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A Century of Negro Migration by Carter G. Woodson

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De Tocqueville,
observation of, on the condition of free Negroes in the North,

Delaware,
disfranchisement of Negroes in,

Detroit,
Negroes in;
friends of fugitives in;
a gateway to Canada;
the Negro question in;
mob of, rises against Negroes;
successful Negroes of,

Dinwiddie, Governor,
Fears of, as to servile insurrection,

Diseases of Negroes in the North,

Distribution of intelligent blacks,

Douglass, Frederick,
the leading Negro journalist;
advice of, on staying in the South to retain political power;
comment of, on exodus to Kansas,

Downing, Thomas,
owner of a restaurant,

Drain of laborers to Mississippi and Louisiana;
to Arkansas and Texas,

Eaton, John,
work of, among the refugees,

Economic opportunities for the Negro in the North;
economic opportunities for Negroes in the South,

Educational facilities,
the lack of,

Elizabethtown,
friends of fugitives in,

Elliot, E.B.,
return of, from Boston to South Carolina,

Elmira,
friends of fugitives in,

Emancipation of the Negroes in the West Indies,
the effect of,

Epstein, Abraham,
an authority on the Negro migrant in Pittsburgh,

Exodus, the,
during the World War;
causes;
efforts of the South to check it;
Negroes divided on it;
whites divided on it;
unfortunate for the South;
probable results;
will increase political power of Negro;
exodus of the Negroes to Kansas,

Fear of Negro domination to cease,

Ficklen,
comment on freedmen's vagrancy,

Fiske, A.S.,
work of, among the contrabands,

Fleming,
comment of, on freedmen's vagrancy,

Floods of the Mississippi,
a cause of migration,

Foote, Ex-Governor of Mississippi,
liberal measure of, presented to Vicksburg convention,

Fort Chartres,
slaves of,

Forten, James,
a wealthy Negro,

Freedman's relief societies,
aid of,

Free Negroes,
opposed to American Colonization Society;
interested in African colonization;
National Council of,

French,
departure of, from West to keep slaves;
welcome of, to fugitive slaves of the English colonies;
good treatment of,

Friends of fugitives,

Fugitive Slave Law,
a destroyer of Negro settlements,

Fugitives coming to Pennsylvania,

Gallipolis,
friends of fugitives in,

Georgia,
laws of, against Negro mechanics;
slavery considered profitable in,

Germans antagonistic to Negroes;
favorable to fugitives in mountains;
opposed Negro settlement in Mercer County, Ohio;
their hatred of Negroes,

Gibbs, Judge M.W.,
went from Philadelphia to Arkansas,

Gilmore's High School,
work of, in Cincinnati,

Gist, Samuel,
settled his Negroes in Ohio,

Goodrich, William,
owner of railroad stock,

Gordon, Robert,
a successful coal dealer in Cincinnati,

Grant, General U.S.,
protected refugees in his camp;
retained them at Fort Donelson;
his use of the refugees,

Greener, R.T.,
comment of, on the exodus to Kansas;
went from Philadelphia to South Carolina,

Gregg, Theodore H.,
sent his manumitted slaves to Ohio,

Gulf States,
proposed Negro commonwealths of,

Guild of Caterers,
in Philadelphia,

Halleck, General,
excluded slaves from his lines,

Harlan, Robert,
a horseman,

Harper, John,
sent his slaves to Mercer County, Ohio,

Hamsburg,
Negroes in;
reaction against Negroes in,

Harrison, President William H.,
accommodated at the cafe of John Julius, a Negro,

Hayden,
a successful clothier,

Hayti,
the exodus of Negroes to,

Henry, Patrick,
on natural rights,

Hill of Chillicothe,
a tanner and currier,

Holly, James T.,
interest of, in colonization,

Hood, James W.,
went from Connecticut to North Carolina,

Hunter, General,
dealing with the refugees in South Carolina

Illinois,
the attitude of, toward the Negro;
race prejudice in;
slavery question in the organization of;
effort to make the constitution proslavery,

Immigration of foreigners,
cessation of, a cause of the Negro migration,

Indian Territory,
exodus of Negroes to,

Indiana,
the attitude of, toward the Negro;
counties of, receiving Negroes from slave states;
slavery question in the organization of;
effort to make constitution of pro-slavery;
race prejudice in;
protest against the settlement of Negroes there,

Indians,
attitude of, toward the Negroes,

Infirmary Farms,
for refugees,

Intimidation,
a cause of migration,

Irish,
antagonistic to Negroes;
their hatred of Negroes,

Jamaica,
Negroes of the United States settled in,

Jay's Treaty,

Jefferson, Thomas,
his plan for general education including the slaves;
plan to colonize Negroes in the West;
natural rights theory of;
an advocate of the colonization of the Negroes in the West Indies,

Jenkins, David,
a paper hanger and glazier,

Johnson, General,
permitted slave hunters to seek their slaves in his lines,

Julius, John,
proprietor of a cafe in which he entertained President William H.
Harrison,

_Kansas Freedmen's Relief Association_,
the work of,

Kansas refugees,
condition of;
treatment of,

Kaokia,
slaves of,

Kaskaskia,
slaves of,

Keith, George,
interested in the Negroes,

Kentucky,
disfranchisement of Negroes in;
abolition society of, advocated the colonization of the blacks in
the West,

Key, Francis S.,
a colonizationist,

Kingsley, Z.,
a master, settled his son of color in Hayti,

Ku Klux Klan,
the work of,

Labor agents promoting the migration of Negroes,

Lambert, William,
interest of, in the colonization of Negroes,

Land tenure,
a cause of unrest;
after Reconstruction,

Langston, John M.,
returned from Ohio to Virginia,

Lawrence County, Ohio,
Negroes immigrated into,

Liberia,
freedmen sent to,

Lincoln, Abraham,
urged withholding slaves,

Louis XIV,
slave regulations of,

Louisiana,
drain of laborers to;
exodus from;
refugees in,

Lower Camps, Brown County,
Negroes of,

Lower Louisiana,
conditions of;
conditions of slaves in,

Lundy, Benjamin,
promoter of the migration of Negroes,

Lynching,
a cause of migration;
number of Negroes lynched,

McCook, General,
permitted slave hunters to seek their Negroes in his lines,

Maryland,
disfranchisement of Negroes in;
passed laws against Negro mechanics;
reaction in,

Massachusetts,
exterminated slavery,

Meade, Bishop William,
a colonizationist,

Mercer County, Ohio,
successful Negroes of;
resolutions of citizens against Negroes,

Miami County,
Randolph's Negroes sent to,

Michigan,
Negroes transplanted to;
attitude of, toward the Negro,

Migration, the,
of the talented tenth;
handicaps of;
of politicians to Washington;
of educated Negroes;
of the intelligent laboring class;
effect of Negroes' prospective political power;
to northern cities,

Miles, N.E.,
interest in stopping the exodus to Kansas,

Mississippi,
drain of laborers to;
exodus from;
refugees in;
slaves along,

Morgan, Senator,
of Alabama, interested in sending the Negroes to Africa,

Movement of the blacks to the western territory;
promoted by Quakers,

Movements of Negroes during the Civil War;
of poor whites,

Mulber, Stephen,
a contractor,

Murder of Negroes in the South,

Natural rights,
the effect of;
the discussion of, on the condition of the Negro,

Negro journalists,
the number of

Negroes,
condition of, after Reconstruction;
escaped to the West;
those having wealth tend to remain in the South;
migration of, to Mexico;
exodus of, to Liberia;
no freedom of speech of;
not migratory;
leaders of Reconstruction, largely from the North;
mechanics in Cincinnati;
servants on Ohio river vessels,

New Hampshire,
exterminated slavery,

New Jersey,
abolished slavery

New York,
abolition of slavery in;
friends of fugitives in;
mobs of, attack Negroes;
Negro suffrage in;
restrictions of, on Negroes,

North Carolina,
Negro suffrage in;
Quakers of, promoting the migration of the Negroes;
reaction in,

North,
change in attitude of, toward the Negro;
divided in its sentiment as to method of helping the Negro;
favorable sentiment of;
trade of, with the South;
fugitives not generally welcomed;
its Negro problem;
housing the Negro in;
criminal class of Negroes in,
loss of interest of, in the Negro;
not a place of refuge for Negroes;

Northwest,
few Negroes in, at first;
hesitation to go there because of the ordinance of 1787,

Noyes Academy,
broken up because it admitted Negroes,

Nugent, Colonel W.L.,
interest in stopping the exodus to Kansas,

Occupations of Negroes in the North,

Ohio,
Negro question in constitutional convention of;
in the legislature of 1804;
black laws of;
protest against Negroes,

Oklahoma,
Negroes in;
discouraged by early settlers of,

Ordinance of 1784 rejected,

Ordinance of 1787,
passed;
meaning of sixth article of;
reasons for the passage of;
did not at first disturb slavery;
construction of,

Otis, James,
on natural rights,

Pacific Railroad,
proposal to build, with refugee labor,

Palmyra,
race prejudice of,

Pelham, Robert A.,
father of, moved to Detroit,

Penn, William,
advocate of emancipation,

Pennsylvania,
effort in, to force free Negroes to support their dependents;
effort to prevent immigration of Negroes;
increase in the population of free Negroes of;
petitions to rid the State of Negroes by colonization;
era of good feeling in;
exterminated slavery;
the migration of freedmen from North Carolina to;
Negro suffrage in;
passed laws against Negro mechanics;
successful Negroes of,

Peonage,
a cause of migration,

Philadelphia,
Negroes rush to;
race friction of;
woman of color stoned to death;
Negro church disturbed;
reaction against Negroes;
riots in;
successful Negroes of;
property owned by Negroes,

Pierce, E.S.,
plan for handling refugees in South Carolina,

Pinchback, P.B.S.,
return of, from Ohio to Louisiana to enter politics,

Pittman, Philip,
account of West, of,

Pittsburgh,
friends of fugitives in;
Negro of, married to French woman;
kind treatment of refugees;
respectable mulatto woman married to a surgeon of Nantes;
riot in,

Platt, William,
a lumber merchant,

Political power,
not to be the only aim of the migrants;
the mistakes of such a policy,

Polities,
a cause of unrest,

Pollard, N.W.,
agent of the Government of Trinidad, sought Negroes in the United
States,

Portsmouth,
friends of fugitives of,

Portsmouth, Ohio,
mob of, drives Negroes out;
progressive Negroes of,

Prairie du Rocher,
slaves of,

Press comments on sending Negroes to Africa,

Puritans,
not much interested in the Negro,

Quakers,
promoted the movement of the blacks to Western territory;
in the mountains assisted fugitives,

Race prejudice,
the effects of;
among laboring classes,

Randolph, John,
a colonizationist;
sought to settle his slaves in Mercer County, Ohio,

Reaction against the Negro,

Reconstruction,
promoted to an extent by Negro natives of North,

Redpath, James,
interest of, in colonization,

Refugees assembled in camps;
in West;
in Washington;
in South;
exodus of, to the North;
fear that they would overrun the North;
development of;
vagrancy at close of war,

Renault, Philip Francis,
imported slaves,

Resolutions of the Vicksburg Convention bearing on the exodus to
Kansas,

Rhode Island,
exterminated slavery,

Richards, Benjamin,
a wealthy Negro of Pittsburgh,

Richard, Fannie M.,
a successful teacher in Detroit,

Riley, William H.,
a well-to-do bootmaker,

Ringold, Thomas,
advertisement of, for a slave in the West,

Rochester,
friends of fugitives in,

Saint John, Governor,
aid of, to the Negroes in Kansas,

Sandy Lake,
Negro settlement in,

Saunders of Cabell County, Virginia,
sent manumitted slaves to Cass County, Michigan,

Saxton, General Rufus,
plan for handling refugees in South Carolina,

Scotch-Irish Presbyterians,
favorable to fugitives,

Scott, Henry,
owner of a pickling business,

Scroggs, Wm. O.,
referred to as authority on interstate migration,

Segregation,
a cause of migration,

Shelby County, Ohio,
Negroes in,

Sierra Leone,
Negroes of, settled in Jamaica,

Simmons, W.J.,
returned from Pennsylvania to Kentucky,

Singleton, Moses,
leader of the exodus from Kansas,

Sixth Article of Ordinance of 1787,

Slave Code in Louisiana,

Slavery in the Northwest;
slavery in Indiana;
slavery of whites,

Slaves,
mingled freely with their masters in early West,

Smith, Gerrit,
effort to colonize Negroes in New York,

Smith, Stephen,
a lumber merchant,

South Carolina,
slavery considered profitable there,

South,
change of attitude of, toward the Negro;
drastic laws against vagrancy,

Southern States divided on the Negro,

Spears, Noah,
sent his manumitted slaves to Greene County, Ohio,

Starr, Frederick,
comment of, on the refugees,

Steubenville,
successful Negroes of,

Still, William,
a coal merchant,

St. Philippe,
slaves of,

Success of Negro migrants,

Suffrage of the Negroes in the colonies,

Tappan, Arthur,
attacked by New York mob,

Tappan, Lewis,
attacked by New York mob,

Terrorism,
a cause of migration,

Texas,
drain of laborers to;
proposed colony of Negroes there,

Thomas, General,
opened farms for refugees,

Thompson, A.V.,
a tailor,

Thompson, C.M.,
comment on freedmen's vagrancy,

Topp, W.H.,
a merchant tailor,

Trades unions,
attitude of, toward Negro labor,

Trinidad,
the exodus of Negroes to;
Negroes from Philadelphia settled there,

Turner, Bishop H.M.,
interested in sending Negroes to Africa,

Upper and Lower Camps of Brown County, Ohio,
Negroes of,

Upper Louisiana,
conditions of;
conditions of slaves in,

Unrest of the Negroes in the South after Reconstruction;
causes of;
credit system a cause;
land system a cause;
further unrest of intelligent Negroes,

Utica,
mob of, attacked anti-slavery leaders,

Vagrancy of Negroes after emancipation;
drastic legislation against,

Vermont,
exterminated slavery,

Vicksburg,
Convention of, to stop the Exodus,

Viner, M.,
mentioned slave settlements in West,

Virginia,
disfranchisement of Negroes in;
Quakers of, promoting the migration of the Negroes;
reaction in;
refugees in,

Vorhees, Senator D.W.,
offered a resolution in Senate inquiring into the exodus to Kansas,

Washington, Judge Bushrod,
a colonizationist,

Washington, D.C.,
refugees in;
the migration of Negro politicians to,

Wattles, Augustus,
settled with Negroes in Mercer County, Ohio,

Watts,
steam engine and the industrial revolution,

Wayne County, Indiana,
freedmen settled in,

Webb, William,
interest of, in colonization,

Wenyam, James,
ran away to the West,

West Indies,
attractive to free Negroes,

West Virginia,
exodus of Negroes to,

White, David,
led a company of Negroes to the Northwest,

White, J.T.,
left Indiana to enter politics in Arkansas,

Whites of South refused to work,

Whitfield, James M.,
interest of, in colonization,

Whitney's cotton gin and the industrial revolution,

Wickham,
executor of Samuel Gist, settled Gist's Negroes in Ohio,

Wilberforce University established at a slave settlement,

Wilcox, Samuel T.,
a merchant of Cincinnati,

Yankees,
comment of, on Negro labor,

York,
Negroes of;
trouble with the Negroes of,

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