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65% of labor force

:Denmark Government

Long-form name:
Kingdom of Denmark
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Copenhagen
Administrative divisions:
metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter, singular - amt) and 1 city*
(stad); Arhus, Bornholm, Frederiksborg, Fyn, Kbenhavn, Nordjylland, Ribe,
Ringkbing, Roskilde, Snderjylland, Staden Kbenhavn*, Storstrm, Vejle,
Vestsjaelland, Viborg; note - see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and
Greenland, which are part of the Danish realm and self-governing
administrative divisions
Independence:
became a constitutional monarchy in 1849
Constitution:
5 June 1953
Legal system:
civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)
Executive branch:
monarch, heir apparent, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral parliament (Folketing)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen MARGRETHE II (since January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince
FREDERIK, elder son of the Queen (born 26 May 1968)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Poul SCHLUTER (since 10 September 1982)
Political parties and leaders:
Social Democratic Party, Paul Nyrup RASMUSSEN; Conservative Party, Poul
SCHLUTER; Liberal Party, Uffe ELLEMANN-JENSEN; Socialist People's Party,
Holger K. NIELSEN; Progress Party, Pia KJAERSGAARD; Center Democratic Party,
Mimi Stilling JAKOBSEN; Radical Liberal Party, Marianne JELVED; Christian
People's Party, Jam SJURSEN; Left Socialist Party, Elizabeth BRUN-OLESEN;
Justice Party, Poul Gerhard KRISTIANSEN; Socialist Workers Party, leader NA;
Communist Workers' Party (KAP), leader NA; Common Course, Preben Meller
HANSEN; Green Party, Inger BORLEHMANN
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
Parliament:
last held 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December 1994); results -
Social Democratic Party 37.4%, Conservative Party 16.0%, Liberal 15.8%,
Socialist People's Party 8.3%, Progress Party 6.4%, Center Democratic Party
5.1%, Radical Liberal Party 3.5%, Christian People's Party 2.3%, other 5.2%;
seats - (179 total; includes 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe Islands)
Social Democratic 69, Conservative 30, Liberal 29, Socialist People's 15,
Progress Party 12, Center Democratic 9, Radical Liberal 7, Christian
People's 4

:Denmark Government

Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE,
EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WM,
ZC
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Peter Pedersen DYVIG; Chancery at 3200 Whitehaven Street NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-4300; there are Danish Consulates
General in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
US:
Ambassador Richard B. STONE; Embassy at Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100
Copenhagen O (mailing address is APO AE 09716); telephone [45] (31)
42-31-44; FAX [45] (35) 43-0223
Flag:
red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical
part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side, and that design element of
the (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of
Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

:Denmark Economy

Overview:
This modern economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale
and corporate industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable
living standards, and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark probably
will continue its successful economic recovery in 1992 with tight fiscal and
monetary policies and export- oriented growth. Prime Minister Schluter's
main priorities are to maintain a current account surplus in order to pay
off extensive external debt and to continue to freeze public-sector
expenditures in order to reduce the budget deficit. The rate of growth by
1993 - boosted by increased investment and domestic demand - may be
sufficient to start to cut Denmark's high unemployment rate, which is
expected to remain at about 11% in 1992. Low inflation, low wage increases,
and the current account surplus put Denmark in a good competitive position
for the EC's anticipated single market, although Denmark must cut its VAT
and income taxes.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $91.1 billion, per capita $17,700; real growth
rate 2.0% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.4% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
10.6% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $44.1 billion; expenditures $50 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA billion (1991 est.)
Exports:
$37.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
meat and meat products, dairy products, transport equipment (shipbuilding),
fish, chemicals, industrial machinery
partners:
EC 54.2% (Germany 22.5%, UK 10.3%, France 5.9%), Sweden 11.5%, Norway 5.8%,
US 5.0%, Japan 3.6% (1991)
Imports:
$31.6 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum, machinery and equipment, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs,
textiles, paper
partners:
EC 52.8% (Germany 22.5%, UK 8.1%), Sweden 10.8%, US 6.3% (1991)
External debt:
$45 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
11,215,000 kW capacity; 31,000 million kWh produced, 6,030 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, chemical
products, electronics, construction, furniture, and other wood products
Agriculture:
accounts for 4.5% of GDP and employs 6% of labor force (includes fishing and
forestry); farm products account for nearly 15% of export revenues;
principal products - meat, dairy, grain, potatoes, rape, sugar beets, fish;
self-sufficient in food production
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89) $5.9 billion
Currency:
Danish krone (plural - kroner); 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 re

:Denmark Economy

Exchange rates:
Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.116 (January 1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189
(1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988), 6.840 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Denmark Communications

Railroads:
2,675 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; Danish State Railways (DSB) operate
2,120 km (1,999 km rail line and 121 km rail ferry services); 188 km
electrified, 730 km double tracked; 650 km of standard- gauge lines are
privately owned and operated
Highways:
66,482 km total; 64,551 km concrete, bitumen, or stone block; 1,931 km
gravel, crushed stone, improved earth
Inland waterways:
417 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas 700 km
Ports:
Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia; numerous secondary and minor
ports
Merchant marine:
317 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,367,063 GRT/7,921,891 DWT; includes
13 short-sea passenger, 94 cargo, 21 refrigerated cargo, 38 container, 39
roll-on/roll-off, 1 railcar carrier, 42 petroleum tanker, 14 chemical
tanker, 33 liquefied gas, 4 livestock carrier, 17 bulk, 1 combination bulk;
note - Denmark has created its own internal register, called the Danish
International Ship register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to meet Danish
manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience within the
Danish register; by the end of 1990, 258 of the Danish-flag ships belonged
to the DIS
Civil air:
69 major transport aircraft
Airports:
121 total, 108 usable; 27 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 9 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
excellent telephone, telegraph, and broadcast services; 4,509,000
telephones; buried and submarine cables and radio relay support trunk
network; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 50 TV; 19 submarine coaxial
cables; 7 earth stations operating in INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, and INMARSAT

:Denmark Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air Force, Home Guard
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,372,878; 1,181,857 fit for military service; 38,221 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion, 2% of GDP (1991)

