Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

Part 2 out of 2

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 0.1 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

PSI maintains a directory of information on individuals. It will
list the person's name, organization, and email address if it is
given. Telnet to wp.psi.net and log in as fred. The White Pages
Project also includes an interface to use Xwindows remotely.

Faculty and Staff Listings

Many universities offer access to information on current faculty and
staff. Included are:

Cornell Telnet to cuinfo.cornell.edu on port 3000.
NC State Telnet to ccvax1.cc.ncsu.edu and log in as info.
Rutgers Telnet to hangout.rutgers.edu on port 98.
U of Maryland Telnet to umail.umd.edu and log in as lookup.
UNC Chapel Hill Telnet to info.acs.unc.edu and log in as info.
Yale Telnet to yalevm.ycc.yale.edu on port 300.

Databases

For information on database services, Commercial Databases.
Not all databases on the Internet require payment for use, though.
There do exist some, largely research-driven databases, which are
publicly accessible. New ones spring up regularly.

To find out more about the databases in this section, contact the
people directly responsible for them. Their areas of concentration
and the software used to implement them are widely disparate, and are
probably beyond the author's expertise. Also, don't forget to check
with your local library---the reference librarian there can provide
information on conventional resources, and possibly even those
available over the Internet (they are becoming more common).

Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries (CARL)

The Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries (CARL), in association
with CARL Systems Inc., operates a public access catalog of services.
Offered are a number of library databases, including searches for
government periodicals, book reviews, indices for current articles,
and access to to other library databases around the country. Other
services are available to CARL members including an online
encyclopedia. Telnet to pac.carl.org, or write to help@carl.org for
more details.

PENpages

PENpages is an agriculturally-oriented database administered by
Pennsylvania State University. Information entered into PENpages is
provided by numerous sources including the Pennsylvania Dept. of
Agriculture, Rutgers University, and Penn State. Easy-to-use menus
guide users to information ranging from cattle and agricultural
prices to current weather information, from health information to
agricultural news from around the nation. A keyword search option
also allows users to search the database for related information and
articles. The database is updated daily, and a listing of most
recent additions is displayed after login. Telnet to psupen.psu.edu
and log in as the user PNOTPA.

Clemson Univ. Forestry & Agricultural Network

Clemson maintains a database similar to PENpages in content, but the
information provided tends to be localized to the Southeastern United
States. A menu-driven database offers queries involving the weather,
food, family, and human resources. Telnet to eureka.clemson.edu and
log in as PUBLIC. You need to be on a good VT100 emulator (or a real
VT terminal).

University of Maryland Info Database

The Computer Science department of the University of Maryland
maintains a repository of information on a wide variety of topics.
They wish to give a working example of how network technology can
(and should) provide as much information as possible to those who use
it. Telnet to info.umd.edu and log in as info. The information
contained in the database is accessible through a screen-oriented
interface, and everything therein is available via anonymous FTP.

There is a mailing list used to discuss the UMD Info Database,
welcoming suggestions for new information, comments on the interface
the system provides, and other related topics. Send mail to
listserv@umdd.umd.edu with a body of

subscribe INFO-L Your Full Name

Listservs for more information on using the Listserv system.

University of Michigan Weather Underground

The University of Michigan's Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, &
Space Sciences maintains a database of weather and related
information for the United States and Canada. Available are current
weather conditions and forecasts for cities in the U.S., a national
weather summary, ski conditions, earthquake and hurricane updates,
and a listing of severe weather conditions. Telnet to
madlab.sprl.umich.edu on port 3000 to use the system.

Geographic Name Server

A geographic database listing information for cities in the United
States and some international locations is maintained by Merit, Inc.
The database is searchable by city name, zip code, etc. It will
respond with a lot of information: the area code,
elevation, time zone, and longitude and latitude are included. For
example, a query of 19013 yields

0 Chester
1 42045 Delaware
2 PA Pennsylvania
3 US United States
F 45 Populated place
L 39 50 58 N 75 21 22 W
P 45794
E 22
Z 19013
Z 19014
Z 19015
Z 19016
..


To use the server, telnet to martini.eecs.umich.edu on port
3000. The command help will yield further instructions, along
with an explanation for each of the fields in a reponse.

FEDIX---Minority Scholarship Information

FEDIX is an on-line information service that links the higher
education community and the federal government to facilitate research,
education, and services. The system provides accurate and timely
federal agency information to colleges, universities, and other
research organizations. There are no registration fees and no access
charges for FEDIX whatsoever.

FEDIX offers the Minority On-Line Information Service (MOLIS), a
database listing current information about Black and Hispanic colleges
and universities.

Daily information updates are made on federal education and research
programs, scholarships, fellowships, and grants, available used
research equipment, and general information about FEDIX itself. To
access the database, telnet to fedix.fie.com and log in as
fedix.

Science & Technology Information System

The STIS is maintained by the National Science Foundation (NSF), and
provides access to many NSF publications. The full text of
publications can be searched online and copied from the system, which
can accommodate up to ten users at one time. Telnet to stis.nsf.gov
and log in as public. Everything on the system is also available via
anonymous FTP. For further information, contact:

STIS, Office of Information Systems, Room 401
National Science Foundation
1800 G. Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20550
stis-request@nsf.gov
(202) 357-7492
(202) 357-7663 (Fax)

Ocean Network Information Center

The University of Delaware College of Marine Studies offers access to
an interactive database of research information covering all aspects
of marine studies, nicknamed OCEANIC. This includes the World Oceanic
Circulation Experiment (WOCE) information and program information,
research ship schedules and information, and a Who's Who of email and
mailing addresses for oceanic studies. Data from a variety of
academic institutions based on research studies is also available.
Telnet to delocn.udel.edu and log in as INFO.

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

The NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) is an ongoing project,
funded by NASA, to make data and literature on extragalactic objects
available over computer networks. NED is an object-oriented database
which contains extensive information for nearly 132,000 extragalactic
objects taken from about major catalogs of galaxies, quasars, infrared
and radio sources. NED provides positions, names, and other basic
data (e.g. magnitude types, sizes and redshifts as well as
bibliographic references and abstracts). Searches can be done by
name, around a name, and on an astronomical position. NED contains a
tutorial which guides the user through the retrieval process. Telnet
to ipac.caltech.edu and log in as ned.

U.S. Naval Observatory Automated Data Service

Operated by the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., this
automated data service provides database access to information
ranging from current navigational satellite positioning, astronomical
data, and software utilities. A wide variety of databases can be
searched and instructions for file transfer are given. Telnet to
tycho.usno.navy.mil and log in as ads.

``My consciousness suddenly switched locations, for the first time in
my life, from the vicinity of my head and body to a point about
twenty feet away from where I normally see the world.'' Howard
Rheingold, Virtual Reality p255

-----------------
Various Tools

New and interesting ways to use the Internet are being dreamed up
every day. As they gain wide-spread use, some methods become
near-standard (or actual written standard) tools for Internet users to
take advantage of. A few are detailed here; there are undoubtedly
others, and new ideas spring up all the time. An active user of the
Internet will discover most of the more common ones in time. Usually,
these services are free. Commercial Services for applications
that are commercially available over the Internet.

Usenet is often used to announce a new service or capability on
the Internet. In particular, the groups comp.archives and
comp.protocols.tcp-ip are good places to look. Information
will drift into other areas as word spreads. Usenet News for
information on reading news.

Finger

On many systems there exists the finger command, which yield
information about each user that's currently logged in. This command
also has extensions for use over the Internet, as well. Under normal
circumstances, the command is simply finger for a summary of who's
logged into the local system, or finger username for specific
information about a user. It's also possible to go one step further
and go onto the network. The general usage is

finger @hostname

To see who's currently logged in at Widener University, for instance, use

% finger @cs.widener.edu
[cs.widener.edu]
Login Name TTY Idle When Where
brendan Brendan Kehoe p0 Fri 02:14 tattoo.cs.widene
sven Sven Heinicke p1 Fri 04:16 xyplex3.cs.widen


To find out about a certain user, they can be fingered specifically
(and need not be logged in):

% finger bart@cs.widener.edu
[cs.widener.edu]
Login name: bart In real life: Bart Simpson
Directory: /home/springfield/bart Shell: /bin/underachiever
Affiliation: Brother of Lisa Home System: channel29.fox.org
Last login Thu May 23 12:14 (EDT) on ttyp6 from channel29.fox.org.
No unread mail
Project: To become a "fluff" cartoon character.
Plan:
Don't have a cow, man.


Please realize that some sites are very security conscious, and need
to restrict the information about their systems and users available
to the outside world. To that end, they often block finger requests
from outside sites---so don't be surprised if fingering a computer or
a user returns with Connection refused.

Internet Relay Chat

The Lamont View Server System
On lamont.ldgo.columbia.edu in pub/gb.tar.Z.

Ping

The ping command allows the user to check if another system is
currently ``up'' and running. The general form of the command
is ping system. {The usage will, again, vary.}
For example,

ping cs.widener.edu

will tell you if the main machine in Widener University's Computer
Science lab is currently online (we certainly hope so!).

Many implementations of ping also include an option to let you
see how fast a link is running (to give you some idea of the load on
the network). For example:

% ping -s cs.swarthmore.edu
PING cs.swarthmore.edu: 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 130.58.68.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=251 time=66 ms
64 bytes from 130.58.68.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=251 time=45 ms
64 bytes from 130.58.68.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=251 time=46 ms
^C
--- cs.swarthmore.edu ping statistics ---
3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 45/52/66 ms


This case tells us that for cs.swarthmore.edu it takes about 46
milliseconds for a packet to go from Widener to Swarthmore College and
back again. It also gives the average and worst-case speeds, and any
packet loss that may have occurred (e.g. because of network
congestion).

While ping generally doesn't hurt network performance, you
shouldn't use it too often---usually once or twice will leave
you relatively sure of the other system's state.

Talk

Sometimes email is clumsy and difficult to manage when one really
needs to have an interactive conversation. The Internet provides for
that as well, in the form of talk. Two users can literally see
each other type across thousands of miles.

To talk with Bart Simpson at Widener, one would type

talk bart@@cs.widener.edu

which would cause a message similar to the following to be displayed
on Bart's terminal:

Message from Talk_Daemon@cs.widener.edu at 21:45 ...
talk: connection requested by joe@ee.someplace.edu
talk: respond with: talk joe@ee.someplace.edu

Bart would, presumably, respond by typing talk joe@ee.someplace.edu.
They could then chat about whatever they wished, with instantaneous
response time, rather than the write-and-wait style of email. To
leave talk, on many systems one would type Ctrl-C (hold down
the Control key and press C). Check local documentation to be sure.

There are two different versions of talk in common use today. The
first, dubbed ``old talk,'' is supported by a set of Unix systems
(most notably, those currently sold by Sun). The second, ntalk
(aka ``new talk''), is more of the standard. If, when attempting to
talk with another user, it responds with an error about protocol
families, odds are the incompatibilities between versions of talk is
the culprit. It's up to the system administrators of sites which use
the old talk to install ntalk for their users.

Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS)

The WHOIS Database

The main WHOIS database is run at the Network Information Center
(NIC). The whois command will let you search a database of every
registered domain (e.g. mit.edu) and of registered users. It's
primarily used by system postmasters or listowners to find the Points
of Contact for a site, to let them know of a problem or contact them
for one reason or another. You can also find out their postal
address. For example:

% whois mit.edu
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) MIT.EDU 18.72.2.1
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT-DOM) MIT.EDU

Note that there are two entries for mit.edu; we'll go for the
second.

% whois mit-dom
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT-DOM)
Cambridge, MA 02139

Domain Name: MIT.EDU

Administrative Contact, Technical Contact, Zone Contact:
Schiller, Jeffrey I. (JIS) JIS@MIT.EDU
(617) 253-8400

Record last updated on 22-Jun-88.

Domain servers in listed order:
STRAWB.MIT.EDU 18.71.0.151
W20NS.MIT.EDU 18.70.0.160
BITSY.MIT.EDU 18.72.0.3
LITHIUM.LCS.MIT.EDU 18.26.0.121

To see this host record with registered users, repeat the command with
a star ('*') before the name; or, use '%' to show JUST the registered users.

Much better! Now this information (sought, possibly, by a system
administrator) can be used to find out how to notify MIT of a security
issue or problem with connectivity.

Queries can be made for individuals as well; the following would yield
an entry for the author:

% whois brendan
Kehoe, Brendan (BK59) brendan@cs.widener.edu
Widener University
Department of Computer Science
Kirkbride 219
P.O. Box 83 Widener University
Chester, PA 19013
(215)/499-4011

Record last updated on 02-May-91.


Included is the author's name, his handle (a unique sequence of letters
and numbers), information on how to contact him, and the last time the record
was modified in any way.

Anyone can register with the whois database. People who are
administrative or technical contacts for domains are registered
automatically when their domain applications are processed. For
normal users, one must simply fill out a form from the NIC. FTP to
nic.ddn.mil and get the file netinfo/user-template.txt. The completed
form should be mailed to registrar@nic.ddn.mil.

Other Uses of WHOIS

Also, many educational sites run WHOIS servers of their own, to offer
information about people who may be currently on the staff or
attending the institution. To specify a WHOIS server, many
implementations include some sort of option or qualifier---in VMS
under MultiNet, it's /HOST, in Unix -h. To receive
information about using the Stanford server, one might use the command

whois -h stanford.edu help

A large list of systems offering WHOIS services is being maintained by
Matt Power of MIT (mhpower@stan.mit.edu). It is available via
anonymous FTP from sipb.mit.edu, in the directory
pub/whois. The file is named whois-servers.list.

The systems available include, but are certainly not limited to,
Syracuse University (syr.edu), New York University
(acfcluster.nyu.edu), the University of California at San Diego
(ucsd.edu), and Stanford University (stanford.edu).

``Fingers were made before forks.''
Jonathan Swift, Polite Conversation

-------
Commercial Services

Many services can be accessed through the Internet. As time
progresses and more outlets for commercial activity appear,
once-restricted traffic (by the NSFnet Acceptable Use Policy) may now
flow freely. Now that there are other networks for that information
to travel on, businesses are making their move.

Internet Service Providers

Providers (AlterNet, PSI, etc)...

Supercomputers
The Internet Resource Guide (IRG) contains a chapter on
computer time that's available for a fee. Rather than reproduce it
here, which would fast become out-of-date as well as triple the size
of this guide, it's suggested that the reader consult the IRG if such
services are of interest.

Electronic Journals

The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) publishes a hard-copy
directory of electronic journals, newsletters, and scholarly
discussion lists. It is a compilation of entries for hundreds of

sts, dozens of journals and newsletters, and a many
``other'' titles, including newsletter-digests, into one reference
source. Each entry includes instructions on how to access the
referenced publication or list.

The documents are available electronically by sending the commands

get ejournl1 directry
get ejournl2 directry

to the server at LISTSERV@OTTAWA.BITNET.
Listservs for further instructions on using a listserv.

The directory, along with a compilation by Diane Kovacs called
Directories of Academic E-Mail Conferences, is available in
print and on diskette (DOS WordPerfect and MacWord) from:

Office of Scientific & Academic Publishing
Association of Research Libraries
1527 New Hampshire Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20036
ARLHQ@UMDC.BITNET
(202) 232--2466
(202) 462--7849 (Fax)

The ARL is a not-for-profit organization representing over one
hundred research libraries in the United States and Canada. The
publication is available to ARL members for $10 and to non-members
for $20 (add $5 postage per directory for foreign addresses). Orders
of six or more copies will receive a 10% discount; all orders must be
prepaid and sent to the ARL.

Commercial Databases

The American Institute of Physics maintains the Physics Information
Network. It contains the bibliographic SPIN and General Physics
Advanced Abstracts databases. Also available is access to bulletin
boards and several searchable lists (job notices, announcements, etc).
Telnet to pinet.aip.org; new users must log in as NEW
and give registration information.

Some of the databases accessible through WAIS (WAIS) are
available for a fee.

Clarinet News

Clarinet's an electronic publishing network service that provides
professional news and information, including live UPI wireservice
news, in the Usenet file format.

Clarinet lets you read an ``electronic newspaper'' right on the local
system; you can get timely industry news, technology related
wirestories, syndicated columns and features, financial information,
stock quotes and more.

Clarinet's provided by using the Usenet message interchange format,
and is available via UUCP and other delivery protocols, including
NNTP.

The main feature is ClariNews, an ``electronic newspaper,''
gathered live from the wire services of United Press International
(UPI). ClariNews articles are distributed in 100 newsgroups based on
their subject matter, and are keyworded for additional topics and the
geographical location of the story. ClariNews includes headlines,
industry news, box scores, network TV schedules, and more. The main
products of ClariNews are:


ClariNews General, the general news``paper'' with news,
sports, and features, averaging about 400 stories per day.

TechWire, special groups for stories on science,
technology, and industry stories around them.

ClariNews-Biz, business and financial stories.

Newsbytes, a daily computer industry newsmagazine.

Syndicated Columns, including Dave Barry (humor) and Mike
Royko (opinion).

Full information on ClariNet, including subscription information, is
available from

Clarinet Communications Corp.
124 King St. North
Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2X8
info@@clarinet.com
(800) USE-NETS

or with anonymous FTP in the directory /Clarinet on
ftp.uu.net (Anonymous FTP).

``Needless to say, Aristotle did not envisage modern finance.''
Frederick Copleston, S.J.
A History of Philosophy: Vol 1 Greece & Rome Part II, p95

---------
Things You'll Hear About

There are certain things that you'll hear about shortly after you
start actively using the Internet. Most people assume that everyone's
familiar with them, and they require no additional explanation. If
only that were true!

This section addresses a few topics that are commonly encountered and
asked about as a new user explores Cyberspace. Some of them are
directly related to how the networks are run today; other points are
simply interesting to read about.

The Internet Worm

from a letter by Severo M. Ornstein, in ACM June 89 Vol32 No6
and the appeal notice

On November 2, 1988, Robert Morris, Jr., a graduate student in
Computer Science at Cornell, wrote an experimental, self-replicating,
self-propagating program called a worm and injected it into the
Internet. He chose to release it from MIT, to disguise the fact that
the worm came from Cornell. Morris soon discovered that the program
was replicating and reinfecting machines at a much faster rate than
he had anticipated---there was a bug. Ultimately, many machines at
locations around the country either crashed or became ``catatonic.''
When Morris realized what was happening, he contacted a friend at
Harvard to discuss a solution. Eventually, they sent an anonymous
message from Harvard over the network, instructing programmers how to
kill the worm and prevent reinfection. However, because the network
route was clogged, this message did not get through until it was too
late. Computers were affected at many sites, including universities,
military sites, and medical research facilities. The estimated cost
of dealing with the worm at each installation ranged from $200 to
more than $53,000. {Derived in part from a letter by Severo M.
Ornstein, in the Communications of the ACM, Vol 32 No 6, June 1989.}

The program took advantage of a hole in the debug mode of the Unix
sendmail program, which runs on a system and waits for other systems
to connect to it and give it email, and a hole in the finger daemon
fingerd, which serves finger requests (Finger). People at the
University of California at Berkeley and MIT had copies of the
program and were actively disassembling it (returning the program
back into its source form) to try to figure out how it worked.

Teams of programmers worked non-stop to come up with at least a
temporary fix, to prevent the continued spread of the worm. After
about twelve hours, the team at Berkeley came up with steps that
would help retard the spread of the virus. Another method was also
discovered at Purdue and widely published. The information didn't
get out as quickly as it could have, however, since so many sites had
completely disconnected themselves from the network.

After a few days, things slowly began to return to normalcy and
everyone wanted to know who had done it all. Morris was later named
in The New York Times as the author (though this hadn't yet been
officially proven, there was a substantial body of evidence pointing
to Morris).

Robert T. Morris was convicted of violating the computer Fraud and
Abuse Act (Title 18), and sentenced to three years of probation, 400
hours of community service, a fine of $10,050, and the costs of his
supervision. His appeal, filed in December, 1990, was rejected the
following March.

The Cuckoo's Egg

First in an article entitled ``Stalking the Wily Hacker,'' and later
in the book The Cuckoo's Egg, Clifford Stoll detailed his experiences
trying to track down someone breaking into a system at Lawrence
Berkeley Laboratory in California. {See the bibliography for full
citations.}

A 75-cent discrepancy in the Lab's accounting records led Stoll on a
chase through California, Virginia, and Europe to end up in a small
apartment in Hannover, West Germany. Stoll dealt with many levels of
bureaucracy and red tape, and worked with the FBI, the CIA, and the
German Bundespost trying to track his hacker down.

The experiences of Stoll, and particularly his message in speaking
engagements, have all pointed out the dire need for communication
between parties on a network of networks. The only way everyone can
peacefully co-exist in Cyberspace is by ensuring rapid recognition of
any existing problems.

Organizations

The indomitable need for humans to congregate and share their common
interests is also present in the computing world. User groups
exist around the world, where people share ideas and experiences.
Similarly, there are organizations which are one step ``above'' user
groups; that is to say, they exist to encourage or promote an idea or
set of ideas, rather than support a specific computer or application
of computers.

The Association for Computing Machinery

The Association for Computing Machinery (the ACM) was founded in
1947, immediately after Eckert and Mauchly unveiled one of the first
electronic computers, the ENIAC, in 1946. Since then, the ACM has
grown by leaps and bounds, becoming one of the leading educational
and scientific societies in the computer industry.

The ACM's stated purposes are:

To advance the sciences and arts of information processing;

To promote the free interchange of information about the sciences and
arts of information processing both among specialists and among the
public;

To develop and maintain the integrity and competence of individuals
engaged in the practices of the sciences and arts of information
processing.

Membership in the ACM has grown from seventy-eight in September, 1947,
to over 77,000 today. There are local chapters around the world, and
many colleges and universities endorse student chapters. Lecturers
frequent these meetings, which tend to be one step above the normal
``user group'' gathering. A large variety of published material is
also available at discounted prices for members of the association.

The ACM has a number of Special Interest Groups (SIGs) that
concentrate on a certain area of computing, ranging from graphics to
the Ada programming language to security. Each of the SIGs also
publishes its own newsletter. There is a Usenet group, comp.org.acm,
for the discussion of ACM topics. Usenet News for more information
on reading news.

For more information and a membership application, write to:

Assocation for Computing Machinery
1515 Broadway
New York City, NY 10036
ACMHELP@ACMVM.BITNET
(212) 869-7440

Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility
from their letter to prospective members

The CPSR is an alliance of computer professionals concentrating on
certain areas of the impact of computer technology on society. It
traces its history to the fall of 1981, when several researchers in
Palo Alto, California, organized a lunch meeting to discuss their
shared concerns about the connection between computing and the
nuclear arms race. Out of that meeting and the discussions which
followed, CPSR was born, and has been active ever since. {This
section is part of the CPSR's letter to prospective members.}

The national CPSR program focuses on the following project areas:


Reliability and Risk This area reflects on the concern that
overreliance on computing technology can lead to unacceptable risks
to society. It includes, but isn't limited to, work in analyzing
military systems such as SDI.

Civil Liberties and Privacy This project is concerned with such
topics as the FBI National Crime Information Center, the growing use
of databases by both government and private industry, the right of
access to public information, extension of First Amendment rights to
electronic communication, and establishing legal protections for
privacy of computerized information.

Computers in the Workplace The CPSR Workplace Project has
concentrated its attention on the design of software for the
workplace, and particularly on the philosophy of ``participatory
design,'' in which software designers work together with users to
ensure that systems meet the actual needs of that workplace.

The 21st Century Project This is a coalition with other
professional organizations working towards redirecting national
research priorities from concentrating on military issues to
anticipating and dealing with future problems as science and
technology enter the next century.

For more information on the CPSR, contact them at:

Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility
P.O. Box 717
Palo Alto, CA 94302
cpsr@csli.stanford.edu
(415) 322--3778
(415) 322--3798 (Fax)

The Electronic Frontier Foundation

The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) was established to help
civilize the ``electronic frontier''---the Cyberspacial medium
becoming ever-present in today's society; to make it truly useful and
beneficial not just to a technical elite, but to everyone; and to do
this in a way which is in keeping with the society's highest
traditions of the free and open flow of information and
communication. {This section was derived from eff.about, available
along with other material via anonymous FTP from ftp.eff.org}

The mission of the EFF is to engage in and support educational
activities which increase popular understanding of the opportunities
and challenges posed by developments in computing and
telecommunications;

to develop among policy-makers a better understanding of the
issues underlying free and open telecommunications, and support the
creation of legal and structural approaches which will ease the
assimilation of these new technologies by society;

to raise public awareness about civil liberties issues arising from
the rapid advancement in the area of new computer-based
communications media and, where necessary, support litigation in the
public interest to preserve, protect, and extend First Amendment
rights within the realm of computing and telecommunications
technology;

to encourage and support the development of new tools which will
endow non-technical users with full and easy access to computer-based
telecommunications;

The Usenet newsgroups comp.org.eff.talk and comp.org.eff.news are
dedicated to discussion concerning the EFF. They also have mailing
list counterparts for those that don't have access to Usenet,
eff-talk-request@eff.org and eff-news-request@eff.org. The first is
an informal arena (aka a normal newsgroup) where anyone may voice his
or her opinions. The second, comp.org.eff.news, is a moderated area
for regular postings from the EFF in the form of EFFector Online. To
submit a posting for the EFFector Online, or to get general
information about the EFF, write to eff@eff.org. There is also a
wealth of information available via anonymous FTP on ftp.eff.org.

The EFF can be contacted at

The Electronic Frontier Foundation, Inc.
155 Second St. #1
Cambridge, MA 02141
eff@eff.org
(617) 864-0665
(617) 864-0866 (Fax)

The Free Software Foundation

The Free Software Foundation was started by Richard Stallman (creator
of the popular GNU Emacs editor). It is dedicated to eliminating
restrictions on copying, redistributing, and modifying software.

The word ``free'' in their name does not refer to price; it refers to
freedom. First, the freedom to copy a program and redistribute it to
your neighbors, so that they can use it as well as you. Second, the
freedom to change a program, so that you can control it instead of it
controlling you; for this, the source code must be made available to
you.

The Foundation works to provide these freedoms by developing free
compatible replacements for proprietary software. Specifically, they
are putting together a complete, integrated software system called
``GNU'' that is upward-compatible with Unix. {As an aside, the editor
of the GNU project, emacs, contains a built-in LISP interpreter and a
large part of its functionality is written in LISP. The name GNU is
itself recursive (the mainstay of the LISP language); it stands for
``Gnu's Not Unix.''}

When it is released, everyone will be permitted to copy it and
distribute it to others. In addition, it will be distributed with
source code, so you will be able to learn about operating systems by
reading it, to port it to your own machine, and to exchange the
changes with others.

For more information on the Free Software Foundation and the status of
the GNU Project, or for a list of the current tasks that still need to
be done, write to gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu.

The IEEE

Need IEEE...

The League for Programming Freedom

The League for Programming Freedom is a grass-roots organization of
professors, students, businessmen, programmers and users dedicated to
``bringing back'' the freedom to write programs, which they contend
has been lost over the past number years. The League is not opposed
to the legal system that Congress intended--copyright on individual
programs. Their aim is to reverse the recent changes made by judges in
response to special interests, often explicitly rejecting the public
interest principles of the Constitution.

The League works to abolish the new monopolies by publishing articles,
talking with public officials, boycotting egregious offenders, and in
the future may intervene in court cases. On May 24, 1989, the League
picketed Lotus headquarters because of their lawsuits, and then
again on August 2, 1990. These marches stimulated widespread media
coverage for the issue. They welcome suggestions for other
activities, as well as help in carrying them out.

For information on the League and how to join, write to

League for Programming Freedom
1 Kendall Square #143
P.O. Box 9171
Cambridge, MA 02139
league@prep.ai.mit.edu

Networking Initiatives

Research and development are two buzz words often heard when
discussing the networking field---everything needs to go faster, over
longer distances, for a lower cost. To ``keep current,'' one should
read the various trade magazines and newspapers, or frequent the
networking-oriented newsgroups of Usenet. If possible, attend trade
shows and symposia like Usenix, Interop, et. al.

ISDN

NREN

The National Research and Education Network (NREN) is a five-year
project approved by Congress in the Fall of 1991. It's intended to
create a national electronic ``super-highway.'' The NREN will be 50
times faster than the fastest available networks (at the time of this
writing). Proponents of the NREN claim it will be possible to
transfer the equivalent of the entire text of the Encyclopedia
Britannica in one second. Further information, including the
original text of the bill presented by Senator Al Gore (D--TN), is
available through anonymous FTP to nis.nsf.net, in the directory
nsfnet. In addition, Vint Cerf wrote on the then-proposed NREN in
RFC-1167, Thoughts on the National Research and Education Network.
RFCs for information on obtaining RFCs.

A mailing list, nren-discuss@uu.psi.com, is available for
discussion of the NREN; write to
nren-discuss-request@uu.psi.com to be added.

``To talk in publick, to think in solitude,
to read and to hear, to inquire,
and to answer inquiries, is the business of a scholar.''
Samuel Johnson
Chapter VIII
The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia

-----
Finding Out More

Internet Resource Guide

The NSF Network Service Center (NNSC) compiles and makes available an
Internet Resource Guide (IRG). The goal of the guide is to increase the
visibility of various Internet resources that may help users do their
work better. While not yet an exhaustive list, the guide is a useful
compendium of many resources and can be a helpful reference for a new
user.

Resources listed are grouped by types into sections. Current sections
include descriptions of online library catalogs, data archives, online
white pages directory services, networks, network information centers,
and computational resources, such as supercomputers. Each entry
describes the resource, identifies who can use the resource, explains
how to reach the local network via the Internet, and lists contacts
for more information. The list is distributed electronically by the
NNSC. To receive a guide, or to get on a mailing list that alerts you
to when it is updated, send a message to
resource-guide-request@nnsc.nsf.net.

The current edition of the IRG is available via anonymous FTP from
nnsc.nsf.net, in the directory /resource-guide.

Requests for Comments

The internal workings of the Internet are defined by a set of
documents called RFCs (Request for Comments). The general process
for creating an RFC is for someone wanting something formalized to
write a document describing the issue and mailing it to Jon Postel
(postel@isi.edu). He acts as a referee for the proposal. It is then
commented upon by all those wishing to take part in the discussion
(electronically, of course). It may go through multiple revisions.
Should it be generally accepted as a good idea, it will be assigned a
number and filed with the RFCs.

The RFCs can be divided into five groups: required, suggested,
directional, informational and obsolete. Required RFCs (e.g.,
RFC-791, The Internet Protocol) must be implemented on any host
connected to the Internet.

Suggested RFCs are generally implemented by network hosts. Lack of
them does not preclude access to the Internet, but may impact its
usability. RFC-793, Transmission Control Protocol, is a must for
those implementing TCP.

Directional RFCs were discussed and agreed to, but their application
has never come into wide use. This may be due to the lack of wide
need for the specific application (RFC-937, The Post Office Protocol) or
that, although technically superior, ran against other pervasive
approaches (RFC-891, Hello). It is suggested that, should the facility
be required by a particular site, an implementation be done in
accordance with the RFC. This ensures that, should the idea be one
whose time has come, the implementation will be in accordance with
some standard and will be generally usable.

Informational RFCs contain factual information about the Internet and
its operation (RFC-990, Assigned Numbers).

There is also a subset of RFCs called FYIs (For Your Information).
They are written in a language much more informal than that used in
the other, standard RFCs. Topics range from answers to common
questions for new and experienced users to a suggested bibliography.

Finally, as the Internet has grown and technology has changed, some
RFCs become unnecessary. These obsolete RFCs cannot be ignored,
however. Frequently when a change is made to some RFC that causes a
new one to obsolete others, the new RFC only contains explanations and
motivations for the change. Understanding the model on which the
whole facility is based may involve reading the original and
subsequent RFCs on the topic.

RFCs and FYIs are available via FTP from many sources, including:

The nic.ddn.mil archive, as /rfc/rfc-xxxx.txt, where
xxxx is the number of the RFC.

from ftp.uu.net, in the directory /RFC.

They're also available through mail by writing to
service@nic.ddn.mil, with a Subject: line of send RFC-xxxx.TXT, again
with xxxx being the RFC number.

``Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we
know where we can find information upon it.''
Samuel Johnson
Letter to Lord Chesterfield
February, 1755
a book of quotes said April 18, 1775 .. the book of Johnson's works
said it's 1755; I'll go with the latter.

-------
Conclusion

This guide is far from complete---the Internet changes on a daily (if
not hourly) basis. However, this booklet should provide enough
information to make the incredible breadth and complexity of the
Internet a mite less imposing. Coupled with some exploration and
experimentation, every user has the potential to be a competent net
citizen, using the facilities that are available to their fullest.

You, the reader, are strongly encouraged to suggest improvements to
any part of this booklet. If something was unclear, left you with
doubts, or wasn't addressed, it should be fixed. If you find any
problems, inaccuracies, spelling errors, etc., please report them to:


Brendan Kehoe
Department of Computer Science
Widener University
Chester, PA 19013

Internet: guide-bugs@cs.widener.edu
UUCP: ...!widener!guide-bugs


If you are interested in future updates to this guide (aside from
normal new editions), discussion about information to be included or
removed, etc., write to guide-request@cs.widener.edu to be placed on
a mailing list for such things.

@dots is actually `. . . .'
``I've seed de first an de last @dots I seed de beginnin,
en now I sees de endin.''
William Faulkner
The Sound & The Fury
April 8, 1928

--------

Getting to Other Networks

Inter-connectivity has been and always will be one of the biggest
goals in computer networking. The ultimate desire is to make it so
one person can contact anyone else no matter where they are. A number
of ``gateways'' between networks have been set up. They include:

AppleLink
Quantum Services sells access to AppleLink, which is similar to
QuantumLink for Commodore computers and PCLink for IBM PCs and
compatibles. It also provides email access through the address
user@applelink.apple.com.

ATTMail
AT&T sells a commercial email service called ATTMail. Its users
can be reached by writing to user@attmail.com.

BIX
Users on BIX (the Byte Information eXchange) can be reached
through the DAS gateway at user@cibix.das.net.

CompuServe (CI$)
To reach a user on the commercial service CompuServe, you must
address the mail as xxxxx.xxx@compuserve.com, with
xxxxx.xxx being their CompuServe user ID. Normally CompuServe
ids are represented as being separated by a comma (like
71999,141); since most mailers don't react well to having
commas in addresses, it was changed to a period. For the above
address, mail would be sent to 71999.141@compuserve.com.

EasyNet
Digital sells a service called EasyNet; users that subscribe to it can
be reached with the addresses user@host.enet.dec.com or
user%host.enet@decwrl.dec.com.

FidoNet
The FidoNet computer network can be reached by using a special
addressing method. If John Smith is on the node 1:2/3.4 on
FidoNet, his or her email address would be
john.smith@p4.f3.n2.z1.fidonet.org
(notice how the numbers fall in place?).

MCI Mail
MCI also sells email accounts (similar to ATTMail). Users can be
reached with user@mcimail.com.

PeaceNet
Users on the PeaceNet network can be reached by writing to
user@igc.org.

The Well
Users on the service The Well can be reached by writing to
user@well.sf.ca.us. The Well is directly connected to the Internet.

This table is far from complete. In addition to sites not being
listed, some services are not (nor do they plan to be) accessible
from the ``outside'' (like Prodigy); others, like GEnie, are actively
investigating the possibility of creating a gateway into their
system. For the latest information, consult a list called the
Inter-Network Mail Guide. It's available from a number of FTP sites,
including UUNET; Anonymous FTP, for more information on getting a
copy of it using anonymous FTP.

Retrieving Files via Email

For those who have a connection to the Internet, but cannot FTP, there
do exist a few alternatives to get those files you so desperately
need. When requesting files, it's imperative that you keep in mind
the size of your request---odds are the other people who may be using
your link won't be too receptive to sudden bursts of really heavy
traffic on their normally sedate connection.

Archive Servers

An alternative to the currently well over-used FTPmail system is
taking advantage of the many archive servers that are presently
being maintained. These are programs that receive email messages that
contain commands, and act on them. For example, sending an archive
server the command help will usually yield, in the form of a
piece of email, information on how to use the various commands that
the server has available.

One such archive server is service@nic.ddn.mil. Maintained by
the Network Information Center (NIC) in Chantilly, VA, the server is
set up to make all of the information at the NIC available for people
who don't have access to FTP. This also includes the WHOIS service
(Whois). Some sample Subject: lines for queries to the
NIC server are:

Subject: help Describes available commands.
Subject: rfc 822 Sends a copy of RFC-822.
Subject: rfc index Sends an index of the available RFCs.
Subject: netinfo domain-template.txt Sends a domain application.
Subject: whois widener Sends WHOIS information on `widener'.

More information on using their archive server can be obtained by
writing to their server address service@nic.ddn.mil with a
Subject: of help.

There are different ``brands'' of archive server, each with its own
set of commands and services. Among them there often exists a common
set of commands and services (e.g. index, help, etc).
Be that as it may, one should always consult the individual help for a
specific server before assuming the syntax---100K surprises can be
hard on a system.

FTP-by-Mail Servers
Some systems offer people the ability to receive files through a
mock-FTP interface via email. Anonymous FTP for a general overview of
how to FTP. The effects of providing such a service varies, although
a rule of thumb is that it will probably use a substantial amount of
the available resources on a system.

The ``original'' FTP-by-Mail service, BITFTP, is available to BITNET
users from the Princeton node PUCC. It was once accessible to
anyone, but had to be closed out to non-BITNET users because of the
heavy load on the system.

In response to this closure, Paul Vixie designed and installed a
system called FTPmail on one of Digital's gateway computers,
decwrl.dec.com. Write to ftpmail@decwrl.dec.com with help in the
body of the letter for instructions on its use. The software is
undergoing constant development; once it reaches a stable state,
other sites will be encouraged to adopt it and provide the service
also.

Newsgroup Creation

Everyone has the opportunity to make a Call For Votes on the
Usenet and attempt to create a newsgroup that he/she feels would be of
benefit to the general readership. The rules governing newsgroup
creation have evolved over the years into a generally accepted method.
They only govern the ``world'' groups; they aren't applicable to
regional or other alternative hierarchies.

Discussion

A discussion must first take place to address issues like the naming
of the group, where in the group tree it should go (e.g.
rec.sports.koosh vs rec.games.koosh?), and whether or not it should
be created in the first place. The formal Request For Discussion
(RFD) should be posted to news.announce.newgroups, along with any
other groups or mailing lists at all related to the proposed topic.
news.announce.newgroups is moderated. You should place it first in
the Newsgroups: header, so that it will get mailed to the moderator
only. The article won't be immediately posted to the other
newsgroups listed; rather, it will give you the opportunity to have
the moderator correct any inconsistencies or mistakes in your RFD.
He or she will take care of posting it to the newsgroups you
indicated. Also the Followup-To: header will be set so that the
actual discussion takes place only in news.groups. If a user has
difficulty posting to a moderated group, he or she may mail
submissions intended for news.announce.newgroups to the address
announce-newgroups@rpi.edu.

The final name and charter of the group, and whether it will be
moderated or unmoderated, will be determined during the discussion
period. If it's to be moderated, the discussion will also decide who
the moderator will be. If there's no general agreement on these
points among those in favor of a new group at the end of 30 days,
the discussion will be taken into mail rather than continued posting
to news.groups; that way, the proponents of the group can iron out
their differences and come back with a proper proposal, and make
a new Request For Discussion.

Voting
After the discussion period (which is mandatory), if it's been
determined that a new group really is desired, a name and charter are
agreed upon, and it's been determined whether the group will be
moderated (and by whom), a Call For Votes (CFV) should be posted
to news.announce.newgroups, along with any other groups that
the original Request For Discussion was posted to. The CFV should be
posted (or mailed to the news.announce.newgroups moderator) as
soon as possible after the discussion ends (to keep it fresh in
everyone's mind).

The Call for Votes should include clear instructions on how to cast a
vote. It's important that it be clearly explained how to both vote
for and against a group (and be of equivalent difficulty or
ease). If it's easier for you or your administrator, two separate
addresses can be used to mail yes and no votes to, providing that
they're on the same machine. Regardless of the method, everyone
must have a very specific idea of how to get his/her vote counted.

The voting period can last between 21 and 31 days, no matter what the
preliminary results of the vote are. A vote can't be called off
simply because 400 ``no'' votes have come in and only two ``yes''
votes. The Call for Votes should include the exact date that the
voting period will end---only those votes arriving on the vote-taker's
machine before this date can be counted.

To keep awareness high, the CFV can be repeated during the vote,
provided that it gives the same clear, unbiased instructions for
casting a vote as the original; it also has to be the same proposal as
was first posted. The charter can't change in mid-vote. Also, votes
that're posted don't count---only those that were mailed to the
vote-taker can be tallied.

Partial results should never be included; only a statement of
the specific proposal, that a vote is in progress on it, and how to
cast a vote. A mass acknowledgement (``Mass ACK'' or ``Vote ACK'') is
permitted; however, it must be presented in a way that gives no
indication of which way a person voted. One way to avoid this is to
create one large list of everyone who's voted, and sort it in
alphabetical order. It should not be two sorted lists (of the yes and
no votes, respectively).

Every vote is autonomous. The votes for or against one group can't be
transferred to another, similar proposal. A vote can only count for
the exact proposal that it was a response to. In particular, a vote
for or against a newsgroup under one name can't be counted as a vote
for or against another group with a different name or charter, a
different moderated/unmoderated status, or, if it's moderated, a
different moderator or set of moderators. Whew!

Finally, the vote has to be explicit; they should be of the form I
vote for the group foo.bar as proposed or I vote against the group
foo.bar as proposed. The wording doesn't have to be exact, your
intention just has to be clear.

The Result of a Vote

At the end of the voting period, the vote-taker has to post (to
news.announce.newgroups) the tally and email addresses of the votes
received. Again, it can also be posted to any of the groups listed in
the original CFV. The tally should make clear which way a person
voted, so the results can be verified if it proves necessary to do so.

After the vote result is posted to news.announce.newgroups,
there is a mandatory five-day waiting period. This affords everyone
the opportunity to correct any errors or inconsistencies in the voter
list or the voting procedure.

Creation of the Group

If, after the waiting period, there are no serious objections that
might invalidate the vote, the vote is put to the ``water test.'' If
there were 100 more valid YES/create votes than NO/don't create
votes, and at least two-thirds of the total number of votes are in
favor of creation, then a newgroup control message can be sent out
(often by the moderator of news.announce.newgroups). If the 100-vote
margin or the two-thirds percentage isn't met, the group has failed
and can't be created.

If the proposal failed, all is not lost---after a six-month waiting
period (a ``cooling down''), a new Request For Discussion can be posted
to news.groups, and the whole process can start over again. If after
a couple of tries it becomes obvious that the group is not
wanted or needed, the vote-taker should humbly step back and accept
the opinion of the majority. (As life goes, so goes Usenet.)

--------

Glossary

This glossary is only a tiny subset of all of the various terms and
other things that people regularly use on The Net. For a more
complete (and very entertaining) reference, it's suggested you get a
copy of The New Hacker's Dictionary, which is based on a VERY large
text file called the Jargon File. Edited by Eric Raymond
(eric@snark.thyrsus.com), it is available from the MIT Press,
Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02142; its ISBN number is 0-262-68069-6.
Also see RFC-1208, A Glossary of Networking Terms.


:-)
This odd symbol is one of the ways a person can portray ``mood'' in
the very flat medium of computers---by using ``smilies.'' This is
`metacommunication', and there are literally hundreds of them, from
the obvious to the obscure. This particular example expresses
``happiness.'' Don't see it? Tilt your head to the left 90 degrees.
Smilies are also used to denote sarcasm.

Network addresses are usually of two types:

the physical or hardware address of a network interface card; for
ethernet this 48-bit address might be 0260.8C00.7666. The hardware
address is used to forward packets within a physical network.
Fortunately, network users do not have to be concerned about hardware
addresses since they are automatically handled by the networking
software.

The logical or Internet address is used to facilitate moving data
between physical networks. The 32-bit Internet address is made up of a
network number, a subnetwork number, and a host number. Each host
computer on the Internet, has a unique address. For example, all
Internet addresses at Colorado State have a network number of 129.82, a
subnet number in the range of 1-254, and a host number in the range of
1-254. All Internet hosts have a numeric address and an English-style
name. For example, the Internet address for UCC's CYBER 840 is
129.82.103.96; its Internet name is csugreen.UCC.ColoState.EDU.

address resolution
Conversion of an Internet address to the corresponding physical address.
On an ethernet, resolution requires broadcasting on the local area network.

administrivia
Administrative tasks, most often related to the maintenance of mailing
lists, digests, news gateways, etc.

anonymous FTP
Also known as ``anon FTP''; a service provided to make files available
to the general Internet community---Anonymous FTP.

ANSI
The American National Standards Institute disseminates basic standards
like ASCII, and acts as the United States' delegate to the ISO.
Standards can be ordered from ANSI by writing to the ANSI Sales Department,
1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018, or by telephoning (212) 354-3300.

archie
A service which provides lookups for packages in a database of the
offerings of countless of anonymous FTP sites. archie for a
full description.

archive server
An email-based file transfer facility offered by some systems.

ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency)
Former name of DARPA, the government agency that funded ARPAnet and
later the DARPA Internet.

ARPAnet
A pioneering long haul network funded by ARPA. It
served as the basis for early networking research as well as a
central backbone during the development of the Internet. The
ARPAnet consisted of individual packet switching computers
interconnected by leased lines. The ARPAnet no longer exists as a
singular entity.

asynchronous
Transmission by individual bytes, not related to specific timing on the
transmitting end.

auto-magic
Something which happens pseudo-automatically, and is usually too
complex to go into any further than to say it happens ``auto-magically.''

backbone
A high-speed connection within a network that connects shorter,
usually slower circuits. Also used in reference to a system that acts
as a ``hub'' for activity (although those are becoming much less
prevalent now than they were ten years ago).

bandwidth
The capacity of a medium to transmit a signal. More informally, the
mythical ``size'' of The Net, and its ability to carry the files and
messages of those that use it. Some view certain kinds of traffic
(FTPing hundreds of graphics images, for example) as a ``waste of
bandwidth'' and look down upon them.

BITNET (Because It's Time Network)
An NJE-based international educational network.

bounce
The return of a piece of mail because of an error in its delivery.

btw
An abbreviation for ``by the way.''

CFV (Call For Votes)
Initiates the voting period for a Usenet newsgroup. At least one
(occasionally two or more) email address is customarily included as a
repository for the votes. See Newsgroup Creation
for a full description of the Usenet voting process.

ClariNews
The fee-based Usenet newsfeed available from ClariNet Communications.

client
The user of a network service; also used to describe a computer that
relies upon another for some or all of its resources.

Cyberspace
A term coined by William Gibson in his fantasy novel
Neuromancer to describe the ``world'' of computers, and the
society that gathers around them.

datagram
The basic unit of information passed across the Internet. It contains
a source and destination address along with data. Large messages are
broken down into a sequence of IP datagrams.

disassembling
Converting a binary program into human-readable machine language code.

DNS (Domain Name System)
The method used to convert Internet names to their corresponding
Internet numbers.

domain
A part of the naming hierarchy. Syntactically, a domain name consists
of a sequence of names or other words separated by dots.

dotted quad
A set of four numbers connected with periods that make up an Internet
address; for example, 147.31.254.130.

email
The vernacular abbreviation for electronic mail.

email address
The UUCP or domain-based address that a user is referred to with. For
example, the author's address is brendan@cs.widener.edu.

ethernet
A 10-million bit per second networking scheme originally developed by
Xerox Corporation. Ethernet is widely used for LANs because it can
network a wide variety of computers, it is not proprietary, and
components are widely available from many commercial sources.

FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)
An emerging standard for network technology based on fiber optics that
has been established by ANSI. FDDI specifies a 100-million bit per
second data rate. The access control mechanism uses token ring
technology.

flame
A piece of mail or a Usenet posting which is violently argumentative.

FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name)
The FQDN is the full site name of a system, rather than just its
hostname. For example, the system lisa at Widener University
has a FQDN of lisa.cs.widener.edu.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
The Internet standard high-level protocol for transferring files from
one computer to another.

FYI
An abbreviation for the phrase ``for your information.'' There is
also a series of RFCs put out by the Network Information Center called
FYIs; they address common questions of new users and many other useful
things. RFCs for instructions on retrieving FYIs.

gateway
A special-purpose dedicated computer that attaches to two or more
networks and routes packets from one network to the other. In
particular, an Internet gateway routes IP datagrams among the networks
it connects. Gateways route packets to other gateways until they can be
delivered to the final destination directly across one physical network.

header
The portion of a packet, preceding the actual data, containing source
and destination addresses and error-checking fields. Also part of a
message or news article.

hostname
The name given to a machine. (See also FQDN.)

IMHO (In My Humble Opinion)
This usually accompanies a statement that may bring about personal
offense or strong disagreement.

Internet
A concatenation of many individual TCP/IP campus, state, regional, and
national networks (such as NSFnet, ARPAnet, and Milnet) into one
single logical network all sharing a common addressing scheme.

Internet number
The dotted-quad address used to specify a certain system. The
Internet number for the site cs.widener.edu is 147.31.254.130. A
resolver is used to translate between hostnames and Internet
addresses.

interoperate
The ability of multi-vendor computers to work together using a common
set of protocols. With interoperability, PCs, Macs, Suns, Dec VAXen,
CDC Cybers, etc, all work together allowing one host computer to
communicate with and take advantage of the resources of another.

ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
Coordinator of the main networking standards that are put into use today.

kernel
The level of an operating system or networking system that contains the
system-level commands or all of the functions hidden from the user. In
a Unix system, the kernel is a program that contains the device drivers,
the memory management routines, the scheduler, and system calls. This
program is always running while the system is operating.

LAN (Local Area Network)
Any physical network technology that operates at high speed over short
distances (up to a few thousand meters).

mail gateway
A machine that connects to two or more electronic mail systems
(especially dissimilar mail systems on two different networks) and
transfers mail messages among them.

mailing list
A possibly moderated discussion group, distributed via email from a
central computer maintaining the list of people involved in the
discussion.

mail path
A series of machine names used to direct electronic mail from one user
to another.

medium
The material used to support the transmission of data. This can be
copper wire, coaxial cable, optical fiber, or electromagnetic wave (as in
microwave).

multiplex
The division of a single transmission medium into multiple logical
channels supporting many simultaneous sessions. For example, one
network may have simultaneous FTP, telnet, rlogin, and SMTP
connections, all going at the same time.

net.citizen
An inhabitant of Cyberspace. One usually tries to be a good
net.citizen, lest one be flamed.

netiquette
A pun on ``etiquette''; proper behavior on The Net. Usenet Netiquette.

network
A group of machines connected together so they can transmit information
to one another. There are two kinds of networks: local networks and
remote networks.

NFS (Network File System)
A method developed by Sun Microsystems to allow computers to share
files across a network in a way that makes them appear as if they're
``local'' to the system.

NIC
The Network Information Center.

node
A computer that is attached to a network; also called a host.

NSFnet
The national backbone network, funded by the National Science Foundation
and operated by the Merit Corporation, used to interconnect regional
(mid-level) networks such as WestNet to one another.

packet
The unit of data sent across a packet switching network. The term is
used loosely. While some Internet literature uses it to refer
specifically to data sent across a physical network, other literature
views the Internet as a packet switching network and describes IP
datagrams as packets.

polling
Connecting to another system to check for things like mail or news.

postmaster
The person responsible for taking care of mail problems, answering
queries about users, and other related work at a site.

protocols
A formal description of message formats and the rules two computers must
follow to exchange those messages. Protocols can describe low-level
details of machine-to-machine interfaces (e.g., the order in which bits
and bytes are sent across a wire) or high-level exchanges between
allocation programs (e.g., the way in which two programs transfer a file
across the Internet).

recursion
The facility of a programming language to be able to call functions
from within themselves.

resolve
Translate an Internet name into its equivalent IP address or other DNS
information.

RFD (Request For Discussion)
Usually a two- to three-week period in which the particulars of
newsgroup creation are battled out.

route
The path that network traffic takes from its source to its destination.

router
A dedicated computer (or other device) that sends packets from one
place to another, paying attention to the current state of the network.

RTFM (Read The Fantastic Manual).
This anacronym is often used when someone asks a simple or common
question. The word `Fantastic' is usually replaced with one much more
vulgar.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
The Internet standard protocol for transferring electronic mail messages
from one computer to another. SMTP specifies how two mail systems
interact and the format of control messages they exchange to transfer
mail.

server
A computer that shares its resources, such as printers and files, with
other computers on the network. An example of this is a Network File
System (NFS) server which shares its disk space with other computers.

signal-to-noise ratio
When used in reference to Usenet activity, signal-to-noise
ratio describes the relation between amount of actual information in
a discussion, compared to their quantity. More often than not,
there's substantial activity in a newsgroup, but a very small number
of those articles actually contain anything useful.

signature
The small, usually four-line message at the bottom of a piece of email
or a Usenet article. In Unix, it's added by creating a file
..signature in the user's home directory. Large signatures are
a no-no.

summarize
To encapsulate a number of responses into one coherent, usable
message. Often done on controlled mailing lists or active newsgroups,
to help reduce bandwidth.

synchronous
Data communications in which transmissions are sent at a fixed rate,
with the sending and receiving devices synchronized.

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
A set of protocols, resulting from ARPA efforts, used by the Internet to
support services such as remote login (telnet), file transfer
(FTP) and mail (SMTP).

telnet
The Internet standard protocol for remote terminal connection service.
Telnet allows a user at one site to interact with a remote timesharing
system at another site as if the user's terminal were connected directly
to the remote computer.

terminal server
A small, specialized, networked computer that connects many terminals to
a LAN through one network connection. Any user on the network can then
connect to various network hosts.

TeX
A free typesetting system by Donald Knuth.

twisted pair
Cable made up of a pair of insulated copper wires wrapped around each
other to cancel the effects of electrical noise.

UUCP (Unix to Unix Copy Program)
A store-and-forward system, primarily for Unix systems but currently
supported on other platforms (e.g. VMS and personal computers).

WAN (Wide-Area Network)
A network spanning hundreds or thousands of miles.

workstation
A networked personal computing device with more power than a standard
IBM PC or Macintosh. Typically, a workstation has an operating system
such as unix that is capable of running several tasks at the same time.
It has several megabytes of memory and a large, high-resolution display.
Examples are Sun workstations and Digital DECstations.

worm
A computer program which replicates itself. The Internet worm
(The Internet Worm) was perhaps the most famous; it
successfully (and accidentally) duplicated itself on systems across
the Internet.

wrt
With respect to.


``I hate definitions.''
Benjamin Disraeli
Vivian Grey, bk i chap ii

------
Bibliography

What follows is a compendium of sources that have information that
will be of use to anyone reading this guide. Most of them were used
in the writing of the booklet, while others are simply noted because
they are a must for any good net.citizen's bookshelf.

Books

Comer, Douglas E.
Internetworking With TCP/IP, 2nd ed., 2v
Prentice Hall
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
1991

Davidson, John
An Introduction to TCP/IP
Springer-Verlag
Berlin
1988

Frey, Donnalyn, and Adams, Rick
!@%:: A Directory of Electronic Mail Addressing and Networks
O'Reilly and Associates
Newton, MA
1989

Gibson, William
Neuromancer
Ace
New York, NY
1984

LaQuey, Tracy
Users' Directory of Computer Networks
Digital Press
Bedford, MA
1990

Levy, Stephen
Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution
Anchor Press/Doubleday
Garden City, NY
1984

Partridge, Craig
Innovations in Internetworking
ARTECH House
Norwood, MA
1988

Quarterman, John S.
The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide
Digital Press
Bedford, MA
1989

Raymond, Eric (ed)
The New Hacker's Dictionary
MIT Press
Cambridge, MA
1991

Stoll, Clifford
The Cuckoo's Egg
Doubleday
New York
1989

Tanenbaum, Andrew S.
Computer Networks, 2d ed
Prentice-Hall
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
1988

Todinao, Grace
Using UUCP and USENET: A Nutshell Handbook
O'Reilly and Associates
Newton, MA
1986

The Waite Group
Unix Communications, 2nd ed.
Howard W. Sams & Company
Indianapolis
1991

Periodicals & Papers
magazine: Barlow, J
Coming Into The Country
Communications of the ACM 34:3
2
March 1991
Addresses ``Cyberspace''---John Barlow was a co-founder of the EFF.

proceedings: Collyer, G., and Spencer, H
News Need Not Be Slow
Proceedings of the 1987 Winter USENIX Conference
181--90
USENIX Association, Berkeley, CA
January 1987

magazine: Denning, P
The Internet Worm
American Scientist
126--128
March--April 1989

magazine: The Science of Computing: Computer Networks
American Scientist
127--129
March--April 1985

magazine: Frey, D., and Adams, R
USENET: Death by Success?
UNIX REVIEW
55--60
August 1987

magazine: Gifford, W. S
ISDN User-Network Interfaces
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
343--348
May 1986

magazine: Ginsberg, K
Getting from Here to There
UNIX REVIEW
45
January 1986

magazine: Hiltz, S. R
The Human Element in Computerized Conferencing Systems
Computer Networks
421--428
December 1978


proceedings: Horton, M
What is a Domain?
Proceedings of the Summer 1984 USENIX Conference
368--372
USENIX Association, Berkeley, CA
June 1984

magazine: Jacobsen, Ole J
Information on TCP/IP
ConneXions---The Interoperability Report
14--15
July 1988


magazine: Jennings, D., et al
Computer Networking for Scientists
Science
943--950
28 February 1986


paper: Markoff, J
``Author of computer `virus' is son of U.S. electronic security expert.''
New York Times
Nov. 5, 1988
A1

paper: ``Computer snarl: A `back door' ajar.''
New York Times
Nov. 7, 1988
B10

magazine: McQuillan, J. M., and Walden, D. C
The ARPA Network Design Decisions
Computer Networks
243--289
1977


magazine: Ornstein, S. M
A letter concerning the Internet worm
Communications of the ACM 32:6
June 1989

proceedings: Partridge, C
Mail Routing Using Domain Names: An Informal Tour
Proceedings of the 1986 Summer USENIX Conference
366--76
USENIX Association, Berkeley, CA
June 1986

magazine: Quarterman, J
Etiquette and Ethics
ConneXions---The Interoperability Report
12--16
March 1989


magazine: Notable Computer Networks
Communications of the ACM 29:10
October 1986
This was the predecessor to The Matrix.

magazine: Raeder, A. W., and Andrews, K. L
Searching Library Catalogs on the Internet: A Survey
Database Searcher 6
16--31
September 1990

proceedings: Seeley, D
A tour of the worm
Proceedings of the 1989 Winter USENIX Conference
287--304
USENIX Association, Berkeley, CA
February 1989

magazine: Shulman, G
Legal Research on USENET Liability Issues
;login: The USENIX Association Newsletter
11--17
December 1984

magazine: Smith, K
E-Mail to Anywhere
PC World
220--223
March 1988

magazine: Stoll, C
Stalking the Wily Hacker
Communications of the ACM 31:5
14
May 1988
This article grew into the book The Cuckoo's Egg.

proceedings: Taylor, D
The Postman Always Rings Twice: Electronic Mail in a Highly Distributed
Environment
Proceedings of the 1988 Winter USENIX Conference
145--153
USENIX Association, Berkeley, CA
December 1988

magazine: U.S.Gen'l Accounting Ofc
Computer Security: Virus Highlights Need for Improved Internet Management
GAO/IMTEC-89-57,
1989
Addresses the Internet worm.


``And all else is literature.''
Paul Verlaine
The Sun, New York
While he was city editor in 1873--1890.






--
Bill Walther, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

Book of the day: