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A Catechism of the Steam Engine by John Bourne

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air pump;
slide valve;
balance piston;
connecting rod;
piston rods;
cross head;
air pump arm;
feed pump;
crank pin;
screw shaft;
thrust plummer block;
link motion;
screw propeller.
Discharge valves.
Disc valves of india rubber for air pumps.
Discs of direct acting screw engine instead of crank.
Dodds, expansion valve by.
Double acting engines, definition of.
Double acting air pumps,
valves of;
faults of.
Draw bolt.
Dredging earth out of rivers, power necessary for.
Driving wheels of locomotives.
Driving piles, power necessary for.
Duplex pump, Worthington's.
Dundonald, Earl of, screw by.
Duty of engines and boilers,
how the duty is ascertainable.
Dynamometer, description of.
Dynamometric power of screw vessels.

Eccentric, description of,
sometimes made loose for backing.
Eccentric and eccentric rod of oscillating engine.
Eccentric notch should be fitted with a brass bush.
Eccentric straps of locomotives,
rods of locomotives.
Eccentrics of locomotives,
how to readjust.
Economy of fuel in steam vessels.
Edwards, expansion valve by.
Elasticity, limits of.
Engine, high pressure, definition of,
low pressure, definition of.
Engines, classification of,
rotative, definition of;
rotatory, definition of;
single acting, definition of;
double acting, definition of;
mode of erecting in a vessel;
how to refix if they have become loose.
Engineers of steam vessels should make proper preparation for accidents.
Equilibrium slide valve,
grid-iron valve.
Erecting engines in a vessel.
Erection of engines in the workshop.
Escape valve on feed pipe.
Escape valves for letting water out of cylinders.
Evaporative efficacy of coal,
of wood, turf, and coke.
Evaporative power of boilers,
power generated by evaporation of a cubic foot of water;
increase of evaporation due to increased exhaustion in locomotives.
Excavator, Otis's.
Exhaustion produced by chimneys,
by the blast in locomotives;
increased evaporation from increased exhaustion.
Expanding mandrels for tubing boilers.
Expansion of air by heat.
Expansion of surcharged steam by heat.
Expansion of steam,
pressure of steam inversely as the space occupied;
law of expansion;
rule for computing the increase of efficiency produced by working
expansively;
necessity of efficient provisions against refrigeration in working
expansively;
advantages of steam jacket;
Forms of apparatus for working expansively: lap on the slide valve
wire drawing the steam;
Cornish expansion valve,
in rotative engines worked by a cam;
mode of varying the degree of expansion;
proper forms of cams;
the link motion;
expansion valves, by Cabrey, Fenton, Dodds, Farcot, Edwards,
Lavagrian, Bodmer, Meyer, Hawthorn, Gonzenbach, and Bourne.
Expansion joint in valve casing.
Expansion valves, Cornish,
the link motion;
by Cabrey, Fenton, Dodds, Farcot, Edwards, Lavagrian, Bodmer, Meyer,
Hawthorn, Gouzenbach, and Bourne.
Explosions of boilers,
causes of explosions;
precautions against;
dangers of accumulations of salt.

Face plates or planometers.
Falling bodies, laws of.
Farcot, expansion valve by.
Feathering paddle wheels, description of,
details of.
Feed pump, description of,
action of;
proper dimensions of;
rule for proportioning.
Feed pump plunger,
and valves.
Feed pumps of locomotives, details of.
Feed pumps of direct acting screw engines.
Fenton, expansion valve by.
Fire bars of locomotives.
Fire box of locomotives, mode of staying.
Fire box of modern locomotives.
Fire engines, cost of running.
Fire grate surface of boilers.
Fire grate in locomotives should be of small area,
coke proper to be burned per hour on each square foot of bars.
Firing furnaces, proper mode of.
Flaws in valves or cylinders, how to remedy.
Float for regulating water level in boilers.
Floats of paddle.
Floats of paddle wheels, increased resistance of, if oblique,
floats should be large.
Fly wheel corrects unequal leverage of crank,
proper energy for;
Boulton and Watt's rule for;
bursting velocity of;
description of;
action of, in redressing irregularities of motion.
Foot valve, description of,
proper dimensions of.
Foot valves might be made on Belidor's plan,
of india rubber.
Frame at stern for holding screw propeller.
Framing of locomotives.
Framing of oscillating engine.
Franklin Institute, experiments on steam by.
French Academy, experiments on steam by.
Friction, nature of,
does not vary as the rubbing surfaces, but as the retaining pressure;
does not increase with the velocity per unit of distance, but increases
with the velocity per unit of time;
measures of friction;
effect of unguents;
kind of unguent should vary with the pressure;
Morin's experiments;
rule for determining proper surfaces of bearings;
friction of rough surfaces.
Friction of the water the main cause of the resistance of vessels of good
shape.
Fuel burnt on each square foot of fire bars in wagon, Cornish, and
locomotive boilers,
economy of, in steam vessels.
Funnel casing.
Funnel, what to do if carried away.
Funnels of steam boats. _See_ Chimneys.
Furnaces, proper mode of firing,
smoke burning: Williams's argand;
Prideaux's;
Boulton and Watt's dead plate;
revolving crate;
Juckes's;
Maudslay's;
Hull's, Coupland's, Godson's, Robinson's, Stevens's, Hazeldine's,
&c..
Furnaces of marine boilers, proper length of.
Furnace bridges, benefits of.
Fusible metal plugs useless as antidotes to explosions.

Gauges, vacuum,
steam;
gauge cocks and glass tubes for showing level of water in boiler,
description of.
Gauge cocks for showing level of water in boiler.
Gearing for screw engines.
Gibs and cutters, strengths proper for.
Giffard's injector.
Glass tubes for showing water level in boilers.
Glass tube cocks.
Gonzeubach, expansion valve by.
Gooch's indicator.
Gooch's locomotive.
Governor or conical pendulum,
description of.
Governor, Porter's patent.
Gravity, centre of.
"Great Western," boilers of, by Messrs. Maudslay.
Gridiron valve.
Griffith's screw.
Grinding corn, power necessary for.
Grinding of cylinders.
Gudgeons, strength proper for.
Guides of locomotives.
Guides of direct acting screw engine.
Gun metal, strength of.
Gyration, centre of.

Harvey and West's pump valves.
Hawthorn, expansion valve by.
Heat, latent, definition of.
Heat, specific, definition of.
Heat, Regnault's experiments on.
Heat, loss of, by blowing off marine boilers.
Heating surface of boilers.
Heating surface per square foot of fire bars in locomotives,
a cubic foot of water evaporates by five square feet of heating surface.
Heating of bearings, causes of,
bearings should always be slack at the sides, else the pressure is
infinite.
High pressure engine, definition of.
High pressure engines, power of.
High speed engines,
arrangements proper for high speeds.
Hoadley's portable engine.
Hodgson's screw.
Hoe & Co.'s steam engine.
Holding down bolts of marine engines,
or bolts for securing engines to hull.
Holms's screw propeller.
Horses power, definition of,
nominal horse power;
actual power ascertained by the indictator;
Admiralty rule for.
Hot water or feed pump, description of.
Hot well, description of.

Increasing pitch of screw.
Incrustation in boilers. _See_ also Salt.
India rubber valves for air pump.
Indicator, description of the,
by McNaught, structure and mode of using;
Gooch's continuous indicator.
Injection cock.
Injection cocks of marine engines at ship's sides.
Injection orifice, proper area of.
Injector, Giffard's.
Injection valve.
Inside cylinder locomotives.
Iron, strength of,
limits of elasticity of;
proper strain to be put upon iron in engines and machines;
aggravation of strain by being intermittent;
increase of strain due to deflection;
strength of pillars and tubes,
combination of malleable and cast iron.
Iron, cast, strength of,
cast iron beams;
may be strong to resist strains, but not strong to resist shocks;
should be combined with wrought iron to obtain maximum strength.
Iron, if to be case hardened, should be homogeneous.

Jacket of cylinder, advantages of.
Joints, rust, how to make.

Kingston's valves.

Lamb's scale preventer.
Lantern brass in stuffing boxes.
Lap and lead of the valve, meaning of.
Large vessels have least proportionate resistance.
Latent heat, definition of.
Latta's steam fire engine.
Lavagrian, expansion valve by.
Lead and lap of the valve, meaning of.
Lead of the valve, benefits of.
Lever,
futility of plans for deriving power from a lever.
Lifting apparatus for screw propeller.
Limits of elasticity.
Links, main description of.

Link motion of direct acting screw engine.
Link motion, how to set.
Locomotive engines,
general description of the locomotive;
Stephenson's locomotive;
Gooch's locomotive for the wide gauge;
Crampton's locomotive for the narrow gauge.
Locomotives, adhesion of wheels of,
cost and performance of;
framing of;
cylinders of;
springs of;
outside and inside cylinders;
sinuous motion of;
rocking motion of;
pitching motion of;
pistons;
piston rods;
guides;
cranked axle;
axle bearings;
eccentrics;
eccentric rod;
starting handle;
link motion;
valves, how to set;
eccentrics, how to readjust;
feed pumps;
connection of engine and tender,
driving wheels;
wheel tires.
Locomotive engine of modern construction, example of,
fire box;
barrel of boiler;
tubes;
tube plate;
framing;
axle guards;
draw bolt;
wheels and axles;
cylinders;
valve;
piston;
piston rod;
guides;
connecting rod;
eccentrics;
link motion;
regulator;
blast pipe;
safety valve;
feed pump;
tendencies of improvement in locomotives.
Locomotives, management of.
Locomotive boilers, examples of modern proportions.
Locomotive boilers, details of.
Low pressure or condensing engine, definition of.
Lubrication of rubbing surfaces,
the friction depends mainly on the nature of lubricant;
oil forced out of bearings, if the pressure exceeds 800
lbs. per square inch longitudinal section;
water a good lubricant if the surfaces are large enough.
Lubrication of engine bearings.

McNaught's indicator.
Main beam, strength proper for.
Main centre, description of,
strength proper for.
Main links, description of,
strength proper for.
Mandrels, expanding, for tubing boilers.
Manhole door.
Manhole of locomotives.
Marine flue boilers, proportions of.
_See_ also Boilers.
Marine boilers of modern construction, proper proportions of.
Marine engines. _See_ Steam Engines, marine.
Mastic cement for setting marine boilers.
Maudslay, Messrs., boilers of "Retribution" and "Great Western," by,
Mechanical powers,
misconceptions respecting.
Mechanical power, definition of,
indestructible and eternal;
the sun the source of mechanical power.
Metallic packing for pistons.
Metallic packing for stuffing boxes.
Meyer, expansion valve by.
Miller, Ravenhill & Co.'s mode of fixing piston rod to piston.
Modern locomotives.
Momentum, or _vis viva_.
Morin, experiments on friction by.
Mudholes of locomotives.
Muntz's metal, composition of.

"Niger" and "Basilisk," trials of.
"Nile," boilers of the, by Boulton and Watt.
Notch of eccentric should be fitted with brass bush.

Oils for lubrication. _See_ Lubrication.
Oscillation, centre of.
Oscillating paddle engine, description of.
Oscillating engine, advantages of,
futility of objections to;
details of cylinder;
framing;
condenser;
air pump;
trunnions;
valve and valve casing;
piston;
piston rod;
air pump connecting rod and cross head;
air pump rod;
eccentric and eccentric rod;
valve gear;
valve sector;
shaft plummer blocks;
trunnion plummer blocks;
feathering paddle wheels;
packing of trunnions.
Oscillating engines, how to erect.
Otis's excavator.
Outside and inside cylinder locomotives.

Packing for stuffing box of Watt's engine.
Packing of piston of pumping engines, how to accomplish.
Packing of trunnions.
Paddle bolts, proper mode of forming.
Paddle centres.
Paddle floats.
Paddle shaft, description of.
Paddle shaft, details of.
Paddle shaft plummer blocks of oscillating engines.
Paddle wheels, details of,
structure and operation of;
slip of;
centre of pressure of;
rolling circle;
action of oblique floats;
rule for proportioning paddle wheels;
benefits of large floats.
Paddle wheels, feathering, description of;
details of.
Paddles and screw combined.
Parallel motion, description of,
how to lay off centres of.
Pendulum,
cause of vibrations of;
relation of vibrations of pendulum to velocity of falling bodies;
conical pendulum or governor.
Penn, Messrs., engines of "Great Britain," by,
direct acting screw engines by;
trunk engines by.
Performance of locomotives.
Pillars, hollow, strength of,
law of strength varies with thickness of metal.
Pipe for receiving screw shaft.
Pipes of marine engines.
Piston, description of,
how to pack with hemp.
Pistons, metallic packing for.
Pistons for oscillating engines.
Pistons, how to fit and finish.
Pistons of locomotives.
Piston rod, description of,
strength proper for.
Piston rods of locomotives.
Piston rod of oscillating engine.
Piston rods of direct acting screw engine.
Pitch of the screw.
Pitch, increasing or expanding.
Pitching motion in locomotives.
Planometers, or face plates.
Plummer blocks of shafts and trunnions of oscillating engines.
Plummer blocks for receiving thrust of screw propeller.
Plunger of feed pump.
Portable engine, Hoadley's.
Porter's patent governor.
Ports of the cylinder, area of.
Pot-lid valves of air pump.
Powers, mechanical,
misconception respecting.
Power, horses, definition of,
nominal and actual power;
power of high pressure engines.
Power necessary for thrashing and grinding corn, working sugar mills,
spinning cotton, sawing timber, grossing cotton, blowing furnaces,
driving piles, and dredging earth out of rivers.
Pressing cotton, power necessary for.
Priming, nature and causes of.
Priming, if excessive, may occasion explosion.
Propeller, screw, description of.
Proportions of screws with, two, four, and six blades.
Proving of boilers.
Prussiate of potash for case hardening.
Pumping engines, mode of erecting,
mode of starting.
Pumps, loss of effect in, at high speed and with hot water,
causes of this loss;
remedy for.
Pumps used for mines.
Pump, air, description, of,
action of.
Pumps, air, proper proportions of,
single and double acting.
Pump, centrifugal, better than common pump.
Pump, cold water, description of.
Pump, feed, description of,
action of;
proper dimensions of;
rule for proportioning;
plunger of;
valves of;
independent.
Pump valves for mines, &c.
Punching and shearing boiler plates.

Railway wheels, bursting velocity of.
Railway trains, resistance of.
Rarefaction or exhaustion produced by chimneys.
"Rattler" and "Alecto," trials of.
Registration, benefits of.
Regnault, experiments on heat by.
Regulator, a valve for regulating the admission of steam in locomotives,
description of;
various forms of.
Regulator, Clark's, patent steam and fire.
Rennie, experiments on friction by.
Resistance, experienced by railway trains.
Resistance of vessels in water,
mainly made up of friction;
experiments on.
Resistance and speed of vessels influenced by their size.
"Retribution," boilers of, by Messrs. Mandslay.
Riveting and caulking of land boilers.
Rocking motion of locomotives.
Rolling circle of paddle wheels.
Rotatory engines, definition of.
Rotative engines, definition of.
Rust joints, how to make.

Safety valve, area of, in low pressure engines,
in locomotives.
Salinometer, or salt gauge, how to use,
how to construct.
Salt, accumulation of, prevented in marine boilers by blowing off,
if allowed to accumulate in boilers may occasion explosion;
amount of, in sea water.
Salt water produces surcharged steam.
Salting of boilers, what to do if this takes place.
Sawing timber, power necessary for.
Scale in marine boilers. _See_ also Salt.
Scale preventer, Lamb's.
Scrap iron, unsuitable for case hardening.
Scraping tools for metal surfaces.
Screw.
Screw engine, geared oscillating, description of,
direct acting, description of.
Screw engine, direct acting, by Messrs. John Bourne & Co.
Screw engines, best forms of.
Screw frame in deadwood.
Screw propeller, description of.
Screw propeller, mode of fixing on shaft,
modes of receiving thrust;
apparatus for lifting;
configuration of;
action of;
pitch of the screw;
screws of increasing or expanding pitch;
slip of the screw;
positive and negative slip;
screw and paddles compared;
test of the dynamometer;
trials of "Rattler" and "Alecto," and "Niger" and "Basilisk";
indicator and dynamometer power;
loss of power in screw vessels in head winds;
the screw should be deeply immersed;
screws of the Earl of Dundonald, Hodgson, Griffith, Holm, and Beattie;
lateral and retrogressive slip;
sterns of screw vessels should be sharp;
proportions of screws with two, four, and six blades;
screw vessels with auxiliary power;
screw and paddles combined;
economy of fuel in steam vessels;
benefits of registration.
Screw propeller, Holm's conchoidal.
Screw shaft, details of.
Screw shaft pipe at stern.
Screw shaft brasses of direct acting screw engines.
Sea water, amount of salt in.
Sea injection cocks.
Setting of wagon boilers,
of marine boilers.
Setting the valves of locomotives.
Shaft, paddle, details of.
Shaft of screw propeller, details of.
Shafts, strength of.
Shank's steam gauge.
Shocks may not be well resisted by iron that can well resist strains,
effect of inertia in resisting shocks.
Side levers or beams, description of.
Side lever marine engines, description of.
Side lever engines, how to erect.
Side rods, description of,
strength proper for.
Silsbee, Mynderse & Co.'s steam fire engine.
Single acting engines, definition of.
Single acting or pumping engines,
mode of erecting;
mode of starting.
Sinuous motion of locomotives.
Slide valve,
various forms of;
long D and three ported valve, description of;
action of the slide valve;
lead and lap of the valve;
rules for determining the proportions of valves;
advantages of lead in swift moving engines.
Slide valve, equilibrium.
Slide valve with balance piston of direct acting screw engine.
Slide valve, how to finish.
Slide valves of marine engines, how to set.
Slip of paddle wheels.
Slip of the screw,
positive and negative slip;
lateral and retrogressive slip.
Smoke, modes of consuming.
Smoke burning furnaces,
Williams's argand;
Prideaux's;
Boulton and Watt's dead plate;
revolving grate;
Juckes's;
Maudslay's;
Hall's, Coupland's, Godson's, Robinson's, Stevens's, Hazeldine's, &c.
"Snake" locomotive.
Southern,
experiments on friction by;
experiments on steam by.
Specific heat, definition of.
Speed of vessels influenced by their size.
Spheroidal condition of water in boilers.
Springs of locomotives.
Stand pipe for low pressure boilers.
Starting handle of locomotives.
Staying of boilers.
Staying tube plates, mode of.
Staying fire boxes of locomotives.
Steam, experiments on by Southern, French Academy, Franklin Institute,
and M. Regnault.
Steam pump,
Worthington's;
Woodward's.
Steam and water, relative bulks of.
Steam,
expansion of;
pressure of;
inversely as space occupied;
_See also_ Expansion of Steam.
Steam engine, applications and appliances of the.
Steam engine,
general description of Watt's double acting engine;
R. Hoe & Co.'s;
Corliss's;
Woodruff & Beach's.
Steam engine,
various forms of, for propelling vessels;
paddle engines and screw engines;
principal varieties of paddle engines;
different kinds of paddle wheels;
the side lever engine;
description of the side lever engine;
oscillating paddle engine;
description of feathering paddle wheels;
direct acting screw engine.
Steam dome of locomotives.
Steam fire engine,
Latta's.
Amoskeag.
Silsbee, Mynderse & Co.'s.
Steam gauge,
Bourdon's;
Shank's.
Steam jacket, benefits of;
Steam passages, area of;
Steam room in boilers;
Steam, surcharged, law of expansion by heat;
Steel, strength of;
Stephenson, link motion by;
Stop valves between boilers;
Straight edges;
Strains subsisting in machines;
Strain proper to be put upon iron in engines;
Strains in machines,
vary inversely as the velocity of the part to which the strain is
applied.
aggravated by being intermittent.
increase of strain due to deflection.
effects of alternate strains in opposite directions.
Strength of materials.
Strength of hollow pillars,
law of;
strength varies with thickness of metal.
Strength of cast iron to resist shocks does not vary as the strength
to resist strains,
increase of strength by combination with cast iron.
Strength of boilers,
experiments on, by Franklin Institute;
by Mr. Fairbairn;
mode of computing;
mode of staying for strength.
Strength of engines: cylinder,
trunnions;
piston rod;
main links;
connecting rod;
studs of the beam;
gudgeons;
working beam;
cast iron shaft;
malleable iron shaft;
teeth of wheels;
side rods;
crank;
crank pin;
cross head;
main centre;
gibs and cutter.
Studs, strength proper for.
Stuffing box, description of.
Stuffing boxes with metallic packing,
with sheet brass packed behind with hemp;
sometimes fitted with a lantern, brass.
Sugar mills, power necessary to work.
Summers' experiments on the friction of rough surfaces.
Surcharged steam, law of expansion of, by heat.
Surcharged steam produced by salt water,
corrosive action of.
Surfaces, how to make true.
Sweeping the tubes of boilers clean of soot.

Teeth of wheels.
Telescope chimneys.
Tender of a locomotive, description of,
attachment of, to engine.
Thrashing corn, power necessary for.
Throttle valve, description of.
Thrust of the screw propeller, modes of receiving.
Thrust plummer block.
Tires of locomotive wheels.
Traction on railways.
Trunk engine by Messrs. Rennie, disadvantages of.
Trunk engines by Messrs. Penn.
Trunnions of oscillating engines, description of,
strength proper for;
details of.
Trunnion packing.
Trunnion plummer blocks.
Tube plates, mode of staying.
Tube plates of modern locomotives.
Tubes of modern locomotive boilers.
Tubes of boilers, how to sweep clean of soot.
Tubing of boilers.
Tubing locomotive boilers.

Valve, atmospheric.
Valve casing, description of.
Valve casing should have expansion joint.
Valve and valve casing of oscillating engine.
Valve delivery, description of,
action of
Valve, equilibrium slide.
Valve, foot, description of,
action of.
Valve gear of Watt's engine,
action of.
Valve gear of oscillating engine.
Valve, gridiron.
Valve, slide. _See_ Slide Valve.
Valve, slide, how to finish.
Valves, ball,
Belidor's might be used for foot and delivery valves;
butterfly, of air pump;
concentric ring, for air pump bucket.
Valves, equilibrium.
Valves, escape, for cylinders.
Valves, expansion. _See_ Expansion Valves.
Valves of feed pumps.
Valves, india rubber, for air pump.
Valves, Kingston's.
Valves of locomotives, how to set.
Valves, pot-lid, of air pump.
Vacuum, meaning of,
nature and uses of;
how maintained in engines.
Vacuum sometimes occurs in boilers,
evils of a vacuum in boilers.
Vacuum, velocity with which air rushes into a.
Vacuum gauge,
Bourdon's.
Velocity of air entering a vacuum.
Velocity of falling bodies.
Vent of boilers, definition of.
Vessels, resistance of,
mainly made up of friction in good forms;
experiments on;
influence of size.
_Vis viva_, or mechanical power.

Waste steam pipe.
Waste water pipe.
Water required for condensation,
pumps for supplying.
Watt's double acting engine, description of.
Wedge.
Wheels, toothed, for screw engines.
Wheels, teeth of.
Wheels of locomotives, adhesion of.
Wheels, driving, of locomotives.
Wheel tires.
Wheels and axles of modern locomotives.
Wood, experiments on friction by.
Wood, evaporative efficacy of.
Woodman's steam pump.
Woodruff & Beach's steam engine.
Working beam of land engine, description of.
Worthington's steam pump,
duplex pump.

THE END.

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