:Djibouti Geography

Total area:
22,000 km2
Land area:
21,980 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
517 km; Ethiopia 459 km, Somalia 58 km
Coastline:
314 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic Somalis
Climate:
desert; torrid, dry
Terrain:
coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
Natural resources:
geothermal areas
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 9%; forest and
woodland NEGL%; other 91%
Environment:
vast wasteland
Note:
strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian
oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia

:Djibouti People

Population:
390,906 (July 1992), growth rate 2.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
43 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
16 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
115 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
47 years male, 50 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Djiboutian(s); adjective - Djiboutian
Ethnic divisions:
Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian 5%
Religions:
Muslim 94%, Christian 6%
Languages:
French and Arabic (both official); Somali and Afar widely used
Literacy:
48% (male 63%, female 34%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Labor force:
NA, but a small number of semiskilled laborers at the port and 3,000 railway
workers; 52% of population of working age (1983)
Organized labor:
3,000 railway workers, General Union of Djiboutian Workers (UGTD),
government affiliated; some smaller unions

:Djibouti Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Djibouti
Type:
republic
Capital:
Djibouti
Administrative divisions:
5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); `Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti,
Obock, Tadjoura
Independence:
27 June 1977 (from France; formerly French Territory of the Afars and Issas)
Constitution:
partial constitution ratified January 1981 by the National Assembly
Legal system:
based on French civil law system, traditional practices, and Islamic law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 June (1977)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Hassan GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June 1977)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30 September 1978)
Political parties and leaders:
only party - People's Progress Assembly (RPP), Hassan GOULED Aptidon
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held 24 April 1987 (next scheduled for May 1992 but post- poned);
results - RPP is the only party; seats - (65 total) RPP 65
President:
last held 24 April 1987 (next to be held April 1993); results - President
Hassan GOULED Aptidon was reelected without opposition
Other political or pressure groups:
Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy and affiliates
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO,
UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Roble OLHAYE; Chancery at Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW,
Washington, DC 20005; telephone (202) 331-0270
US:
Ambassador Charles R. BAQUET III; Embassy at Villa Plateau du Serpent,
Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti (mailing address is B. P. 185,
Djibouti); telephone [253] 35-39-95; FAX [253] 35-39-40
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a white
isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star
in the center

:Djibouti Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on service activities connected with the country's
strategic location and status as a free trade zone in northeast Africa.
Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the region and an
international transshipment and refueling center. It has few natural
resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent
on foreign assistance to help support its balance of payments and to finance
development projects. An unemployment rate of over 30% continues to be a
major problem. Per capita consumption dropped an estimated 35% over the last
five years because of recession and a high population growth rate (including
immigrants and refugees).
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $340 million, $1,000 per capita; real growth rate
-1.0% (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.7% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
over 30% (1989)
Budget:
revenues $131 million; expenditures $154 million, including capital
expenditures of $25 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$190 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
hides and skins, coffee (in transit)
partners:
Middle East 50%, Africa 43%, Western Europe 7%
Imports:
$311 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products
partners:
EC 36%, Africa 21%, Asia 12%, US 2%
External debt:
$355 million (December 1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0.1% (1989); manufacturing accounts for 4% of GDP
Electricity:
115,000 kW capacity; 200 million kWh produced, 580 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy products and
mineral-water bottling
Agriculture:
accounts for only 5% of GDP; scanty rainfall limits crop production to
mostly fruit and vegetables; half of population pastoral nomads herding
goats, sheep, and camels; imports bulk of food needs
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $39 million; Western (non-US)
countries, including ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.1
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $149 million; Communist countries
(1970-89), $35 million
Currency:
Djiboutian franc (plural - francs); 1 Djiboutian franc (DF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1 - 177.721 (fixed rate since 1973)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Djibouti Communications

Railroads:
the Ethiopian-Djibouti railroad extends for 97 km through Djibouti
Highways:
2,900 km total; 280 km paved; 2,620 km improved or unimproved earth (1982)
Ports:
Djibouti
Civil air:
1 major transport aircraft
Airports:
13 total, 11 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fair system of urban facilities in Djibouti and radio relay stations at
outlying places; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT earth station and 1 ARABSAT; 1 submarine cable to Saudi Arabia

:Djibouti Defense Forces

Branches:
Djibouti National Army (including Navy and Air Force), National Security
Force (Force Nationale de Securite), National Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 96,150; 56,077 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $29.9 million, NA% of GDP (1986)

:Dominica Geography

Total area:
750 km2
Land area:
750 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
148 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall
Terrain:
rugged mountains of volcanic origin
Natural resources:
timber
Land use:
arable land 9%; permanent crops 13%; meadows and pastures 3%; forest and
woodland 41%; other 34%
Environment:
flash floods a constant hazard; occasional hurricanes
Note:
located 550 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

:Dominica People

Population:
87,035 (July 1992), growth rate 1.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
24 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
11 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
74 years male, 79 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Dominican(s); adjective - Dominican
Ethnic divisions:
mostly black; some Carib Indians
Religions:
Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%, Pentecostal 3%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%), none 2%, unknown 1%, other
5%
Languages:
English (official); French patois widely spoken
Literacy:
94% (male 94%, female 94%) age 15 and over having ever attended school
(1970)
Labor force:
25,000; agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%, services 28% (1984)
Organized labor:
25% of labor force

:Dominica Government

Long-form name:
Commonwealth of Dominica
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Roseau
Administrative divisions:
10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint
Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter
Independence:
3 November 1978 (from UK)
Constitution:
3 November 1978
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 3 November (1978)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Sir Clarence Augustus SEIGNORET (since 19 December 1983)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES (since 21 July 1980, elected for a
third term 28 May 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
Dominica Freedom Party (DFP), (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES; Dominica Labor Party
(DLP), Pierre CHARLES; United Workers Party (UWP), Edison JAMES
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
House of Assembly:
last held 28 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (30 total; 9 appointed senators and 21 elected
representatives) DFP 11, UWP 6, DLP 4
President:
last held 20 December 1988 (next to be held December 1993); results -
President Sir Clarence Augustus SEIGNORET was reelected by the House of
Assembly
Other political or pressure groups:
Dominica Liberation Movement (DLM), a small leftist group
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
there is no Chancery in the US
US:
no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown (Barbados),
but travels frequently to Dominica

:Dominica Government

Flag:
green with a centered cross of three equal bands - the vertical part is
yellow (hoist side), black, and white - the horizontal part is yellow (top),
black, and white; superimposed in the center of the cross is a red disk
bearing a sisserou parrot encircled by 10 green five-pointed stars edged in
yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)

:Dominica Economy

Overview:
The economy is dependent on agriculture and thus is highly vulnerable to
climatic conditions. Agriculture accounts for about 30% of GDP and employs
40% of the labor force. Principal products include bananas, citrus, mangoes,
root crops, and coconuts. In 1990, GDP grew by 7%, bouncing back from the
1.6% decline of 1989. The tourist industry remains undeveloped because of a
rugged coastline and the lack of an international airport.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $170 million, per capita $2,000; real growth
rate 7.0% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.7% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
10% (1989 est.)
Budget:
revenues $48 million; expenditures $85 million, including capital
expenditures of $41 million (FY90)
Exports:
$59.9 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
bananas, coconuts, grapefruit, soap, galvanized sheets
partners:
UK 72%, Jamaica 10%, OECS 6%, US 3%, other 9%
Imports:
$103.9 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
food, oils and fats, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods,
machinery and equipment
partners:
US 23%, UK 18%, CARICOM 15%, OECS 15%, Japan 5%, Canada 3%, other 21%
External debt:
$73 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.5% in manufacturing (1988 est.); accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity:
7,000 kW capacity; 16 million kWh produced, 185 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
soap, beverages, tourism, food processing, furniture, cement blocks, shoes
Agriculture:
accounts for 30% of GDP; principal crops - bananas, citrus, mangoes, root
crops, and coconuts; bananas provide the bulk of export earnings; forestry
and fisheries potential not exploited
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$120 million
Currency:
East Caribbean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Dominica Communications

Highways:
750 km total; 370 km paved, 380 km gravel and earth
Ports:
Roseau, Portsmouth
Civil air:
NA
Airports:
2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
4,600 telephones in fully automatic network; VHF and UHF link to Saint
Lucia; new SHF links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; broadcast stations - 3
AM, 2 FM, 1 cable TV

:Dominica Defense Forces

Branches:
Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (including Coast Guard)
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Dominican Republic Geography

Total area:
48,730 km2
Land area:
48,380 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundaries:
275 km; Haiti 275 km
Coastline:
1,288 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Continental shelf:
outer edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
6 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys interspersed
Natural resources:
nickel, bauxite, gold, silver
Land use:
arable land 23%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures 43%; forest and
woodland 13%; other 14%; includes irrigated 4%
Environment:
subject to occasional hurricanes (July to October); deforestation
Note:
shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (western one-third is Haiti, eastern
two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

:Dominican Republic People

Population:
7,515,892 (July 1992), growth rate 1.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
26 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
56 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
66 years male, 70 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Dominican(s); adjective - Dominican
Ethnic divisions:
mixed 73%, white 16%, black 11%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
Spanish
Literacy:
83% (male 85%, female 82%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
2,300,000 to 2,600,000; agriculture 49%, services 33%, industry 18% (1986)
Organized labor:
12% of labor force (1989 est.)

:Dominican Republic Government

Long-form name:
Dominican Republic (no short-form name)
Type:
republic
Capital:
Santo Domingo
Administrative divisions:
29 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 district* (distrito);
Azua, Baoruco, Barahona, Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El
Seibo, Espaillat, Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La
Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata,
Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez, San
Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro De Macoris, Santiago, Santiago Rodriguez,
Valverde
Independence:
27 February 1844 (from Haiti)
Constitution:
28 November 1966
Legal system:
based on French civil codes
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 February (1844)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consists of an upper chamber
or Senate (Senado) and lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
Diputados)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo (since 16 August 1986, fifth elected term
began 16 August 1990); Vice President Carlos A. MORALES Troncoso (since 16
August 1986)
Political parties and leaders:
Major parties:
Social Christian Reformist Party (PRSC), Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo; Dominican
Revolutionary Party (PRD), Jose Franciso PENA Gomez; Dominican Liberation
Party (PLD), Juan BOSCH Gavino; Independent Revolutionary Party (PRI),
Jacobo MAJLUTA
Minor parties:
National Veterans and Civilian Party (PNVC), Juan Rene BEAUCHAMPS Javier;
Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic (PLRD), Andres Van Der HORST;
Democratic Quisqueyan Party (PQD), Elias WESSIN Chavez; National Progressive
Force (FNP), Marino VINICIO Castillo; Popular Christian Party (PPC), Rogelio
DELGADO Bogaert; Dominican Communist Party (PCD) Narciso ISA Conde;
Dominican Workers' Party (PTD), Ivan RODRIGUEZ; Anti-Imperialist Patriotic
Union (UPA), Ignacio RODRIGUEZ Chiappini
Note:
in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to form the
Dominican Leftist Front (FID); however, they still retain individual party
structures
Suffrage:
universal and compulsory at age 18 or if married; members of the armed
forces and police cannot vote

:Dominican Republic Government

Elections:
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (120 total) PLD 44, PRSC 41, PRD 33, PRI 2
President:
last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - Joaquin BALAGUER
(PRSC) 35.7%, Juan BOSCH Gavino (PLD) 34.4%
Senate:
last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (30 total) PRSC 16, PLD 12, PRD 2
Communists:
an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 members in several legal and illegal factions;
effectiveness limited by ideological differences, organizational
inadequacies, and severe funding shortages
Member of:
ACP, CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM (guest), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Jose del Carmen ARIZA Gomez; Chancery at 1715 22nd Street NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-6280; there are Dominican
Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico),
Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and
Consulates in Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands), Detroit, Houston,
Jacksonville, Minneapolis, Mobile, Ponce (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco
US:
Ambassador Robert S. PASTORINO; Embassy at the corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas
Penson and Calle Leopoldo Navarro, Santo Domingo (mailing address is APO AA
34041-0008); telephone (809) 5412171
Flag:
a centered white cross that extends to the edges, divides the flag into four
rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, the bottom ones are
red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms is at the center of the
cross

:Dominican Republic Economy

Overview:
The economy is largely dependent on trade; imported components average 60%
of the value of goods consumed in the domestic market. Rapid growth of free
trade zones has established a significant expansion of manufacturing for
export, especially wearing apparel. Over the past decade, tourism has also
increased in importance and is a major earner of foreign exchange and a
source of new jobs. Agriculture remains a key sector of the economy. The
principal commercial crop is sugarcane, followed by coffee, cotton, cocoa,
and tobacco. Domestic industry is based on the processing of agricultural
products, durable consumer goods, minerals, and chemicals. Unemployment is
officially reported at about 30%, but there is considerable underemployment.
A fiscal austerity program has brought inflation under control, but in 1991
the economy contracted for a second straight year.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $7 billion, per capita $950; real growth rate -2%
(1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
30% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues NA; expenditures $1.1 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
(1992 est.)
Exports:
$775 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
sugar, coffee, cocoa, gold, ferronickel
partners:
US 60%, EC 19%, Puerto Rico 8% (1990)
Imports:
$1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals
partners:
US 50%
External debt:
$4.7 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA; accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
2,133,000 kW capacity; 4,410 million kWh produced, 597 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining, textiles, cement,
tobacco
Agriculture:
accounts for 15% of GDP and employs 49% of labor force; sugarcane is the
most important commercial crop, followed by coffee, cotton, cocoa, and
tobacco; food crops - rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; animal output -
cattle, hogs, dairy products, meat, eggs; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $575 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $655 million
Currency:
Dominican peso (plural - pesos); 1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1 - 12.609 (January 1992), 12.692 (1991), 8.525
(1990), 6.340 (1989), 6.113 (1988), 3.845 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Dominican Republic Communications

Railroads:
1,655 km total in numerous segments; 4 different gauges from 0.558 m to
1.435 m
Highways:
12,000 km total; 5,800 km paved, 5,600 km gravel and improved earth, 600 km
unimproved
Pipelines:
crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km
Ports:
Santo Domingo, Haina, San Pedro de Macoris, Puerto Plata
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT
Civil air:
23 major transport aircraft
Airports:
36 total, 30 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
relatively efficient domestic system based on islandwide microwave relay
network; 190,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 120 AM, no FM, 18 TV, 6
shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

:Dominican Republic Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 2,013,294; 1,271,772 fit for military service; 80,117 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $70 million, 1% of GDP (1990)

:Ecuador Geography

Total area:
283,560 km2
Land area:
276,840 km2; includes Galapagos Islands
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Nevada
Land boundaries:
2,010 km; Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km
Coastline:
2,237 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands
Territorial sea:
200 nm
Disputes:
three sections of the boundary with Peru are in dispute
Climate:
tropical along coast becoming cooler inland
Terrain:
coastal plain (Costa), inter-Andean central highlands (Sierra), and flat to
rolling eastern jungle (Oriente)
Natural resources:
petroleum, fish, timber
Land use:
arable land 6%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures 17%; forest and
woodland 51%; other 23%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
subject to frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity;
deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; periodic droughts
Note:
Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

:Ecuador People

Population:
10,933,143 (July 1992), growth rate 2.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
28 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
42 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
67 years male, 72 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Ecuadorian(s); adjective - Ecuadorian
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo (mixed Indian and Spanish) 55%, Indian 25%, Spanish 10%, black 10%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
Spanish (official); Indian languages, especially Quechua
Literacy:
86% (male 88%, female 84%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
2,800,000; agriculture 35%, manufacturing 21%, commerce 16%, services and
other activities 28% (1982)
Organized labor:
less than 15% of labor force

:Ecuador Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Ecuador
Type:
republic
Capital:
Quito
Administrative divisions:
21 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar,
Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas,
Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha,
Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Independence:
24 May 1822 (from Spain; Battle of Pichincha)
Constitution:
10 August 1979
Legal system:
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 10 August (1809, independence of Quito)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos (since 10 August 1988); Vice President Luis
PARODI Valverde (since 10 August 1988)
Suffrage:
universal at age 18; compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional
for other eligible voters
Elections:
National Congress:
last held 17 June 1990 (next to be held 17 May 1992); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (72 total) PSC 16, ID 14, PRE 13, PSE 8, DP 7, CFP
3, PC 3, PLR 3, FADI 2, FRA 2, MPD 1
President:
runoff election held 5 July 1992; results - Sixto DURAN elected as president
and Alberto DAHIK elected as vice president
Communists:
Communist Party of Ecuador (PCE, pro-Moscow), Rene Mauge MOSQUERA, secretary
general, 5,000 members; Communist Party of Ecuador/Marxist-Leninist (PCMLE,
Maoist), 3,000 members; Socialist Party of Ecuador (PSE, pro-Cuba), 5,000
members (est.); National Liberation Party (PLN, Communist), less than 5,000
members (est.)
Member of:
AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS,
NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Jaime MONCAYO; Chancery at 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC
20009; telephone (202) 234-7200; there are Ecuadorian Consulates General in
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San
Francisco, and a Consulate in San Diego

:Ecuador Government

US:
Ambassador vacant; Embassy at Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria; Quito
(mailing address is P. O. Box 538, Quito, or APO AA 34039); telephone [593]
(2) 562-890; FAX [593] (2) 502-052; there is a US Consulate General in
Guayaquil
Flag:
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the
coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of
Colombia that is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

:Ecuador Economy

Overview:
Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas. Growth
has been uneven because of natural disasters (for example, a major
earthquake in 1987), fluctuations in global oil prices, and government
policies designed to curb inflation. The government has not taken a
supportive attitude toward either domestic or foreign investment, although
its agreement to enter the Andean free trade zone is an encouraging move. As
1991 ended, Ecuador received a standby IMF loan of $105 million, which will
permit the country to proceed with the rescheduling of Paris Club debt.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $11.5 billion, per capita $1,070; real growth
rate 2.5% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
49% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
8.0% (1990)
Budget:
revenues $2.2 billion; expenditures $2.2 billion, including capital
expenditures of $375 million (1991)
Exports:
$2.9 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum 47%, coffee, bananas, cocoa products, shrimp, fish products
partners:
US 60%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC countries
Imports:
$1.95 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
transport equipment, vehicles, machinery, chemicals
partners:
US 34%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC, Japan
External debt:
$12.4 billion (December 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate -3.8% (1989); accounts for almost 40% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity:
2,344,000 kW capacity; 6,430 million kWh produced, 598 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal works, paper products, wood
products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, timber
Agriculture:
accounts for 18% of GDP and 35% of labor force (including fishing and
forestry); leading producer and exporter of bananas and balsawood; other
exports - coffee, cocoa, fish, shrimp; crop production - rice, potatoes,
manioc, plantains, sugarcane; livestock sector - cattle, sheep, hogs, beef,
pork, dairy products; net importer of foodgrains, dairy products, and sugar
Illicit drugs:
minor illicit producer of coca following the successful eradication campaign
of 1985-87; significant transit country, however, for derivatives of coca
originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $498 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.15 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $64 million
Currency:
sucre (plural - sucres); 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos

:Ecuador Economy

Exchange rates:
sucres (S/) per US$1 - 1,046.25 (1991), 869.54 (December 1990), 767.75
(1990), 526.35 (1989), 301.61 (1988), 170.46 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Ecuador Communications

Railroads:
965 km total; all 1.067-meter-gauge single track
Highways:
28,000 km total; 3,600 km paved, 17,400 km gravel and improved earth, 7,000
km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
1,500 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km
Ports:
Guayaquil, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, Esmeraldas
Merchant marine:
46 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 337,999 GRT/491,996 DWT; includes 2
passenger, 4 cargo, 17 refrigerated cargo, 4 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off,
15 petroleum tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 2 bulk
Civil air:
23 major transport aircraft
Airports:
143 total, 142 usable; 43 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over
3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 23 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
domestic facilities generally adequate; 318,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 272 AM, no FM, 33 TV, 39 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

:Ecuador Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana), Air Force (Fuerza
Aerea Ecuatoriana), National Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 2,804,260; 1,898,401 fit for military service; 115,139 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Egypt Geography

Total area:
1,001,450 km2
Land area:
995,450 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundaries:
2,689 km; Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km, Sudan 1,273 km
Coastline:
2,450 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:
undefined
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
Administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with international
boundary
Climate:
desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Terrain:
vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Natural resources:
crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum,
talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
Land use:
arable land 3%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland NEGL%; other 95%; includes irrigated 5%
Environment:
Nile is only perennial water source; increasing soil salinization below
Aswan High Dam; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring;
water pollution; desertification
Note:
controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of
Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian
Ocean and Mediterranean; size and juxtaposition to Israel establish its
major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics

:Egypt People

Population:
56,368,950 (July 1992), growth rate 2.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
33 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
80 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
58 years male, 62 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Egyptian(s); adjective - Egyptian
Ethnic divisions:
Eastern Hamitic stock 90%; Greek, Italian, Syro-Lebanese 10%
Religions:
(official estimate) Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%; Coptic Christian and other 6%
Languages:
Arabic (official); English and French widely understood by educated classes
Literacy:
48% (male 63%, female 34%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
15,000,000 (1989 est.); government, public sector enterprises, and armed
forces 36%; agriculture 34%; privately owned service and manufacturing
enterprises 20% (1984); shortage of skilled labor; 2,500,000 Egyptians work
abroad, mostly in Iraq and the Gulf Arab states (1988 est.)
Organized labor:
2,500,000 (est.)

:Egypt Government

Long-form name:
Arab Republic of Egypt
Type:
republic
Capital:
Cairo
Administrative divisions:
26 governorates (muhafazah, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al
Ahmar, Al Buchayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al
Isma`iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al
Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyu`t, Bani Suwayf, Bur
Sa`id, Dumyat, Janub Sina, Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina, Suhaj
Independence:
28 February 1922 (from UK); formerly United Arab Republic
Constitution:
11 September 1971
Legal system:
based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial
review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of
administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral People's Assembly (Majlis al-Cha'b); note - there is an Advisory
Council (Majlis al-Shura) that functions in a consultative role
Judicial branch:
Supreme Constitutional Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (was made acting President on 6 October
1981 upon the assassination of President SADAT and sworn in as President on
14 October 1981)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Atef Mohammed Najib SEDKY (since 12 November 1986)
Political parties and leaders:
formation of political parties must be approved by government; National
Democratic Party (NDP), President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader, is the
dominant party; legal opposition parties are Socialist Liberal Party (SLP),
Kamal MURAD; Socialist Labor Party, Ibrahim SHUKRI; National Progressive
Unionist Grouping (NPUG), Khalid MUHYI-AL-DIN; Umma Party, Ahmad al-SABAHI;
New Wafd Party (NWP), Fu'd SIRAJ AL-DIN; Misr al-Fatah Party (Young Egypt
Party), Ali al-Din SALIH; The Greens Party, Hasan RAJAB; Nasserist Arab
Democratic Party, Dia' AL-DIN DAWOUD
Suffrage:
universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
Advisory Council:
last held 8 June 1989 (next to be held June 1995); results - NDP 100%; seats
- (258 total, 172 elected) NDP 172
People's Assembly:
last held 29 November 1990 (next to be held November 1995); results - NDP
78.4%, NPUG 1.4%, independents 18.7%; seats - (437 total, 444 elected) -
including NDP 348, NPUG 6, independents 83; note - most opposition parties
boycotted

:Egypt Government

President:
last held 5 October 1987 (next to be held October 1993); results - President
Hosni MUBARAK was reelected
Communists:
about 500 party members
Other political or pressure groups:
Islamic groups are illegal, but the largest one, the Muslim Brotherhood, is
tolerated by the government; trade unions and professional associations are
officially sanctioned
Member of:
ACC, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer), AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, EBRD,
ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador El Sayed Abdel Raouf EL REEDY; Chancery at 2310 Decatur Place NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-5400; there are Egyptian
Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco
US:
Ambassador Robert PELLETREAU; Embassy at Lazougi Street, Garden City, Cairo
(mailing address is APO AE 09839); telephone [20] (2) 355-7371; FAX [20] (2)
355-7375; there is a US Consulate General in Alexandria
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the
national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist
side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in
the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band;
also similar to the flag of Syria that has two green stars and to the flag
of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a
horizontal line centered in the white band

:Egypt Economy

Overview:
Egypt has one of the largest public sectors of all the Third World
economies, most industrial plants being owned by the government.
Overregulation holds back technical modernization and foreign investment.
Even so, the economy grew rapidly during the late 1970s and early 1980s, but
in 1986 the collapse of world oil prices and an increasingly heavy burden of
debt servicing led Egypt to begin negotiations with the IMF for
balance-of-payments support. As part of the 1987 agreement with the IMF, the
government agreed to institute a reform program to reduce inflation, promote
economic growth, and improve its external position. The reforms have been
slow in coming, however, and the economy has been largely stagnant for the
past four years. The addition of 1 million people every seven months to
Egypt's population exerts enormous pressure on the 5% of the total land area
available for agriculture.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $39.2 billion, per capita $720; real growth rate
2% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
17% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $9.4 billion; expenditures $15.9 billion, including capital
expenditures of $6 billion (FY90 est.)
Exports:
$4.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
crude oil and petroleum products, cotton yarn, raw cotton, textiles, metal
products, chemicals
partners:
EC, Eastern Europe, US, Japan
Imports:
$11.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood products, durable consumer
goods, capital goods
partners:
EC, US, Japan, Eastern Europe
External debt:
$38 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.3% (FY89 est.); accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity:
13,500,000 kW capacity; 45,000 million kWh produced, 820 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum, construction,
cement, metals
Agriculture:
accounts for 20% of GDP and employs more than one-third of labor force;
dependent on irrigation water from the Nile; world's sixth-largest cotton
exporter; other crops produced include rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruit,
vegetables; not self-sufficient in food; livestock - cattle, water buffalo,
sheep, and goats; annual fish catch about 140,000 metric tons
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15.7 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $10.1 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.4
billion

:Egypt Economy

Currency:
Egyptian pound (plural - pounds); 1 Egyptian pound (#E) = 100 piasters
Exchange rates:
Egyptian pounds (#E) per US$1 - 3.3310 (January 1992), 2.7072 (1990), 2.5171
(1989), 2.2233 (1988), 1.5183 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Egypt Communications

Railroads:
5,110 km total; 4,763 km 1,435-meter standard gauge, 347 km 0.750-meter
gauge; 951 km double track; 25 km electrified
Highways:
51,925 km total; 17,900 km paved, 2,500 km gravel, 13,500 km improved earth,
18,025 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and
numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez Canal, 193.5 km long (including
approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1 meters of water
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas 460 km
Ports:
Alexandria, Port Said, Suez, Bur Safajah, Damietta
Merchant marine:
150 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,019,182 GRT/1,499,880 DWT; includes
11 passenger, 5 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 86 cargo, 3
refrigerated cargo, 15 roll-on/roll-off, 12 petroleum tanker, 15 bulk, 1
container
Civil air:
50 major transport aircraft
Airports:
92 total, 82 usable; 66 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over
3,659 m; 44 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 24 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
system is large but still inadequate for needs; principal centers are
Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez and Tanta; intercity
connections by coaxial cable and microwave; extensive upgrading in progress;
600,000 telephones (est.); broadcast stations - 39 AM, 6 FM, 41 TV;
satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 INMARSAT, 1 ARABSAT; 5 submarine coaxial cables; tropospheric
scatter to Sudan; radio relay to Libya, Israel, and Jordan

:Egypt Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 13,911,006; 9,044,425 fit for military service; 563,321 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion, 6.4% of GDP (1991)

:El Salvador Geography

Total area:
21,040 km2
Land area:
20,720 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
545 km; Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km
Coastline:
307 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm)
Disputes:
dispute with Honduras over several sections of the land boundary; dispute
over Golfo de Fonseca maritime boundary because of disputed sovereignty of
islands
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April)
Terrain:
mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau
Natural resources:
hydropower, geothermal power, crude oil
Land use:
arable land 27%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and pastures 29%; forest and
woodland 6%; other 30%; includes irrigated 5%
Environment:
The Land of Volcanoes; subject to frequent and sometimes very destructive
earthquakes; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
Note:
smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on
Caribbean Sea

:El Salvador People

Population:
5,574,279 (July 1992), growth rate 2.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
33 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
- 6 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
26 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
68 years male, 75 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Salvadoran(s); adjective - Salvadoran
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo 89%, Indian 10%, white 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic about 75%, with extensive activity by Protestant groups
throughout the country (more than 1 million Protestant evangelicals in El
Salvador at the end of 1990)
Languages:
Spanish, Nahua (among some Indians)
Literacy:
73% (male 76%, female 70%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
1,700,000 (1982 est.); agriculture 40%, commerce 16%, manufacturing 15%,
government 13%, financial services 9%, transportation 6%, other 1%; shortage
of skilled labor and a large pool of unskilled labor, but manpower training
programs improving situation (1984 est.)
Organized labor:
total labor force 15%; agricultural labor force 10%; urban labor force 7%
(1987 est.)

:El Salvador Government

Long-form name:
Republic of El Salvador
Type:
republic
Capital:
San Salvador
Administrative divisions:
14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan,
Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan,
San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan
Independence:
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
20 December 1983
Legal system:
based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Alfredo CRISTIANI Buchard (since 1 June 1989); Vice President Jose
Francisco MERINO (since 1 June 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
National Republican Alliance (ARENA), Armando CALDERON Sol; Christian
Democratic Party (PDC), Fidel CHAVEZ Mena; National Conciliation Party
(PCN), Ciro CRUZ Zepeda; National Democratic Union (UDN), Mario AGUINADA
Carranza; the Democratic Convergence (CD) is a coalition of three parties -
the Social Democratic Party (PSD), Wilfredo BARILLAS; the National
Revolutionary Movement (MNR), Victor VALLE; and the Popular Social Christian
Movement (MPSC), Ruben ZAMORA; Authentic Christian Movement (MAC), Julio REY
PRENDES; Democratic Action (AD), Ricardo GONZALEZ Camacho
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held 10 March 1991 (next to be held March 1994); results - ARENA 44.3%,
PDC 27.96%, CD 12.16%, PCN 8.99%, MAC 3.23%, UDN 2.68%; seats - (84 total)
ARENA 39, PDC 26, PCN 9, CD 8, UDN 1, MAC 1
President:
last held 19 March 1989 (next to be held March 1994); results - Alfredo
CRISTIANI (ARENA) 53.8%, Fidel CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 36.6%, other 9.6%
Other political or pressure groups:
Business organizations:
National Association of Private Enterprise (ANEP), conservative; Productive
Alliance (AP), conservative; National Federation of Salvadoran Small
Businessmen (FENAPES), conservative

:El Salvador Government

FMLN front organizations:
Labor fronts include - National Union of Salvadoran Workers (UNTS), leftist
umbrella front group, leads FMLN front network; National Federation of
Salvadoran Workers (FENASTRAS), best organized of front groups and
controlled by FMLN's National Resistance (RN); Social Security Institute
Workers Union (STISSS), one of the most militant fronts, is controlled by
FMLN's Armed Forces of National Resistance (FARN) and RN; Association of
Telecommunications Workers (ASTTEL); Centralized Union Federation of El
Salvador (FUSS); Treasury Ministry Employees (AGEMHA); Nonlabor fronts
include - Committee of Mothers and Families of Political Prisoners,
Disappeared Persons, and Assassinated of El Salvador (COMADRES);
Nongovernmental Human Rights Commission (CDHES); Committee of Dismissed and
Unemployed of El Salvador (CODYDES); General Association of Salvadoran
University Students (AGEUS); National Association of Salvadoran Educators
(ANDES-21 DE JUNIO); Salvadoran Revolutionary Student Front (FERS),
associated with the Popular Forces of Liberation (FPL); Association of
National University Educators (ADUES); Salvadoran University Students Front
(FEUS); Christian Committee for the Displaced of El Salvador (CRIPDES), an
FPL front; The Association for Communal Development in El Salvador
(PADECOES), controlled by the People's Revolutionary Army (ERP);
Confederation of Cooperative Associations of El Salvador (COACES)
Other political or pressure groups:
Labor organizations:
Federation of Construction and Transport Workers Unions (FESINCONSTRANS),
independent; Salvadoran Communal Union (UCS), peasant association; Unitary
Federation of Salvadoran Unions (FUSS), leftist; National Federation of
Salvadoran Workers (FENASTRAS), leftist; Democratic Workers Central (CTD),
moderate; General Confederation of Workers (CGT), moderate; National Unity
of Salvadoran Workers (UNTS), leftist; National Union of Workers and
Peasants (UNOC), moderate labor coalition of democratic labor organizations;
United Workers Front (FUT)
Leftist political parties:
National Democratic Union (UDN), National Revolutionary Movement (MNR), and
Popular Social Movement (MPSC)
Leftist revolutionary movement:
Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN), leadership body of the
insurgency, five factions - Popular Liberation Forces (FPL), Armed Forces of
National Resistance (FARN), People's Revolutionary Army (ERP), Salvadoran
Communist Party/Armed Forces of Liberation (PCES/FAL), and Central American
Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRTC)/Popular Liberation Revolutionary Armed
Forces (FARLP)
Member of:
BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS,
OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Miguel Angel SALAVERRIA; Chancery at 2308 California Street NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-9671 through 3482; there are
Salvadoran Consulates General in Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans,
New York, and San Francisco
US:
Ambassador William G. WALKER; Embassy at 25 Avenida Norte No. 1230, San
Salvador (mailing address is APO AA 34023); telephone [503] 26-7100; FAX
[503] (26) 5839

:El Salvador Government

Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the
national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features
a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA
CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of
arms centered in the white band - it features a triangle encircled by the
words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also
similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X
pattern centered in the white band

:El Salvador Economy

Overview:
The agricultural sector accounts for 25% of GDP, employs about 40% of the
labor force, and contributes about 66% to total exports. Coffee is the major
commercial crop, accounting for 45% of export earnings. The manufacturing
sector, based largely on food and beverage processing, accounts for 18% of
GDP and 15% of employment. Economic losses because of guerrilla sabotage
total more than $2 billion since 1979. The costs of maintaining a large
military seriously constrain the government's efforts to provide essential
social services. Nevertheless, growth in national output during the period
1990-91 exceeded growth in population for the first time since 1987.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $5.5 billion, per capita $1,010; real growth rate
3% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
19% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
10% (1989)
Budget:
revenues $751 million; expenditures $790 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
$580 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
coffee 45%, sugar, cotton, shrimp
partners:
US 49%, Germany 24%, Guatemala 7%, Costa Rica 4%, Japan 4%
Imports:
$1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
petroleum products, consumer goods, foodstuffs, machinery, construction
materials, fertilizer
partners:
US 40%, Guatemala 12%, Venezuela 7%, Mexico 7%, Germany 5%, Japan 4%
External debt:
$2.0 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.4% (1990); accounts for 22% of GDP
Electricity:
682,000 kW capacity; 1,927 million kWh produced, 356 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
food processing, textiles, clothing, beverages, petroleum, tobacco products,
chemicals, furniture
Agriculture:
accounts for 25% of GDP and 40% of labor force (including fishing and
forestry); coffee most important commercial crop; other products -
sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseeds, beef, dairy products, shrimp; not
self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $2.95 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $525 million
Currency:
Salvadoran colon (plural - colones); 1 Salvadoran colon (C) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 - 8.1 (January 1992), floating rate since
mid-1990); 5.0000 (fixed rate 1986 to mid-1990)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:El Salvador Communications

Railroads:
602 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
10,000 km total; 1,500 km paved, 4,100 km gravel, 4,400 km improved and
unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
Rio Lempa partially navigable
Ports:
Acajutla, Cutuco
Civil air:
7 major transport aircraft
Airports:
107 total, 77 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
nationwide trunk radio relay system; connection into Central American
Microwave System; 116,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 77 AM, no FM, 5
TV, 2 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:El Salvador Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, National Police, Treasury Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,265,149; 809,419 fit for military service; 68,445 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $220 million, 3.6% of GDP (1991)

:Equatorial Guinea Geography

Total area:
28,050 km2
Land area:
28,050 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
539 km; Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km
Coastline:
296 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because of disputed sovereignty over
islands in Corisco Bay
Climate:
tropical; always hot, humid
Terrain:
coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic
Natural resources:
timber, crude oil, small unexploited deposits of gold, manganese, uranium
Land use:
arable land 8%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 4%; forest and
woodland 51%; other 33%
Environment:
subject to violent windstorms
Note:
insular and continental regions rather widely separated

:Equatorial Guinea People

Population:
388,799 (July 1992), growth rate 2.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
42 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
15 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
107 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
49 years male, 53 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
5.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s); adjective - Equatorial
Guinean or Equatoguinean
Ethnic divisions:
indigenous population of Bioko, primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos; Rio Muni,
primarily Fang; less than 1,000 Europeans, mostly Spanish
Religions:
natives all nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic; some pagan
practices retained
Languages:
Spanish (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo
Literacy:
50% (male 64%, female 37%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
172,000 (1986 est.); agriculture 66%, services 23%, industry 11% (1980);
labor shortages on plantations; 58% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
no formal trade unions

:Equatorial Guinea Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Equatorial Guinea
Type:
republic in transition to multiparty democracy
Capital:
Malabo
Administrative divisions:
7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko
Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas
Independence:
12 October 1968 (from Spain; formerly Spanish Guinea)
Constitution:
new constitution 17 November 1991
Legal system:
partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 October (1968)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives of the People (Camara de Representantes
del Pueblo)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Tribunal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3 August
1979)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Cristino SERICHE BIOKO MALABO (since 15 August 1982); Deputy
Prime Minister Isidoro Eyi MONSUY ANDEME (since 15 August 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
only party - Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea (PDGE), Brig. Gen.
(Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO, party leader; multipartyism legalized
in new constitution of November 1991, promulgated January 1992
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Elections:
Chamber of People's Representatives:
last held 10 July 1988 (next to be held 10 July 1993); results - PDGE is the
only party; seats - (41 total) PDGE 41
President:
last held 25 June 1989 (next to be held 25 June 1996); results - President
Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO was reelected without
opposition
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS (associate), NAM, OAS (observer), OAU,
UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Damaso OBIANG NDONG; Chancery (temporary) 57 Magnolia Avenue,
Mount Vernon, NY 10553; telephone (914) 667-9664
US:
Ambassador John E. BENNETT; Embassy at Calle de Los Ministros, Malabo
(mailing address is P.O. Box 597, Malabo); telephone [240] (9) 2185, 2406,
2507; FAX [240] (9) 2164

:Equatorial Guinea Government

Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a blue
isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in
the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars
(representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield
bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto
UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice)

:Equatorial Guinea Economy

Overview:
The economy, destroyed during the regime of former President Macias NGUEMA,
is now based on agriculture, forestry, and fishing, which account for about
half of GDP and nearly all exports. Subsistence agriculture predominates,
with cocoa, coffee, and wood products providing income, foreign exchange,
and government revenues. There is little industry. Commerce accounts for
about 8% of GDP and the construction, public works, and service sectors for
about 38%. Undeveloped natural resources include titanium, iron ore,
manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. Oil exploration, taking place under
concessions offered to US, French, and Spanish firms, has been moderately
successful.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $156 million, per capita $400; real growth rate
1.6% (1988 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.6% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $27 million; expenditures $29 million, including capital
expenditures of NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
$37 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
coffee, timber, cocoa beans
partners:
Spain 38.2%, Italy 12.2%, Netherlands 11.4%, FRG 6.9%, Nigeria 12.4 (1988)
Imports:
$68.3 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
petroleum, food, beverages, clothing, machinery
partners:
France 25.9%, Spain 21.0%, Italy 16%, US 12.8%, Netherlands 8%, Germany
3.1%, Gabon 2.9%, Nigeria 1.8 (1988)
External debt:
$213 million (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate - 6.8% (1990 est.)
Electricity:
23,000 kW capacity; 60 million kWh produced, 160 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
fishing, sawmilling
Agriculture:
cash crops - timber and coffee from Rio Muni, cocoa from Bioko; food crops -
rice, yams, cassava, bananas, oil palm nuts, manioc, livestock
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia to
Western Europe
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY81-89), $14 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89) $130 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $55 million
Currency:
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
= 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
(1987)

:Equatorial Guinea Economy

Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Equatorial Guinea Communications

Highways:
Rio Muni - 2,460 km; Bioko - 300 km
Ports:
Malabo, Bata
Merchant marine:
2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,413 GRT/6,699 DWT; includes 1 cargo
and 1 passenger-cargo
Civil air:
1 major transport aircraft
Airports:
3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
poor system with adequate government services; international communications
from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; 2,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

:Equatorial Guinea Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, National Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 81,850; 41,528 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GNP

:Estonia Geography

Total area:
45,100 km2
Land area:
43,200 km2; (includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea)
Comparative area:
slightly larger than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Land boundaries:
557 km; Latvia 267 km, Russia 290 km
Coastline:
1,393 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
NA nm
Continental shelf:
NA meter depth
Exclusive economic zone:
NA nm
Exclusive fishing zone:
NA nm
Territorial sea:
NA nm
Disputes:
international small border strips along the northern (Narva) and southern
(Petseri) sections of eastern border with Russia ceded to Russia in 1945 by
the Estonian SSR
Climate:
maritime, wet, moderate winters
Terrain:
marshy, lowlands
Natural resources:
shale oil, peat, phosphorite, amber
Land use:
22% arable land; NA% permanent crops; 11% meadows and pastures; 31% forest
and woodland; 21% other; includes NA% irrigated; 15% swamps and lakes
Environment:
coastal waters largely polluted

:Estonia People

Population:
1,607,349 (July 1992), growth rate 0.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
16 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)

Book of the day: