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and fishing; plantations produce cash crops for export - vanilla, cloves,
perfume essences, and copra; principal food crops - coconuts, bananas,
cassava; world's leading producer of essence of ylang-ylang (for perfumes)
and second-largest producer of vanilla; large net food importer

:Comoros Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-89), $10 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $435 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $22 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $18
million
Currency:
Comoran franc (plural - francs); 1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Comoran francs (CF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January 1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987); note - linked to the
French franc at 50 to 1 French franc
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Comoros Communications

Highways:
750 km total; about 210 km bituminous, remainder crushed stone or gravel
Ports:
Mutsamudu, Moroni
Civil air:
1 major transport aircraft
Airports:
4 total, 4 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
sparse system of radio relay and high-frequency radio communication stations
for interisland and external communications to Madagascar and Reunion; over
1,800 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, no TV

:Comoros Defense Forces

Branches:
Comoran Security Forces (FCS), Federal Gendarmerie (GFC)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 105,022; 62,808 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA of GDP

:Congo Geography

Total area:
342,000 km2
Land area:
341,500 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
5,504 km; Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African Republic 467 km,
Gabon 1,903 km, Zaire 2,410 km
Coastline:
169 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
200 nm
Disputes:
long section with Zaire along the Congo River is indefinite (no division of
the river or its islands has been made)
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October);
constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate
astride the Equator
Terrain:
coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
Natural resources:
petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, natural
gas
Land use:
arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 29%; forest and
woodland 62%; other 7%
Environment:
deforestation; about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe
Noire, or along the railroad between them

:Congo People

Population:
2,376,687 (July 1992), growth rate 2.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
42 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
13 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
109 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
53 years male, 56 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
5.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Congolese (singular and plural); adjective - Congolese or Congo
Ethnic divisions:
about 15 ethnic groups divided into some 75 tribes, almost all Bantu; most
important ethnic groups are Kongo (48%) in the south, Sangha (20%) and
M'Bochi (12%) in the north, Teke (17%) in the center; about 8,500 Europeans,
mostly French
Religions:
Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%
Languages:
French (official); many African languages with Lingala and Kikongo most
widely used
Literacy:
57% (male 70%, female 44%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
79,100 wage earners; agriculture 75%, commerce, industry, and government
25%; 51% of population of working age; 40% of population economically active
(1985)
Organized labor:
20% of labor force (1979 est.)

:Congo Government

Long-form name:
Republic of the Congo
Type:
republic
Capital:
Brazzaville
Administrative divisions:
9 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza,
Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool,
Sangha
Independence:
15 August 1960 (from France; formerly Congo/Brazzaville)
Constitution:
8 July 1979, currently being modified
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law
National holiday:
Congolese National Day, 15 August (1960)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
a transitional National Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 8 February 1979); stripped of most
powers by National Conference in May 1991
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Andre MILONGO (since May 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Congolese Labor Party (PCT), President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, leader; note -
multiparty system legalized, with over 50 parties established
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
National Assembly:
transitional body selected by National Conference in May 1991; election for
new legislative body to be held spring 1992
President:
last held 26-31 July 1989 (next to be held June 1992); results - President
SASSOU-NGUESSO unanimously reelected leader of the PCT by the Party
Congress, which automatically made him president
Communists:
small number of Communists and sympathizers
Other political or pressure groups:
Union of Congolese Socialist Youth (UJSC), Congolese Trade Union Congress
(CSC), Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women (URFC), General Union of
Congolese Pupils and Students (UGEEC)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Roger ISSOMBO; Chancery at 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20011; telephone (202) 726-5500

:Congo Government

US:
Ambassador James Daniel PHILLIPS; Embassy at Avenue Amilcar Cabral,
Brazzaville (mailing address is B. P. 1015, Brazzaville, or Box C, APO AE
09828); telephone (242) 83-20-70; FAX [242] 83-63-38
Flag:
red, divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the
upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red; uses the
popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

:Congo Economy

Overview:
Congo's economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts, a
beginning industrial sector based largely on oil, supporting services, and a
government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. A reform
program, supported by the IMF and World Bank, ran into difficulties in
1990-91 because of problems in changing to a democratic political regime and
a heavy debt-servicing burden. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay
of the economy, providing about two-thirds of government revenues and
exports. In the early 1980s rapidly rising oil revenues enabled Congo to
finance large-scale development projects with growth averaging 5% annually,
one of the highest rates in Africa. During the period 1987-91, however,
growth has slowed to an average of roughly 1.5% annually, only half the
population growth rate.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $2.4 billion, per capita $1,070; real growth rate
0.5% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.6% (1989 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $522 million; expenditures $767 million, including capital
expenditures of $141 million (1989)
Exports:
$751 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
crude petroleum 72%, lumber, plywood, coffee, cocoa, sugar, diamonds
partners:
US, France, other EC
Imports:
$564 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
foodstuffs, consumer goods, intermediate manufactures, capital equipment
partners:
France, Italy, other EC, US, FRG, Spain, Japan, Brazil
External debt:
$4.5 billion (December 1988)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.2% (1989); accounts for 33% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity:
140,000 kW capacity; 315 million kWh produced, 135 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
crude oil, cement, sawmills, brewery, sugar mill, palm oil, soap, cigarettes
Agriculture:
accounts for 10% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); cassava accounts
for 90% of food output; other crops - rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables; cash
crops include coffee and cocoa; forest products important export earner;
imports over 90% of food needs
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $60 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.3 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $15 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $338
million
Currency:
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
= 100 centimes

:Congo Economy

Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
(1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Congo Communications

Railroads:
797 km, 1.067-meter gauge, single track (includes 285 km that are privately
owned)
Highways:
11,960 km total; 560 km paved; 850 km gravel and laterite; 5,350 km improved
earth; 5,200 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide 1,120 km of commercially
navigable water transport; the rest are used for local traffic only
Pipelines:
crude oil 25 km
Ports:
Pointe-Noire (ocean port), Brazzaville (river port)
Civil air:
4 major transport aircraft
Airports:
46 total, 42 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
services adequate for government use; primary network is composed of radio
relay routes and coaxial cables; key centers are Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire,
and Loubomo; 18,100 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 4 TV; 1
Atlantic Ocean satellite earth station

:Congo Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Naval Infantry), Air Force, National Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 526,058; 267,393 fit for military service; 23,884 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $100 million, 4.6% of GDP (1987 est.)

:Cook Islands Geography

Total area:
240 km2
Land area:
240 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than 1.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
120 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
edge of continental margin or minimum of 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land 4%; permanent crops 22%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 74%
Environment:
subject to typhoons from November to March
Note:
located 4,500 km south of Hawaii in the South Pacific Ocean

:Cook Islands People

Population:
17,977 (July 1992), growth rate 0.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
22 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-10 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
25 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
69 years male, 73 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Cook Islander(s); adjective - Cook Islander
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European 7.7%, Polynesian and
other 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%
Religions:
Christian, majority of populace members of Cook Islands Christian Church
Languages:
English (official); Maori
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
5,810; agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%, industry 15%, and
other 4% (1981)
Organized labor:
NA

:Cook Islands Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
self-governing in free association with New Zealand; Cook Islands fully
responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for
external affairs, in consultation with the Cook Islands
Capital:
Avarua
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on 4 August 1965
and has the right at any time to move to full independence by unilateral
action
Constitution:
4 August 1965
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 4 August
Executive branch:
British monarch, representative of the UK, representative of New Zealand,
prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament; note - the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on
traditional matters, but has no legislative powers
Judicial branch:
High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Representative of the UK Sir
Tangaroa TANGAROA (since NA); Representative of New Zealand Adrian SINCOCK
(since NA)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Geoffrey HENRY (since 1 February 1989); Deputy Prime Minister
Inatio AKARURU (since February 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY; Democratic Tumu Party, Vincent INGRAM;
Democratic Party, Terepai MAOATE; Cook Islands Labor Party, Rena JONASSEN;
Cook Islands People's Party, Sadaraka SADARAKA
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Elections:
Parliament:
last held 19 January 1989 (next to be held by January 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (24 total) Cook Islands Party 12,
Democratic Tumu Party 2, opposition coalition (including Democratic Party)
9, independent 1
Member of:
AsDB, ESCAP (associate), FAO, ICAO, IOC, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO
Diplomatic representation:
none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)
Flag:
blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large
circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island) centered in the
outer half of the flag

:Cook Islands Economy

Overview:
Agriculture provides the economic base. The major export earners are fruit,
copra, and clothing. Manufacturing activities are limited to a
fruit-processing plant and several clothing factories. Economic development
is hindered by the isolation of the islands from foreign markets and a lack
of natural resources and good transportation links. A large trade deficit is
annually made up for by remittances from emigrants and from foreign aid.
Current economic development plans call for exploiting the tourism potential
and expanding the fishing industry.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $40.0 million, per capita $2,200 (1988 est.);
real growth rate 5.3% (1986-88 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.0% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $33.8 million; expenditures $34.4 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
$4.0 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
copra, fresh and canned fruit, clothing
partners:
NZ 80%, Japan
Imports:
$38.7 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber
partners:
NZ 49%, Japan, Australia, US
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
14,000 kW capacity; 21 million kWh produced, 1,170 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
fruit processing, tourism
Agriculture:
export crops - copra, citrus fruits, pineapples, tomatoes, bananas;
subsistence crops - yams, taro
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$128 million
Currency:
New Zealand dollar (plural - dollars); 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100
cents
Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.8502 (January 1992), 1.7266 (1991),
1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Cook Islands Communications

Highways:
187 km total (1980); 35 km paved, 35 km gravel, 84 km improved earth, 33 km
unimproved earth
Ports:
Avatiu
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 or over) totaling 1,464 GRT/2,181 DWT
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
6 total, 6 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, no TV; 10,000 radio receivers; 2,052
telephones; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Cook Islands Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

:Coral Sea Islands Geography

Total area:
less than 3 km2
Land area:
less than 3 km2; includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a
sea area of about 1 million km2, with Willis Islets the most important
Comparative area:
undetermined
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
3,095 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other, mostly grass or scrub cover 100%; Lihou Reef Reserve and
Coringa-Herald Reserve were declared National Nature Reserves on 3 August
1982
Environment:
subject to occasional tropical cyclones; no permanent fresh water; important
nesting area for birds and turtles
Note:
the islands are located just off the northeast coast of Australia in the
Coral Sea

:Coral Sea Islands People

Population:
3 meteorologists (1992)

:Coral Sea Islands Government

Long-form name:
Coral Sea Islands Territory
Type:
territory of Australia administered by the Minister for Arts, Sport, the
Environment, Tourism, and Territories Roslyn KELLY
Capital:
none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Flag:
the flag of Australia is used

:Coral Sea Islands Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

:Coral Sea Islands Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorages only

:Coral Sea Islands Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly by the Royal
Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities of visitors

:Costa Rica Geography

Total area:
51,100 km2
Land area:
50,660 km2; includes Isla del Coco
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
639 km; Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km
Coastline:
1,290 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November)
Terrain:
coastal plains separated by rugged mountains
Natural resources:
hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land 6%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures 45%; forest and
woodland 34%; other 8%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
subject to occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent
flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active volcanoes;
deforestation; soil erosion

:Costa Rica People

Population:
3,187,085 (July 1992), growth rate 2.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
27 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
4 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
12 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
75 years male, 79 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Costa Rican(s); adjective - Costa Rican
Ethnic divisions:
white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Indian 1%, Chinese 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon
Literacy:
93% (male 93%, female 93%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
868,300; industry and commerce 35.1%, government and services 33%,
agriculture 27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)
Organized labor:
15.1% of labor force

:Costa Rica Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Costa Rica
Type:
democratic republic
Capital:
San Jose
Administrative divisions:
7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Alajuela, Cartago,
Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose
Independence:
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
9 November 1949
Legal system:
based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in
the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Executive branch:
president, two vice presidents, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier (since 8 May 1990); First Vice
President German SERRANO Pinto (since 8 May 1990); Second Vice President
Arnoldo LOPEZ Echandi (since 8 May 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
National Liberation Party (PLN), Carlos Manuel CASTILLO Morales; Social
Christian Unity Party (PUSC), Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier; Marxist
Popular Vanguard Party (PVP), Humberto VARGAS Carbonell; New Republic
Movement (MNR), Sergio Erick ARDON Ramirez; Progressive Party (PP), Isaac
Felipe AZOFEIFA Bolanos; People's Party of Costa Rica (PPC), Lenin CHACON
Vargas; Radical Democratic Party (PRD), Juan Jose ECHEVERRIA Brealey
Suffrage:
universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held February 1994); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (57 total) PUSC 29, PLN 25, PVP/PPC 1, regional
parties 2
President:
last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held February 1994); results - Rafael
Angel CALDERON Fournier 51%, Carlos Manuel CASTILLO 47%
Communists:
7,500 members and sympathizers
Other political or pressure groups:
Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers (CCTD; Liberation Party
affiliate), Confederated Union of Workers (CUT; Communist Party affiliate),
Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers (CATD; Communist Party
affiliate), Chamber of Coffee Growers, National Association for Economic
Development (ANFE), Free Costa Rica Movement (MCRL; rightwing militants),
National Association of Educators (ANDE)

