Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

A Brief History of the United States by Barnes & Co.

Part 6 out of 8

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 0.8 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

into West Virginia. 2. On the night that the Army of the Potomac
crossed the Rapidan, General Butler, with thirty thousand men,
ascended the James River, under the protection of gunboats, and
landed at Bermuda Hundred. After some trifling successes, he was
surprised in a dense fog by Beauregard, and driven back into his
defences with considerable loss. Beauregard then threw
intrenchments across the narrow strip which connects Bermuda
Hundred with the main land, and, as Grant tersely said,
"hermetically sealed up" the Union force from any further advance.
3. General Sheridan, while the army was at Spottsylvania, passed in
the rear of the Confederate position, destroyed miles of railroad,
recaptured four hundred prisoners _en route_, and defeated a
cavalry force with the loss of their leader, General J. E. B.
Stuart, the best cavalry officer in the South.]

[Illustration: GRANT'S CAMPAIGN AROUND RICHMOND.]

ATTACK ON PETERSBURG.--Grant now rapidly pushed his army over the
James, and fell upon Petersburg; but here again Lee was ahead, and
the works could not be forced. Grant was therefore compelled to
throw up intrenchments and sit down in front of the Confederate
lines. The campaign now resolved itself into a siege of Richmond,
with Petersburg as its advanced post.

_The Effect_.--The campaign had cost the Union army at least
seventy thousand men, and the Confederates about forty thousand.

[Footnote: The above statement of losses is founded upon the
generally-accepted authorities; but Grant has lately asserted that
his total loss was only about 39,000, while Southern writers place
Lee's at 18,000.]

The weakened capabilities of the South were now fairly pitted
against the almost exhaustless resources of the North. Grant's plan
was to keep constantly hammering Lee's army, conscious that it was
the last hope of the Confederacy. The idea of thus annihilating an
army was terrible, yet it seemed the only way of closing the awful
struggle.

THE SIEGE OF RICHMOND continued until the spring campaign of 1865.
It was marked by two important events:

1. _Mine Explosion_ (July 30).--From a hidden ravine in front
of Petersburg, a mine had been dug underneath a strong Confederate
fort. Just at dawn, the blast of eight thousand pounds of powder
was fired. Several cannon, the garrison of three hundred men, and
huge masses of earth, were thrown high in air. The Federal guns
opened fire at once along the entire line. An assaulting column
rushed forward, but stopped in the crater produced by the
explosion. The Confederates, rallying from their confusion,
concentrated from every side and poured shot and shell upon the
struggling mass of men huddled within the demolished fort. To
retreat was only less dangerous than to stay, yet many of the
soldiers jumped out of this slaughter-pen and ran headlong back to
the Union lines. The Federals lost about four thousand men in this
ill-starred affair.

2. _Attack upon the Weldon Railroad_ (August 18).--By threatening
Richmond upon the north, Grant induced Lee to move troops to that city
from Petersburg. The opportunity was at once seized, and the Weldon
Railroad captured. Lee, aware of the great importance of that means of
communication with the South, for several days made most desperate
attempts for its recovery. They were, however, unsuccessful, and the
Union lines were permanently advanced to this point.

[Footnote: An attempt was made by Grant to take this road when he
first swung south of Richmond, but he was repulsed with a loss of
nearly four thousand men. That this event was not mentioned in the
military report, and has not received a specific name, shows the
enormous proportions the war had assumed, and how changed it was
from the time when Big Bethel and Ball's Bluff were esteemed
important battles.]

EARLY'S RAID.--Hunter's retreat (p. 262) having laid open the
Shenandoah Valley, Lee took advantage of it to threaten Washington,
hoping thus to draw off Grant from the siege of Richmond. General
Early, with twenty thousand men, accordingly hurried along this
oft-traveled route. Defeating General Wallace at _Monocacy River_, he
appeared before _Fort Stevens_, one of the defences of Washington
(July 10). Had he rushed by forced marches, he might have captured the
city; but he stopped a day. Reinforcements having now arrived, he was
compelled to retreat, and, laden with booty, he rapidly recrossed the
Potomac. Not being pursued, he returned, and sent a party of cavalry
into Pennsylvania. They entered Chambersburg, and, on failing to
obtain a ransom of $500,000, set fire to the village, and escaped
safely back into the Shenandoah.

[Illustration: RESCUE OF THE UNION FLEET
IN THE RED RIVER (Note, p 265)]

SHERIDAN'S CAMPAIGN--Sheridan was now put in command of all the
troops in this region. He defeated Early at _Winchester_ and
_Fisher's Hill_, and in a week destroyed half his army, and
sent the rest "whirling up the valley of the Shenandoah."

[Footnote: In order to prevent any further raids upon Washington
from this direction, Sheridan devastated the valley so thoroughly
that it was said that "if a crow wants to fly down the Shenandoah,
he must carry his provisions with him."]

Early was quickly reinforced, and returning during Sheridan's
absence, surprised his army at _Cedar Creek_ (October 19), and
drove it in confusion. Sheridan arrived at this critical moment,
ordered an immediate advance, and attacking the Confederates, now
busy plundering the captured camp, routed them with great
slaughter.

[Footnote: Early's attack was made under cover of a dense fog and
the darkness of the early morning. The Union troops were driven
four miles. General Wright, their commander, though wounded, still
remained on the field, and managed to get his troops into a new
position in the rear. Sheridan heard the cannonading thirteen miles
away, at Winchester. Knowing the importance of his presence, he put
spurs to his coal-black steed, and never drew rein until, his horse
covered with foam, he dashed upon the battle-field. Riding down the
lines, he shouted, "Turn, boys, turn; we're going back." Under the
magnetism of his presence, the fugitives followed him back to the
fight and victory.]

_The Effect_.--This campaign of only a month was one of the most
brilliant of the war. Sheridan lost seventeen thousand men, but he
virtually destroyed Early's army. This was the last attempt to
threaten Washington.

RED RIVER EXPEDITION.

[Footnote: Troops having been sent from Vicksburg to join the Red
River expedition, West Tennessee and Kentucky were left exposed to
attack from the Confederates. Forrest, with five thousand men,
captured Union City, Tenn., with its garrison of about five hundred
troops, occupied Hickman, and advanced rapidly upon Paducah, Ky.
This, protected by the gunboats, maintained so stout a defence,
that Forrest retired. Moving south, he next fell upon _Fort
Pillow_ (April 12). His men crept along under shelter of a
ravine until very near, and then charged upon the intrenchments.
Rushing into the fort, they raised the cry "No quarter!" "The
Confederate officers," says Pollard, "lost control of their men,
who were maddened by the sight of negro troops opposing them," and
an indiscriminate slaughter followed.]

A joint naval and land expedition, under the command of General
Banks, was sent up the Red River in the hope of destroying the
Confederate authority in that region and in Texas (map opp. p.
222). Fort de Russy was taken (March 14), whence Banks moved on
toward Shreveport. The line of march became extended a distance of
nearly thirty miles along a single road. At _Sabine Cross
Roads_ (April 8) the Confederate forces, under General Dick
Taylor, attacked the advance, and a miniature Bull Run retreat
ensued. The Union troops, however, rallied at _Pleasant Hill_,
and the next day, reinforcements coming up from the rear, they were
able to repulse the Confederates. The army thereupon returned to
New Orleans, and Banks was relieved of the command.

[Footnote: Porter, who commanded the gunboats in the Red River,
hearing of Banks's retreat, attempted to return with his fleet, but
the river fell so rapidly that this became impossible. It was
feared that it would be necessary to blow up the vessels to prevent
their falling into the enemy's hands, when, by the happy suggestion
of Colonel Bailey, formerly a Wisconsin lumberman, they were saved.
He constructed a series of wing-dams below the rapids, and when the
water rose, the boats were safely floated over. This skilful
expedient was almost the only relieving feature of the campaign,
which was believed by some to have been undertaken simply as a
gigantic cotton speculation in behalf of certain parties, who
seemed to be more intent on gathering that staple than on
conserving the interests of the Union cause. The failure was,
therefore, at the North a source of great mortification and
reproach.]

_The Effect_.--This campaign was a great Confederate triumph.
Banks lost five thousand men, eighteen guns, and large supplies.

[Footnote: General Steele, who commanded in Arkansas, had moved
from Little Rock to cooperate in this advance, but on nearing
Shreveport, learned of Banks's retreat. He immediately turned
around, and with great difficulty and severe fighting, managed to
escape back to Little Rock. This disaster enabled ihe Confederates
to recover half of the State.]

THE WAR ON THE SEA AND ON THE COAST.

THE EXPEDITION AGAINST MOBILE (August 5) was under the command of
Admiral Farragut. That he might oversee the battle more distinctly,
he took his position in the maintop of his flag-ship--the Hartford.
The vessels, lashed together in pairs for mutual assistance, in an
hour fought their way past the Confederate forts, and engaged the
iron-clad fleet beyond (map, p. 280). After a desperate resistance,
the great iron ram Tennessee was taken, and the other vessels were
captured or put to flight. The forts were soon after reduced, and
the harbor was closed to blockade runners.

[Footnote: The city of Mobile was not captured until the next year,
when Generals Granger's, Steele's, and A. J. Smith's commands,
making a force of about forty-five thousand men, were collected for
this purpose by Gen. Canby. The forts were gallantly defended by
General Maury, but were taken within less than two weeks. The city
itself was evacuated April 11. The Union troops entered the next
day, ignorant that Lee had surrendered three days before, and that
the Confederacy was dead.]

THE EXPEDITION AGAINST FORT FISHER, which defended the harbor of
Wilmington, N. C., was commanded by Commodore Porter. It consisted
of seventy vessels and a land force under General Butler. After a
fierce bombardment (December 24, 25) Butler decided that the fort
could not be taken by assault, and the army returned to Fortress
Monroe. Commodore Porter, dissatisfied with the result, lay off the
place, and asked for a second trial. The same troops, with fifteen
hundred additional men, were sent back under General Terry.
Protected by a terrible fire from the fleet, a column of sailors
and one of soldiers worked their way, by a series of trenches,
within two hundred yards of the fort. At the word, the former
leaped forward on one side and the latter on another. The sailors
were repulsed, but the soldiers burst into the fort. The
hand-to-hand fight within lasted for hours. Late at night the
garrison, hemmed in on all sides, surrendered (January 15, 1865).
One knows not which to admire the more, the gallantry of the attack
or the heroism of the defence. In such a victory is glory, and in
such a defeat, no disgrace.

THE BLOCKADE was now so effectual that the prices of all imported
goods in the Confederate States were fabulous.

[Footnote: Flour brought, in Confederate currency, $40 per barrel;
calico, $30 per yard; coffee, $50 per pound; French gloves, $150
per pair; and black pepper, $300 per pound. Dried sage, raspberry,
and other leaves were substituted for the costly tea. Woolen
clothing was scarce and the army depended largely on captures of
the ample Federal stores. "Pins were so rare that they were picked
up with avidity in the streets." Paper was so expensive that
matches could no longer be put in boxes. Sugar, butter, and white
bread became luxuries even for the wealthy. Salt being a necessity,
was economized to the last degree, old pork and fish barrels being
soaked and the water evaporated so that not a grain of salt might
be wasted. Women appeared in garments that were made of cloth
carded, woven, spun, and dyed by their own hands. Large thorns were
fitted with wax heads and made to serve as hair-pins. Shoes were
manufactured with wooden soles to which the uppers were attached by
means of small tacks. As a substitute for the expensive gas, the
"Confederate candle" was used. This consisted of a long wick coated
with wax and resin, and wound on a little wooden frame, at the top
of which was nailed a bit of tin. The end of the wick being passed
through a hole in the tin, was lighted and uncoiled as needed.]

Led by the enormous profits of a successful voyage, foreign
merchants were constantly seeking to run the gauntlet. Their swift
steamers, making no smoke, long, narrow, low, and of a mud color,
occasionally escaped the vigilance of the Federal squadron. During
the war, it is said, over fifteen hundred blockade runners were
taken or destroyed. With the capture of Fort Fisher, the last
Confederate port of entry was sealed.

[Illustration: THE ALABAMA]

CONFEDERATE CRUISERS had now practically driven the American
commerce from the ocean. They were not privateers, like those named
on p. 222, for they were built in England and manned by British
sailors, and were only officered and commissioned by the
Confederate government. They sailed to and fro upon the track of
American ships, plundering and burning, or else bonding them for
heavy sums. The _Alabama_ was the most noted of these British
steamers. Against the urgent remonstrances of the United States
Minister at the Court of England, she was allowed to sail although
her mission was well known. An English captain took her to the
Azores, where other English vessels brought her arms, ammunition,
and the Confederate Captain Semmes with additional men. Putting out
to sea, he read his commission and announced his purpose. After
capturing over sixty vessels, he sailed to Cherbourg, France. While
there, he sent out a challenge to the national ship-of-war
_Kearsarge_ (keer'-sarj). This was accepted, and a battle took
place off that harbor. Captain Winslow, of the Kearsarge, so
manoeuvred that the Alabama was compelled to move round in a
circular track, while he trained his guns upon her with fearful
effect. On the seventh rotation, the Confederate vessel ran up the
white flag and soon after sank. Captain Winslow rescued a part of
the sinking crew, and others were picked up, at his request, by the
Deerhound, an English yacht; but this vessel steamed off to the
British coast with those she had saved, among whom was Captain
Semmes.

THE SANITARY AND CHRISTIAN COMMISSIONS were "splendid examples of
organized mercy," furnished by the people of the North. They
devised and provided every possible comfort for the sick and
wounded, besides distributing religious reading to every soldier in
the field. Ambulances, stretchers, hot coffee, postage-stamps,
paper and envelopes, prayer-meetings, medicines, Christian
burial--no want of body or soul was overlooked. "Homes" and "Lodges
" for men on sick leave; for those not yet under or just out of the
care of the government, or who had been left by their regiments,
were instituted. "Feeding Stations" for the tired and hungry were
established, and even "Homes for the Wives, Mothers, and Children
of Soldiers" who had come to visit their sick or wounded. On every
flag-of-truce boat were placed clothing, medicines, and cordials
for the prisoners who had been exchanged. With boundless mercy,
they cared for all while living, and gave Christian burial and
marked graves to the dead. Over seventeen millions of dollars in
money and supplies were expended by these two Commissions.

POLITICAL AFFAIRS.--At the North, there was much dissatisfaction
with the conduct of the war. The debt had become about $2,000,000,
000. In July of this year, paper money reached its greatest
depreciation, and it required two dollars and ninety cents in
greenbacks to buy one dollar in gold. It was at the time of Grant's
repulse from Cold Harbor and of Early's raid. Yet, in the midst of
these discouragements, Abraham Lincoln was renominated by the
republican party. George B. McClellan was the democratic candidate;
he stood firmly for the prosecution of the war, and the maintenance
of the Union, but was not in full sympathy with the policy of the
administration. He carried only three States. Lincoln had a popular
majority of over four hundred thousand.

GENERAL REVIEW OF THE FOURTH YEAR OF THE WAR.--

The Confederates had gained the battles of Olustee,

[Footnote: This battle ended an expedition fitted out by General
Gilmore, at Hilton Head, S. C, to recover Florida. After some
success his troops, under General Seymour, advanced to
_Olustee_, where (February 20) they met a disastrous defeat
and were forced to relinquish much they had gained. The men were
afterwards taken to Virginia to engage in more important work.]

Sabine Cross Roads, the Wilderness, Bermuda Hundred, Spottsylvania,
New Market, Cold Harbor, and Monocacy; had defeated the expeditions
into Florida and the Red River country, the two attacks upon
Petersburg, and one against Fort Fisher, and yet held Grant at bay
before Richmond. They had, however, lost ground on every side. Of
the States east of the Mississippi, only North and South Carolina
were fully retained. Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Virginia,
Georgia and Florida were overrun by the Union armies. The Federals
had gained the battles of Pleasant Hill, Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw,
Atlanta, Winchester, Fisher's Hill, Cedar Creek and Nashville. They
had captured Fort de Russy, the forts in Mobile harbor, and Fort
McAlister, and had taken Atlanta and Savannah. Sherman had swept
across Georgia; Sheridan had devastated the Shenandoah, driving its
defenders before him; Thomas had annihilated Hood's army; Grant
held Lee firmly grasped at Richmond, and the navy swept the entire
coast.

1865.

THE SITUATION.--The plan of the campaign was very simple. The end
of the war was clearly at hand. Sherman was to move north from
Savannah against Johnston, and then join Grant in the final attack
upon Lee. Sheridan, with ten thousand troopers, had swept down from
the Shenandoah, cut the railroads north of Richmond, and taken his
place in the Union lines before Petersburg. Wilson, with thirteen
thousand horsemen, rode at large through Alabama and Georgia, and
at Macon held a line of retreat from Virginia westward. Stoneman,
with five thousand cavalry from Tennessee, poured through the
passes of the Alleghanies and waited in North Carolina for the
issue in Virginia.

[Illustration: SHERMAN'S MARCH.]

SHERMAN'S MARCH THROUGH THE CAROLINAS.--In the meantime Sherman had
given his troops only a month's rest in Savannah. Early in
February, they were put in motion northward. There was no waiting
for roads to dry nor for bridges to be built, but the troops swept
on like a tornado. Rivers were waded, and one battle was fought
while the water was up to the shoulders of the men. The army, sixty
thousand strong, moved in four columns, with a front of more than
fifty miles. Cavalry and foragers swarmed on the flanks. Before
them was terror; behind them were ashes.

COLUMBIA was captured (February 17), and Charleston, thus
threatened in the rear, was evacuated the next day.

[Footnote: The cotton stored in the city was scattered through the
streets and destroyed by fire. The flames quickly spread to the
houses adjoining. All efforts to subdue the conflagration were
unsuccessful, and a large portion of the city was destroyed.]

[Footnote: General Hardee, on leaving, inflicted a terrible injury.
He set fire to every shed and warehouse in which cotton was stored.
The flames spread to a quantity of powder in the depot, which
exploded with fearful destruction. Two hundred lives were lost. In
spite of the efforts of the Union troops, a vast amount of private
property was involved in the general devastation. The ravages which
the war had made were well illustrated by the appearance of this
city after its evacuation. An eye-witness says: "No pen, no pencil,
no tongue can do justice to the scene; no imagination can conceive
the utter wreck, the universal ruin, the stupendous desolation.
Ruin, ruin, ruin, above and below, on the right hand and on the
left-ruin, ruin, ruin, everywhere and always, staring at us from
every paneless window, looking out at us from every shell-torn
wall, glaring at us from every battered door, pillar, and veranda,
crouching beneath our feet on every sidewalk. Not Pompeii, nor
Herculaneum, nor Tadmor, nor the Nile, has ruins so saddening, so
plaintively eloquent."]

In this emergency, Johnston was again called to the command of the
Confederate forces. He gathered their scattered armies and
vigorously opposed Sherman's advance. After fierce engagements at
_Averysboro_ and _Bentonville_ (March 15, 18), he was driven back, and
Raleigh was captured (April 13).

SIEGE OF RICHMOND.--Lee's position was fast becoming desperate. His
only hope lay in getting out of Richmond and joining with Johnston.
Their united armies might prolong the struggle. Grant was
determined to prevent this, and compel Lee to surrender, as he had
forced Pemberton to do.

ATTACK ON FORT STEADMAN (March 25).--Lee determined to attack
Grant's right, in order to hide his plan of retreat, and especially
in the hope that Grant would send troops from the left to succor
the threatened point. In that case, he would slip out, with the
main body of his army, by the nearest road southward, which ran
close by the Union left. The assault was made on Fort Steadman, but
it was a signal failure. Three thousand out of five thousand
engaged in the attempt were lost. To make matters worse, a Union
assault followed directly afterward, and a portion of the
Confederate outer defences was captured. Thus Grant's grip was only
tightened. He had made no change in the position of his troops, and
this sortie neither hastened nor delayed the grand, final attack.

BATTLE OF FIVE FORKS (April l).--This movement began Wednesday
morning, March 29. Sheridan with his cavalry--nine thousand
sabres--and heavy columns of infantry, pushed out from Grant's left
wing to get around in Lee's rear. Cloaking his plan by a thick
screen of cavalry, to conceal the movements of his infantry, he
threw a heavy force behind the Confederate position at _Five Forks_.
Assailed in front and rear, the garrison was overwhelmed, and five
thousand men were taken prisoners.

[Footnote: Five Forks is situated twelve miles southwest from
Petersburg. (See map opposite p. 223, and of VIth Epoch.)]

_The Effect_ of this brilliant affair was at once to render Lee's
position untenable. His right was turned, and his rear threatened.

CAPTURE OF PETERSBURG AND RICHMOND (April 2, 3).--The next morning,
at four o'clock, the Union army advanced in an overwhelming assault
along the whole front. By noon, the Confederate line of
intrenchments before which the Army of the Potomac had lain so
long, was broken, and thousands of prisoners were captured.

[Footnote: Generals Lee and A. P. Hill were at the former's
headquarters, within the city, discussing the prospects of the day.
Suddenly General Lee, listening, said to Hill: "General, your men
are giving way." Instantly Hill was mounted and dashing down the
road. As he was spurring his steed, he caught a glimpse of two or
three blue coats with rifles leveled at him. "Throw down your
arms!" he authoritatively cried. For an instant the men hesitated,
but the next moment they fired, and General Hill fell dead.]

That night Petersburg and Richmond were evacuated. The next morning
the Union troops took possession of the Confederate capital, the
coveted goal of the Army of the Potomac for four long bloody years.

