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A Brief History of the United States by Barnes & Co.

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ninth section of the first article; and that no State, without its
consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.

[Footnote: State the two ways in which amendments to the
Constitution may be proposed. The two ways in which they may be
ratified. What restriction in this article has now lost all force?
What provision for the benefit of the smaller states is attached to
this article?]

ARTICLE VI.-Miscellaneous Provisions.

CLAUSE 1. All debts contracted, and engagements entered into,
before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against
the United States under this Constitution, as under the
confederation.

[Footnote: What debts did the United States assume when the
Constitution was adopted?]

CLAUSE 2. This Constitution, and the laws of the United States
which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or
which shall be made, under the authority of the United States,
shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every State
shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any
State to the contrary notwithstanding.

[Footnote: What is the supreme law of the land? Who are required to
take an oath or affirmation to support the Constitution of the
United States? Can a religious test be exacted?]

CLAUSE 3. The senators and representatives before mentioned, and
the members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive
and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several
States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this
Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a
qualification to any office or public trust under the United
States.

ARTICLE VII.--Ratification of the Constitution.

The ratification of the conventions of nine States shall be
sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the
States so ratifying the same.

[Footnote: ARTICLE VII. What was necessary for the adoption of this
Constitution? (Note, p. 143.) In what year was it adopted?]

Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of the States present,
the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one
thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of
the United States of America the twelfth.

In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names.

GEORGE WASHINGTON,
_President, and Deputy from Virginia._

NEW HAMPSHIRE.
JOHN LANGDON,
NICHOLAS GILMAN.

MASSACHUSETTS.
NATHANIEL GORHAM,
RUFUS KING.

CONNECTICUT.
WILLIAM SAMUEL JOHNSON,
ROGER SHERMAN.

NEW YORK.
ALEXANDER HAMILTON.

NEW JERSEY.
WILLIAM LIVINGSTON,
DAVID BREARLEY,
WILLIAM PATERSON,
JONATHAN DAYTON.

DELAWARE.
GEORGE REED,
GUNNING BEDFORD, Jr.,
JOHN DICKINSON,
RICHARD BASSETT,
JACOB BROOM.

MARYLAND.
JAMES McHENRY,
DANIEL OF ST. THOMAS JENIFER,
DANIEL CARROLL.

VIRGINIA.
JOHN BLAIR,
JAMES MADISON, Jr.

NORTH CAROLINA.
WILLIAM BLOUNT,
RICHARD DOBBS SPAIGHT,
HUGH WILLIAMSON.

[Footnote: AMENDMENTS. (_Notes._--The first ten amendments
were proposed in 1789 at the first session of the First Congress,
and in 1791 were declared adopted. They are of the nature of a Bill
of Rights, and were passed in order to satisfy those who complained
that the Constitution did not sufficiently guard the rights of the
people.)]

PENNSYLVANIA.
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN,
THOMAS MIFFLIN,
ROBERT MORRIS,
GEORGE CLYMER,
THOMAS FITZSIMONS,
JARED INGERSOLL,
JAMES WILSON.
GOUVERNEUR MORRIS.

SOUTH CAROLINA.
JOHN RUTLEDGE,
CHARLES C. PINCKNEY,
CHARLES PINCKNEY,
PIERCE BUTLER.

GEORGIA.
WILLIAM FEW,
ABRAHAM BALDWIN.

_Attest:_
WILLIAM JACKSON, _Secretary_.

* * * * *

AMENDMENTS

To the Constitution of the United States, Ratified according to the
Provisions of the Fifth Article of the Foregoing Constitution.

ARTICLE I.--Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment
of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging
the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people
peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for redress
of grievances.

ARTICLE II.--A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the
security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear
arms shall not be infringed.

ARTICLE III.--No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in
any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war,
but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE IV.--The right of the people to be secure in their persons,
houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and
seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but
upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and
particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons
or things to be seized.

ARTICLE V.--No person shall be held to answer for a capital or
otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of
a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces,
or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war and public
danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be
twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in
any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor to be
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law;
nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just
compensation.

* * * * *

[Footnote: ARTICLE I. What guarantees are provided concerning
religious freedom? Freedom of speech and the press? Peaceable
assembly and petition?

ARTICLE II. What guarantee is given with regard to the right of
bearing arms?

ARTICLE III. What is provided with regard to quartering soldiers
upon citizens?

ARTICLE IV. What is provided with regard to unreasonable searches
and warrants?

ARTICLE V. What provisions are made with regard to a trial for
capital offences? Can a person be tried twice for the same crime?
Can a criminal be forced to witness against himself? When can
private property be taken for the public use?]

ARTICLE VI.--In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy
the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the
State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed,
which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and
to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be
confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory
process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the
assistance of counsel for his defence.

[Footnote: ARTICLE VI. What important rights are secured to the
accused in case of a criminal prosecution?]

ARTICLE VII.--In suits at common law, where the value in
controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury
shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise
re-examined in any court of the United States than according to the
rules of common law.

[Footnote: ARTICLE VII. When is the right of jury trial guaranteed?
How must a fact tried by a jury be re-examined?]

ARTICLE VIII.--Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive
fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

[Footnote: ARTICLE VIII. What guarantee is given with regard to
excessive bail or fine and unusual punishment?]

ARTICLE IX.--The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights,
shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the
people.

[Footnote: ARTICLE IX. Does the enumeration of certain rights in
the Constitution have any effect upon those not enumerated?]

ARTICLE X.--The powers not delegated to the United States by the
Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to
the States respectively, or to the people.

[Footnote: ARTICLE X. What declaration is made concerning the
powers neither delegated to Congress nor forbidden the states?]

ARTICLE XI.--The judicial power of the United States shall not be
construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or
prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another
State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.

[Footnote: ARTICLE XI. (_Note_.--This amendment was proposed
at the first session of the Third Congress, 1794, and declared
adopted in 1798) What restriction is placed on the judicial power
of the United States? Can the citizens of one state bring a suit
against another state?]

ARTICLE XII.--The electors shall meet in their respective States,
and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom,
at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with
themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for
as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as
Vice-President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons
voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as
Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists
they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the
government of the United States, directed to the president of the
Senate;--the president of the Senate shall, in the presence of the
Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and
the votes shall then be counted;--the person having the greatest
number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such
number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and
if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the
highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for
as President, the House of Representatives shall choose
immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the
President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation
from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall
consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a
majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if
the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever
the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day
of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as
President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional
disability of the President. The person having the greatest number
of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such
number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and
if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on
the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-president; a quorum for
the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of
senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to
a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office
of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the
United States.

[Footnote: ARTICLE XII. (_Note_--This amendment was proposed
at the first session of the Eighth Congress, 1803, and declared
adopted in 1804. It grew up out of the contest In the House of
Representatives at the time of Jefferson's election; he was not
chosen until the 36th ballot.) Describe in full the mode of
choosing the President by the electors. The Vice-President. State
the essential qualifications of Vice-President. (See Art II, Sec.
I, Clause 4.) In case there is no choice by the electors, how is
the President elected? Describe the mode of election in the House.
If a President should not be chosen by March 4, who would act as
President?]

ARTICLE XIII.

[Footnote: ARTICLE XIII. (_Note_.-This amendment was proposed
at the second session of the Thirty-eighth Congress, 1865, and
declared adopted in 1865. It grew out of the Civil War. See p. 282.
) Repeat the amendment abolishing slavery and involuntary servitude
in the United States.]

SECTION 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a
punishment for crime, whereof the person shall have been duly
convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place
subject to their jurisdiction.

SECTION 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.

ARTICLE XIV.

SECTION 1.

[Footnote: ARTICLE XIV. (_Note_.-This amendment was adopted in
1868. See p. 284.) _Section_ 1. Who are citizens of the United
States? What restrictions are laid upon the states with regard to
abridging the rights of citizens?]

All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject
to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and
of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce
any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of
citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any
person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law,
nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection
of the laws.

SECTION 2.

[Footnote: _Section_ 2. How are representatives apportioned among the
several states? How does this amend Art. I, Sec 2, Clause 3?]

Representatives shall be appointed among the several States
according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of
persons in each State excluding Indians not taxed. But when the
right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for
President and Vice-President of the United States, representatives
in Congress, the executive or judicial officers of a State, or the
members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male
inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age and
citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for
participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of
representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the
number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male
citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

SECTION 3.

No person shall be a senator or representative in Congress, or
elector of President or Vice-President, or hold any office, civil
or military, under the United States, or under any State, who,
having previously taken an oath as a member of Congress, or as an
officer of the United States, or as a member of any State
Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State,
to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have
engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid
or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of
two-thirds of each house, remove such disability.

[Footnote: _Section_ 3. What persons are prohibited from holding any
office under the United States? How may this disability be removed?]

SECTION 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States,
authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pension
and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion,
shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any
State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of
insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim
for the loss or emancipation of any slave, but all such debts,
obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void.

[Footnote: _Section 4_. Repeat the provision with regard to
the validity of the public debt. With regard to any debt incurred
in aid of insurrection or rebellion.]

SECTION 5. Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate
legislation, the provisions of this article.

ARTICLE XV

SECTION 1. The rights of citizens of the United States to vote
shall not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any
State, on account of race, color, or previous condition of
servitude.

SECTION 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.

ARTICLE XV (_Note_--This amendment was adopted in 1870. See p.
288) Repeat the amendment granting universal suffrage.

[Illustration: WASHINGTON'S HEADQUARTERS AT NEWBURGH]

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