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A Brief History of the United States by Barnes & Co.

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country? What treaty was made with Spain? Algiers? What was the
popular feeling toward France? Why was Genet recalled? What parties
now arose? Who were the leaders of each? Their views? Tell
something of Randolph.

154. Who was elected second President? Tell something of Adams's
life. What were the alien and sedition laws? Why were they passed?

155. How were they received? How did the French difficulty look
during this administration? How was it terminated? What reply did
Pinckney make to the base offer of the French Directory? State of
party feeling? Who was elected third President? Why was not Adams
re-elected? What was the important event of Jefferson's
administration? Why?

156. Tell something of Jefferson's life and character. Tell how
Hamilton was killed. What became of Burr?

157. Tell something of Fulton's invention. Of the war with Tripoli,
Of Lieutenant Decatur's exploit.

158. What difficulty now arose with England and France? What is the
American doctrine? Was the impressment of seamen general?

159. What was the issue of the next political campaign? Who was
elected fourth President? Views of the federalists? Give an account
of Madison's life and character. Of the battle of Tippecanoe.
Effect of this Indian war. State how the breach with England
widened.

160. Difficulty between the President and Little Belt. When was war
declared? How long did the war last? What was the opening event of
the war of 1812? Describe the surrender of Detroit.

161. The battle of Queenstown Heights. How did the naval and the
land warfare compare? Describe the fight between the Constitution
and Guerriere.

162. Between the Frolic and Wasp. How many prizes were captured by
privateers? What are privateers?

163. Effect of these victories? Name the battles of 1812 in order.
Plan of the campaign of 1813. What did the armies of the centre and
north do? What did the British do? What reverse happened to a part
of General Harrison's command? Describe this rout. Tell something
of Proctor's brutality.

164. Describe the three attacks made by Proctor. In which was he
successful? Describe Perry's victory on Lake Erie.

165. What gallant exploit was performed by Perry? What issues
depended on this fight? Describe the battle of the Thames. What
celebrated Indian was killed? Effect of these victories? Who gained
great credit?

166. Describe the battle between the Chesapeake and the Shannon.
What were Lawrence's dying words? Who used them in battle? What
Indian difficulties occurred? How did General Jackson avenge the
massacre of Fort Minims? Story told of Jackson?

167. What ravages were committed by Admiral Cockburn? Why was New
England spared? Name the principal battles of 1813 in order. What
movement was made by General Brown? What general led the advance?

168. What battles ensued? Describe the battle of Lundy's Lane. What
story is told of Colonel Miller? What battle took place in New York
State? How did that happen? Describe it.

169. Describe the ravages made by the British on the Atlantic
coast. Attack on Washington. On Baltimore. Result of these events.
The Hartford Convention. What put an end to these fears? Why was
the battle of New Orleans unnecessary?

170. Describe this battle. How did it happen that raw militia
defeated English veterans?

171. Results of this war? Effect upon the federalist party? Who was
elected fifth President?

172. Was Monroe a popular man? Give some account of his life and
character. What was the characteristic of his administration? What
was the Missouri Compromise? Cause of it?

173. Give an account of La Fayette's visit. What territory was
gained by treaty? What famous doctrine advanced by Monroe? What
political changes now took place? What party was arising? Its
principles? Principles of the democratic party? Champions of each
party? Which party absorbed most of the old federalists? Why? Who
was elected sixth President? How?

174. Give some account of the life and character of John Quincy
Adams. Of his administration. Was it popular? How was the
protective tariff received? Who was elected seventh President?

175. Account of the life and character of Jackson. Contrast him
with John Quincy Adams. What principle did he introduce? What was
the nullification ordinance? How did Jackson act?

176. How did Clay pacify? What celebrated debate took place? What
is said of Calhoun? Of Clay's patriotism? What action did Jackson
take concerning the United States bank? Its effect?

177. How did speculation become rife? Give an account of the Black
Hawk war. The Seminole war. What is said of Osceola? His fate?

178. Difficulty with France? How was it settled? Who were the
Presidential candidates? What were their principles? Who was
elected eighth President? Give an account of the life and character
of Van Buren. Of the crisis of 1837.

179. Its effect on trade. Of the patriot war. Of Van Buren's
Sub-Treasury Bill, Story of the steamer Caroline.

180. What was the northeast boundary question? How was it settled?
What was the Ashburton treaty? Who was elected ninth President? Who
was his opponent? Give an account of the life and character of
Harrison. What was the cause of his sudden death? Who succeeded
him?

181. Was Tyler's administration successful? Did he remain true to
his party? What course did he take with regard to the United States
Bank? Give an account of Dorr's rebellion.

182,183. Of the anti rent difficulties. Of the Mormons. Of the
origin and early history of this sect. Of the annexation of Texas.
Why was this measure warmly opposed? How was the northwestern
boundary question settled?

184. Who were the Presidential candidates? Give an account of Clay.
Who was elected eleventh President?

185. Give an account of the life of Polk, What war now broke out?
Give an account of Taylor's campaign on the Rio Grande.

186. Describe the capture of Monterey. The battle of Buena Vista.

187. What battles had Taylor fought? By what incident or
peculiarity can you recollect each one? Stories told of Taylor?
Account of Kearney's expedition.

188. Describe the conquest of California. Who was the hero of this
exploit? Give an account of Colonel Doniphan's expedition. Capture
of Vera Cruz. Battle of Cerro Gordo.

189. What city now surrendered? Describe the battles before Mexico.
The result.

190. When was peace concluded? What did the United States gain by
the war? What was the Wilmot proviso? Give an account of the
discovery of gold in California.

191. Of the vigilance committees. Of the political parties. Who was
elected twelfth President? Give an account of the life and
character of Taylor. How long was he President? Who succeeded him?
What questions agitated the people?

192. Why were these now awakened? Effect? What course did Clay
take? Webster? Give some account of Webster.

193. What was the Compromise of 1850? What did it propose? By what
name is it commonly known? Give an account of the fillibusters. Of
the political parties. Who was elected fourteenth President?

194. Give an account of the life of Pierce. Of the Kansas-Nebraska
bill. What is squatter sovereignty? Tell how the public lands have
threatened the peace of the country. How they have enhanced its
prosperity.

195. How did the contest arise in Kansas? Its result? Cause of
Brook's assault on Sumner? What was the Gadsden purchase? Give an
account of the treaty with Japan. What political parties now arose?

196. Who was elected fifteenth President? Give some account of
Buchanan's life. Of the Know-Nothing party. Of the Dred Scott
decision.

197. How was this regarded at the North and at the South? Why was
the Fugitive Slave law obnoxious? What were Personal Liberty bills?
Give an account of the John Brown affair. What was the question of
the elections? Who were nominated for the Presidency? Who was
elected sixteenth President?

198. Give an account of the secession of the South on the election
of Lincoln. Give a history of the gradual growth of this movement.

199. When and where was the Confederate government formed? Who were
elected President and Vice-President? What action was taken?
Condition of the country? Give an account of the condition of
affairs at Fort Sumter.

200. Was any attempt made by the United States authorities to
relieve it? For what did the nation wait?

No questions are given upon the new States admitted to the Union
during this epoch, as each class will naturally commit only that
which concerns its own State, and will wish to add to the facts
given here those obtained from other sources.

FIFTH EPOCH.

215. Give an account of Lincoln's inauguration. Of his early
history. Of the condition of the country.

216. Was war a necessity? What precipitated this issue? When was
the first gun of the Civil War fired? Give an account of the
capture of Fort Sumter.

217. Effect of this event? What action did the North take? The
South? When and where was the first blood shed? What valuable
stores were seized? How did the war in Virginia open?

218. How was Fortress Monroe protected from capture? Give an
account of the Big Bethel affair. Of the war in Western Virginia.
Origin of the term "Contrabands."

219. How did the battle of Bull Run take place? Describe it. By
what peculiarity can you recollect it? Its date? How did Jackson
receive the name of "Stonewall"?

220. Give an account of the retreat. Its effect. Of the battle at
Ball's Bluff. Who now took command of the Union troops?

221. Give an account of the war in Missouri. What battles were
fought? What leaders on each side? What Union general who afterward
became celebrated? Condition of affairs in the border States?

222. What step did Davis take? Number of vessels in the Union navy?
What naval expeditions were made? What places captured? What was
the peculiarity of the attack on the Port Royal forts? Describe the
Trent affair.

223. Give a general review of the first year of the war. Describe
the preservation of Fort Pickens. Situation at the opening of 1862.
What was the plan of the campaign?

224. What was the Confederate line of defence at the West? Union
plan of attack? Where was the first attack? Describe the capture of
Fort Henry.

225. Fort Donelson. Story told of General Grant. Effect of these
victories. What was the next movement? Describe the battle of
Shiloh or Pittsburg Landing.

226. By what peculiarity can you recollect it? How did the battle
turn on the second day?

227. How was Corinth captured? Describe the taking of Island No.
10. What were the effects of the Shiloh battle?

228. What line was now held by the Union army? Where were the
Confederates located? What movements did they make to break through
the Union lines? Describe Bragg's expedition. Was it successful?
Cause of the battles of Iuka and Corinth? Result?

229. How was Bragg's second expedition stopped? Describe the battle
of Murfreesboro. What was its effect? What coincidence?

230. What was Grant's plan for an expedition against Vicksburg? Was
it successful? What event closed the Mississippi campaign? What
battle was fought in Missouri? Condition of the State? What
massacre occurred in Kansas?

231,232. Describe the capture of New Orleans by Farragut.
Burnside's expedition against Roanoke Island. What was the
importance of Roanoke Island?

233,234. What places in Florida were captured? Describe the battle
between the Monitor and the Merrimac. Its results.

235. Object of the war in the East? What campaign was undertaken?
Who was the commanding general? Describe the siege of Yorktown.

236. The battle of Williamsburg. What checked McClellan's advance?
What battle ensued? Its result? What was now the expectation of the
Union army?

237. How did General Joseph E. Johnston thwart General McClellan's
plan? Give an account of Jackson in the Shenandoah. Effect of this
movement. Story told of Jackson.

238. Describe the battle of Fair Oaks. How was the Union advance on
Richmond checked? Who now took command of the Confederate army?
What plan did McClellan form?

239. Describe the seven-days battles. In what way was the retreat
conducted? With what battle did it close?

240. Effect of this campaign? Feeling at the North? Why did Lee now
march North? Who took command of the Union army before Washington?
Describe Lee's campaign against Pope.

241. Its effect. What plan did Lee now adopt? Who assumed command
of the army of the Potomac? Describe McClellan's movements in
pursuit. On what expedition was Jackson sent?

242. Describe the battle of Antietam. Its effect.

243. The battle of Fredericksburg. Give a review of the second year
of the war.

244. What Indian conflict at the West? What was the situation at
the beginning of the year 1863? What movement did Grant make
against Vicksburg?

245. Describe this campaign. Its result. The effect.

246. The movements of Rosecrans in Tennessee and Georgia. General
Morgan's raid.

247-249. The battle of Chickamauga. By what event can you recollect
it? Describe the situation at Chattanooga. The battle of Lookout
Mountain. Attack on Missionary Ridge. Its effect.

250. The siege of Knoxville. The battle of Chancellorsville.

251. Lee's second invasion of the North.

252-254. The battle of Gettysburg--first day, second day, third
day. Its effect. The attack on Charleston. What two contemporaneous
events? What was the "swamp angel"? What do you say of the negro
troops? Of their charge on Fort Wagner?

255. Give a general review of the third year of the war. State the
situation at the beginning of the year 1864. Grant's plan.

256, 257. Describe Johnston's plan of defence. How did Sherman
drive him from these positions? Name the battles. Who succeeded
Johnston in command? What followed? How did Sherman capture
Atlanta? The effect?

258. What prevented Sherman's advance into Georgia? How was he
relieved of this difficulty? Where did Hood go? What befell him. in
Tennessee? Describe the battle of Nashville. Its effect.

259. Describe Shennan's march to the sea. Its effect. Kilpatrick's
raid to Richmond.

260. Describe the battle of the Wilderness. By what peculiarity was
it distinguished? Its result? Describe the battle of Spottsylvania
Court House.

261. Its result. Describe the battle of Cold Harbor. What famous
despatch did Grant send?

262. Describe the attack on Petersburg. The effect of this
campaign. The three co-operative expeditions. The mine explosion.

263. The attack on the Weldon Railroad. Why did Lee send Early into
the Shenandoah Valley? Describe Early's raid.

264. What Union general was now sent to this region? Describe
Sheridan's campaign. His ride from Winchester. His devastation of
the country.

265 The effect of his campaign. Describe the Red River expedition.
The rescue of Porter's fleet. The massacre at Fort Pillow.

266. The attack on Mobile by Farragut. First expedition against
Fort Fisher.

267. The second expedition. Capture of the fort. Effectiveness of
the blockade. Blockade runners.

268. Give an account of the Confederate cruisers. Of the battle
between the Alabama and the Kearsarge.

269. Of the Sanitary and Christian Commissions. Of political
affairs.

270. Who was elected President? Give a general review of the fourth
year of the war.

271. Describe the situation at the opening of the year 1865.
Sherman's march through the Carolinas.

272. Its result. What was the situation at Richmond? Describe the
attack on Fort Steadman. Why was it made?

273. Its effect? Describe the battle of Five Forks. Its effect. The
capture of Petersburg and Richmond.

274. The pursuit of Lee. His surrender.

275, 276. The terms. Its effect. Fate of Davis. The cost of the
war. The assassination of Lincoln.

277. What State was added during this epoch?

SIXTH EPOCH.

281. Who became President on the death of Lincoln? Give an account
of the life of Johnson. What was the size of the two armies at the
close of the war? What did their peaceful discharge prove?

282. What do you mean by "reconstruction"? What was the
reconstruction policy of Johnson? What is the Thirteenth Amendment?

283. What was the condition of the public finances? What was the
reconstruction policy of Congress? Result of this clashing between
Congress and the President? On what conditions were the seceded
States finally readmitted to their former position in the Union?

284. Why was Johnson impeached? Its result? What is the Fourteenth
Amendment? What Indian war now arose? How was it terminated? Give
an account of the French interference in Mexico. How did it end?

285. Give an account of the laying of the Atlantic cable.

286. What territory was added to the United States? Of what value?
Give an account of the Fenian excitement in 1866.

287. Of the treaty with China. What State was admitted soon after
the close of the Civil War? Who were the Presidential candidates?
Who was elected eighteenth President?

288. Give an account of the Pacific Railroad, and its value to the
country. What new railroad is building? What is the climate in the
far north along the Mississippi Valley and the Pacific coast?
Extent of the public lands granted? What is the Fifteenth
Amendment?

289-292. What was the population of the United States in 1870? Was
the country recovering from the effects of the war? What great
fires happened in '71 and '72? What difficulty arose with England?
What was the High Commission? Give some account of Santo Domingo,
and its application to be annexed to the United States. What
difficulty occurred with Cuba? What candidates for the presidency
were nominated in 1873? Who was chosen? Give some account of Horace
Greeley.

293-295. Describe the contest with the Modoc Indians. What was the
Credit Mobilier? What was the cause of the "Panic of '73"? Name the
Centennial observances of '75. Describe the Centennial Exhibition
at Philadelphia. Give an account of the "Custer Massacre." Who were
nominated for the presidency in '77?

296. What was the Joint Electoral Commission? What questions
agitated the country at that time?

297,298. Name and describe the principal events of President
Hayes's administration.

HISTORICAL RECREATIONS.

1. In what battle was Molly Stark the watchword?

2. What battle occurred when both armies were marching
to make a night attack upon each other?

3. What battles have resulted in the destruction or
surrender of an entire army?

4. What general rushed into battle without orders and won it?

5. What trees are celebrated in our history?

6. In what battle did Washington bitterly rebuke the
commanding-general, and himself rally the troops to battle?

7. What three ex-Presidents died on the 4th of July?

8. What cities have undergone a siege?

9. Contrast the characters of Washington and Jefferson.

10. By whom and on what occasion were the words used,
"Millions for defence, but not one cent for tribute"?

11. Give the coincidences in the lives of the three
great statesmen--Webster, Clay, and Calhoun.

12. After whom ought this continent to have been named?

13. What celebrated philosopher, when a boy, went without
meat to buy books?

14. How did a half-witted boy once save a fort from capture?

15. Name the retreats famous in our history.

16. When did a fog save our army?
A rain?

17. When did a stone house largely decide a battle?
A stone wall?

18. What general was captured through his carelessness,
and exchanged for another taken in a similar way?

19. What battles have been decided by an attack in the rear?

20. Who said, "I would rather be right than be President"?

21. When has an unnecessary delay cost a general a victory?

22. Name the events in our history which seem to you providential.

23. What general died at the moment of victory?

24. Name some defeats which had all the effect of victories.

25. Of what general was this said to be always true?

26. When was the Mississippi River the western boundary of the
United States? The Rocky Mountains?

27. What territory has the United States acquired by purchase?
By conquest? By annexation?

28. What Vice-Presidents were afterward elected Presidents?

29. What navigator shortened the voyage across the Atlantic?

30. What tea party is celebrated in our history?

31. Who was President from 1787 (the adoption of the Constitution)
to 1789?

32. How many attacks have been made on Quebec?

33. Who said, "I am not worth purchasing, but such as I am the king
of England is not rich enough to buy me"?

34. Which is the longer, the Atlantic Cable or the Pacific
Railroad?

35. Why were the River St. Lawrence, Florida, St. Augustine, etc.,
so named?

36. What naval commander captured his antagonist as his own vessel
was sinking?

37. How many expeditions have been made into Canada?

38. What battle was preceded by prayer?

39. What do the French names in the Mississippi valley indicate?

40. What do the names New York, New England, New Hampshire,
Georgia, Carolina, etc., indicate?

41. When has the question of the public lands threatened the Union?

42. Who, in a frail canoe, on a stormy night, visited an Indian
wigwam to save the lives of his enemies?

43. In what battle did the Continentals gain the victory by falling
back and then suddenly facing about upon the enemy?

44. How many times has Fort Ticonderoga been captured?

45. Why were Davis's Strait, Baffin's Bay, Hudson River,
Frobisher's Strait, etc., so named?

46. What do the names San Salvador, Santa Cruz, Vera Cruz,
La Trinidad, etc., indicate?

47. In what battles had the opposing generals formed the same plan?

48. What Presidents died in office?

49. What father and son were Presidents?

50. What administrations have been most popular?

51. Who fired the first gun in the French and Indian war?

52. What battle was fought and gained without a commanding officer?

53. How many rebellions have occurred in our history?

54. Who was called the "Great Pacificator"? Why?

55. What was the "Nullification Act"?

56. How many of our Presidents have been military men?

57. Why did not Webster and Clay become Presidents?

58. Who was "Rough and Ready"?

59. Who was the "Sage of Monticello"?

60. What noted events occurred on April 19th?

61. In whose administration was the largest number of States
admitted to the Union?

62. In which administrations were none?

63. By whom and under what circumstances was the expression used,
"Give me liberty or give me death"?

64. What general arose from a sick-bed to lead his troops into a
battle in which he was killed?

65. What five ex-Presidents died in the decade between
1860 and 1870?

66. Where is the "Cradle of Liberty"?

67. What historical memories cluster around Santo Domingo?

68. How long did each of our five great wars last--
(1) the French and Indian war;
(2) the Revolutionary war;
(3) the war of 1812;
(4) the Mexican war; and
(5) the Civil war?

69. State the cause of each of these wars.

70. Name the prominent generals who acquired celebrity in each.

71. Name the principal battles of each.

72. Name the results of each.

73. What fort was carried by a midnight assault?

74. What general escaped by riding down a steep precipice?

75. Who drafted the Declaration of Independence?

76. Who secured its adoption in the Convention?

77. Name the Presidents in chronological order.

78. How many of our Presidents were Virginians?

79. Who was the "bachelor President"?

80. State to what party each President belonged.

81. How many of our Presidents were poor boys?

82. What were the principles of the whigs? The democrats?

83. What party adopted the views of the old federalists
on the United States Bank, etc.?

84. How many Presidents have served two terms?

85. What battle was fought after peace was declared?

86. On what issue was Polk elected President?

87. Contrast John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson.

88. On what mountains have battles been fought?

89. Who used the expression, "We have met the enemy, and
they are ours"?

90. Whose dying words were, "Don't give up the ship"?

91. When was a general blown up by a magazine, in the moment
of victory?

92. What Indian chiefs formed leagues against the whites?

93. What celebrated statesman was killed in a duel?

94. What States were named from mountain ranges?

95. What important contemporaneous events can you name? 96. Was
Washington ever wounded in battle?

97. What was meant by saying that "Clay was in the succession"?

98. In what battle did Washington show the most brilliant generalship?

99. What officer lost his life because he neglected to open a note?

100. What army retreated at the moment of victory because the fog
was so dense that it did not see how successful it was?

101. How many States were named from their principal rivers?

102. Name some celebrated foreigners who have fought for us.

103. What rendered Valley Forge memorable?

104. How did Harrison gain his popularity? Taylor?

105. Give some account of the United States Bank.

106. In what war was Lincoln a captain and Davis a lieutenant?

107. What colonel, when asked if he could take a battery, replied,
"I'll try, sir"?

108. Of what President was it said that "if his soul were turned
inside out, not a spot could be found upon it"?

109. What town and army were surrendered without firing a shot?

110. For how many years was the Revolutionary War carried on mainly
at the North? At the South?

111. Who was "Poor Richard"?

112. Who were the "Green Mountain Boys"?

113. What colony was founded as a home for the poor?

114. What persecuted people settled the different colonies?

115. What colonies are named after a king or a queen?

116. What religious toleration was granted in the different
colonies?

117. Which colonies early enjoyed the greatest liberty?

118. Which colony took the Bible as its guide?

119. In what battle was the left wing, when separated from the main
body by a river, attacked by an overwhelming force of the enemy?
The right wing?

120. In what battle did both generals mass their strength on the
left wing, expecting to crush the enemy's right?

121. How many invasions of the North did Lee make?

122. What victories induced him to attempt each of these invasions?

123. By what battle was each invasion checked?

124. How many invasions of Kentucky did Bragg make?

125. How was each stopped?

126. For how many years have the United States been involved in
war?

127. What object did Penn, Lord Baltimore, and Oglethorpe each have
in founding a colony in the new world?

128. What President was impeached?

129. What ex-Vice-President was tried for treason?

130. Name the four prominent battles fought by General Taylor.

131. What noted expressions of General Taylor became favorite
mottoes? Of General Grant?

132. What President vetoed the measures of the party which elected
him to office?

133. Of what statesman was it said that "he was in the public
service fifty years, and never attempted to deceive his
countrymen"?

134. Who is said to have used the words, "A little more grape,
Captain Bragg"?

135. From what States have Presidents been elected?

136. Give the number and names from each State.

137. What battle did General Gates win? What battle did he lose?

138. What battles did Washington win? What battles did he lose?

139. What President elect came to Washington in disguise?

140. Give a brief history of the slavery question.

141. When were slaves introduced into this country?

142. Name the generals who commanded the army of the Potomac.

143. Name the principal battles fought by
McClellan--Rosecrans--Bragg--Lee--Hooker--Sheridan--Grant--
Sherman--Beauregard--Meade--Pope--Buell--Taylor--Scott--
Thomas--Johnston.

111. Describe the "March to the Sea."

145. What two battles were fought in the "Wilderness"?

146. What was the "Missouri Compromise"? The "Compromise of 1850"?

147. What is "squatter sovereignty"? Who was its author?

148. Of whom was it said that "he touched the dead corpse of public
credit, and it sprang upon its feet"?

149. What were the "alien and sedition laws"?

150. Who was the "old man eloquent"?

151. When was the first railroad constructed? The first steamboat?
The first magnetic telegraph?

152. When was the Erie Canal opened? The Pacific Railroad?

153. What President introduced "rotation in office"?

154. Why, in the Missouri Compromise, was 36 degrees 30 minutes
taken as the boundary between the slave and the free States?

155. What "is the Monroe Doctrine"?

156. Who was the inventor of the cotton-gin?

157. What is a "protective tariff"?

158. What is meant by "Reconstruction"?

159. What Presidents were not elected to that office by the people?

160. To what party did Henry Clay belong? J. Q. Adams? Thomas
Jefferson? John C. Calhoun? Andrew Jackson? Daniel Webster?
Stephen
A. Douglas? Alexander Hamilton? George Washington?

161. What President had not voted for forty years?

162. What two distinguished generals of the same name served in the
Confederate army? Name the battles fought by each.

163. What was the "Dred Scott decision"?

164. What was the "Kansas-Nebraska Bill"?

165. Give an account of the principal parties which have arisen
since the Constitutional Convention of 1787?

166. Who were the "Silver Greys"? The "Hunkers"? The "Barnburners"?
The "Woolly-Heads"? The "Free Soilers"? The "Know-Nothings"? The
"Anti-Renters"? The "Unionists"?

167. Give an account of the different attempts to lay the Atlantic
cable.

168. Give a history of the difficulty between President Johnson and
Congress.

169. What nations settled the different States?

170. How many amendments have been made to the Constitution?

171. What was the "Hartford Convention"?

172. What are "State rights"?

173. What was the Secretary of State formerly called?

174. Tell some stories illustrating the patriotism of the women of
the Revolution.

175. Give an account of the Public Lands.

176. What State was admitted to the Union first after the original
thirteen?

177. Who are the "Mormons"?

178. For what is Ethan Allen noted?

179. What battles have been fought in Virginia? South Carolina?
Louisiana? New York? Massachusetts? New Jersey? Maryland?
Pennsylvania? Georgia? Michigan?

180. What was the "Fugitive Slave Law"?

181. Name some unsuccessful candidates for the Presidency.

182. For what is John Brown noted?

183. Who were the "Filibusters"?

184. Give an account of Farragut's most celebrated exploits.

185. Why was "Stonewall" Jackson so called?

186. Give an account of Butler's military career.

187. What was the most prominent event of Jefferson's
administration? Jackson's? Monroe's?

188. What treaties are celebrated in our history?

189. What President was once a tailor's apprentice?

190. What was the object of the "American party"?

191. What was the "Gadsden purchase"?

192. Name the various difficulties which have arisen with England.

193. What was the "Wilmot Proviso"?

194. What President followed Washington--Taylor--Jefferson--
Lincoln--J. Q. Adams--Pierce?

195. Who was President in 1812--1832--1846--1850--1861?

196. Describe the operations of the Confederate cruisers during the
Civil War. Of the "blockade runners."

197. What distinguished generals have been unsuccessful candidates
for the Presidency? Successful candidates?

198. Why did the French in Canada extend their explorations
westward to the Mississippi rather than southward into New York?

199. What was the "Trent affair"?

200. Name and describe some important naval engagements.

201. In what battle did the defeated general leave his wooden leg?

202. What was the "O grab me Act"?

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

* * * * *

THE following preamble and specifications, known as the Declaration
of Independence, accompanied the resolution of Richard Henry Lee,
which was adopted by Congress on the 2d day of July, 1776. This
declaration was agreed to on the 4th, and the transaction is thus
recorded in the Journal for that day:

"_Agreeably to the order of the day, the Congress resolved itself
into a committee of the whole, to take into their further
consideration the Declaration; and, after some time, the president
resumed the chair, and Mr. Harrison reported that the committee
have agreed to a Declaration, which they desired him to report. The
Declaration being read, was agreed to as follows:_"

A DECLARATION BY THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE UNITED STATES OF
AMERICA, IN CONGRESS ASSEMBLED.

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one
people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them
with another, and to assume, among the powers of the earth, the
separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of
nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of
mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel
them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident--that all men are created
equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain
inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the
pursuit of happiness. That, to secure these rights, governments are
instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent
of the governed; that, whenever any form of government becomes
destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter
or abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its
foundations on such principles, and organizing its powers in such
form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and
happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long
established should not be changed for light and transient causes;
and, accordingly, all experience hath shown that mankind are more
disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right
themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.
But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing
invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under
absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw
off such government, and to provide new guards for their future
security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies,
and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their
former systems of government. The history of the present king of
Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations,
all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute
tyranny over these States. To prove this, let facts be submitted to
a candid world.

1. He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and
necessary for the public good.

2. He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and
pressing importance, unless suspended in their operations till his
assent should be obtained; and, when so suspended, he has utterly
neglected to attend to them.

3. He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large
districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right
of representation in the Legislature--a right inestimable to them,
and formidable to tyrants only.

4. He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual,
uncomfortable, and distant from the repository of their public
records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance
with his measures.

5. He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing,
with manly firmness, his invasions on the rights of the people.

6. He has refused, for a long time after such dissolutions, to
cause others to be elected, whereby the legislative powers,
incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for
their exercise; the State remaining, in the meantime, exposed to
all the dangers of invasions from without, and convulsions within.

7. He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for
that purpose obstructing the laws for the naturalization of
foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration
hither, and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands.

8. He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his
assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers.

9. He has made judges dependent on his will alone for the tenure of
their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

10. He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither
swarms of officers to harass our people and eat out their
substance.

11. He has kept among us in times of peace, standing armies,
without the consent of our Legislatures.

12. He has affected to render the military independent of, and
superior to, the civil power.

13. He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction
foreign to our constitutions, and unacknowledged by our laws;
giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation:

14. For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us;

15. For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any
murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these
States;

16. For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world;

17. For imposing taxes on us without our consent;

18. For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by
jury;

19. For transporting us beyond seas, to be tried for pretended
offences;

20. For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring
province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and
enlarging its boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and
fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these
colonies;

21. For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable
laws, and altering, fundamentally, the forms of our governments;

22. For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves
invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

23. He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his
protection, and waging war against us.

24. He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burned our
towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

25. He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign
mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny,
already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely
paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the
head of a civilized nation.

26. He has constrained our fellow-citizens, taken captive on the
high seas, to bear arms against their country, to become the
executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves
by their hands.

27. He has excited domestic insurrection among us, and has
endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the
merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an
undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.

In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress
in the most humble terms; our repeated petitions have been answered
only by repeated injury. A prince whose character is thus marked by
every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a
free people.

Nor have we been wanting in our attentions to our British brethren.
We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts by their
legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We
have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and
settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and
magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common
kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably
interrupt our connections and correspondence. They, too, have been
deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must,
therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our
separation, and hold them as we hold the rest of mankind--enemies
in war; in peace, friends.

We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America,
in general Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of
the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name and
by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly
publish and declare that these united colonies are, and of right
ought to be, free and independent States; that they are absolved
from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political
connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and
ought to be, totally dissolved, and that, as free and independent
States, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract
alliances, establish commerce, and do all other acts and things
which independent States may of right do. And for the support of
this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine
Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our
fortunes, and our sacred honor.

The foregoing declaration was, by order of Congress, engrossed, and
signed by the following members:

JOHN HANCOCK.

NEW HAMPSHIRE.
JOSIAH BARTLETT,
WILLIAM WHIPPLE,
MATTHEW THORNTON.

MASSACHUSETTS BAY.
SAMUEL ADAMS,
JOHN ADAMS,
ROBERT TREAT PAINE,
ELBRIDGE GERRY.

RHODE ISLAND.
STEPHEN HOPKINS,
WILLIAM ELLERY.

CONNECTICUT.
ROGER SHERMAN,
SAMUEL HUNTINGTON,
WILLIAM WILLIAMS,
OLIVER WOLCOTT.

NEW YORK.
WILLIAM FLOYD,
PHILIP LIVINGSTON,
FRANCIS LEWIS,
LEWIS MORRIS.

NEW JERSEY.
RICHARD STOCKTON,
JOHN WITHERSPOON,
FRANCIS HOPKINSON,
JOHN HART,
ABRAHAM CLARK.

PENNSYLVANIA.
ROBERT MORRIS,
BENJAMIN RUSH,
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN,
JOHN MORTON,
GEORGE CLYMER,
JAMES SMITH,
GEORGE TAYLOR,
JAMES WILSON,
GEORGE ROSS.

DELAWARE.
CAESAR RODNEY,
GEORGE READ,
THOMAS M'KEAN.

MARYLAND.
SAMUEL CHASE,
WILLIAM PACA,
THOMAS STONE,
CHARLES CARROLL, of Carrollton.

VIRGINIA.
GEORGE WYTHE,
RICHARD HENRY LEE,
THOMAS JEFFERSON,
BENJAMIN HARRISON,
THOMAS NELSON, JUN.,
FRANCIS LIGHTFOOT LEE,
CARTER BRAXTON.

NORTH CAROLINA.
WILLIAM HOOPER,
JOSEPH HEWES,
JOHN PENN.

SOUTH CAROLINA.
EDWARD RUTLEDGE,
THOMAS HEYWARD, JUN.,
THOMAS LYNCH, JUN.,
ARTHUR MIDDLETON.

GEORGIA.
BUTTON GWINNETT,
LYMAN HALL,
GEORGE WALTON.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES

WE, the People of the United States, in order to form a more
perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity,
provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and
secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do
ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION for the United States of
America.

ARTICLE I.--Legislative Department.

SECTION I. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in
a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate
and House of Representatives.

SECTION II.

CLAUSE 1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members
chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and
the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite
for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature.

CLAUSE 2. No person shall be a representative who shall not have
attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a
citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be
an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

CLAUSE 3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned
among the several States which may be included within this Union,
according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by
adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound
to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed,
three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be
made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of
the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years,
in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of
representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but
each State shall have at least one representative; and until such
enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be
entitled to choose three; Massachusetts, eight; Rhode Island and
Providence Plantations, one; Connecticut, five; New York, six; New
Jersey, four; Pennsylvania, eight; Delaware, one; Maryland, six;
Virginia, ten; North Carolina, five; South Carolina, five; and
Georgia, three.

[Footnote: PREAMBLE.--Name the six objects of the Constitution. Who
"ordained and established" this Constitution? Is the "union" one of
states or of people? What branches of government are established
under the first three articles of the Constitution?

ARTICLE I.--_Section_ 1. What body has the "power of
legislation"? (_Note_.--The "power of legislation" is that of
making laws.) Of what does Congress consist?

_Section_ 2. Who compose the House of Representatives? Who
choose the representatives? What are the necessary qualifications
of an elector (or voter) for a representative? How long is the term
of a representative? Name the three qualifications necessary for a
representative. Is a foreign-born person eligible to the office of
representative? How are representatives and direct taxes to be
apportioned among the states? How was the representative population
of the different states to be determined? What limit is there to
the number of representatives? Is every state entitled to
representation? How many members were there in the first House of
Representatives? How often must the Census be taken? How are
vacancies in the House to be filled? Who elect the officers of the
House? What body has the sole power of impeachment?]

[Footnote: (_Notes_.--The first census was taken in 1790; the
"ratio of representation" being one representative for 33,000
persons. The census of 1870 gave 1:3,533 persona as the "ratio of
representation," The number of representatives is fixed by Congress
each decade: at present it is 292. In March of the odd year there
is a new House of Representatives. Each organized territory has a
delegate who can sit in the House, but not vote. The states are
each divided, by its own laws, into congressional districts, as
many as Ihe number of representatives to which it is entitled; and
the electors in each one of these vote for their representative.
The phrase "all other persons" meant "slaves": but this has been
amended by the XIVth Amendment. The speaker is always a member of
the House; the clerk, sergeant-at-arms, chaplain, etc., are not
members. To impeach an officer is to accuse him of official
misconduct.)]

CLAUSE 4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any
State, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of
election to fill such vacancies.

CLAUSE 5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker
and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

[Footnote: Section 3. Of how many members does the Senate of the
United States consist? Who elect the senators? What is a senator's
term of office? Explain the classification originally made. What
was the object? How are vacancies filled? State the three
qualifications necessary for a senator. Who is the president of the
Senate? When only can he vote? Who chooses the other officers of
the Senate? When can the Senate choose a president _pro tempore_ (for
the time being)? What "sole power" does the Senate possess? Who
presides when the President of the United States is impeached? What
number is needed to convict? What penalties can be inflicted in case
of conviction? Is a person so convicted liable to a trial-at-law for
the same offence?]

SECTION III.

CLAUSE 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two
senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for
six years; and each senator shall have one vote.

CLAUSE 2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence
of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be
into three classes. The seats of the senators of the first class
shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the
second class, at the expiration of the fourth year; and of the
third class, at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third
may be, chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by
resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of
any State, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments
until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill
such vacancies.

CLAUSE 3. No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained
to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the
United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of
that State for which he shall be chosen.

CLAUSE 4. The Vice-President of the United States shall be
president of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be
equally divided.

CLAUSE 5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a
president _pro tempore_, in the absence of the Vice-President,
or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United
States.

CLAUSE 6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all
impeachments: when sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath
or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried,
the Chief-Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted
without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

CLAUSE 7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further
than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy
any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States; but
the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to
indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.

[Footnote: Section 4. Who prescribes the "time, place and manner"
of electing representatives and senators? What power has Congress
over the state regulations? How often, and when, must Congress
meet? (_Note_--Congress has prescribed that senators shall be
chosen in the following manner. The Legislature elected last before
the end of the senatorial term, on the second Tuesday after its
first session, shall choose the next senator. The two branches of
the Legislature shall meet separately and vote _viva voce_.
They shall then assemble together, and if they agree on any person,
he shall be considered duly elected; if they disagree, the joint
meeting shall vote _viva voce_ from day to day, at 12 M., until a
choice is made.)]

SECTION IV.

CLAUSE 1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for
senators and representatives shall be prescribed in each State by
the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time, by law,
make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing
senators.

CLAUSE 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year,
and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless
they shall by law appoint a different day.

[Footnote: _Section 5_. Who decides upon the "elections, returns and
qualifications" of the representatives and of the senators? What
number of the members is necessary for a quorum (needed to do
business)? What business can a minority transact? What power is given
each House of Congress of making and enforcing rules? What is the law
with regard to keeping and publishing a journal of the proceedings?
When must the yeas and nays be entered on the journal? What
restriction is there upon the time and place of adjournment?]

SECTION V.

CLAUSE 1. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns,
and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall
constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may
adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the
attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such
penalties, as each house may provide.

CLAUSE 2. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings,
punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the
concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.

CLAUSE 3. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and
from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in
their judgment require secrecy, and the yeas and nays of the
members of either house on any question shall, at the desire of
one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

CLAUSE 4. Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall,
without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days,
nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be
sitting.

[Footnote: _Section 6_. Who fixes and pays the salaries of
members of Congress? What special privileges are granted to members
of Congress? To what offices are members of Congress ineligible?
Can a Congressman hold another office at the same time?]

SECTION VI.

CLAUSE 1. The senators and representatives shall receive a
compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid
out of the treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases,
except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from
arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective
houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any
speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in
any other place.

CLAUSE 2. No senator or representative shall, during the time for
which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the
authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or
the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time;
and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a
member of either house during his continuance in office.

[Footnote: _Section 7_. What bills must originate in the House
of Representatives? What authority is given the Senate with regard
to such bills? Describe the three ways in which a bill may become a
law--(1) With the President's concurrence, (2) over his veto (I
forbid); and (3) by non-return within ten dayss? What "orders,
resolutions and votes" must be submitted to the President? What is
the object of this provision? (_Notes_.--In case a vacancy
occurs in the senatorial representation of any state, the governor
of the state can appoint a senator to fill the place, who can hold
office only until the next session of the Legislature. The method
of representation in the Senate gives in that body perfect equality
to all the states, Rhode Island having the same power as Virginia.
A senator is chosen by the Legislature, a representative by the
people; a senator serves for six years, a representative for two.
The Senate tries an officer for misconduct, but he must be
impeached by the House of Representatives. The salary of a
Congressman is now $5,000 per year, and mileage (20 cents per mile
for every mile of travel by the usual route in coming and going).
The speaker of the House has double a member's salary, and the
president of the Senate has a salary of $8,000. One-third of the
Senate retire from office every two years. By the term "a Congress"
is meant the body of senators and representatives holding office
during any one representative term of two years; the Congress which
began its term March 4, 1879, is the 46th. Each Congress "ends at
noon of the 4th of March next succeeding the beginning of its
second regular session." The committees in the House are appointed
by the Speaker; those in the Senate by itself. The classification
of the Senate makes it a more efficient and conservative body than
the House, since in the former there are always two thirds of the
number old members, while the House is all new every two years. If
the president of the Senate were a senator, it would give extra
power to one state, which would be contrary to the plan of that
body.)]

SECTION VII.

CLAUSE 1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the
House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with
amendments, as on other bills.

CLAUSE 2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of
Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be
presented to the President of the United States; if he approve, he
shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his objections,
to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter
the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider
it. If after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that house shall
agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the
objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be
reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall
become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall
be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting
for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each
house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the
President within ten days (Sunday excepted) after it shall have
been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as
if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment
prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

CLAUSE 3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence
of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except
on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President
of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall
be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed
by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according
to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

[Footnote: _Section 8_. Eighteen clauses now follow which
enumerate the _powers granted to Congress_. What power has
Congress with regard to taxes? Duties (taxes on imported or
exported articles)? Imports (taxes on imported articles)? Excises
(taxes on articles produced in the country)? Borrowing money?
Regulating commerce? Naturalization? Bankruptcies? Coining money?
Counterfeiting? Post-offices and post-roads? Authors and inventors?
Inferior courts? Piracies? Declaring war? Raising and supporting
armies? A navy? Government of the land and naval forces? Calling
forth the militia? Organizing the militia? Over what places has
Congress exclusive legislation? What power is finally given to
Congress to enable it to enforce its authority? What four
restrictions upon the Congressional powers are made in this
section? (See clauses 1, 2,16 and 17.) (_Notes. _--Taxes may
be either direct or indirect; the former are laid directly upon the
person; the latter upon articles exported, imported or consumed.
Naturalization is the process by which a foreign-born person
becomes a citizen. The process of naturalization is as follows (1.)
The person declares, on oath before the proper authority, his
intention of becoming a citizen of the United States. (2.) Two
years, at least, having elapsed, the person takes the oath of
allegiance, when he must prove by witness that he has resided in
the United States five years and in the state where he seeks to be
naturalized one year; that he has borne a good moral character, and
has been well-disposed toward the government. The copyright, or
exclusive right of publishing a book, is given to an author for 28
years, with the privilege of extension 14 years longer. It is
issued only to a citizen or resident of the United States. A patent
is now granted to an inventor for 17 years, without the privilege
of extension. Any crime punishable with death is a felony. "Letters
of marque and reprisal" are commissions given to persons
authorizing them to seize the property of another nation By the
term "high seas" is meant the open sea, the highway of nations.)]

SECTION VIII.

CLAUSE 1. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes,
duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the
common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all
duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United
States;

CLAUSE 2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

CLAUSE 3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the
several States, and with the Indian tribes;

CLAUSE 4. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and
uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United
States;

CLAUSE 5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign
coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;

CLAUSE 6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the
securities and current coin of the United States;

CLAUSE 7. To establish post-offices and post-roads;

CLAUSE 8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by
securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors the exclusive
right to their respective writings and discoveries;

CLAUSE 9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;

CLAUSE 10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on
the high seas, and offences against the law of nations;

CLAUSE 11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal,
and make rules concerning captures on land and water;

CLAUSE 12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of
money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;

CLAUSE 13. To provide and maintain a navy;

CLAUSE 14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the
land and naval forces;

CLAUSE 15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the
laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions;

CLAUSE 16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the
militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in
the service of the United States, reserving to the States
respectively the appointment of the officers, and the authority of
training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by
Congress;

CLAUSE 17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases
whatsoever over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as
may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of
Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States,
and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the
consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be,
for the erection efforts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other
needful buildings;--And

CLAUSE 18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for
carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers
vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States,
or in any department or officer thereof.

[Footnote: _Section 9_. Eight clauses now follow, enumerating
the _powers denied to Congress._ What prohibition was made
concerning the slave trade? Writ of habeas corpus? Bill of
attainder? Ex-post-facto law? Direct tax? Exports from any state?
Trade between the United States? Payments from the Treasury? Titles
of nobility? United States office-holder receiving presents from a
foreign power? (_Notes._--The object of the first clause was
to destroy the foreign slave trade or the importation of negroes
from Africa for the purpose of enslaving them. In 1808, a law was
passed prohibiting the trade, and in 1820 it was declared to be
piracy. A writ of habeas corpus is a written order from a
magistrate directing that a certain person shall be brought before
him; its object is to guard against false imprisonment or trial in
a prejudiced court. A bill of attainder is an English term, meaning
an act which without trial inflicts death for treason: attainder of
treason cannot in the United States work "corruption of blood" so
as to prevent a person from transmitting lands to his descendants.
An ex-post-facto law makes an act criminal or penal which was not
so at the time it was committed. A United States office-holder,
wishing to accept a present or distinction offered him by any
foreign power, must ask permission of Congress before he can
receive it.)]

SECTION IX.

CLAUSE 1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of
the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be
prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight
hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such
importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

CLAUSE 2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be
suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public
safety may require it.

CLAUSE 3. No bill of attainder or ex-post-facto law shall be
passed.

CLAUSE 4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless
in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to
be taken.

CLAUSE 5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from
any State.

CLAUSE 6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of
commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of
another; nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged
to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

CLAUSE 7. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in
consequence of appropriations made by law: and a regular statement
and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money
shall be published from time to time.

CLAUSE 8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United
States: And no person holding any office of profit or trust under
them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any
present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from
any king, prince, or foreign state.

SECTION X.--CLAUSE 1. No State shall enter into any treaty,
alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal;
coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver
coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder,
ex-post-facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or
grant any title of nobility.

CLAUSE 2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay
any impost or duties on imports or exports, except what may be
absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net
produce of all duties and impost, laid by any State on imports or
exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States;
and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of
the Congress.

CLAUSE 3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any
duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships-of-war, in time of peace,
enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a
foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in
such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

ARTICLE II.--Executive Department.

SECTION I.

CLAUSE 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the
United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term
of four years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for
the same term, be elected, as follows:

CLAUSE 2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the
Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the
whole number of senators and representatives to which the State may
be entitled in the Congress; but no senator or representative, or
person holding an office of trust or profit under the United
States, shall be appointed an elector.

CLAUSE 3. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the
electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which
day shall be the same throughout the United States.

CLAUSE 4. No person except a natural-born citizen, or a citizen of
the United States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution,
shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any
person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to
the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years resident
within the United States.

CLAUSE 5. In case of the removal of the President from office, or
of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and
duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the
Vice-President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of
removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President
and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as
President; and such officer shall act accordingly until the
disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

[Footnote: Section 10. Three clauses now follow enumerating the
_powers denied to the several States_. What prohibition was
made with regard to treaties? Letters of marque and reprisal?
Coinage of money? Issuing bills of credit (bills to circulate as
money)? Making any other legal tender than gold or silver? A bill
of attainder? An ex-post-facto law? The impairing of contracts?
Titles of nobility? Imposts? Keeping troops? Making peace or war?

ARTICLE II.-SECTION 1. In whom is the executive power vested?
(_Note_--The executive power is that of executing the laws.)
How long is the President's term of office? The Vice President's?
Who are the presidential electors? How many are there from each
state? Who are ineligible to the office? Describe the method of
electing a President, as originally directed by the Constitution.
(_Note_.--This has been superseded by the XIIth Amendment.)
What power has Congress over the electors? What are the necessary
qualifications for the office of President? In case of a vacancy,
who would become President? (_Note_.--In case of a vacancy in
the office of both President and Vice-President, the president
_pro tempore_ of the Senate, and in case of a vacancy in that
office, then the speaker of the House would act as President. The
electors are now chosen on "the Tuesday next after the first Monday
in the last November" of each presidential term of office. The
electors meet to cast their ballots, generally at the capital of
each state, on "the first Wednesday in the last December" of each
presidential term of office. When the plan of choosing electors was
originally adopted it was intended to choose good men who should
themselves select the President, but it soon came about that the
electors were pledged to their respective candidates before their
own election. The President's salary is $50,000 per year, together
with the use of the White House.) Can the salary of a President be
changed during his term of office? Can he receive any other
emolument from the national or any state government? Repeat the
President's oath of office.]

CLAUSE 6. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his
services a compensation which shall neither be increased nor
diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected,
and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument
from the United States, or any of them.

CLAUSE 7. Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall
take the following oath or affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear (or
affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of
the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve,
protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States."

SECTION II.

CLAUSE 1. The President shall be commander-in-chief of the army and
navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several
States, when called into the actual service of the United States;
he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in
each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the
duties of their respective offices; and he shall have power to
grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States,
except in cases of impeachment.

CLAUSE 2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent
of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the
senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the
advice and consent of the Senate shall appoint ambassadors, other
public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all
other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not
herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by
law; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such
inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in
the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

CLAUSE 3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies
that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting
commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session.

[Footnote: _Section 2_. Three clauses now follow enumerating
the powers granted to the President. What authority has the
President over the United States army and navy? State militia? The
chief officers of the different executive departments? (See note,
p. 151.) Reprieves and pardons? The making of treaties? Appointment
of ambassadors? Judges of the Supreme Court, etc.? Filling
vacancies?]

SECTION III.--He shall from time to time give to the Congress
information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their
consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and
expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses,
or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them with
respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such
time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and
other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be
faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the
United States.

[Footnote: _Section 3_. Defines the duties of the President,
Name these duties with regard (1) to Congress, (2) to ambassadors,
and (3) to United States officers? (_Note_.--Washington and
Adams in person read their messages to Congress; the present plan
of sending the message by a private secretary was commenced by
Jefferson.)]

SECTION IV.--The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers
of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment
for, and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and
misdemeanors.

[Footnote: _Section 4_. For what crimes and in what way may
any United States officer be removed from office?]

ARTICLE III.--JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT.

SECTION I.--The judicial power of the United States shall be vested
in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress
may from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the
Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good
behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a
compensation which shall not be diminished during their continuance
in office.

[Footnote: ARTICLE III.--Section 1. In what is the judicial power
of the United States vested? (_Note_.--The judicial power is
that of interpreting and applying the laws.) How long do the judges
hold office? Can their salary be changed during their term of
office?]

[Footnote: Section 2 defines the _jurisdiction of the United
States Courts_. Name the cases to which the judicial power of
the United States extends. In what cases does the Supreme Court
have original jurisdiction? Appellate jurisdiction? What is the law
with regard to trial by jury? Where must such a trial be held?
Where may a crime be committed "not within a state"? (_Notes_.
--The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and eight associate
justices. The salary of the chief-justice is $10,500 and that of an
associate $10,000 per annum. This court meets at Washington
annually on the first Wednesday in December. A citizen of the
District of Columbia, within the meaning of the Constitution as
above, is not a citizen of a state. By original jurisdiction is
meant the court in which the case begins; by appellate, is
indicated a trial after an appeal from a lower court.)]

SECTION II.

CLAUSE 1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and
equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United
States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their
authority;--to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public
ministers, and consuls;--to all cases of admiralty and maritime
jurisdiction;--to controversies to which the United States shall be
a party;--to controversies between two or more States;--between a
State and citizens of another State;--between citizens of different
States;--between citizens of the same State claiming lands under
grants of different States, and between a State, or the citizens
thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects.

CLAUSE 2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public
ministers and consuls, and those in which a State shall be party,
the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the
other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have
appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such
exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.

CLAUSE 3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment,
shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where
the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed
within any State, the trial shall be at such place or places as the
Congress may by law have directed.

SECTION III.

CLAUSE 1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in
levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving
them aid and comfort.

[Footnote: Section 3. In what does treason consist? What proof is
required? Who fixes the punishment? What limit is assigned?]

CLAUSE 2. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the
testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession
in open court.

CLAUSE 3. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment
of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of
blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person
attainted.

ARTICLE IV.--General Provisions.

SECTION I.--Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to
the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other
State. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in
which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the
effect thereof.

[Footnote: ARTICLE IV.--Section 1. What is the law with regard to
state records, judicial proceedings, etc.?]

SECTION II.

CLAUSE 1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all
privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States.

CLAUSE 2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or
other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another
State, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the State
from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State
having jurisdiction of the crime.

CLAUSE 3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under
the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of
any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or
labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such
service or labor may be due.

[Footnote: Section 2. What privileges has the citizen of one state
in all the others? Can a criminal or an apprentice escape by
fleeing into another state? (Note.-Clause 3 originally included
fugitive slaves, but that application was annulled by the XIIIth
Amendment.)]

SECTION III.

CLAUSE 1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this
Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the
jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the
junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the
consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of
the Congress.

[Footnote: State the law with regard to the formation and admission
of new states. What power has Congress over the territory and
propeity of the United States?]

CLAUSE 2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all
needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other
property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this
Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of
the United States, or of any particular State.

SECTION IV.-The United States shall guarantee to every State in
this Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each
of them against invasion, and on application of the Legislature, or
of the executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against
domestic violence.

[Footnote: What must Congress guarantee to every state? When must
Congress protect the states?]

ARTICLE V.--Power of Amendment.

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it
necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on
the application of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several
States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in
either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of
this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of
three-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in
three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification
may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which
may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight
shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the

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