[Footnote: Sunday, the day before, the Confederate President,
Davis, was at church, when a note was handed him by a messenger. It
was from Leo, informing him that the Confederate army was about to
leave Richmond. His pallid face and unsteady footsteps, as he
passed out, betrayed the news. Pollard says: "Men, women, and
children rushed from the churches, passing from lip to lip news of
the impending fall of Richmond. . . . It was late in the afternoon
when the signs of evacuation became apparent to the incredulous.
Suddenly, as if by magic, the streets became filled with men,
walking as though for a wager, and behind them excited negroes with
trunks, bundles, and luggage of every description. All over the
city, it was the same--wagons, trunks, bandboxes, and their owners,
a mass of hurrying fugitives filling the streets. Night came, and
with it confusion worse confounded. There was no sleep for human
eyes in Richmond that night. About the hour of midnight, hundreds
of barrels of liquor were rolled into the street, and the heads
knocked in, by order of the City Council, to prevent a worse
disorder. As the work progressed, some straggling soldiers managed
to get hold of a quantity of the liquor. From that moment law and
order ceased to exist." By order of General Ewell, the four
principal tobacco warehouses, in different parts of the city, were
fired, and soon the flames became unmanageable. "Morning broke upon
a scene such as those who witnessed it can never forget. The roar
of an immense conflagration sounded in their ears; tongues of flame
leaped from street to street; and in this baleful glare were to be
seen, as of demons, the figures of busy plunderers, moving,
pushing, rioting through the black smoke, bearing away every
conceivable sort of plunder."]

LEE'S SURRENDER.--Meanwhile, Lee, having only the wreck of that
proud array with which he had dealt the Union army so many crushing
blows, hurried west, seeking some avenue of escape. Grant urged the
pursuit with untiring energy. Sheridan, "with a terrible daring
which knew no pause, no rest," hung on his flanks. Food now failed
the Confederates and they could get only the young shoots of trees
to eat. If they sought a moment's repose, they were awakened by the
clatter of pursuing cavalry. Lee, like a hunted fox, turned hither
and thither; but at last Sheridan planted himself squarely across
the front. Lee ordered a charge. His half-starved troops, with a
rallying of their old courage, obeyed. But the cavalry moving
aside, as a curtain is drawn, revealed dense bodies of infantry in
battle line. The Civil War was about to end in one of its bloodiest
tragedies, when the Confederate advance was stopped. General Grant
had already sent in a note demanding the surrender of the army. Lee
accepted the terms; and, April 9th, eight thousand men--the remains
of the Army of Virginia--laid down their arms near Appomattox Court
House, and then turned homeward, no longer Confederate soldiers,
but American citizens.

[Footnote: The officers and men were allowed to go home on their
paroles not to take up arms against the United States until
exchanged, and the former to retain their private baggage and
horses. After the surrender had been concluded, General Lee said
that he had forgotten to mention that many of his soldiers rode
their own horses. Grant at once replied that such should keep their
horses to aid them in their future work at home--That the two
armies so fiercely opposed for four years could have parted with no
words but those of sympathy and respect was an assured presage of a
day when all the wounds of the restored Union should be fully
healed.]

_The Effect_.--This closed the war. The other Confederate
armies--Johnston's, Dick Taylor's, and Kirby Smith's--promptly
surrendered. Jefferson Davis fled southward, hoping to escape, but
was overtaken near Irwinsville, Georgia (May 11), and sent a
prisoner to Fortress Monroe.

[Footnote: The last fight of the war happened near Brazos Santiago,
Texas, May 13. A small expedition sent out to surprise a
Confederate camp was overtaken, on its return, by a larger force
and defeated with a loss of eighty men.]

COST OF THE WAR.--In the Union armies probably three hundred
thousand men were killed in battle or died of wounds or disease,
while doubtless two hundred thousand more were crippled for life.
If the Confederate armies suffered as heavily, the country thus
lost one million able-bodied men. The Union debt, Jan. 1, 1866, was
nearly $2,750,000,000. At one time, the daily expenses reached the
sum of $3,500,000. During the last year of the war, the expenses
were greater than the entire expenditures of the government from
Washington to Buchanan. The Confederate war debts were never paid,
as that government was overthrown.

ASSASSINATION OF LINCOLN.--In the midst of the universal rejoicings
over the advent of peace, on the evening of April 14 the
intelligence was flashed over the country that Lincoln had been
assassinated. While seated with his wife and friends in his box at
Ford's Theatre, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth who insanely
imagined he was ridding his country of a tyrant.

[Footnote: Booth stealthily entered the box, fastened the door,
that he might not be followed, shot the President, then--waving his
pistol shouted "Sic Semper Tyrannis" (so be it always to tyrants),
and leaped to the stage in front As he jumped, the American flag
draped before the box--mute avenger of the nation's chief--caught
his spur and, throwing him heavily, broke his leg The assassin,
however escaped from the house in the confusion, mounted a horse
which was waiting for him, and fled into Maryland He was at length
overtaken in a barn, here he stood at bay The building was fired to
drive him out, but, being determined to defend himself against
arrest, he was shot by one of the soldiers The accomplices of Booth
were arrested, tried and convicted. Herold, Payne, Atzerott and Mrs
Surratt were hanged, Arnold, Mudd and McLaughlin imprisoned for
life and Spangler was sentenced for six years]

[Footnote: A nearly fatal attempt was also made at the same time
upon William H Seward, Secretary of State, who was lying sick in
his bed at home]

[Illustration: THE WHITE HOUSE OR EXECUTIVE MANSION
(The Official Residence of the President)]

About the unconscious body of the President gathered the most
prominent men of the nation, who mourned and watched, waiting in
vain for some sign of recognition until the next morning, when he
died. The funeral was held on the 19th. It was a day of mourning
throughout the land. In most of the cities and towns funeral
orations were pronounced. The body was borne to Springfield over
the same route along which Lincoln had come as President elect to
Washington. The procession may be said to have extended the entire
distance. The churches, principal buildings, and even the engines
and cars were draped in black. Almost every citizen wore the badge
of mourning.

STATES ADDED DURING THIS EPOCH.--_West Virginia_, the thirty-fifth
State, was admitted to the Union June 20, 1863. During the Civil War,
this portion of Virginia remaining loyal, it was incorporated as a
separate State.

_Nevada_, the thirty-sixth State, was admitted to the Union
October 31, 1864. Its name was derived from the range of mountains
on the west, the Sierra Nevada, a Spanish title, signifying
"Snow-covered mountains." It was the third State carved out of the
territory acquired by the Mexican war, Texas being the first, and
California the second. Its first settlement was at Carson City. It
is one of the richest mineral States in the Union.

Summary of the History of the Fifth Epoch,
arranged in Chronological Order.

1861. Abraham Lincoln inaugurated President of United States,
March 4,
Fort Sumter fired upon, April 12,
Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers, April 15,
Confederates seized Harper's Ferry, April 18,
Massachusetts troops fired upon in Baltimore, April 19,
Confederates seized Norfolk Navy Yard, April 20,
Battle of Philippi, Va., June 3,
" Big Bethel, Va., June 10,
" Booneville, Mo., June 17,
" Carthage, Mo., July 5,
1861. Battle of Rich Mountain, Va., July 11,
" Carrick's Ford, Va., July 14,
Confederate Congress assembled at Richmond, Va., July 20,
Battle of Bull Run, Va., July 21,
" Wilson's Creek, Mo., August 10,
Forts at Hatteras Inlet, N. C., captured, August 29,
Battle of Carnifex Ferry, Va., September 10,
" Lexington, Mo., September 20,
" Ball's Bluff, Va., October 21,
Port Royal, S. C., taken, November 7,
Battle of Belmont, Mo, November 7,
Seizure of Mason and Slidell, November 8,
Skirmish of Dranesville, Va., December 20,
1862. Battle of Mill Spring, Ky., January 19,
Fort Henry, Tenn., taken, February 6,
Roanoke Island, N. C., taken, February 8,
Fort Donelson, Tenn., taken, February 16,
Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark., March 7,8,
" of the Monitor and the Merrimac, March 9,
Newberne, N. C., taken, March 14,
Battle of Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing), Tenn., April 6,7,
Island No. 10 captured, April 7,
Fort Pulaski, Ga., captured, April 11,
New Orleans captured, April 25,
Beaufort, S. C, captured, April 25,
Yorktown, Va., taken, May 4,
Battle of Williamsburg, Va., May 5,
Norfolk, Va., surrendered, May 10,
Corinth, Miss., taken, May 30,
Battle of Fair Oaks or Seven Pines, Va., May 31, June 1,
Lee assumed command of the Confederate armies, June 3,
Memphis, Tenn., surrendered, June 6,
Seven-Days battles, June 25-July 1,
Battle of Cedar Mountain, Va., August 9,
Second Battle of Bull Run, Va., August 29,
Battle of Richmond, Ky., August 30,
" Chantilly, Va., September 1,
" South Mountain, Md., September 14,
Harper's Ferry surrendered, September 15,
Battle of Antietam, Md., September 17,
" Iuka, Miss., September 19,
" Corinth, Miss., October 4,
" Perryville, Ky., October 8,
1862. Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 13,
First attack on Vicksburg, Miss., December 29,
Battle of Murfreesboro, Tenn., December 31 and January
2, 1863,
1863. Emancipation Proclamation, January 1,
Arkansas Post taken, January 11,
Fort Sumter, S. C., bombarded by fleet, April 7,
Grant's campaign before Vicksburg, May 1-17,
Battle of Chancellorsville, Va., May 2, 3,
West Virginia admitted to the Union, June 20,
Battle of Gettysburg, Penn., July 1-3,
Vicksburg, Miss., surrendered, July 4,
Port Hudson surrendered, July 8,
Draft Riot in New York City, July 13-16,
Fort Wagner, S. C., taken, September 7,
Battle of Chickamauga, Ga., September 19, 20,
" Chattanooga, Tenn., November 24, 25,
Siege of Knoxville, Tenn., raised, December 4,
1864. Battle of Olustee, Fla, February 20,
Grant made Lieutenant-General, March 3,
Fort de Russy captured, March 14,
Fort Pillow, Tenn., captured, April 12,
Butler landed at Bermuda Hundred, May 5,
Battle of Wilderness, Va., May 5, 6,
" Spottsylvania, Va., May 8-12,
" Resaca, Ga., May 14, 15,
" New Market, Va., May 15,
" Dallas, May 25-28,
" Cold Harbor, Va., June 3,
" Lost Mountain, Ga., June 15-17,
Battle between the Kearsarge and the Alabama, June 19,
Battle of Kenesaw Mt., Ga., June 27,
" Monocacy, Md., July 9,
Battles before Atlanta, Ga., July 20, 22, 28,
Chambersburg, Pa., burned, July 30,
Mine explosion, Petersburg, Va., July 30,
Farragut entered Mobile Bay, Ala., August 5,
Weldon Railroad seized, August 18,
Atlanta, Ga., taken, September 2,
Battle of Winchester, Va., September 19,
" Fisher's Hill, Va., September 22,
" Cedar Creek, Va., October 19,
Nevada admitted to the Union, October 31,
Fort McAlister, Ga, taken, December 13,
1864. Battle of Nashville, Tenn., December 15, 16,
1865. Fort Fisher, N. C., taken, January 15,
Columbia, S. C., taken, February 17,
Charleston, S. C., taken, February 18,
Battles of Averysboro and Bentonsville, N. C., Mar 15, 18,
Attack on Fort Steadman, Va., March 25,
Battle of Five Forks, Va., April 1,
Petersburg and Richmond taken, April 2, 3,
Lee's army surrendered, April 9,
President Lincoln assassinated, April 14,
Johnston's army surrendered, April 26,
Jefferson Davis captured May 11,

* * * * *

REFERENCES FOR READING.

_Draper, Greeley, Stephens, Abbott, Pollard, Lossing and Headley
on the Civil War--Nichol's Story of the Great March and The
Sanctuary (a novel)--Swinton's Army of the Potomac and Twelve
Decisive Battles--Dabney's Life of Stonewall Jackson--Badeau's
Military History of General Grant--Headley's Farragut and Our Naval
Commanders--Coffin's Days and Nights on the Battle Field--Boynton's
American Navy--Still's History of the Sanitary
Commission--Johnston's Narrative of Military Operations--Moore's
Rebellion Record and Ballads and Grant White's Poetry of the Civil
War--Harper's Pictorial History of the War--Duyckinck's History and
Lives of Eminent Americans--Mrs Childs's Romance of the
Republic--Esten Cook's Surrey of Eagle's Nest and Mohun
(novels)--Harrington's Inside--Gilmore's Among the Guerrillas and
Down in Tennessee--W. G. Simms's War Poetry of the South--Laura
Redden's Idyls of Battle and Richardson's Field, Dungeon, and
Escape--Hotchkiss & Allan's Battle Fields of Virginia--Early's Army
of Northern Virginia--Whittier's In War Time (Poem)--Cooke's Life
of General Robert E. Lee--Memoirs of Gen W. T. Sherman--Barnes's
Popular Hist of United States _

[Illustration: LINCOLN'S EARLY HOME IN ILLINOIS]

EPOCH VI.

RECONSTRUCTION AND PASSING EVENTS.

From 1865--Close of the Civil War,
To--The Present Date.

JOHNSON'S ADMINISTRATION.

[Footnote: Andrew Johnson was born in Raleigh, N. C., December 29,
1808. When only ten years of age, he was bound apprentice to a
tailor of that city. Never having been at school a day in his life,
he yet determined to secure an education. From a fellow-workman he
learned the alphabet, and from a friend something of spelling.
Thenceforth, after working ten to twelve hours per day at his
trade, he spent two or three every night in study. In 1826, he went
West to seek his fortune, with true filial affection carrying with
him his mother, who was dependent on his labor for support. After
his marriage at Greenville, Tenn., he continued his studies under
the instruction of his wife, pursuing his trade as before by day.
His political life commenced with his election as alderman. He was
successively chosen mayor, member of legislature, Presidential
elector, State senator, twice governor, and thrice U.S. senator.]

[Footnote: _Questions on the Geography of the Sixth Epoch.
_-Locate Raleigh. Heart's Content, and St. John's, Newfoundland
(see map, Epoch II). Alaska St. Albans, Vt. Buffalo, Mt. Pleasant,
O, (map. Epoch V). West Point. Chicago. Boston. Duluth. Puget's
Sound. San Francisco. Klamath Lava Beds, Oregon.]

(SEVENTEENTH PRESIDENT: 1865-1869.)

THE death of Lincoln produced no disorder, and within three hours
thereafter the Vice-President, Andrew Johnson, quietly assumed the
duties of the Presidency.

DISBANDING OF THE ARMY.--At the close of the war the two armies
numbered a million and a half of soldiers. Within six months they
had nearly all returned home. Thus the mightiest hosts ever called
to the field by a republic went back without disturbance to the
tranquil pursuits of civil life. In a few months there was nothing
to distinguish the soldier from the citizen, except the
recollection of his bravery. Other nations prophesied that such a
vast army could not be disbanded peaceably. The republic, by this
final triumph of law and order, proved itself the most stable
government in the world.

[Footnote: A grand review of the armies of Grant and Sherman, two
hundred thousand strong, took place in the presence of the
President and his Cabinet. For twelve hours this triumphal
procession, thirty miles long, massed in solid column twenty men
deep, rolled through the broad avenues of the Capital.]

DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.--_Reconstruction Policy of the President.
_--Johnson recognized the State governments that had been formed
in Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana during the war,
under the protection of the Union army. In the other States, he
appointed provisional governors, and authorized the calling of
conventions to form loyal governments. These conventions
accordingly met, repealed the ordinances of secession, repudiated
the Confederate war debt, and ratified the amendment which Congress
had offered abolishing slavery. On these conditions, Johnson
claimed that the States, having never been legally out of the
Union, should be restored to all their rights in the Union. All
restrictions on commerce with the South had been previously removed
(April 29, 1865). A month later, Johnson issued a proclamation of
amnesty and pardon to all engaged in secession, except certain
classes, on condition of taking the oath of allegiance to the
United States. In 1868 (July 4) full pardon was granted to all not
under indictment for treason, and afterward this was extended to
all without exception.

[Footnote: Many of the persons thus excluded obtained pardons from
the President by personal application. One complaint against him
was the readiness with which he granted such pardons.]

_The Thirteenth Amendment_, abolishing slavery, having been
ratified by the States, was declared (December 18, 1865) duly
adopted as a part of the Constitution of the United States.

_Public Debt._--The annual interest on the war debt was now
over one hundred and thirty millions of dollars. The revenue from
duties on imported goods, taxes on manufactures, incomes, etc., and
from the sale of revenue stamps, was over three hundred millions of
dollars. This provided not only for the current expenses of the
government and the payment of interest, but also for the gradual
extinguishment of the debt. It is a striking evidence of the
abundant resources of the country that, in 1866, "before all the
extra troops called out by the war had been discharged, the debt
had been diminished more than thirty-one millions of dollars."

_Reconstruction Policy of Congress._--On the assembling of
Congress, decided grounds were taken against the policy of the
President. It was claimed that Congress alone had power to
prescribe the conditions for the re-admission of the seceded
States. His proclamation and orders were treated as of no value.
The Freedmen's Bureau, the Civil Rights, and the Tenure-of-Office
bills were passed over the President's veto.

[Footnote: The first provided for the establishment of a department
of the national government for the care and protection of the
freedmen, _i. e._, the emancipated slaves, and also of the
destitute whites at the South. The second bill guaranteed to the
negroes the rights of citizenship. The third made the consent of
the Senate necessary to the removal by the President of any person
from a civil office.]

_The Seceded States Admitted._--Tennessee promptly ratified
the Fourteenth Amendment and was restored to her former position in
the Union. The other provisional governments having refused to do
so, a bill was passed (March 2, 1867) placing those States under
military rule. The generals in command caused a registry of voters
to be made, and elections to be held for conventions to remodel the
State constitutions. After a bitter and protracted struggle,
governments were established in Arkansas, Alabama, Florida,
Georgia, Louisiana, North and South Carolina, and their
representatives admitted (June 24, 1868) over the President's veto,
to Congress, after an unrepresented period of seven years.

[Footnote: As a requisite demanded by Congress for holding office,
every candidate was obliged to swear that he had not participated
in the secession movement Since few Southerners could take this
"iron-clad oath," as it was termed, most of the representatives
were Northern men who had gone South after the war, and were,
therefore, called "carpet-baggers."]

_Impeachment of the President._--The constantly-increasing
hostility between the President and Congress came to an issue when
the former attempted to remove Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War.
This being considered a violation of the Tenure-of-Office bill, the
impeachment of the President was at last ordered (February 24,
1868). After a long and tedious trial he was acquitted, the
two-thirds majority necessary for conviction lacking one vote.

_The Fourteenth Amendment_ proposed by Congress, guaranteeing
equal civil rights to all, regardless of race or color, and basing
representation in each State on the number of voters, was adopted
July 28, 1868.

_The Indian War_ along the Southwest having, in 1865-6, increased so
as to demand active measures for its suppression, General Sheridan was
ordered thither. Black Kettle and a large body of his warriors being
surprised and slain by a charge of Custer's cavalry (1868) in the
battle of the Wacheta (wah-che'-tah), hostilities ceased.

_The French in Mexico._--While the United States were absorbed
in the civil war, Napoleon III., emperor of France, took advantage
of the opportunity to secure a foothold in America. By the
assistance of the French army, the imperialists of Mexico defeated
the liberals, and Maximilian, archduke of Austria, was chosen
emperor. The United States government protested against the
measure, but was unable to enforce the "Monroe doctrine." When the
American people were relieved from the pressure of civil strife,
they turned their attention to the Mexicans hopelessly struggling
for liberty, and the United States government demanded of Napoleon
the recall of the French troops. Maximilian, deprived of foreign
aid, was defeated, and, falling into the hands of the Mexican
liberals, was shot June 19, 1867. This ended the dream of French
dominion on this continent.

_Laying of the Atlantic Cable_.--While these great political
events were happening, science had achieved a peaceful triumph
whose importance far transcended the victories of diplomatic or
military skill. A telegraphic cable eighteen hundred and sixty-four
miles in length had been laid from Valentia Bay, Ireland, to
Heart's Content, Newfoundland.

[Footnote: The success of this enterprise was due to the energy of
Cyrus W. Field. In 1856, the line was finished from New York to St.
John's, Newfoundland, a distance of over one thousand miles. A
company was then formed with a capital of about $1,750,000. A cable
was made, but in an attempt to lay it (August, 1857), the cable
parted. A second attempt, in June, 1858, failed after repeated
trials. A third effort, in July was successful. A message was sent
from the Queen of England to the President, and a reply
transmitted. A celebration was held in New York in honor of the
event, but on that very day (September 1) the cable ceased to work.
The time and money spent seemed a total loss. Mr. Field alone was
undismayed. The company was revived, $3,000,000 were subscribed,
and a new cable was manufactured. In July, 1865, the Great Eastern
commenced laying this cable, but in mid-ocean it parted and sank to
the bottom. Again Mr. Field went to work, raised a new company with
a capital of $3,000,000, and made a third cable. The Great Eastern
sailed with this in June, 1866, and successfully accomplished the
feat. To make the triumph more complete, the vessel sailed back to
the very spot where the cable of 1865 had parted, and, dropping
grappling-irons, caught the lost cable, brought it to the surface,
and, splicing it, laid the remaining portion. The two cables were
found to work admirably. A despatch has been sent across the ocean
by a battery made in a gun-cap.]

[Illustration: THE GREAT EASTERN LAYING THE ATLANTIC CABLE]

The two continents were thus brought into almost instant
communication.

FOREIGN AFFAIRS.--_Purchase of Alaska_ (October, 1867).--Through the
diplomacy of William H. Seward, Secretary of State, Alaska was
purchased of Russia for $7,200,000 in gold. It contains about 500,000
square miles, but is principally valuable for its harbors, furs, and
fisheries.

_Fenian Excitement_.--The Fenians, a secret society organized
for the purpose of delivering Ireland from British rule, crossed
the Canadian frontier at Buffalo, N. Y., and St. Albans, Vt., in
large numbers. President Johnson issued a proclamation declaring
the movement a violation of our neutrality, and sent thither
General Meade to execute the laws. After some skirmishing with
British troops, the expedition returned.

_Treaty with China_ (1868).--An embassy from the Chinese Empire, under
charge of Anson Burlingame, visited the United States.

[Footnote: Burlingame had been the United States minister to the
Chinese government for six years. During this time he had rendered
himself so popular, that, at the end of his term of service, Prince
Kung, the Chinese Regent, requested him to go on this special
mission to foreign courts. After visiting the United States, he
went to England, France, and Russia. He died at St. Petersburg
within a month after his arrival there.]

It was an event of much importance, and the first of its kind in
the history of that exclusive nation. A treaty was perfected
guaranteeing liberty of conscience to Americans in China, and
certain commercial privileges of great value.

POLITICAL PARTIES.--The republican party nominated General Ulysses
S. Grant, of Illinois, for President, and Schuyler Colfax, of
Indiana, for Vice-President. The democratic party nominated Horatio
Seymour, of New York, and General Frank P. Blair, of Missouri.
Virginia, Mississippi, and Texas were not allowed to vote. As the
other Southern States had been "reconstructed," had granted negro
suffrage, and enforced a strict registry law, they were permitted
to participate in the election. Grant and Colfax were elected.

GRANT'S ADMINISTRATION.

[Footnote: Hiram Ulysses Grant was born at Mount Pleasant, Ohio,
April 27,1822. He was unwilling to follow his father's trade, which
was that of a tanner, and, at seventeen, an appointment to West
Point was secured for him. His name having been wrongly registered,
Grant vainly attempted to set the matter right, but finally
accepted his "manifest destiny," assumed the change thus forced
upon him, and thenceforth signed himself "Ulysses Simpson," the
latter being his mother's family name. Two years after completing
his four-years course as cadet, the Mexican War broke out, in which
Grant conducted himself with great gallantry, receiving especial
mention and promotion. After this, he retired to civil life, where
he remained until the opening of the war in 1861. He was then
appointed to command a company of volunteers. Having taken it to
Springfield, he became aid to Gov. Yates, and was finally
commissioned as colonel of the 21st Illinois regiment. His military
and political career was henceforth a part of the country's
history. After the close of his presidential terms, he made the
tour of the world. During this extended journey, he was everywhere
received with marked enthusiasm and honor, and his dignified and
consistent conduct shed lustre upon the country he represented.]

(EIGHTEENTH PRESIDENT--TWO TERMS: 1869-1877.)

DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.--_Pacific Railroad_.--The year 1869 was made
memorable by the opening of this road, which completed the union
between the Atlantic and the Pacific. The traveler can now pass
from New York to San Francisco, a distance of about 3,400 miles, in
less than a week. This great highway has linked the West to the
East by iron bands, has carried thousands of pioneers into the
hitherto wild country along its route, developed fresh sources of
industry and mines of wealth, and opened the United States to the
silks, teas, and spices of Asia. American ingenuity has solved the
problem which foiled Columbus and the olden navigators. It has made
for itself a route to India.

[Footnote: Already other roads across the continent are
constructing. The Northern Pacific has its eastern terminus on Lake
Superior, and its western will be on Puget Sound. Though far to the
north, yet in Oregon there is no winter weather, but only a rainy
season, as in California. In portions of Dakota, Idaho, and
Montana, cattle range the natural-grass pastures during the whole
winter; while, in Washington Territory, roses blossom the year
around. For the construction of this road public lands have been
given by Congress, to the amount of over 80,000,000 acres, which is
considerably in excess of the total area of the six New England
States. The length of this road will be 1,800 miles, with a branch
of 200 miles to Portland, Oregon. The Southern Pacific is to extend
from Shreveport, La., to San Diego, Cal., a distance of 1,514
miles. This will run through a country so mild as to avoid the
necessity of the "snow-sheds" which form so singular a feature of
the Central Pacific.]

[Illustration: ULYSSES S GRANT]

_The Fifteenth Amendment_, which guarantees to all the right
of suffrage, irrespective of "race, color, or previous condition of
servitude," having been ratified by the requisite number of States,
was formally announced as a part of the Constitution, by Hamilton
Fish, Secretary of State, March 30, 1870.

_Prosperity of the Country._--The nation rapidly recovered
from the effects of war. The price of gold fell to 110, and the
national debt was reduced $204,000,000 during the first two years
of this administration. A general amnesty to all connected with the
Civil War was proclaimed, and the bitter feelings engendered by
fraternal strife fast melted away. The South, devastated and
scourged by the march of contending armies, accustomed herself to
the novel conditions of free labor, rebuilt her railroads,
cultivated her fields, and repaired the ravages of war. The census
of 1870 showed that the population of the United States was over
thirty-eight millions, an increase of about seven millions, while
the manufacturing establishments of the country had nearly, if not
quite, doubled in number and value during the preceding decade.

_Fires_.--l. A great fire broke out in Chicago, Sunday night,
October 8, 1871. For two days it raged with tremendous violence,
devastating 3,000 acres. 25,000 buildings were burned, $200,000,000
worth of property was destroyed, and 100,000 persons were rendered
homeless. Contributions for the sufferers were taken in nearly all
parts of the world, and over $7,500,000 were raised. 2. During the
same fall, wide-spread conflagrations raged in the forests of
Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan. Entire villages were consumed.
1,500 people perished in Wisconsin alone. 3. An extensive fire
occurred in Boston November 9, 1872. It swept over sixty acres in
the center of the wholesale trade of that city, and destroyed $70,
000,000 worth of property.

FOREIGN AFFAIRS.--_Treaty of Washington_.--The refusal of the
English government to pay the damages to American commerce caused
by the Alabama and other Confederate cruisers (p. 268) produced
bitter feeling, and even threatened war. A high commission,
composed of distinguished statesmen and jurists from both
countries, accordingly met in Washington, and arranged the basis of
a treaty between the United States and Great Britain, settling this
and other causes of dispute. According to its provisions, the claim
for losses was submitted to a board of arbitrators, who, having
convened at Geneva, Switzerland, awarded the United States $15,500,
000 in gold.

[Illustration: HON. HAMILTON FISH, JUSTICE NELSON,
EARL GREY, PROF. BERNARD, GEN. SCHENCK,
ATTY.-GEN. WILLIAMS, LORD TENTERDEN, SIR JOHN MACDONALD.
THE HIGH JOINT COMMISSION IN SESSION.]

The difficulty with regard to the Northwestern boundary between the
United States and British America was submitted to the Emperor of
Germany, and was decided in favor of the United States. Thus
happily all danger of war was averted, and the great principle of
the settlement of disputes by peaceful arbitration rather than by
the sword was finally established.

_Proposed Annexation of Santo Domingo._

[Footnote: The island of Santo Domingo is the "New World's classic
land." Here Columbus founded the first white colony on this side of
the Atlantic, and transporting hither animals, trees, shrubs,
vines, and grains, so to speak, grafted the old world upon the new.
Hither, also, flocked the bold, adventurous, ambitious Spanish
multitude (see p. 26). Great cities sprung up, rivaling the
majestic proportions of Moorish capitals. Magnificent enterprises
were set on foot and prospered. Here Ponce de Leon renewed his
ambition, and set forth afresh on an expedition to Porto Rico, and
thence to Florida, in search of the Fountain of Youth (see p. 26).
"A century before Henry Hudson sailed up the noble river that
perpetuates his name--more than a century before the Puritans
landed at Plymouth Rock--the city of Santo Domingo was a rich and
populous center of industry and trade. Some of its palaces and
churches still remain, massive and splendid; among them, the great
cathedral begun in 1514 and finished in 1540." But the Spanish
policy of greed and oppression gradually undermined itself. In
1795, when Santo Domingo was ceded to France, it was "abandoned to
such a degree that it was a mere wilderness, devoted to the grazing
of cattle." Yet, in spite of past tyranny, of neglect, and the
knowledge that they had been "sold like a herd of cattle" to a
foreign master, the Dominicans were loyal to Spain, and when
Napoleon I. took possession of Madrid in 1808, they indignantly
rose in arms, overpowered the French garrisons, and made themselves
masters of their own country. They then rehoisted the Spanish flag,
and in 1814, by the treaty of Paris, Santo Domingo was formally
restored to that country. Meanwhile, the few years of interval had
taught them some of the pleasures of liberty, and the seed then
implanted grew rapidly. In 1821, they severed their connection with
the mother country, but only to be absorbed by the more thriving
and populous Hayti. In 1844, the Dominican Republic declared itself
free and independent. Great Britain, France, Spain, Denmark,
Holland, and Sardinia formally recognized it, and sent
representatives to its capital. After seventeen years of struggle
against European intrigue and Haytien aggression, it again lapsed
into a Spanish dependency. Its story for the next four years is
successively one of oppression, of revolt, of bloody wars, and of
ultimate success. The Spanish fleet took final leave in 1865, and
left the brave Dominicans to their well-earned freedom.]

This republic, comprising a large part of the island of Hayti,
applied for admission to the United States. A commission of eminent
men, appointed by the President to visit the island and examine its
condition, reported favorably. The measure, however, was rejected
by Congress.

_"The Virginius." _--In 1868, Cuba attempted to throw off the
Spanish yoke. Great sympathy was felt in the United States for the
patriots, and repeated efforts were made to send them aid. In spite
of the vigilance of the authorities, the Virginius, loaded with men
and supplies, escaped from port in the fall of this year. While
still on the high seas, and flying the American flag, she was
captured by the Spanish war steamer Tornado and carried into
Santiago. Many of her crew and passengers were summarily shot. The
United States consul at that port protested in vain. President
Grant interfered with a strong hand. The Virginius was thereupon
released, and suitable apologies were made for the insult offered
to the United States flag.

POLITICAL PARTIES.--The liberal republican party, consisting of
republicans opposed to the administration, nominated Horace Greeley
of New York for the presidential term commencing 1873 The
democratic party endorsed this nomination. The republicans
renomimated President Grant, who was elected

[Footnote: Horace Greeley was born at Amherst, N. H., February 3,
1811. At two years of age, he began to study the newspapers given
him for amusement; and at four, could read anything placed before
him, At six, he was able to spell any word in the English language
was somewhat versed in geography and arithmetic and had read the
entire Bible. His passion for books increased with his years, and
at an early age he determined to be a printer. At fifteen he
entered the office of the Northern Spectator at East Poultney, Vt.
His wages were forty dollars a year, the greater part of which was
saved and sent to his father, then struggling in poverty upon a
farm in Pennsylvania. The Spectator having failed in 1831 Greeley
went to New York. He landed with ten dollars and a scanty outfit
tied in a handkerchief. Franklin like, he traversed the streets in
search of work--a long stooping, stockingless figure in linen
roundabout short trousers and drooping hat, with his out grown
cotton wristbands made to meet with twine. Diligence, integrity and
ability won him a ready rise when employment was at last secured.
Ten years later he founded the New York Tribune. He served in
Congress in 1848-49 where he was known for his opposition to the
abuses of the mileage system. When civil war seemed imminent, he
advocated a peaceable division of the country but after it opened
he urged a vigorous prosecution of hostilities. At the close of the
war, he pleaded for immediate conciliation and was a signer of the
bail bond which restored Jefferson Davis to liberty after two years
imprisonment in Fortress Monroe.

Horace Greeley was pure, simple and conscientious in character He
had a peculiar disregard for dress and neglected many of the
courtesies of society, but he was a true gentleman at heart and
possessed rare gifts in conversation. He was fond of agriculture
and spent his leisure days on his farm at Chappaqua. Just before
the close of the presidential canvass his wife died and this
together with the desertion of friends and the excitement of the
contest unsettled his mimd. He was carried to a private asylum
where he died November 39,1872.]

[Illustration: HORACE GREELEY FOUNDER OF THE TRIBUNE]

GRANT'S SECOND TERM--DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.--The _Modoc Indians_
having refused to stay upon their reservation in Oregon, troops
were sent against them The savages thereupon retreated to their
fastnesses in the Lava Beds. The peace commissioners, hoping to
arrange the difficulty, held a conference with the chiefs. In the
midst of the council, the Indians treacherously slew General Canby
and Rev. Dr. Thomas and wounded Mr. Meachem. The Modocs were then
bombarded in their stronghold, and finally forced to surrender.
Captain Jack and several of the leaders of the band were executed
at Fort Klamath, October 3, 1873.

_The Credit Mobilier_ was a company organized for the purpose
of building the Pacific Railroad. The undertaking proved a
profitable one, and enormous dividends were paid. An investigation
developed the startling fact that various high officers of the
government had accepted presents of stock, the value of which
necessarily depended largely upon their official action.

_Railroad Panic._--In the autumn of 1873, Jay Cooke & Co.,
bankers of Philadelphia, having engaged too extensively in railroad
schemes, failed. A financial crisis ensued, and hundreds of
prominent firms all over the Union were involved in ruin. A settled
stringency of the money market and a stagnation of business
followed.

_Centennial Anniversaries._--The year 1875, being the hundredth
anniversary of the first year of the Revolutionary War, was marked by
various centennial observances. April 19, the battles of Lexington and
Concord were celebrated with patriotic pride. May 20, the citizens of
Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, honored the memory of those who,
at Charlotte, signed a Declaration of Independence only ten days after
the capture of Ticonderoga. June 17 witnessed, at Bunker Hill, an
unprecedented gathering from all parts of the country, Northern and
Southern soldiers vying in devotion to the flag of the Union.

_The Centennial Exhibition._--To commemorate the signing of
the Declaration of Independence, an exhibition of the arts and
industries of all nations was held at Philadelphia, during the
summer of 1876. The beautiful grounds of Fairmount Park were the
scene of this imposing display. The principal edifices were the
Main Exhibition Building, the Memorial Hall, the Machinery Hall,
the Horticultural and Agricultural Buildings, and the Woman's
Pavilion. The first named covered an area of over twenty-six acres
In addition to these structures, there were more than two hundred
smaller buildings scattered over the extensive grounds. The
exhibition opened May 10, and lasted six months. The average daily
attendance was about 61,000 persons.

[Illustration: THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BUILDING
AT THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION]

[Footnote: See Barnes's Hundred Years of American Independence, a
supplement to which is entirely devoted to the Centennial
Exhibition.]

_War with the Sioux_ (1877)

[Footnote: The Black Hills which are in Dakota and Wyoming belonged
to the Sioux Reservation But gold having been found there bands of
miners began to prospect on the Indian domain, a bill was
introduced into Congress to extinguish the Indian title to a
portion of the Black Hill region and finally a new treaty as
negotiated But the unwillingness of the Indians to leave the
encroachments of the whites and the advent of surveyors and troops
all combined to provoke hostilities]

The Sioux Indians having refused to go upon the reservation
assigned them by treaty and committed many atrocities, a force of
regular troops was sent against them. General Custer led the
advance with the Seventh Cavalry, while General Terry moved up the
Big Horn to attack them in the rear. On the 25th of June, General
Custer suddenly came upon the enemy. Without waiting for support,
he detached Colonel Reno with four companies to fall upon the back
of the Indian village, while he immediately charged the savages in
front with the remainder of his command. A desperate conflict
ensued. General Custer, his two brothers, his nephew, and every one
of his men were killed. Colonel Keno was surrounded, but held his
ground on the bluffs until reinforcements arrived. The Indians were
soon beaten on every hand, and by the following spring were so
scattered as to be comparatively harmless.

[Illustration: GROUP OF SIOUX INDIANS.]

POLITICAL PARTIES.--The republican party nominated General
Rutherford B. Hayes, of Ohio, for President, and Wm. A. Wheeler, of
New York, for Vice-President. The democratic party chose Samuel J.
Tilden, of New York, and Thomas A. Hendricks, of Indiana. The
independent greenback party selected Peter Cooper, of New York, and
Samuel F. Cary, of Ohio. This presidential campaign was so hotly
contested between the republicans and the democrats, and such
irregularities were charged against the elections in Oregon, South
Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana, that both these parties claimed
the victory. In order to settle the dispute, Congress agreed to
refer the contested election returns to a _Joint Electoral
Commission_, composed of five senators, five representatives,
and five judges of the Supreme Court.

[Illustration: RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.]

[Footnote: The Senators chosen were Messrs. Bayard, Edmunds,
Frelinghuysen, Morton, and Thurman. The Representatives were
Messrs. Abbott, Garfield, Hoar, Hunton, and Payne. The Associate
Justices of the Supreme Court selected were Messrs. Bradley,
Clifford, Field, Miller, and Strong.]

This body decided that 185 electoral votes had been cast for Hayes
and Wheeler, and 184 for Tilden and Hendricks. The republican
candidates were therefore declared to be elected.

[Footnote: The principal political questions which agitated the
country during this campaign were, (1) the Southern policy of the
government, and (2) the civil service reform. It was held on one
side that negroes and republicans at the South were intimidated by
force and prevented from voting, and that the presence of the
United States troops was necessary to the preservation of the
rights of the citizens, free discussion, a free ballot, and an
enforcement of the laws. It was asserted, on the other side, that
the use of the troops for such purposes was unconstitutional; that
the intimidation was only imaginary, or could be readily controlled
by the local authorities; and that the presence of the military
provoked violence and was a constant insult and menace to the
States. President Jackson, as we have seen (p. 175), introduced
into our politics the principle of "rotation in office." This
policy steadily gained favor until Marcy's maxim, "To the victors
belong the spoils," became the commonly-accepted view; and after
every important election, the successful party was accustomed to
fill even the menial offices of government with its favorites.
Under such a system, the qualification of the applicant was of much
less importance than the service he had done the party. Hayes
promised to make "no dismissal except for cause, and no promotion
except for merit."]

HAYES'S ADMINISTRATION.

(NINETEENTH PRESIDENT: 1877-1881.)

DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.--_U. S. Troops at the South Withdrawn_.
--President Hayes's Southern policy was one of conciliation. The
troops which had hitherto sustained the republican State
governments in South Carolina and Louisiana were withdrawn, and
democratic officials at once took control of the local affairs.

_A Railroad Strike_ was inaugurated by workmen on the
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in the summer of 1877. The cause was a
reduction of wages by the managers of the different roads in the
country. Seventy trains were stopped near Martinsburg, W. Va., and
the blockade was raised only by the arrival of regular troops. The
strike, however, rapidly extended to nearly all the principal
railroads in the Northern States. Travel was suspended, and
business came to a standstill. A tumult occurred in Baltimore,
which was suppressed with some bloodshed. There was a terrible riot
at Pittsburg, Pa., and cars, buildings, and an immense amount of
property were destroyed, the loss of the Pennsylvania Railroad
being estimated at $3,000,000. The troops at last quelled the
disturbance, but at the cost of about one hundred lives. There were
alarming riots also at Hornellsville, N. Y., at Chicago, Ill., at
Louisville, Ky., and at Reading, Pa. These were suppressed, in
part, by regular troops, but the militia generally proved reliable,
and the citizen soldiery in this perilous crisis merited the
gratitude of the republic. Quiet was finally restored, but the coal
regions of Pennsylvania remained for a long time in disorder.

[Illustration: THE SILVER DOLLAR (1878)]

_"Bland Silver Bill" _--In 1873, Congress demonetized silver,
and made gold the sole standard of our currency. Opposition to this
measure gradually arose, and in December, 1877, a bill was
introduced into Congress making silver a legal tender in payment of
debts. This measure, after having been amended, was passed (Feb.
21, 1878).

_Fishery Award_ (1878).--Difficulties having arisen between
the United States and Great Britain concerning the fisheries of the
Northeastern coast, the matter was referred, by the Treaty of
Washington (p. 289), to a commission for adjudication. This body
sat at Halifax, Nova Scotia, and awarded Great Britain the sum of
$5,500,000.

_The Yellow Fever_ broke out in New Orleans during the summer
of 1878, and spread northward along the Mississippi into Missouri
and Tennessee. Over 20,000 cases, with 7,000 deaths, were reported.

_The Resumption_ of specie payments (Jan. 1, 1879) through the
entire country, brought gold and silver once more into general
circulation.

_Indian Difficulty_ (1879).--The Ute Indians at the White River
agency, dissatisfied by the encroachments of the miners and
the non-payment of money promised by the government, took up arms,
massacred the white men at the agent's station, and also Major
Thornburgh, who, with a small force, was marching to subdue the
revolt. The U. S. troops were hurried thither, and peace was once
more restored. The women and children were found to have been saved
by a friendly chief.

STATES ADMITTED DURING THIS EPOCH.--_Nebraska_, the thirty-seventh
State, was admitted to the Union March 1, 1867. The name signifies
"water valley." _Colorado_, the thirty-eighth State, was received
March 3, 1875. Its constitution, however, was not ratified by the
people until July 1, 1876; whence it is known as the "Centennial
State." This region was explored by Coronado in 1540, while De Soto
was rambling over the site of the future Gulf States.

[Illustration: UNITED WE STAND, DIVIDED WE FALL.]

QUESTIONS FOR CLASS USE.

These questions are placed at the close of the work rather than at
the foot of each page, in order to compel a more independent use of
the book. As far as possible, topical recitations should be
encouraged. On naming the subject of a paragraph, the pupil should
be expected to tell all he knows about it. A little patience and
practice in this method will achieve wonderful results. The
following pages often present topical questions in the hope of
gradually leading the pupil to this system of study. The figures
refer to the pages of the book.

INTRODUCTION.

9. From what continent did the first inhabitants of America
probably come? How did they get here? (At that time it is probable
that Behring Strait was not cut through, and the two continents
were connected.) What remains of these people are found? Where do
they occur?

10. What proof is there of their antiquity? Describe the ruins at
Newark, Ohio. The mound at St. Louis. The embankment in Adams
County, Ohio. Are earth-works permanent? Describe the ruins in
South America. Who were the mound-builders?

11. What became of them? Who succeeded them? How did the Indians
compare with them? What do you say of the number of the Indians?
Where most numerous? Were there any blacksmiths, carpenters, etc.,
among them?

12-13. Were they a progressive people? In what were they skilled?
How did they regard labor? 12. Describe the life of their women.

14-16. The Indian disposition. His power of endurance. His
religion. Did he have any idea of God? What policy should be
pursued toward the Indian? Who were the Northmen? What traditions
about their having discovered and settled America? Are these
stories credible? Are there any remains of this people now
existing? Were their discoveries of any value? At what date does
the history of this country begin? Name the subjects and limits of
the six epochs into which this history is divided.

FIRST EPOCH.

19. What was the state of geographical knowledge in Europe in the
fifteenth century? Why could not sailors have crossed the ocean
before as well as then? Why were books of travel more abundant
then? Why so eagerly read?

20. By what route were the goods from the East obtained? What was
the problem of that day? Columbus's idea? What facts strengthened
his view? (See p. 21.) Tell something of his life.

21. Why did he seek assistance? Before whom did he lay his plan?
How was it received? Did the king treat him fairly? To whom did
Columbus apply next? How was he regarded? What reply was made him?

22. What did Columbus's friends do for him? What offer did Queen
Isabella make? Were her jewels sold? What new trouble assailed
Columbus? What vessels composed his fleet? Give some of the
incidents of the voyage.

23 Did Columbus waver? (There seems to be no truth in the common
statement that he promised to turn back, if he did not discover
land in three days.) Describe the discovery of land. The landing.
When and where was this? What region did Columbus think he had
reached? What was the result? For what did he search? What other
islands did he discover?

24. Describe his reception on his return. How many subsequent
voyages did Columbus make? What settlement did he make? (p. 289.)
Did he discover the main-land? Did he know that he had found a new
continent? Where is Columbus's tomb? How was the continent named?

25. What was the plan of John Cabot? What discoveries did he make?
Did his discoveries antedate those of Columbus? Where and when is
it probable the American continent was discovered? What discoveries
did Sebastian Cabot make? Did England improve them? Of what value
were they?

26. What four nations explored the territory of the future United
States? What portion of the continent did each explore? What was
the feeling in Spain? What effect was produced? Why did Ponce de
Leon come to the new world?

27. What land did he discover? Why did he so name it? What success
did he meet? What discovery did Balboa make? Describe the
expedition of De Narvaez. Its fate. Of De Soto. Of De Ayllon.

28. What region did De Soto traverse? Did he make any valuable
discoveries? What river was his burial place? When? What became of
his companions?

29. When, where, and by whom was the first town in the United
States founded? Meaning of the word California in the sixteenth
century? Why did Cortez explore that region? Who made the first
voyage along the Pacific coast? Which is the second oldest town in
the United States? When and by whom founded? What was the great
wish of maritime nations?

30. What was the extent of the Spanish possessions in the new
world? Who was the first French navigator to reach the continent?
When? What name did he give it? Who discovered the River St.
Lawrence? Why did he so name it? _Ans._ From the name of the
day on which it was discovered. Why was Montreal so named? Describe
the attempt to plant a colony of convicts. Why did this fail?

31. Who were the Huguenots? What was Coligny's plan? Who led the
first expedition? Fate of the colony? The second expedition?
Amusing story of the longevity of the Indians?

32. Fate of the colony? What French navigator was the next to
ascend the St. Lawrence? How did he find things at Hochelaga? When,
where, and by whom was the first permanent French settlement made
in America? How much land was granted?

33. When, where, and by whom was the first permanent French
settlement made in Canada? What journey did Champlain make? What
discoveries? The consequence of his trip? Who explored the
Mississippi valley? What relics of them remain? Tell something of
their heroism. Of Father Marquette. Of his death.

34. Of La Salle. What were the results of French enterprise? How
did it compare with English enterprise? When did the English awake
to the importance of American discovery? Who made the first attempt
to carry out Cabot's plan?

35. What success did he have? Was the discovery of gold profitable?
What discovery did Sir Francis Drake make?

36. What was the view of Sir Humphrey Gilbert? His fate? Who
adopted his plan? Give some account of Sir Walter Raleigh. Why was
Virginia so named? Where did Raleigh plant his first colony? Give
its history.

37. What did the colonists introduce into England on their return?
Story told of Raleigh's smoking? Give the history of the second
colony. What kept the interest in America alive? How did Gosnold
shorten the voyage across the Atlantic?

38. What discoveries did Gosnold make? Captain Pring? Results of
these explorations? What was South Virginia? North Virginia? Where,
when, and by whom was the first English settlement made in the
United States? What became of the colony sent out the same year by
the Plymouth company? Tell some of the provisions of the charter
granted to these companies. What is a charter? _Ans_. A
document which confers the title to certain land, and, not unlike a
constitution, defines the form of government, and secures to the
people certain rights and privileges.

39. Who entered New York harbor next after Verrazani? Was Hudson a
Dutchman? (His given name was Henry, not Heindrich, as often
stated.) What river did he discover? What claim did the Dutch found
on this discovery? What name did they give to the region? State the
claims of these four nations, and the settlements they had made.

40. Why were these claims conflicting? Had these nations any idea
of the extent of the country? Which nation ultimately secured the
whole region? Which centuries were characterized by explorations,
and which century by settlements? Name the permanent settlements
which were made at the beginning of the seventeenth century.

SECOND EPOCH.

45. Name the thirteen colonies. Were they united during this epoch?

46. What was the character of the Virginia colonists? What was
their success? Describe the services of John Smith. Give some of
the incidents of his life.

47. What was his theory of founding a colony? Tell the story of his
capture by the Indians.

48. What change in the government of the colony was made by the
second charter? Was it based on the principle of self-government?
Why did Smith leave? What was its effect on the colony? Tell
something of the "Starving Time."

49. How did relief come? What change was made by the third charter?
Describe the marriage of Pocahontas. Her visit to England. Where
was the first legislative body held?

50. When was the first constitution given? Of what value were these
charters? Give some particulars of the prosperity of the colony. Of
the culture of tobacco. Of the purchase of wives. When and how was
slavery introduced? Why?

61. Why did the Indians now become hostile? Give some account of
the massacre. Its result. What new change was made in the
government? Cause? What was the Navigation Act? Why was it
oppressive? What was the conduct of the assembly?

52. What division arose among the people? Give the history of
Bacon's rebellion. Was Bacon a patriot or a rebel? What was the
conduct of Berkeley? What curious fact illustrates the ruling
sentiment of Massachusetts and of Virginia at that time? What
coincidence between this event and the Revolution?

53. Describe John Smith's explorations at the north. What authority
was granted to the Council of New England? What became of the
Plymouth Company? Give some account of the landing of the Pilgrims.
Who were the Puritans? What was the difference between the Puritans
and the Pilgrims? Why did the Pilgrims come to this country? When?

54. What was their character? What story is told to illustrate
their piety? Describe their sufferings. What is "Plymouth Rock"?
What do you mean by Dec. 11, O.S. and Dec. 21, N.S.? Why did not
the Indians disturb them?

55. What Indians visited them in the spring? How did Governor
Bradford reply to Canonicus's threat? Tell about the scarcity of
food. How did the plan of working in common succeed?

56. Did they have any more privileges than the Jamestown colonists?
Who settled about Massachusetts Bay? Why was this colony popular?
Who founded Salem? Boston? Did the Puritans tolerate other
Churches? Why not? Give an account of the difficulty with Roger
Williams.

67. Where did he go? What settlement did he found? Why did Mrs.
Hutchinson become obnoxious? State the treatment of the Quakers.
What union of the colonies was now formed? What was its object?
What Indian chiefs befriended Massachusetts and Virginia in their
early history? (The grandson of Massasoit was sold as a slave in
the West Indies.)

58. Give an account of King Philip's war. Of the "swamp fight." Of
the attack on Hadley. How did the colonists protect themselves?

59. How was the war finally ended? How did the Navigation Act
affect Massachusetts? Did the Puritans obey it? What change now
took place in the government? Give some account of Andros's rule.
What action did the colonists take? What form of government was
finally imposed upon them?

60. Give an account of the Salem witchcraft. What is a "witch"? Was
this delusion common at that time? What two colonies were
intimately united to Massachusetts? What was Laconia?

61. Give an account of the early settlement of New Hampshire. Of
Maine. What is said of the claims made upon the land by the heirs
of these proprietors? Why are these States so named? Who obtained a
grant of the territory now embraced in Connecticut? Who claimed
this region?

62. Give an account of the early settlement at Windsor. Hartford.
Saybrook. How were the Narraganset Indians kept from joining the
Pequods against the whites? Describe the attack upon the Pequod
fort.

63. What three colonies were formed in Connecticut? What
peculiarities in the government of each? How were they combined
into one colony? Why was the charter so highly prized? What story
is told of Andros's visit?

64. What colony was established the same year that Hooker went to
Hartford? What exiles settled Rhode Island? Why was the island so
called? What fact illustrates Williams's generosity?

65. What was his favorite idea? Why was not the colony allowed to
join the New England Union? How was a charter secured? What was its
character? Give an account of the settlement of New York by the
Dutch. Who were the "patroons"?

60. What was the character of the history of New York under its
four Dutch governors? Who was the ablest of them? How much
territory did he claim? How did he settle the boundary lines? Tell
something of the growth of liberty among the people.

67. Describe old Peter's reluctance to surrender to the English.
Why was the colony named New York? Were the people pleased with the
English rule? Was the English occupation permanent? Was civil
liberty secured under Andros? Dongan? What course did the Duke of
York take when he became King of England? Tell how Captain Leisler
came to assume the government. Of his trial and execution.

68. In what colony was New Jersey formerly embraced? Who first
settled it? When, to whom, and by whom was the land granted? Where
and by whom was the first English settlement made? Why so called?
How divided? Who settled the different parts?

69. How did New Jersey come to be united to New York? To be made a
separate royal province? Where and by whom was the first settlement
in Delaware made? In Pennsylvania? Who was the founder of
Pennsylvania? Give some account of William Penn. Of the Quakers.

70. How did Penn come to obtain a grant of this region? Why was it
so named? What was Delaware styled? How did Penn settle the
territory? What city did he found? Meaning of the name? Rapidity of
its growth? What was the "Great Code"? Was religious toleration
granted?

71. Give an account of Penn's treaty with the Indians. In what
spirit did Penn treat the colony?

72. How came Delaware to be separated from Pennsylvania? Was this
separation total? How did Pennsylvania secure the title to its
soil? With what intent did Lord Baltimore secure a grant of land in
America? When was the first settlement made? Why was Maryland so
named? What class of people generally settled this country?

73. What advantage did the Maryland charter confer? What was the
"Toleration Act"? How did religious toleration vary in the
colonies? Give an account of Claiborne's rebellion. Of the
difficulties between the Catholics and the Protestants.

74. What territory was granted to Lord Clarendon? By whom was the
Albemarle colony settled? What course did the proprietors take? By
whom was the Carteret colony settled? What location did they
select? What do you say of the rapidity of its growth?

75. Who were the Huguenots? What beneficial influence did they have
on the colony? What was the "Grand Model"? How was it unfitted for
a new country? How was it received? What were the relations between
the proprietors and settlers? How were the difficulties ended? How
came Carolina to be divided?

76. By what coincidence is Georgia linked with Washington? With
what intention was this colony planned? Character of the settlers?
Restrictions of the trustees? Result?

77. How many inter-colonial wars were there? If you include the
Spanish war? Duration of King William's war? Cause? Describe the
Indian attacks upon the colonists. Tell the story of Mrs. Dustin.

78. What attacks were made by the colonists in return? Were they
successful? What was the result of the war?

79. Length of Queen Anne's war? Cause? Where was the war mainly
fought? Effect upon New England? What attack by the colonists at
the south? At the north? Tell the story of Mrs. Williams.

80. Result of the war? Length of King George's war? Cause?
Principal event? Give an account of the capture of Louisburg. Of
the Spanish war.

81. Result of the war? Length of the French and Indian war? Cause?
Occasions of quarrel?

82. Give an account of Washington's journey to Lake Erie. His
return. Result of his journey.

83. What did the French do in the spring? The Virginia troops under
Washington? Fate of Jumonville? Give an account of the capture of
Fort Necessity by the French. Who fired the first gun of this war?
Name the five objective points of this war.

84. Why were they so obstinately attacked and defended? Give an
account of the defeat of General Braddock. Character of Braddock.
Conduct of Washington.

85. Give an account of the second expedition. Who finally captured
the fort? What city now occupies its site? What was the principal
cause of the easy capture of the fort? What success did the English
meet in Acadia? What cruel act disgraced their victory? What
attempt was made on Louisburg? Who finally captured it?

86. Describe the battle of Lake George. Who earned the glory of
this victory and who got it? Tell the story of Dieskau's death. The
fate of Fort William Henry. Describe the attack on Fort Ticonderoga
by Abercrombie.

87. When were both forts captured? Describe the two attempts to
capture Niagara. Who forced it to surrender? In what year did these
successes occur? Describe the difficulties which General Wolfe met
in his attack on Quebec.

88, 89. How did he overcome them? Describe the battle on the Plains
of Abraham. What was the result of the battle? The conditions of
peace?

90. Cause of Pontiac's war? Result? Fate of Pontiac? What
stratagems did the Indians use? Effects of the French and Indian
war?

91. How did the British officers treat the colonial officers?
Condition of the colonies? How many kinds of government? Name and
define each.

92. How many colleges? Did the English government support
educational interests? Condition of agriculture? Manufactures?

93 Commerce? Was money plenty? Were there many books or papers? How
did the people travel?

94. Tell something about the first public conveyance. Condition of
morals in New England. Name some peculiar customs. Some rigid laws.
Who was entitled to the prefix Mr.? What were common people called?
Laws with regard to drinking? Using tobacco?

95. Tell something of the habits of the people in New York. What
customs familiar to us are of Dutch origin? How did the style of
living at the south differ from that at the north?

96. Describe a southern plantation. What is said of Mount Vernon
flour? Of the luxurious living? State of education in New England?
Tell something of the support given to schools.

97. Of the founding of Yale College. Of their town meetings. Of the
state of education in the middle colonies. How were the ministers'
salaries met?

98. What was the state of education in the southern colonies?
Provision made for public worship? Give some idea of the early
Virginia laws concerning worship.

THIRD EPOCH.

101. How did England treat the colonies? Give some illustrations.

102. What was the tendency of this course of conduct? What was the
direct cause of war? What were Writs of Assistance? The Stamp Act?
Tell the story of Patrick Henry.

103 What efforts were made to resist the law? What effect did they
have on the English government? Was this permanent? What was the
Mutiny Act? Why was it passed?

104. How was it received by the colonists? Tell about the Boston
Massacre. When? The Boston Tea Party. Why was the tea thrown
overboard? For what is Faneuil Hall noted? What did the English now
do?

106, 107. What parties were formed? What action did the colonists
take? When and where was the "First Continental Congress" held?
What action did it take? When and where was the first blood
spilled? Describe how the battle of Lexington occurred.

108,109. Effects of this battle. Tell how the battle of Bunker Hill
occurred. Describe it. Tell something of "Old Put."

110. Effect of the battle. Describe the death of General Warren.
Give some account of Ethan Alien. Why were the New Hampshire Grants
so called? Describe the capture of Ticonderoga.

111. Meeting of Second Continental Congress. Its action. What was
the condition of the army? What expedition was undertaken against
Canada?

112. Describe the attack upon Quebec. Its end. How were the British
forced to leave Boston?

113. How had they treated the Boston people? The Boston boys?
Describe the attack on Fort Moultrie. Its effect. Tell the story of
Sergeant Jasper.

114. When was the Declaration of Independence adopted? How many
colonies voted for it? Tell the story of the old "liberty bell,"
How did the campaign near New York occur? Describe the battle of
Long Island.

115. What decided it in favor of the English? By what providential
circumstance did the Americans escape? What were the prison ships?
Who were the Hessians? Tell the story of Nathan Hale.

116, 117. What battles occurred while Washington was falling back?
Describe his retreat through New Jersey. How did he escape? What
general was captured by the enemy? What was the condition of the
country? Describe the battle of Trenton. Tell the story of Rall.

118. The effect of this battle. Name the battles of 1776 in order.
Describe the battle of Princeton. What providential circumstance
favored the attack?

119. How did the battle of Brandywine occur? Describe it. What
decided it in favor of the English? What previous battle did it
resemble? Give some account of La Fayette.

120, 121. Describe the battle of Germantown. Why did the Americans
fail? How did the campaign in Pennsylvania close? What disastrous
attempt was made by the British at the north? Describe the burning
of Danbury, the capture of General Prescott, and the murder of Jane
McCrea. What events attended General Burgoyne's march south? What
measures were taken to check his advance?

122. Who succeeded General Schuyler? What was Schuyler's conduct?
What events deranged Burgoyne's plans? How was the siege of Fort
Schuyler (Stanwix) raised? Tell something of Kosciusko.

123. Of the battle of Bennington. For what incident is it noted?

124 Describe the first battle of Saratoga. The second battle. Who
was the hero of the fight? How did General Fraser die? Tell some
incidents of the campaign.

125. Effect of these fights? Name the battles of 1777 in order.
Describe the sufferings at Valley Forge.

126. How could the soldiers endure such misery? What news came in
the spring? Story told of Washington by Mr. Potts? Tell something
of the Conway cabal. What story is told of General Reed?

127. What caused the battle of Monmouth to happen? Describe its
prominent incident. Tell the history of Benjamin Franklin.

128. Tell the story of Mary Pitcher. What became of General Lee?
What campaign was now planned by the aid of the French? How did it
turn out? Describe the Wyoming massacre. What poem has been written
upon this event? _Ans._ Campbell's Gertrude of Wyoming. Name
the battles of 1778 in order.

129. Why was the war now transferred to the south? How did the
campaign open? Describe the attack on Savannah. Who were killed?
Tell something of Count Pulaski. Was the French aid of great value?

130. What characterized the campaign at the north? Tell the story
of General Putnam. Describe the capture of Stony Point.

131. General Sullivan's expedition. What do you say of the naval
successes?

132. Describe the contest between the Bon Homme Richard and the
Serapis. What colony was conquered by the British during this year?
Name the principal battles of 1779 in order.

133. What city was now captured? What followed? How did the battle
of Camden occur? Describe it. What was its result? Tell something
of the famous partisan warfare of those times.

134. Name some leaders. Story of Marion. Some partisan victories.
Death of Colonel Hayne. Effect of this independent warfare. Tell
something of the depreciation of the continental money.

135. What mutiny occurred? Tell the story of Arnold's treason.

136. Of Andre's capture and fate. Of Arnold's escape and reward. In
what estimation was he held? Name the principal events of 1780.

137. Condition of the army at the south? Who now took command?
Describe the battle of the Cowpens. Describe Greene's celebrated
retreat. How many times did the rain save him?

138. By what two battles was the contest at the south closed? Were
the English or Americans victorious? Give anecdotes illustrative of
the patriotism of the women. Character of General Greene.

139. Where did Cornwallis go after the failure of his southern
campaign? What kind of war did he wage in Virginia? Why did he
retire to Yorktown? What plan did Washington now adopt?

140. Describe the siege. Its result. The surrender. The effect. On
what plundering tours did Arnold go? Story told of Governor Nelson?
Name the principal battles of 1781 in order.

141. How was the news of Cornwallis's surrender received?

142. Was all peril to our liberties over? What was the condition of
the country? What base offer was made to Washington? How did he
pacify the army? When was peace signed? What was the result? What
course did Washington take?

143. Tell something of the weakness of the government. What held
the colonies together? Cause of Shays's rebellion? What need was
felt? How was it met? When was the Constitution adopted? What
parties arose? How soon was the Constitution ratified? How many
States were necessary? When did the new government go into
operation?

FOURTH EPOCH.

147, 148. Limits of this epoch? Its characteristic idea? Who was
the first President of the United States? When and where was he
inaugurated? Where was the capital? Name its changes. What was the
popular feeling toward Washington? Give some account of
Washington's life and character.

151. What difficulties beset the government? What departments were
established? Name the members of the first Cabinet. What financial
measures were adopted? By whose advice?

152. What did Webster say of Hamilton? Give an account of the
whisky rebellion. Of the Indian war at the northwest. What
difficulty arose with England?

153. How was it settled? How was the treaty received in this

Book of the day: