple _Freshmanhood_?
_Harvardiana_, Vol. III. p. 405.
When to the college I came,
in the first dear day of _my freshhood_,
Like to the school we had left
I imagined the new situation.
_Ibid._, Vol. III. p. 98.
FRESHMANIC. Pertaining to a _Freshman_; resembling a _Freshman_,
or his condition.
The Junior Class had heard of our miraculous doings, and asserted
with that peculiar dignity which should at all times excite terror
and awe in the _Freshmanic_ breast, that they would countenance no
such proceedings.--_Harvardiana_, Vol. III. p. 316.
I do not pine for those _Freshmanic_ days.--_Ibid._, Vol. III. p.
FRESHMAN, PARIETAL. In Harvard College, the member of the Freshman
Class who gives notice to those whom the chairman of the Parietal
Committee wishes to see, is known by the name of the _Parietal
Freshman_. For his services he receives about forty dollars per
annum, and the rent of his room.
FRESHMAN, PRESIDENT'S. A member of the Freshman Class who performs
the official errands of the President, for which he receives the
same compensation as the PARIETAL FRESHMAN.
Then Bibo kicked his carpet thrice,
Which brought his _Freshman_ in a trice.
"You little rascal! go and call
The persons mentioned in this scroll."
The fellow, hearing, scarcely feels
The ground, so quickly fly his heels.
_Rebelliad_, p. 27.
FRESHMAN, REGENT'S. In Harvard College, a member of the Freshman
Class whose duties are given below.
"When any student shall return to town, after having had leave of
absence for one night or more, or after any vacation, he shall
apply to the _Regent's Freshman_, at his room, to enter the time
of his return; and shall tarry till he see it entered.
"The _Regent's Freshman_ is not charged under the heads of
Steward, Instruction, Sweepers, Catalogue, and Dinner."--_Laws of
Harv. Coll._, 1816, pp. 46, 47.
This office is now abolished.
FRESHMAN'S BIBLE. Among collegians, the name by which the body of
laws, the catalogue, or the calendar of a collegiate institution
is often designated. The significancy of the word _Bible_ is seen,
when the position in which the laws are intended to be regarded is
considered. The _Freshman_ is supposed to have studied and to be
more familiar with the laws than any one else, hence the propriety
of using his name in this connection. A copy of the laws are
usually presented to each student on his entrance into college.
Every year there issues from the warehouse of Messrs. Deighton,
the publishers to the University of Cambridge, an octavo volume,
bound in white canvas, and of a very periodical and business-like
appearance. Among the Undergraduates it is commonly known by the
name of the "_Freshman's Bible_,"--the public usually ask for the
"University Calendar."--_Westminster Rev._, Am. ed., Vol. XXXV. p.
See COLLEGE BIBLE.
FRESHMAN SERVITUDE. The custom which formerly prevailed in the
older American colleges of allowing the members of all the upper
classes to send Freshmen upon errands, and in other ways to treat
them as inferiors, appears at the present day strange and almost
unaccountable. That our forefathers had reasons which they deemed
sufficient, not only for allowing, but sanctioning, this
subjection, we cannot doubt; but what these were, we are not able
to know from any accounts which have come down to us from the
"On attending prayers the first evening," says one who graduated
at Harvard College near the close of the last century, "no sooner
had the President pronounced the concluding 'Amen,' than one of
the Sophomores sung out, 'Stop, Freshmen, and hear the customs
read.'" An account of these customs is given in President Quincy's
History of Harvard University, Vol. II. p. 539. It is entitled,
"THE ANCIENT CUSTOMS OF HARVARD COLLEGE, ESTABLISHED BY THE
GOVERNMENT OF IT."
"1. No Freshman shall wear his hat in the College yard, unless it
rains, hails, or snows, provided he be on foot, and have not both
"2. No Undergraduate shall wear his hat in the College yard when
any of the Governors of the College are there; and no Bachelor
shall wear his hat when the President is there.
"3. Freshmen are to consider all the other classes as their
"4. No Freshman shall speak to a Senior with his hat on, or
have it on in a Senior's chamber, or in his own, if a Senior be
"5. All the Undergraduates shall treat those in the Government of
the College with respect and deference; particularly they shall
not be seated without leave in their presence; they shall be
uncovered when they speak to them or are spoken to by them.
"6. All Freshmen (except those employed by the Immediate
Government of the College) shall be obliged to go on any errand
(except such as shall be judged improper by some one in the
Government of the College) for any of his Seniors, Graduates or
Undergraduates, at any time, except in studying hours, or after
nine o'clock in the evening.
"7. A Senior Sophister has authority to take a Freshman from a
Sophomore, a Middle Bachelor from a Junior Sophister, a Master
from a Senior Sophister, and any Governor of the College from a
"8. Every Freshman before he goes for the person who takes him
away (unless it be one in the Government of the College) shall
return and inform the person from whom he is taken.
"9. No Freshman, when sent on an errand, shall make any
unnecessary delay, neglect to make due return, or go away till
dismissed by the person who sent him.
"10. No Freshman shall be detained by a Senior, when not actually
employed on some suitable errand.
"11. No Freshman shall be obliged to observe any order of a Senior
to come to him, or go on any errand for him, unless he be wanted
"12. No Freshman, when sent on an errand, shall tell who he is
going for, unless he be asked; nor be obliged to tell what he is
going for, unless asked by a Governor of the College.
"13. When any person knocks at a Freshman's door, except in
studying time, he shall immediately open the door, without
inquiring who is there.
"14. No scholar shall call up or down, to or from, any chamber in
"15. No scholar shall play football or any other game in the
College yard, or throw any thing across the yard.
"16. The Freshmen shall furnish bats, balls, and footballs for the
use of the students, to be kept at the Buttery.
"17. Every Freshman shall pay the Butler for putting up his name
in the Buttery.
"18. Strict attention shall be paid by all the students to the
common rules of cleanliness, decency, and politeness.
"The Sophomores shall publish these customs to the Freshmen in the
Chapel, whenever ordered by any in the Government of the College;
at which time the Freshmen are enjoined to keep their places in
their seats, and attend with decency to the reading."
At the close of a manuscript copy of the laws of Harvard College,
transcribed by Richard Waldron, a graduate of the class of 1738,
when a Freshman, are recorded the following regulations, which
differ from those already cited, not only in arrangement, but in
COLLEGE CUSTOMS, ANNO 1734-5.
"1. No Freshman shall ware his hat in the College yard except it
rains, snows, or hails, or he be on horse back or haith both hands
"2. No Freshman shall ware his hat in his Seniors Chamber, or in
his own if his Senior be there.
"3. No Freshman shall go by his Senior, without taking his hat of
if it be on.
"4. No Freshman shall intrude into his Seniors company.
"5. No Freshman shall laugh in his Seniors face.
"6. No Freshman shall talk saucily to his Senior, or speak to him
with his hat on.
"7. No Freshman shall ask his Senior an impertinent question.
"8. Freshmen are to take notice that a Senior Sophister can take a
Freshman from a Sophimore, a Middle Batcelour from a Junior
Sophister, a Master from a Senior Sophister, and a Fellow from
"9. Freshmen are to find the rest of the Scholars with bats,
balls, and foot balls.
"10. Freshmen must pay three shillings a peice to the Butler to
have there names set up in the Buttery.
"11. No Freshman shall loiter by the [way] when he is sent of an
errand, but shall make hast and give a direct answer when he is
asked who he is going [for]. No Freshman shall use lying or
equivocation to escape going of an errand.
"12. No Freshman shall tell who [he] is going [for] except he be
asked, nor for what except he be asked by a Fellow.
"13. No Freshman shall go away when he haith been sent of an
errand before he be dismissed, which may be understood by saying,
it is well, I thank you, you may go, or the like.
"14. When a Freshman knocks at his Seniors door he shall tell
[his] name if asked who.
"15. When anybody knocks at a Freshmans door, he shall not aske
who is there, but shall immediately open the door.
"16. No Freshman shall lean at prayrs but shall stand upright.
"17. No Freshman shall call his classmate by the name of Freshmen.
"18. No Freshman shall call up or down to or from his Seniors
chamber or his own.
"19. No Freshman shall call or throw anything across the College
"20. No Freshman shall mingo against the College wall, nor go into
the Fellows cus john.
"21. Freshmen may ware there hats at dinner and supper, except
when they go to receive there Commons of bread and bear.
"22. Freshmen are so to carry themselves to there Seniors in all
respects so as to be in no wise saucy to them, and who soever of
the Freshmen shall brake any of these customs shall be severely
Another manuscript copy of these singular regulations bears date
September, 1741, and is entitled,
"THE CUSTOMS OF HARVARD COLLEGE, WHICH IF THE FRESHMEN DON'T
OBSERVE AND OBEY, THEY SHALL BE SEVERELY PUNISHED IF THEY HAVE
HEARD THEM READ."
"1. No Freshman shall wear his hat in the College yard, except it
rains, hails, or snows, he be on horseback, or hath both hands
"2. No Freshman shall pass by his Senior, without pulling his hat
"3. No Freshman shall be saucy to his Senior, or speak to him with
his hat on.
"4. No Freshman shall laugh in his Senior's face.
"5. No Freshman shall ask his Senior any impertinent question.
"6. No Freshman shall intrude into his Senior's company.
"7. Freshmen are to take notice that a Senior Sophister can take a
Freshman from a Sophimore, a Master from a Senior Sophister, and a
Fellow from a Master.
"8. When a Freshman is sent of an errand, he shall not loiter by
the way, but shall make haste, and give a direct answer if asked
who he is going for.
"9. No Freshman shall tell who he is a going for (unless asked),
or what he is a going for, unless asked by a Fellow.
"10. No Freshman, when he is going of errands, shall go away,
except he be dismissed, which is known by saying, 'It is well,'
'You may go,' 'I thank you,' or the like.
"11. Freshman are to find the rest of the scholars with bats,
balls, and footballs.
"12. Freshmen shall pay three shillings to the Butler to have
their names set up in the Buttery.
"13. No Freshman shall wear his hat in his Senior's chambers, nor
in his own if his Senior be there.
"14. When anybody knocks at a Freshman's door, he shall not ask
who is there, but immediately open the door.
"15. When a Freshman knocks at his Senior's door, he shall tell
his name immediately.
"16. No Freshman shall call his classmate by the name of Freshman.
"17. No Freshman shall call up or down, to or from his Senior's
chamber or his own.
"18. No Freshman shall call or throw anything across the College
yard, nor go into the Fellows' Cuz-John.
"19. No Freshman shall mingo against the College walls.
"20. Freshmen are to carry themselves, in all respects, as to be
in no wise saucy to their Seniors.
"21. Whatsoever Freshman shall break any of these customs, he
shall be severely punished."
A written copy of these regulations in Latin, of a very early
date, is still extant. They appear first in English, in the fourth
volume of the Immediate Government Books, 1781, p. 257. The two
following laws--one of which was passed soon after the
establishment of the College, the other in the year 1734--seem to
have been the foundation of these rules. "Nulli ex scholaribus
senioribus, solis tutoribus et collegii sociis exceptis, recentem
sive juniorem, ad itinerandum, aut ad aliud quodvis faciendum,
minis, verberibus, vel aliis modis impellere licebit. Et siquis
non gradatus in hanc legem peccaverit, castigatione corporali,
expulsione, vel aliter, prout praesidi cum sociis visum fuerit
punietur."--_Mather's Magnalia_, B. IV. p. 133.
"None belonging to the College, except the President, Fellows,
Professors, and Tutors, shall by threats or blows compel a
Freshman or any Undergraduate to any duty or obedience; and if any
Undergraduate shall offend against this law, he shall be liable to
have the privilege of sending Freshmen taken from him by the
President and Tutors, or be degraded or expelled, according to the
aggravation of the offence. Neither shall any Senior scholars,
Graduates or Undergraduates, send any Freshman on errands in
studying hours, without leave from one of the Tutors, his own
Tutor if in College."--_Peirce's Hist. Harv. Univ._, App., p. 141.
That this privilege of sending Freshmen on errands was abused in
some cases, we see from an account of "a meeting of the
Corporation in Cambridge, March 27th, 1682," at which time notice
was given that "great complaints have been made and proved against
----, for his abusive carriage, in requiring some of the Freshmen
to go upon his private errands, and in striking the said
In the year 1772, "the Overseers having repeatedly recommended
abolishing the custom of allowing the upper classes to send
Freshmen on errands, and the making of a law exempting them from
such services, the Corporation voted, that, 'after deliberate
consideration and weighing all circumstances, they are not able to
project any plan in the room of this long and ancient custom, that
will not, in their opinion, be attended with equal, if not
greater, inconveniences.'" It seems, however, to have fallen into
disuse, for a time at least, after this period; for in June, 1786,
"the retaining men or boys to perform the services for which
Freshmen had been heretofore employed," was declared to be a
growing evil, and was prohibited by the Corporation.--_Quincy's
Hist. Harv. Univ._, Vol. I. p. 515; Vol. II. pp. 274, 277.
The upper classes being thus forbidden to employ persons not
connected with the College to wait upon them, the services of
Freshmen were again brought into requisition, and they were not
wholly exempted from menial labor until after the year 1800.
Another service which the Freshmen were called on to perform, was
once every year to shake the carpets of the library and Philosophy
Chamber in the Chapel.
Those who refused to comply with these regulations were not
allowed to remain in College, as appears from the following
circumstance, which happened about the year 1790. A young man from
the West Indies, of wealthy and highly respectable parents,
entered Freshman, and soon after, being ordered by a member of one
of the upper classes to go upon an errand for him, refused, at the
same time saying, that if he had known it was the custom to
require the lower class to wait on the other classes, he would
have brought a slave with him to perform his share of these
duties. In the common phrase of the day, he was _hoisted_, i.e.
complained of to a tutor, and on being told that he could not
remain at College if he did not comply with its regulations, he
took up his connections and returned home.
With reference to some of the observances which were in vogue at
Harvard College in the year 1794, the recollections of Professor
Sidney Willard are these:--
"It was the practice, at the time of my entrance at College, for
the Sophomore Class, by a member selected for the purpose, to
communicate to the Freshmen, in the Chapel, 'the Customs,' so
called; the Freshmen being required to 'keep their places in their
seats, and attend with decency to the reading.' These customs had
been handed down from remote times, with some modifications not
essentially changing them. Not many days after our seats were
assigned to us in the Chapel, we were directed to remain after
evening prayers and attend to the reading of the customs; which
direction was accordingly complied with, and they were read and
listened to with decorum and gravity. Whether the ancient customs
of outward respect, which forbade a Freshman 'to wear his hat in
the College yard, unless it rains, hails, or snows, provided he be
on foot, and have not both hands full,' as if the ground on which
he trod and the atmosphere around him were consecrated, and the
article which extends the same prohibition to all undergraduates,
when any of the governors of the College are in the yard, were
read, I cannot say; but I think they were not; for it would have
disturbed that gravity which I am confident was preserved during
the whole reading. These prescripts, after a long period of
obsolescence, had become entirely obsolete.
"The most degrading item in the list of customs was that which
made Freshmen subservient to all the other classes; which obliged
those who were not employed by the Immediate Government of the
College to go on any errand, not judged improper by an officer of
the government, or in study hours, for any of the other classes,
the Senior having the prior right to the service.... The privilege
of claiming such service, and the obligation, on the other hand,
to perform it, doubtless gave rise to much abuse, and sometimes to
unpleasant conflict. A Senior having a claim to the service of a
Freshman prior to that of the classes below them, it had become a
practice not uncommon, for a Freshman to obtain a Senior, to whom,
as a patron and friend, he acknowledged and avowed a permanent
service due, and whom he called _his_ Senior by way of eminence,
thus escaping the demands that might otherwise be made upon him
for trivial or unpleasant errands. The ancient custom was never
abolished by authority, but died with the change of feeling; so
that what might be demanded as a right came to be asked as a
favor, and the right was resorted to only as a sort of defensive
weapon, as a rebuke of a supposed impertinence, or resentment of a
real injury."--_Memories of Youth and Manhood_, Vol. I. pp. 258,
The following account of this system, as it formerly obtained at
Yale College, is from President Woolsey's Historical Discourse
before the Graduates of that Institution, Aug. 14, 1850:--
"Another remarkable particular in the old system here was the
servitude of Freshmen,--for such it really deserved to be called.
The new-comers--as if it had been to try their patience and
endurance in a novitiate before being received into some monastic
order--were put into the hands of Seniors, to be reproved and
instructed in manners, and were obliged to run upon errands for
the members of all the upper classes. And all this was very
gravely meant, and continued long in use. The Seniors considered
it as a part of the system to initiate the ignorant striplings
into the college system, and performed it with the decorum of
dancing-masters. And, if the Freshmen felt the burden, the upper
classes who had outlived it, and were now reaping the advantages
of it, were not willing that the custom should die in their time.
"The following paper, printed I cannot tell when, but as early as
the year 1764, gives information to the Freshmen in regard to
their duty of respect towards the officers, and towards the older
students. It is entitled 'FRESHMAN LAWS,' and is perhaps part of a
book of customs which was annually read for the instruction of
"'It being the duty of the Seniors to teach Freshmen the laws,
usages, and customs of the College, to this end they are empowered
to order the whole Freshman Class, or any particular member of it,
to appear, in order to be instructed or reproved, at such time and
place as they shall appoint; when and where every Freshman shall
attend, answer all proper questions, and behave decently. The
Seniors, however, are not to detain a Freshman more than five
minutes after study bell, without special order from the
President, Professor, or Tutor.
"'The Freshmen, as well as all other Undergraduates, are to be
uncovered, and are forbidden to wear their hats (unless in stormy
weather) in the front door-yard of the President's or Professor's
house, or within ten rods of the person of the President, eight
rods of the Professor, and five rods of a Tutor.
"'The Freshmen are forbidden to wear their hats in College yard
(except in stormy weather, or when they are obliged to carry
something in their hands) until May vacation; nor shall they
afterwards wear them in College or Chapel.
"'No Freshman shall wear a gown, or walk with a cane, or appear
out of his room without being completely dressed, and with his
hat; and whenever a Freshman either speaks to a superior or is
spoken to by one, he shall keep his hat off until he is bidden to
put it on. A Freshman shall not play with any members of an upper
class, without being asked; nor is he permitted to use any acts of
familiarity with them, even in study time.
"'In case of personal insult, a Junior may call up a Freshman and
reprehend him. A Sophomore, in like case, must obtain leave from a
Senior, and then he may discipline a Freshman, not detaining him
more than five minutes, after which the Freshman may retire, even
without being dismissed, but must retire in a respectful manner.
"'Freshmen are obliged to perform all reasonable errands for any
superior, always returning an account of the same to the person
who sent them. When called, they shall attend and give a
respectful answer; and when attending on their superior, they are
not to depart until regularly dismissed. They are responsible for
all damage done to anything put into their hands by way of errand.
They are not obliged to go for the Undergraduates in study time,
without permission obtained from the authority; nor are they
obliged to go for a graduate out of the yard in study time. A
Senior may take a Freshman from a Sophimore, a Bachelor from a
Junior, and a Master from a Senior. None may order a Freshman in
one play time, to do an errand in another.
"'When a Freshman is near a gate or door belonging to College or
College yard, he shall look around and observe whether any of his
superiors are coming to the same; and if any are coming within
three rods, he shall not enter without a signal to proceed. In
passing up or down stairs, or through an entry or any other narrow
passage, if a Freshman meets a superior, he shall stop and give
way, leaving the most convenient side,--if on the stairs, the
banister side. Freshmen shall not run in College yard, or up or
down stairs, or call to any one through a College window. When
going into the chamber of a superior, they shall knock at the
door, and shall leave it as they find it, whether open or shut.
Upon entering the chamber of a superior, they shall not speak
until spoken to; they shall reply modestly to all questions, and
perform their messages decently and respectfully. They shall not
tarry in a superior's room, after they are dismissed, unless asked
to sit. They shall always rise whenever a superior enters or
leaves the room where they are, and not sit in his presence until
"'These rules are to be observed, not only about College, but
everywhere else within the limits of the city of New Haven.'
"This is certainly a very remarkable document, one which it
requires some faith to look on as originating in this land of
universal suffrage, in the same century with the Declaration of
Independence. He who had been moulded and reduced into shape by
such a system might soon become expert in the punctilios of the
court of Louis the Fourteenth.
"This system, however, had more tenacity of life than might be
supposed. In 1800 we still find it laid down as the Senior's duty
to inspect the manners and customs of the lower classes, and
especially of the Freshmen; and as the duty of the latter to do
any proper errand, not only for the authorities of the College,
but also, within the limits of one mile, for Resident Graduates
and for the two upper classes. By degrees the old usage sank down
so far, that what the laws permitted was frequently abused for the
purpose of playing tricks upon the inexperienced Freshmen; and
then all evidence of its ever having been current disappeared from
the College code. The Freshmen were formally exempted from the
duty of running upon errands in 1804."--pp. 54-56.
Among the "Laws of Yale College," published in 1774, appears the
following regulation: "Every Freshman is obliged to do any proper
Errand or Message, required of him by any one in an upper class,
which if he shall refuse to do, he shall be punished. Provided
that in Study Time no Graduate may send a Freshman out of College
Yard, or an Undergraduate send him anywhere at all without Liberty
first obtained of the President or Tutor."--pp. 14, 15.
In a copy of the "Laws" of the above date, which formerly belonged
to Amasa Paine, who entered the Freshman Class at Yale in 1781, is
to be found a note in pencil appended to the above regulation, in
these words: "This Law was annulled when Dr. [Matthew] Marvin, Dr.
M.J. Lyman, John D. Dickinson, William Bradley, and Amasa Paine
were classmates, and [they] claimed the Honor of abolishing it."
The first three were graduated at Yale in the class of 1785;
Bradley was graduated at the same college in 1784 and Paine, after
spending three years at Yale, was graduated at Harvard College in
the class of 1785.
As a part of college discipline, the upper classes were sometimes
deprived of the privilege of employing the services of Freshmen.
The laws on this subject were these:--
"If any Scholar shall write or publish any scandalous Libel about
the President, a Fellow, Professor, or Tutor, or shall treat any
one of them with any reproachful or reviling Language, or behave
obstinately, refractorily, or contemptuously towards either of
them, or be guilty of any Kind of Contempt, he may be punished by
Fine, Admonition, be deprived the Liberty of sending Freshmen for
a Time; by Suspension from all the Privileges of College; or
Expulsion, according as the Nature and Aggravation of the Crime
"If any Freshman near the Time of Commencement shall fire the
great Guns, or give or promise any Money, Counsel, or Assistance
towards their being fired; or shall illuminate College with
Candles, either on the Inside or Outside of the Windows, or
exhibit any such Kind of Show, or dig or scrape the College Yard
otherwise than with the Liberty and according to the Directions of
the President in the Manner formerly practised, or run in the
College Yard in Company, they shall be deprived the Privilege of
sending Freshmen three Months after the End of the Year."--_Laws
Yale Coll._, 1774, pp. 13, 25, 26.
To the latter of these laws, a clause was subsequently added,
declaring that every Freshman who should "do anything unsuitable
for a Freshman" should be deprived of the privilege "of sending
Freshmen on errands, or teaching them manners, during the first
three months of _his_ Sophomore year."--_Laws Yale Coll._, 1787,
in _Yale Lit. Mag._, Vol. XII. p. 140.
In the Sketches of Yale College, p. 174, is the following
anecdote, relating to this subject:--"A Freshman was once
furnished with a dollar, and ordered by one of the upper classes
to procure for him pipes and tobacco, from the farthest store on
Long Wharf, a good mile distant. Being at that time compelled by
College laws to obey the unreasonable demand, he proceeded
according to orders, and returned with ninety-nine cents' worth of
pipes and one pennyworth of tobacco. It is needless to add that he
was not again sent on a similar errand."
The custom of obliging the Freshmen to run on errands for the
Seniors was done away with at Dartmouth College, by the class of
1797, at the close of their Freshman year, when, having served
their own time out, they presented a petition to the Trustees to
have it abolished.
In the old laws of Middlebury College are the two following
regulations in regard to Freshmen, which seem to breathe the same
spirit as those cited above. "Every Freshman shall be obliged to
do any proper errand or message for the Authority of the College."
--"It shall be the duty of the Senior Class to inspect the manners
of the Freshman Class, and to instruct them in the customs of the
College, and in that graceful and decent behavior toward
superiors, which politeness and a just and reasonable
subordination require."--_Laws_, 1804, pp. 6, 7.
FRESHMANSHIP. The state of a Freshman.
A man who had been my fellow-pupil with him from the beginning of
our _Freshmanship_, would meet him there.--_Bristed's Five Years
in an Eng. Univ._, Ed. 2d, p. 150.
FRESHMAN'S LANDMARK. At Cambridge, Eng., King's College Chapel is
thus designated. "This stupendous edifice may be seen for several
miles on the London road, and indeed from most parts of the
adjacent country."--_Grad. ad Cantab._
FRESHMAN, TUTOR'S. In Harvard College, the _Freshman_ who occupies
a room under a _Tutor_. He is required to do the errands of the
Tutor which relate to College, and in return has a high choice of
rooms in his Sophomore year.
The same remarks, _mutatis mutandis_, apply to the _Proctor's
FRESH-SOPH. An abbreviation of _Freshman-Sophomore_. One who
enters college in the _Sophomore_ year, having passed the time of
the _Freshman_ year elsewhere.
I was a _Fresh-Sophomore_ then, and a waiter in the commons' hall.
--_Yale Lit. Mag._, Vol. XII. p. 114.
FROG. In Germany, a student while in the gymnasium, and before
entering the university, is called a _Frosch_,--a frog.
FUNK. Disgust; weariness; fright. A sensation sometimes
experienced by students in view of an examination.
In Cantab phrase I was suffering examination _funk_.--_Bristed's
Five Years in an Eng. Univ._, Ed. 2d, p. 61.
A singular case of _funk_ occurred at this examination. The man
who would have been second, took fright when four of the six days
were over, and fairly ran away, not only from the examination, but
out of Cambridge, and was not discovered by his friends or family
till some time after.--_Ibid._, p. 125.
One of our Scholars, who stood a much better chance than myself,
gave up from mere _funk_, and resolved to go out in the
Poll.--_Ibid._, p. 229.
2. Fear or sensibility to fear. The general application of the
So my friend's first fault is timidity, which is only not
recognized as such on account of its vast proportions. I grant,
then, that the _funk_ is sublime, which is a true and friendly
admission.--_A letter to the N.Y. Tribune_, in _Lit. World_, Nov.
GAS. To impose upon another by a consequential address, or by
detailing improbable stories or using "great swelling words"; to
deceive; to cheat.
Found that Fairspeech only wanted to "_gas_" me, which he did
pretty effectually.--_Sketches of Williams College_, p. 72.
GATE BILL. In the English universities, the record of a pupil's
failures to be within his college at or before a specified hour of
To avoid gate-bills, he will be out at night as late as he
pleases, and will defy any one to discover his absence; for he
will climb over the college walls, and fee his Gyp well, when he
is out all night--_Grad. ad Cantab._, p. 128.
GATED. At the English universities, students who, for
misdemeanors, are not permitted to be out of their college after
ten in the evening, are said to be _gated_.
"_Gated_," i.e. obliged to be within the college walls by ten
o'clock at night; by this he is prevented from partaking in
suppers, or other nocturnal festivities, in any other college or
in lodgings.--Note to _The College_, in _Blackwood's Mag._, May,
The lighter college offences, such as staying out at night or
missing chapel, are punished by what they term "_gating_"; in one
form of which, a man is actually confined to his rooms: in a more
mild way, he is simply restricted to the precincts of the college.
--_Westminster Rev._, Am. ed., Vol. XXXV. p. 241.
GAUDY. In the University of Oxford, a feast or festival. The days
on which they occur are called _gaudies_ or _gaudy days_. "Blount,
in his Glossographia," says Archdeacon Nares in his Glossary,
"speaks of a foolish derivation of the word from a Judge _Gaudy_,
said to have been the institutor of such days. But _such_ days
were held in all times, and did not want a judge to invent them."
Let's have one other _gaudy_ night: call to me
All my sad captains; fill our bowls; once more
Let's mock the midnight bell.
_Antony and Cleopatra_, Act. III. Sc. 11.
A foolish utensil of state,
Which like old plate upon a _gaudy day_,
's brought forth to make a show, and that is all.
_Goblins_, Old Play, X. 143.
Edmund Riche, called of Pontigny, Archbishop of Canterbury. After
his death he was canonized by Pope Innocent V., and his day in the
calendar, 16 Nov., was formerly kept as a "_gaudy_" by the members
of the hall.--_Oxford Guide_, Ed. 1847, p. 121.
2. An entertainment; a treat; a spree.