:Costa Rica Government

Member of:
AG (observer), BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES,
LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Gonzalo FACIO Segreda; Chancery at Suite 211, 1825 Connecticut
Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone (202) 234-2945 through 2947;
there are Costa Rican Consulates General at Albuquerque, Houston, Los
Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Diego, San Francisco, and San
Juan (Puerto Rico), and a Consulate in Buffalo
US:
Ambassador Luis GUINOT, Jr.; Embassy at Pavas Road, San Jose (mailing
address is APO AA 34020); telephone [506] 20-39-39 FAX (506) 20-2305
Flag:
five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width), white, and
blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk on the hoist side of the red
band

:Costa Rica Economy

Overview:
In 1991 the economy grew at an estimated 2.5%, down somewhat from the 3.6%
gain of 1990 and below the strong 5.5% gain of 1989. Increases in
agricultural production (on the strength of good coffee and banana crops)
and in construction have been offset by lower rates of growth for industry.
In 1991 consumer prices rose by 27%, about the same as in 1990. The trade
deficit of $270 million was substantially below the 1990 deficit of $677
million. Unemployment is officially reported at 4.6%, but much
underemployment remains. External debt, on a per capita basis, is among the
world's highest.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $5.9 billion, per capita $1,900; real growth rate
2.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
27% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4.6% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $831 million; expenditures $1.08 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar
partners:
US 75%, Germany, Guatemala, Netherlands, UK, Japan
Imports:
$1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
petroleum, machinery, consumer durables, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs
partners:
US 40%, Japan, Guatemala, Germany
External debt:
$4.5 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.3% (1990 est.); accounts for 23% of GDP
Electricity:
927,000 kW capacity; 3,408 million kWh produced, 1,095 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
food processing, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer,
plastic products
Agriculture:
accounts for 20-25% of GDP and 70% of exports; cash commodities - coffee,
beef, bananas, sugar; other food crops include corn, rice, beans, potatoes;
normally self-sufficient in food except for grain; depletion of forest
resources resulting in lower timber output
Illicit drugs:
illicit production of cannabis on small scattered plots; transshipment
country for cocaine from South America
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $935 million;
Communist countries (1971-89), $27 million
Currency:
Costa Rican colon (plural - colones); 1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates:
Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1 - 136.35 (January 1992), 122.43 (1991),
91.58 (1990), 81.504 (1989), 75.805 (1988), 62.776 (1987)

:Costa Rica Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Costa Rica Communications

Railroads:
950 km total, all 1.067-meter gauge; 260 km electrified
Highways:
15,400 km total; 7,030 km paved, 7,010 km gravel, 1,360 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
about 730 km, seasonally navigable
Pipelines:
petroleum products 176 km
Ports:
Puerto Limon, Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puntarenas
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,878 GRT/4,506 DWT
Civil air:
11 major transport aircraft
Airports:
164 total, 149 usable; 28 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
very good domestic telephone service; 292,000 telephones; connection into
Central American Microwave System; broadcast stations - 71 AM, no FM, 18 TV,
13 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Costa Rica Defense Forces

Branches:
Civil Guard, Rural Assistance Guard; note - Constitution prohibits armed
forces
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 829,576; 559,575 fit for military service; 31,828 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $22 million, 0.5% of GDP (1989)

:Croatia Geography

Total area:
56,538 km2
Land area:
56,410 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
1,843 km; Bosnia and Hercegovina (east) 751 km, Bosnia and Hercegovina
(southeast) 91 km, Hungary 292 km, Serbia and Montenegro 254 km, Slovenia
455 km
Coastline:
5,790 km; mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
NA nm
Continental shelf:
200-meter depth or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:
12 nm
Exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
Serbian enclaves in eastern Slavonia and along the western Bosnia and
Hercegovinian border; dispute with Slovenia over fishing rights in Adriatic
Climate:
Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot
summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
Terrain:
geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains
and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline, and islands
Natural resources:
oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural asphalt,
silica, mica, clays, salt, fruit, livestock
Land use:
32% arable land; 20% permanent crops; 18% meadows and pastures; 15% forest
and woodland; 9% other; includes 5% irrigated
Environment:
air pollution from metallurgical plants; damaged forest; coastal pollution
from industrial and domestic waste; subject to frequent and destructive
earthquakes
Note:
controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish
Straits

:Croatia People

Population:
4,784,000 (July 1991), growth rate 0.39% (for the period 1981-91)
Birth rate:
12.2 births/1,000 population (1991)
Death rate:
11.3 deaths/1,000 population (1991)
Net migration rate:
NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)
Infant mortality rate:
10 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)
Life expectancy at birth:
67 years male, 74 years female (1980-82)
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman (1991)
Nationality:
noun - Croat(s); adjective - Croatian
Ethnic divisions:
Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslims 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%, Slovenian 0.5%, others
7.8%
Religions:
Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%, Protestant 1.4%, others
and unknown 11%
Languages:
Serbo-Croatian 96%
Literacy:
96.5% (male 98.6%, female 94.5%) age 10 and over can read and write (1991
census)
Labor force:
1,509,489; industry and mining 37%, agriculture 4%, government NA%, other
Organized labor:
NA

:Croatia Government

Long-form name:
None
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Zagreb
Administrative divisions:
102 districts (opcine, singular - opcina)
Independence:
June 1991 from Yugoslavia
Constitution:
promulgated on 22 December 1990
Legal system:
based on civil law system; judicial/no judicial review of legislative acts;
does/does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
30 May, Statehood Day (1990)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister
Legislative branch:
bicameral
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Constitutional Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Franjo TUDJMAN (since April 1990), Vice President NA (since NA)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Franjo GREGURIC (since August 1991), Deputy Prime Minister
Mila RAMLJAK (since NA )
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Union, TUDJMAN; Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ),
Stjepan Mesic; Croatian National Party, Savka DABCEVIC-KUCAR; Croatian
Christian Democratic Party (HKDS), Ivan CESAR; Croatian Party of Rights,
Dobroslav Paraga; Croatian Social Liberal Party (HSLS), Drazen BUDISA
Suffrage:
at age 16 if employed, universal at age 18
Elections:
Parliament:
last held May 1990 (next to be held NA); results - HDZ won 205 seats; seats
- 349 (total)
President:
NA
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
CSCE
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Dr. Franc Vinko GOLEM, Office of Republic of Croatia, 256
Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20036; telephone (202) 543-5586
US:
Ambassador NA; Embassy at NA (mailing address is APO New York is 09862);
telephone NA
Flag:
red, white, and blue with Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)

:Croatia Economy

Overview:
Before the political disintegration of Yugoslavia, the republic of Croatia
stood next to Slovenia as the most prosperous and industrialized area, with
a per capita output roughly comparable to that of Portugal and perhaps
one-third above the Yugoslav average. Serbia and the Serb-dominated army of
the old Yugoslavia, however, have seized Croatian territory, and the
overriding determinant of Croatia's long-term economic prospects will be the
final border settlement. Under the most favorable circumstances, Croatia
will retain the Dalmatian coast with its major tourist attractions and
Slavonia with its oilfields and rich agricultural land. Even so, Croatia
would face monumental problems stemming from: the legacy of longtime
Communist mismanagement of the economy; large foreign debt; damage during
the fighting to bridges, factories, powerlines, buildings, and houses; and
the disruption of economic ties to Serbia and the other former Yugoslav
republics. At the minimum, extensive Western aid and investment, especially
in the tourist and oil industries, would seem necessary to salvage a
desperate economic situation. However, peace and political stability must
come first.
GDP:
NA - $26.3 billion, per capita $5,600; real growth rate -25% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
14.3% (March 1992)
Unemployment rate:
20% (December 1991)
Budget:
revenues $NA million; expenditures $NA million, including capital
expenditures of $NA million
Exports:
$2.9 billion (1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment (30%), other manufacturers (37%),
chemicals (11%), food and live animals (9%), raw materials (6.5%), fuels and
lubricants (5%)
partners:
principally the other former Yugoslav republics
Imports:
$4.4 billion (1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment (21%), fuels and lubricants (19%), food
and live animals (16%), chemicals (14%), manufactured goods (13%),
miscellaneous manufactured articles (9%), raw materials (6.5%), beverages
and tobacco (1%)
partners:
principally other former Yugoslav republics
External debt:
$2.6 billion (may assume some part of foreign debt of former Yugoslavia)
Industrial production:
declined as much as 11% in 1990 and probably another 29% in 1991
Electricity:
3,570,000 kW capacity; 8,830 million kWh produced, 1,855 kWh per capita
1991)
Industries:
chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig
iron and rolled steel products, aluminum reduction, paper, wood products
(including furniture), building materials (including cement), textiles,
shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food processing and
beverages

:Croatia Economy

Agriculture:
Croatia normally produces a food surplus; most agricultural land in private
hands and concentrated in Croat-majority districts in Slavonia and Istria;
much of Slavonia's land has been put out of production by fighting; wheat,
corn, sugar beets, sunflowers, alfalfa, and clover are main crops in
Slavonia; central Croatian highlands are less fertile but support cereal
production, orchards, vineyards, livestock breeding, and dairy farming;
coastal areas and offshore islands grow olives, citrus fruits, and
vegetables
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
Croatian dinar(s)
Exchange rates:
Croatian dinar per US $1 - 60.00 (April 1992)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Croatia Communications

Railroads:
2,698 km (34.5% electrified)
Highways:
32,071 km total (1990); 23,305 km paved, 8,439 km gravel, 327 km earth
Inland waterways:
785 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 670 km, petroleum products 20 km, natural gas 310 km
Ports:
maritime - Rijeka, Split, Kardeljevo (Ploce); inland - Vukovar, Osijek,
Sisak, Vinkovci
Merchant marine:
11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 60,802 GRT/65,560 DWT; includes 1
cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off, 5 passenger ferries, 2 bulk carriers; note - also
controlled by Croatian shipowners are 196 ships (1,000 GRT or over) under
flags of convenience - primarily Malta and St. Vincent - totaling 2,593,429
GRT/4,101,119 DWT; includes 91 general cargo, 7 roll-on/ roll-off, 6
refrigerated cargo, 13 container ships, 3 multifunction large load carriers,
52 bulk carriers, 3 passenger ships, 11 petroleum tankers, 4 chemical
tankers, 6 service vessels
Civil air:
NA major transport aircraft
Airports:
8 total, NA usable; NA with permanent-surface runways; NA with runways over
3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; NA with runways 1,220-2,439 m; 1 with
runways 900 m
Telecommunications:
350,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 14 AM, 8 FM, 12 (2 repeaters) TV;
1,100,000 radios; 1,027,000 TVs; NA submarine coaxial cables; satellite
ground stations - none

:Croatia Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Guard,
Home Guard, Civil Defense
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,188,576; NA fit for military service; 42,664 reach military
age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:Cuba Geography

Total area:
110,860 km2
Land area:
110,860 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
29.1 km; US Naval Base at Guantanamo 29.1 km
note:
Guantanamo is leased and as such remains part of Cuba
Coastline:
3,735 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
US Naval Base at Guantanamo is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US
abandonment of the area can terminate the lease
Climate:
tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy
season (May to October)
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains in the
southeast
Natural resources:
cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica
Land use:
arable land 23%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and pastures 23%; forest and
woodland 17%; other 31%; includes irrigated 10%
Environment:
averages one hurricane every other year
Note:
largest country in Caribbean; 145 km south of Florida

:Cuba People

Population:
10,846,821 (July 1992), growth rate 1.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
17 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
11 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
74 years male, 79 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Cuban(s); adjective - Cuban
Ethnic divisions:
mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%
Religions:
85% nominally Roman Catholic before Castro assumed power
Languages:
Spanish
Literacy:
94% (male 95%, female 93%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
3,578,800 in state sector; services and government 30%, industry 22%,
agriculture 20%, commerce 11%, construction 10%, transportation and
communications 7% (June 1990); economically active population 4,620,800
(1988)
Organized labor:
Workers Central Union of Cuba (CTC), only labor federation approved by
government; 2,910,000 members; the CTC is an umbrella organization composed
of 17 member unions

:Cuba Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Cuba
Type:
Communist state
Capital:
Havana
Administrative divisions:
14 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality*
(municipio especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La
Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las
Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa
Clara
Independence:
20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898); administered by the US from 1898
to 1902
Constitution:
24 February 1976
Legal system:
based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist legal
theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953)
Executive branch:
president of the Council of State, first vice president of the Council of
State, Council of State, president of the Council of Ministers, first vice
president of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly of the People's Power (Asamblea Nacional del
Poder Popular)
Judicial branch:
People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo Popular)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers
Fidel CASTRO Ruz (became Prime Minister in February 1959 and President since
2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First
Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2
December 1976)
Political parties and leaders:
only party - Cuban Communist Party (PCC), Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary
Suffrage:
universal at age 16
Elections:
National Assembly of the People's Power:
last held December 1986 (next to be held before December 1992); results -
PCC is the only party; seats - (510 total) indirectly elected
Communists:
about 600,000 full and candidate members
Member of:
CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBEC, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMO, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation
since 1962), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO
Diplomatic representation:
none; protecting power in the US is Switzerland - Cuban Interests Section;
position vacant since March 1992; 2630 and 2639 16th Street NW, Washington,
DC 20009; telephone (202) 797-8518 or 8519, 8520, 8609, 8610

:Cuba Government

US:
protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland - US Interests Section, Swiss
Embassy; Principal Officer Alan H. FLANIGAN; Calzada entre L Y M, Vedado
Seccion, Havana (mailing address is USINT, Swiss Embassy, Havana, Calzada
Entre L Y M, Vedado); telephone 32-0051, 32-0543
Flag:
five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with white;
a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white
five-pointed star in the center

:Cuba Economy

Overview:
The economy, centrally planned and largely state owned, is highly dependent
on the agricultural sector and foreign trade. Sugar provided about
two-thirds of export revenues in 1991, and over half was exported to the
former Soviet republics. The economy has stagnated since 1985 under policies
that have deemphasized material incentives in the workplace, abolished
farmers' informal produce markets, and raised prices of government-supplied
goods and services. In 1990 the economy probably fell 5% largely as a result
of declining trade with the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Recently
the government has been trying to increase trade with Latin America and
China. Cuba has had difficulty servicing its foreign debt since 1982. The
government currently is encouraging foreign investment in tourist facilities
and in industrial plants idled by falling imports from the former Soviet
Union. Other investment priorities include sugar, basic foods, and nickel.
The annual Soviet subsidy dropped from $4 billion in 1990 to about $1
billion in 1991 because of a lower price paid for Cuban sugar and a sharp
decline in Soviet exports to Cuba. The former Soviet republics have
indicated they will no longer extend aid to Cuba beginning in 1992. Instead
of highly subsidized trade, Cuba has been shifting to trade at market prices
in convertible currencies. Because of increasingly severe shortages of
fuels, industrial raw materials, and spare parts, aggregate output dropped
by one-fifth in 1991.
GNP:
$17 billion, per capita $1,580; real growth rate -20% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Budget:
revenues $12.46 billion; expenditures $14.45 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
$3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
sugar, nickel, medical products, shellfish, citrus, tobacco, coffee
partners:
former USSR 63%, China 6%, Canada 4%, Japan 4% (1991 est.)
Imports:
$3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
petroleum, capital goods, industrial raw materials, food
partners:
former USSR 47%, Spain 8%, China 6%, Argentina 5%, Italy 4%, Mexico 3% (1991
est.)
External debt:
$6.8 billion (convertible currency, July 1989)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0%; accounts for 45% of GDP (1989)
Electricity:
3,889,000 kW capacity; 16,272 million kWh produced, 1,516 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
sugar milling, petroleum refining, food and tobacco processing, textiles,
chemicals, paper and wood products, metals (particularly nickel), cement,
fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural machinery
Agriculture:
accounts for 11% of GNP (including fishing and forestry); key commercial
crops - sugarcane, tobacco, and citrus fruits; other products - coffee,
rice, potatoes, meat, beans; world's largest sugar exporter; not
self-sufficient in food (excluding sugar)

:Cuba Economy

Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$710 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $18.5 billion
Currency:
Cuban peso (plural - pesos); 1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (linked to the US dollar)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Cuba Communications

Railroads:
12,947 km total; Cuban National Railways operates 5,053 km of 1.435-meter
gauge track; 151.7 km electrified; 7,742 km of sugar plantation lines of
0.914-m and 1.435-m gauge
Highways:
26,477 km total; 14,477 km paved, 12,000 km gravel and earth surfaced (1989
est.)
Inland waterways:
240 km
Ports:
Cienfuegos, Havana, Mariel, Matanzas, Santiago de Cuba; 7 secondary, 35
minor
Merchant marine:
77 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 537,464 GRT/755,824 DWT; includes 46
cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo, 1 cargo/training, 11 petroleum tanker, 1
chemical tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 4 bulk; note - Cuba beneficially owns an
additional 45 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 574,047 DWT under the
registry of Panama, Cyprus, and Malta
Civil air:
88 major transport aircraft
Airports:
189 total, 167 usable; 73 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways
over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 18 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 150 AM, 5 FM, 58 TV; 1,530,000 TVs; 2,140,000 radios;
229,000 telephones; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Cuba Defense Forces

Branches:
Revolutionary Armed Forces (including Ground Forces, Revolutionary Navy
(MGR), Air and Air Defense Force[DAAFR]), Ministry of Interior and Ministry
of Defense Special Troops, Border Guard Troops, Territorial Militia Troops,
Youth Labor Army, Civil Defense, National Revolutionary Police
Manpower availability:
eligible 15-49, 6,130,641; of the 3,076,276 males 15-49, 1,925,648 are fit
for military service; of the 3,054,365 females 15-49, 1,907,281 are fit for
military service; 97,973 males and 94,514 females reach military age (17)
annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.2-1.4 billion, 6% of GNP (1989 est.)

:Cyprus Geography

Total area:
9,250 km2
Land area:
9,240 km2
Comparative area:
about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
648 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto autonomous areas - a
Greek area controlled by the Cypriot Government (60% of the island's land
area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (35% of the island) that are separated by a
narrow UN buffer zone; in addition, there are two UK sovereign base areas
(about 5% of the island's land area)
Climate:
temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters
Terrain:
central plain with mountains to north and south
Natural resources:
copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment
Land use:
arable land 40%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures 10%; forest and
woodland 18%; other 25%; includes irrigated 10% (most irrigated lands are in
the Turkish-Cypriot area of the island)
Environment:
moderate earthquake activity; water resource problems (no natural reservoir
catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, and most potable resources
concentrated in the Turkish-Cypriot area)

:Cyprus People

Population:
716,492 (July 1992), growth rate 1.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
18 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
10 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
74 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Cypriot(s); adjective - Cypriot
Ethnic divisions:
Greek 78%; Turkish 18%; other 4%
Religions:
Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian, Apostolic, and other 4%
Languages:
Greek, Turkish, English
Literacy:
90% (male 96%, female 85%) age 10 and over can read and write (1976)
Labor force:
Greek area - 278,000; services 45%, industry 35%, agriculture 14%; Turkish
area - 71,500 (1990); services 21%, industry 30%, agriculture 27%
Organized labor:
156,000 (1985 est.)

:Cyprus Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Cyprus
Type:
republic; a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the
island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation
was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of the island in July
1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek
Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15
November 1983 Turkish Cypriot President Rauf DENKTASH declared independence
and the formation of a Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which has
been recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution
of intercommunal differences and creation of a new federal system of
government
Capital:
Nicosia
Administrative divisions:
6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos
Independence:
16 August 1960 (from UK)
Constitution:
16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised
constitution to govern the island and to better relations between Greek and
Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots
created their own Constitution and governing bodies within the Turkish
Federated State of Cyprus, which was renamed the Turkish Republic of
Northern Cyprus in 1983; a new Constitution for the Turkish area passed by
referendum in May 1985
Legal system:
based on common law, with civil law modifications
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 October (15 November is celebrated as Independence Day
in the Turkish area)
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers (cabinet); note - there is a president,
prime minister, and Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish area
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosopon); note - there is a
unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Cumhuriyet Meclisi) in the Turkish area
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; note - there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish area
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President George VASSILIOU (since February 1988); note - Rauf R. DENKTASH
has been president of the Turkish area since 13 February 1975
Political parties and leaders:
Greek Cypriot:
Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL; Communist Party), Dimitrios
CHRISTOFIAS; Democratic Rally (DESY), Glafkos KLERIDES; Democratic Party
(DEKO), Spyros KYPRIANOU; United Democratic Union of the Center (EDEK),
Vassos LYSSARIDES; Socialist Democratic Renewal Movement (ADESOK), Mikhalis
PAPAPETROU; Liberal Party, Nikos ROLANDIS

:Cyprus Government

Turkish area:
National Unity Party (UBP), Dervis EROGLU; Communal Liberation Party (TKP),
Mustafa AKINCI; Republican Turkish Party (CTP), Ozker OZGUR; New Cyprus
Party (YKP), Alpay DURDURAN; Social Democratic Party (SDP), Ergun VEHBI; New
Birth Party (YDP), Ali Ozkan ALTINISHIK; Free Democratic Party (HDP), Ismet
KOTAK; note - CTP, TKP, and YDP joined in the coalition Democratic Struggle
Party (DMP) for the 22 April 1990 legislative election; the CTP and TKP
boycotted the byelection of 13 October 1991, which was for 12 seats; the DMP
was dissolved after the 1990 election; National Justice Party (MAP), Zorlu
TORE; United Sovereignty Party, Arif Salih KIRDAG
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 14 February and 21 February 1988 (next to be held February 1993);
results - George VASSILIOU 52%, Glafkos KLERIDES 48%
House of Representatives:
last held 19 May 1991; results - DESY 35.8%, AKEL (Communist) 30.6, DEKO
19.5%, EDEK 10. 9%; others 3.2% seats - (56 total) DESY 20, AKEL (Communist)
18, DEKO 11, EDEK 7
Turkish Area: President:
last held 22 April 1990 (next to be held April 1995); results - Rauf R.
DENKTASH 66%, Ismail BOZKURT 32.05%
Turkish Area: Assembly of the Republic:
last held 6 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results - UBP
(conservative) 54.4%, DMP 44.4% YKP .9%; seats - (50 total) UBP
(conservative) 45, SDP 1, HDP 2, YDP 2; note - by-election of 13 October
1991 was for 12 seats
Communists:
about 12,000
Other political or pressure groups:
United Democratic Youth Organization (EDON; Communist controlled); Union of
Cyprus Farmers (EKA; Communist controlled); Cyprus Farmers Union (PEK;
pro-West); Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation (PEO; Communist controlled) ;
Confederation of Cypriot Workers (SEK; pro-West); Federation of Turkish
Cypriot Labor Unions (Turk-Sen); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions
(Dev-Is)
Member of:
C, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM,
OAS (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO; note - the Turkish-Cypriot administered area of Cyprus has observer
status in the OIC
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Michael E. SHERIFIS; Chancery at 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC
20008; telephone (202) 462-5772
US:
Ambassador Robert E. LAMB; Embassy at the corner of Therissos Street and
Dositheos Street, Nicosia (mailing address is APO AE 09836); telephone [357]
(2) 465151; FAX [357] (2) 459-571
Flag:
white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is
derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive
branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for
peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities; note -
the Turkish cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top and bottom
with a red crescent and red star on a white field

:Cyprus Economy

Overview:
The Greek Cypriot economy is small, diversified, and prosperous. Industry
contributes 24% to GDP and employs 35% of the labor force, while the service
sector contributes 44% to GDP and employs 45% of the labor force. Rapid
growth in exports of agricultural and manufactured products and in tourism
have played important roles in the average 6.4% rise in GDP between 1985 and
1990. In mid-1991, the World Bank "graduated" Cyprus off its list of
developing countries. In contrast to the bright picture in the south, the
Turkish Cypriot economy has less than half the per capita GDP and suffered a
series of reverses in 1991. Crippled by the effects of the Gulf war, the
collapse of the fruit-to-electronics conglomerate, Polly Peck, Ltd., and a
drought, the Turkish area in late 1991 asked for a multibillion-dollar grant
from Turkey to help ease the burden of the economic crisis. Turkey normally
underwrites a substantial portion of the TRNC economy.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - Greek area: $5.5 billion, per capita $9,600;
real growth rate 6.0%; Turkish area: $600 million, per capita $4,000; real
growth rate 5.9% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Greek area: 4.5%; Turkish area: 69.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
Greek area: 1.8%; Turkish area: 1.2% (1990)
Budget:
revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $2.0 billion, including capital
expenditures of $250 million (1991)
Exports:
$847 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and shoes
partners:
UK 23%, Greece 10%, Lebanon 10%, Germany 5%
Imports:
$2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed grains, machinery
partners:
UK 13%, Japan 12%, Italy 10%, Germany 9.1%
External debt:
$2.8 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.6% (1990); accounts for 24% of GDP
Electricity:
620,000 kW capacity; 1,770 million kWh produced, 2,530 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood products
Agriculture:
accounts for 7% of GDP and employs 14% of labor force in the south; major
crops - potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, and citrus fruits;
vegetables and fruit provide 25% of export revenues
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $292 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $250 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $62 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $24
million
Currency:
Cypriot pound (plural - pounds) and in Turkish area, Turkish lira (plural -
liras); 1 Cypriot pound (#C) = 100 cents and 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus

:Cyprus Economy

Exchange rates:
Cypriot pounds (#C) per US$1 - 0.4683 (March 1992), 0.4615 (1991), 0.4572
(1990), 0.4933 (1989), 0.4663 (1988), 0.4807 (1987); in Turkish area,
Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 6,098.4 (March 1992), 4,173.9 (1991), 2,608.6
(1990), 2,121.7 (1989), 1,422.3 (1988), 857.2 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Cyprus Communications

Highways:
10,780 km total; 5,170 km paved; 5,610 km gravel, crushed stone, and earth
Ports:
Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos
Merchant marine:
1,228 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,053,213 GRT/35,647,964 DWT;
includes 8 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 440 cargo, 83
refrigerated cargo, 22 roll-on/roll-off, 52 container, 5 multifunction large
load carrier, 107 petroleum tanker, 3 specialized tanker, 3 liquefied gas,
20 chemical tanker, 32 combination ore/oil, 394 bulk, 3 vehicle carrier, 49
combination bulk, 2 railcar carrier, 2 passenger, 1 passenger cargo; note -
a flag of convenience registry; Cuba owns at least 30 of these ships,
republics of the former USSR own 58, Latvia also has 5 ships, Yugoslavia
owns 1, and Romania 3
Civil air:
11 major transport aircraft (Greek Cypriots); 2 (Turkish Cypriots)
Airports:
14 total, 14 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
excellent in both the area controlled by the Cypriot Government (Greek
area), and in the Turkish-Cypriot administered area; 210,000 telephones;
largely open-wire and radio relay; broadcast stations - 11 AM, 8 FM, 1 (34
repeaters) TV in Greek sector and 2 AM, 6 FM and 1 TV in Turkish sector;
international service by tropospheric scatter, 3 submarine cables, and
satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT and EUTELSAT earth stations

:Cyprus Defense Forces

Branches:
Greek area - Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG; including air and naval
elements), Greek Cypriot Police; Turkish area - Turkish Cypriot Security
Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 183,899; 126,664 fit for military service; 5,030 reach military
age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $209 million, 5% of GDP (1990 est.)

:Czechoslovakia Geography

Total area:
127,870 km2
Land area:
125,460 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than New York State
Land boundaries:
3,438 km; Austria 548 km, Germany 815 km, Hungary 676 km, Poland 1,309 km,
Ukraine 90 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
Gabcikovo Nagymaros Dam dispute with Hungary
Climate:
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain:
mixture of hills and mountains separated by plains and basins
Natural resources:
hard coal, timber, lignite, uranium, magnesite, iron ore, copper, zinc
Land use:
arable land 37%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 13%; forest and
woodland 36%; other 13%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
infrequent earthquakes; acid rain; water pollution; air pollution
Note:
landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most
significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military
corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe

:Czechoslovakia People

Population:
15,725,680 (July 1992), growth rate 0.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
13 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
11 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
68 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Czechoslovak(s); adjective - Czechoslovak
Ethnic divisions:
Czech 62.9%, Slovak 31.8%, Hungarian 3.8%, Polish 0.5%, German 0.3%,
Ukrainian 0.3%, Russian 0.1%, other 0.3%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Orthodox 2%, other 28%
Languages:
Czech and Slovak (official), Hungarian
Literacy:
99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
Labor force:
8,200,000 (1987); industry 36.9%, agriculture 12.3%, construction,
communications, and other 50.8% (1982)
Organized labor:
Czech and Slovak Confederation of Trade Unions (CSKOS); several new
independent trade unions established

:Czechoslovakia Government

Long-form name:
Czech and Slovak Federal Republic
Type:
federal republic in transition
Capital:
Prague
Administrative divisions:
2 republics (republiky, singular - republika); Czech Republic (Ceska
Republika), Slovak Republic (Slovenska Republika); note - 11 regions (kraj,
singular); Severocesky, Zapadocesky, Jihocesky, Vychodocesky, Praha,
Severomoravsky, Jihomoravsky, Bratislava, Zapadoslovensky, Stredoslovensky,
Vychodoslovensky
Independence:
28 October 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)
Constitution:
11 July 1960; amended in 1968 and 1970; new Czech, Slovak, and federal
constitutions to be drafted in 1992
Legal system:
civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes, modified by Communist
legal theory; constitutional court currently being established; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code in process of modification
to bring it in line with Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe
(CSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
National holiday:
National Liberation Day, 9 May (1945) and Founding of the Republic, 28
October (1918)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Federal Assembly (Federalni Shromazdeni) consists of an upper
house or Chamber of Nations (Snemovna Narodu) and a lower house or Chamber
of the People (Snemovna Lidu)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Vaclav HAVEL; (interim president from 29 December 1989 and
president since 5 July 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Marian CALFA (since 10 December 1989); Deputy Prime Minister
Vaclav KLAUS (since 3 October 1991); Deputy Prime Minister Jiri DIENSTBIER
(since 28 June 1990); Deputy Prime Minister Jozef MIKLOSKO (since 28 June
1990); Deputy Prime Minister Pavel RYCHETSKY (since 28 June 1990); Deputy
Prime Minister Pavel HOFFMAN (since 3 October 1991); note - generally,
"prime minister" is used at the federal level, "premier" at the republic
level; Czech Premier - Petr PITHART; Slovak Premier - Jan CARNOGVRSKY

:Czechoslovakia Government

Political parties and leaders:
note - there are very few federation-wide parties; party affiliation is
indicted as Czech (C) or Slovak (S); Civic Democratic Party, Vaclav KLAUS,
chairman, (C/S); Civic Movement, Jiri DIENSTBIER, chairman, (C); Civic
Democratic Alliance, Jan KALVODA, chairman; Christian Democratic Union
Public Against Violence, Martin PORUBJAK, chairman, (S); Christian
Democratic Party, Vaclav BENDA, (C); Christian Democratic Movement, Jan
CARNOGURSKY,(S); Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia, Juri SVOBODA,
chairman; Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, Vladimir MECIAR, chairman -
removed from power in November 1989 by massive antiregime demonstrations;
Czechoslovak Social Democracy, Jiri HORAK, chairman, (C); Czechoslovak
Socialist Party, Ladislav DVORAK, chairman, (C)(S); Movement for
Self-Governing Democracy Society for Moravia and Silesia, Jan KRYCER,
chairman, (C); Party of the Democratic Left, Peter WEISS, chairman
(Slovakia's renamed Communists) (S); Slovak National Party, Jozef PROKES,
chairman, (S); Democratic Party, Jan HOLCIK, chairman, (S); Coexistence,
(C)(S)
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Federal Assembly:
last held 8-9 June 1990 (next to be held 5-6 June 1992); results - Civic
Forum/Public Against Violence coalition 46%, KSC 13.6%; seats - (300 total)
Civic Forum/Public Against Violence coalition 170, KSC 47, Christian and
Democratic Union/Christian Democratic Movement 40, Czech, Slovak, Moravian,
and Hungarian groups 43
President:
last held 5 July 1990 (next to be held 3 July 1992); results - Vaclav HAVEL
elected by the Federal Assembly
Communists:
760,000 party members (September 1990); about 1,000,000 members lost since
November 1989
Other political or pressure groups:
Czechoslovak Socialist Party, Czechoslovak People's Party, Czechoslovak
Social Democracy, Slovak Nationalist Party, Slovak Revival Party, Christian
Democratic Party; over 80 registered political groups fielded candidates in
the 8-9 June 1990 legislative election
Member of:
BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EC (associate) ECE, FAO, GATT, HG, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IFCTU, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NSG, PCA, UN,
UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Rita KLIMOVA; Chancery at 3900 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20008; telephone (202) 363-6315 or 6316
US:
Ambassador Shirley Temple BLACK; Embassy at Trziste 15, 125 48, Prague 1
(mailing address is Unit 25402; APO AE 09213-5630); telephone [42] (2)
536-641/6; FAX [42] (2) 532-457
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles
triangle based on the hoist side

:Czechoslovakia Economy

Overview:
Czechoslovakia is highly industrialized by East European standards and has a
well-educated and skilled labor force. GDP per capita has been the highest
in Eastern Europe. Annual GDP growth slowed to less than 1 percent during
the 1985-90 period. The country is deficient in energy and in many raw
materials. Moreover, its aging capital plant lags well behind West European
standards. In January 1991, Prague launched a sweeping program to convert
its almost entirely state-owned and controlled economy to a market system.
The koruna now enjoys almost full internal convertibility and over 90% of
prices are set by the market. The government is planning to privatize all
small businesses and roughly two-thirds of large enterprises by the end of
1993. New private-sector activity is also expanding. Agriculture - 95%
socialized - is to be privatized by the end of 1992. Reform has taken its
toll on the economy: inflation was roughly 50% in 1991, unemployment was
nearly 70%, and GDP dropped an estimated 15%. In 1992 the government is
anticipating inflation of 10-15%, unemployment of 11-12%, and a drop in GDP
of up to 8%. As of mid-1992, the nation appears to be splitting in two -
into the industrial Czech area and the more agarian Slovak area.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $108.9 billion, per capita $6,900; real growth
rate -15% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
52% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
officially 6.7% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $4.5 billion; expenditures $4.5 billion, including capital
expenditures of $200 million (1992)
Exports:
$12.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and equipment 39.2%; fuels, minerals, and metals 8.1%;
agricultural and forestry products 6.2%, other 46.5%
partners:
USSR, Germany, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Italy, France, US, UK
Imports:
$13.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and equipment 37.3%; fuels, minerals, and metals 22.6%;
agricultural and forestry products 7.0%; other 33.1%
partners:
USSR, Germany, Austria, Poland, Switzerland, Hungary, Yugoslavia, UK, Italy
External debt:
$9.1 billion, hard currency indebtedness (December 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate -22% (1991 est.); accounts for almost 60% of GNP
Electricity:
23,000,000 kW capacity; 90,000 million kWh produced, 5,740 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
iron and steel, machinery and equipment, cement, sheet glass, motor
vehicles, armaments, chemicals, ceramics, wood, paper products, footwear
Agriculture:
accounts for 9% of GDP (includes forestry); largely self-sufficient in food
production; diversified crop and livestock production, including grains,
potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit, hogs, cattle, and poultry; exporter of
forest products

:Czechoslovakia Economy

Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and emerging as a
transshipment point for Latin American cocaine E
Economic aid:
donor - $4.2 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed
countries (1954-89)
Currency:
koruna (plural - koruny); 1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru
Exchange rates:
koruny (Kcs) per US$1 - 28.36 (January 1992), 29.53 (1991), 17.95 (1990),
15.05 (1989), 14.36 (1988), 13.69 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Czechoslovakia Communications

Railroads:
13,103 km total; 12,855 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 102 km 1.520-meter
broad gauge, 146 km 0.750- and 0.760-meter narrow gauge; 2,861 km double
track; 3,798 km electrified; government owned (1988)
Highways:
73,540 km total; including 517 km superhighway (1988)
Inland waterways:
475 km (1988); the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,448 km; petroleum products 1,500 km; natural gas 8,100 km
Ports:
maritime outlets are in Poland (Gdynia, Gdansk, Szczecin), Croatia (Rijeka),
Slovenia (Koper), Germany (Hamburg, Rostock); principal river ports are
Prague on the Vltava, Decin on the Elbe (Labe), Komarno on the Danube,
Bratislava on the Danube
Merchant marine:
22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 290,185 GRT/437,291 DWT; includes 13
cargo, 9 bulk
Civil air:
47 major transport aircraft
Airports:
158 total, 158 usable; 40 with permanent-surface runways; 19 with runways
2,440-3,659 m; 37 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
inadequate circuit capacity; 4 million telephones; Radrel backbone of
network; 25% of households have a telephone; broadcast stations - 32 AM, 15
FM, 41 TV (11 Soviet TV repeaters); 4.4 million TVs (1990); 1 satellite
earth station using INTELSAT and Intersputnik

:Czechoslovakia Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense, Border Guard
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 4,110,628; 3,142,457 fit for military service; 142,239 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - 28 billion koruny, NA% of GNP (1991); note -
conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
exchange rate would produce misleading results

:Denmark Geography

Total area:
43,070 km2
Land area:
42,370 km2; includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest
of metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland
Comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
68 km; Germany 68 km
Coastline:
3,379 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
4 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Iceland, Ireland, and the UK
(Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area);
Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims between Greenland and Jan
Mayen
Climate:
temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers
Terrain:
low and flat to gently rolling plains
Natural resources:
crude oil, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone
Land use:
arable land 61%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 6%; forest and
woodland 12%; other 21%; includes irrigated 9%
Environment:
air and water pollution
Note:
controls Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

:Denmark People

Population:
5,163,955 (July 1992), growth rate 0.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
13 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
72 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Dane(s); adjective - Danish
Ethnic divisions:
Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 2%, other 7%
(1988)
Languages:
Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect); small German-speaking
minority
Literacy:
99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
Labor force:
2,581,400; private services 36.4%; government services 30.2%; manufacturing
and mining 20%; construction 6.8%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing 5.9%;
electricity/gas/water 0.7% (1990)
Organized labor:

Book of the day: