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20008; telephone (202) 387-7969
US:
Ambassador Hugh Kenneth HILL; Embassy at 1 Alexander Stamboliski Boulevard,
Sofia (mailing address is APO AE 09213-5740); telephone [359] (2) 88-48-01
through 05; Embassy has no FAX machine
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the national
emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has been removed - it
contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat ears below a red
five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first Bulgarian
state established) and 1944 (liberation from Nazi control)

:Bulgaria Economy

Overview:
Growth in the lackluster Bulgarian economy fell to the 2% annual level in
the 1980s. By 1990, Sofia's foreign debt had skyrocketed to over $10 billion
- giving a debt-service ratio of more than 40% of hard currency earnings and
leading the regime to declare a moratorium on its hard currency payments.
The post-Communist government faces major problems of renovating an aging
industrial plant; coping with worsening energy, food, and consumer goods
shortages; keeping abreast of rapidly unfolding technological developments;
investing in additional energy capacity (the portion of electric power from
nuclear energy reached over one-third in 1990); and motivating workers, in
part by giving them a share in the earnings of their enterprises. Bulgaria's
new government, led by Prime Minister Filip Dimitrov, is strongly committed
to economic reform. The previous government, even though dominated by former
Communists, had taken the first steps toward dismantling the central
planning system, bringing the economy back into balance, and reducing
inflationary pressures. The program produced some encouraging early results,
including eased restrictions on foreign investment, increased support from
international financial institutions, and liberalized currency trading.
Small entrepreneurs have begun to emerge and some privatization of small
enterprises has taken place. The government has passed bills to privatize
large state-owned enterprises and reform the banking system. Negotiations on
an association agreement with the EC began in late 1991.
GNP:
purchasing power equivalent - $36.4 billion, per capita $4,100; real growth
rate --22% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
420% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
10% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues NA; expenditures NA, including capital expenditures of $NA billion
(1991)
Exports:
$8.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and equipment 55.3%; agricultural products 15.0%; manufactured
consumer goods 10.0%; fuels, minerals, raw materials, and metals 18.4%;
other 1.3% (1990)
partners:
former CMEA countries 70.6% (USSR 56.2%, Czechoslovakia 3.9%, Poland 2.5%);
developed countries 13.6% (Germany 2.1%, Greece 1.2%); less developed
countries 13.1% (Libya 5.8%, Iran 0.5%) (1990)
Imports:
$9.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
fuels, minerals, and raw materials 43.7%; machinery and equipment 45.2%;
manufactured consumer goods 6.7%; agricultural products 3.8%; other 0.6%
partners:
former CMEA countries 70.9% (former USSR 52.7%, Poland 4.1%); developed
countries 20.2% (Germany 5.0%, Austria 2.1%); less developed countries 7.2%
(Libya 2.0%, Iran 0.7%)
External debt:
$11.2 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate --14.7% (1990); accounts for about 37% of GNP (1990)
Electricity:
11,500,000 kW capacity; 45,000 million kWh produced, 5,040 kWh per capita
(1990)

:Bulgaria Economy

Industries:
machine building and metal working, food processing, chemicals, textiles,
building materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals
Agriculture:
accounts for 22% of GNP (1990); climate and soil conditions support
livestock raising and the growing of various grain crops, oilseeds,
vegetables, fruits, and tobacco; more than one-third of the arable land
devoted to grain; world's fourth-largest tobacco exporter; surplus food
producer
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid:
donor - $1.6 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed
countries (1956-89)
Currency:
lev (plural - leva); 1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki
Exchange rates:
leva (Lv) per US$1 - 17.18 (1 January 1992), 16.13 (March 1991), 0.7446
(November 1990), 0.84 (1989), 0.82 (1988), 0.90 (1987); note - floating
exchange rate since February 1991
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Bulgaria Communications

Railroads:
4,300 km total, all government owned (1987); 4,055 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge, 245 km narrow gauge; 917 km double track; 2,510 km electrified
Highways:
36,908 km total; 33,535 km hard surface (including 242 km superhighways);
3,373 km earth roads (1987)
Inland waterways:
470 km (1987)
Pipelines:
crude oil 193 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 1,400 km (1986)
Ports:
Burgas, Varna, Varna West; river ports are Ruse, Vidin, and Lom on the
Danube
Merchant marine:
110 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 1,234,657 GRT/1,847,759 DWT;
includes 2 short-sea passenger, 30 cargo, 2 container, 1 passenger-cargo
training, 6 roll-on/roll-off, 15 petroleum tanker, 4 chemical carrier, 2
railcar carrier, 48 bulk; Bulgaria owns 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
8,717 DWT operating under Liberian registry
Civil air:
86 major transport aircraft
Airports:
380 total, 380 usable; about 120 with permanent-surface runways; 20 with
runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
extensive radio relay; 2.5 million telephones; direct dialing to 36
countries; phone density is 25 phones per 100 persons; 67% of Sofia
households now have a phone (November 1988); broadcast stations - 20 AM, 15
FM, and 29 TV, with 1 Soviet TV repeater in Sofia; 2.1 million TV sets
(1990); 92% of country receives No. 1 television program (May 1990); 1
satellite ground station using Intersputnik; INTELSAT is used through a
Greek earth station

:Bulgaria Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Troops, Internal Troops
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 2,181,421; 1,823,678 fit for military service; 65,942 reach
military age (19) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - 4.413 billion leva, 4.4% of GNP (1991); note -
conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

:Burkina Geography

Total area:
274,200 km2
Land area:
273,800 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Colorado
Land boundaries:
3,192 km; Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km, Ivory Coast 584 km, Mali 1,000 km,
Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was submitted
to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983 and the ICJ
issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides agreed to accept;
Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the
tripoint with Niger
Climate:
tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terrain:
mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast
Natural resources:
manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony, copper,
nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver
Land use:
arable land 10%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 37%; forest and
woodland 26%; other 27%, includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
recent droughts and desertification severely affecting marginal agricultural
activities, population distribution, economy; overgrazing; deforestation
Note:
landlocked

:Burkina People

Population:
9,653,672 (July 1992), growth rate 3.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
49 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
16 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
--2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
117 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
52 years male, 53 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
7.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Burkinabe (singular and plural); adjective - Burkinabe
Ethnic divisions:
more than 50 tribes; principal tribe is Mossi (about 2.5 million); other
important groups are Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, and Fulani
Religions:
indigenous beliefs about 65%, Muslim 25%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic)
10%
Languages:
French (official); tribal languages belong to Sudanic family, spoken by 90%
of the population
Literacy:
18% (male 28%, female 9%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
3,300,000 residents; 30,000 are wage earners; agriculture 82%, industry 13%,
commerce, services, and government 5%; 20% of male labor force migrates
annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment (1984); 44% of
population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
four principal trade union groups represent less than 1% of population

:Burkina Government

Long-form name:
Burkina Faso
Type:
military; established by coup on 4 August 1983
Capital:
Ouagadougou
Administrative divisions:
30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou,
Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga,
Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie,
Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo
Independence:
5 August 1960 (from France; formerly Upper Volta)
Constitution:
June 1991
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)
Executive branch:
President, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) was dissolved on 25
November 1980
Judicial branch:
Appeals Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)
Political parties and leaders:
Organization for Popular Democracy (ODP/MT), ruling party; Coordination of
Democratic Forces (CFD), composed of opposition parties
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
the National Assembly was dissolved 25 November 1980; presidential election
held December 1991 and legislative election scheduled for 24 May 1992
Communists:
small Communist party front group; some sympathizers
Other political or pressure groups:
committees for the defense of the revolution, watchdog/political action
groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Paul Desire KABORE; Chancery at 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-5577 or 6895
US:
Ambassador Edward P. BYRNN; Embassy at Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou
(mailing address is 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou); telephone [226] 30-67- 23
through 25 and [226] 33-34-22; FAX [226] 31-23-68
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed
star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

:Burkina Economy

Overview:
One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina has a high population
density, few natural resources, and relatively infertile soil. Economic
development is hindered by a poor communications network within a landlocked
country. Agriculture provides about 40% of GDP and is entirely of a
subsistence nature. Industry, dominated by unprofitable
government-controlled corporations, accounts for about 15% of GDP.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $2.9 billion, per capita $320 (1988); real growth
rate 1.3% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
--0.5% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $275 million; expenditures $287 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports:
$262 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
oilseeds, cotton, live animals, gold
partners:
EC 42% (France 30%, other 12%), Taiwan 17%, Ivory Coast 15% (1985)
Imports:
$619 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
grain, dairy products, petroleum, machinery
partners:
EC 37% (France 23%, other 14%), Africa 31%, US 15% (1985)
External debt:
$962 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.7% (1990 est.), accounts for about 15% of GDP (1988)
Electricity:
120,000 kW capacity; 320 million kWh produced, 40 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles,
gold
Agriculture:
accounts for about 40% of GDP; cash crops - peanuts, shea nuts, sesame,
cotton; food crops - sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock; not
self-sufficient in food grains
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $294 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.9 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $113 million
Currency:
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
= 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January 1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Burkina Communications

Railroads:
620 km total; 520 km Ouagadougou to Ivory Coast border and 100 km
Ouagadougou to Kaya; all 1.00-meter gauge and single track
Highways:
16,500 km total; 1,300 km paved, 7,400 km improved, 7,800 km unimproved
(1985)
Civil air:
2 major transport aircraft
Airports:
48 total, 38 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 8 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
all services only fair; radio relay, wire, and radio communication stations
in use; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

:Burkina Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police, Peoples' Militia
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,904,647; 971,954 fit for military service; no conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $55 million, 2.7% of GDP (1988 est.)

:Burma Geography

Total area:
678,500 km2
Land area:
657,740 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
5,876 km; Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km,
Thailand 1,800 km
Coastline:
1,930 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Continental shelf:
edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June
to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower
humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)
Terrain:
central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands
Natural resources:
crude oil, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some
marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas
Land use:
arable land 15%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and
woodland 49%; other 34%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
subject to destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides
common during rainy season (June to September); deforestation
Note:
strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

:Burma People

Population:
42,642,418 (July 1992), growth rate 1.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
29 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
68 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
57 years male, 61 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Burmese (singular and plural); adjective - Burmese
Ethnic divisions:
Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%,
other 5%
Religions:
Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%,
animist beliefs 1%, other 2%
Languages:
Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages
Literacy:
81% (male 89%, female 72%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
16,036,000; agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade 10.1%, government 6.3%,
other 4.1% (FY89 est.)
Organized labor:
Workers' Asiayone (association), 1,800,000 members; Peasants' Asiayone,
7,600,000 members

:Burma Government

Long-form name:
Union of Burma; note - the local official name is Pyidaungzu Myanma
Naingngandaw, which has been translated by the US Government as Union of
Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar
Type:
military regime
Capital:
Rangoon (sometimes translated as Yangon)
Administrative divisions:
7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and 7 states (pyine-mya, singular -
pyine); Chin State, Irrawaddy*, Kachin State, Karan State, Kayah State,
Magwe*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Pegu*, Rakhine State, Rangoon*, Sagaing*, Shan
State, Tenasserim*
Independence:
4 January 1948 (from UK)
Constitution:
3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988)
Legal system:
martial law in effect throughout most of the country; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 January (1948)
Executive branch:
chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council, State Law and Order
Restoration Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw) was dissolved after the coup
of 18 September 1988
Judicial branch:
Council of People's Justices was abolished after the coup of 18 September
1988
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
Chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council Gen. THAN SHWE
(since 23 April 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
National Unity Party (NUP; proregime), THA KYAW; National League for
Democracy (NLD), U AUNG SHWE; National Coalition of Union of Burma (NCGUB),
SEIN WIN - consists of individuals legitimately elected but not recognized
by military regime; fled to border area and joined with insurgents in
December 1990 to form a parallel government
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
People's Assembly:
last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened; results - NLD 80%; seats
- (485 total) NLD 396, the regime-favored NUP 10, other 79
Communists:
several hundred (est.) in Burma Communist Party (BCP)
Other political or pressure groups:
Kachin Independence Army (KIA), United Wa State Army (UWSA), Karen National
Union (KNU) , several Shan factions, including the Shan United Army (SUA)
(all ethnically based insurgent groups)
Member of:
AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

:Burma Government

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador U THAUNG; Chancery at 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008;
telephone (202) 332-9044 through 9046; there is a Burmese Consulate General
in New York
US:
Ambassador (vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission, Charge d'Affaires Franklin P.
HUDDLE, Jr.; Embassy at 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (mailing address is GPO
Box 521, AMEMB Box B, APO AP 96546); telephone [95] (1) 82055, 82181; FAX
[95] (1) 80409
Flag:
red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all in
white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of
rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions

:Burma Economy

Overview:
Burma is a poor Asian country, with a per capita GDP of about $500. The
nation has been unable to achieve any substantial improvement in export
earnings because of falling prices for many of its major commodity exports.
For rice, traditionally the most important export, the drop in world prices
has been accompanied by shrinking markets and a smaller volume of sales. In
1985 teak replaced rice as the largest export and continues to hold this
position. The economy is heavily dependent on the agricultural sector, which
generates about 40% of GDP and provides employment for 65% of the work
force. Burma has been largely isolated from international economic forces
and has been trying to encourage foreign investment, so far with little
success.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $22.2 billion, per capita $530; real growth rate
5.6% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
40% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
9.6% in urban areas (FY89 est.)
Budget:
revenues $7.2 billion; expenditures $9.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $6 billion (1991)
Exports:
$568 million
commodities:
teak, rice, oilseed, metals, rubber, gems
partners:
Southeast Asia, India, Japan, China, EC, Africa
Imports:
$1.16 billion
commodities:
machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, food products
partners:
Japan, EC, China, Southeast Asia
External debt:
$4.2 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.6% (FY90 est.); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
950,000 kW capacity; 2,900 million kWh produced, 70 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood products;
petroleum refining; mining of copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction
materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer
Agriculture:
accounts for 40% of GDP (including fish and forestry); self-sufficient in
food; principal crops - paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses;
world's largest stand of hardwood trees; rice and teak account for 55% of
export revenues; fish catch of 740,000 metric tons (FY90)
Illicit drugs:
world's largest illicit producer of opium poppy and minor producer of
cannabis for the international drug trade; opium production is on the
increase as growers respond to the collapse of Rangoon's antinarcotic
programs
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $158 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.9 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $424 million

:Burma Economy

Currency:
kyat (plural - kyats); 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas
Exchange rates:
kyats (K) per US$1 - 6.0963 (January 1992), 6.2837 (1991), 6.3386 (1990),
6.7049 (1989), 6.46 (1988), 6.6535 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Burma Communications

Railroads:
3,991 km total, all government owned; 3,878 km 1.000-meter gauge, 113 km
narrow-gauge industrial lines; 362 km double track
Highways:
27,000 km total; 3,200 km bituminous, 17,700 km improved earth or gravel,
6,100 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km
Ports:
Rangoon, Moulmein, Bassein
Merchant marine:
71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,036,018 GRT/1,514,121 DWT; includes
3 passenger-cargo, 19 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 3 vehicle carrier, 3
container, 2 petroleum tanker, 6 chemical, 1 combination ore/oil, 27 bulk, 1
combination bulk, 1 roll-on/roll-off
Civil air:
17 major transport aircraft (including 3 helicopters)
Airports:
85 total, 82 usable; 27 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 38 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service; international
service is good; 53,000 telephones (1986); radiobroadcast coverage is
limited to the most populous areas; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV
(1985); 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Burma Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
eligible 15-49, 21,447,878; of the 10,745,530 males 15-49, 5,759,840 are fit
for military service; of the 10,702,348 females 15-49, 5,721,868 are fit for
military service; 424,474 males and 410,579 females reach military age (18)
annually; both sexes are liable for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.28 billion, FY(91-92)

:Burundi Geography

Total area:
27,830 km2
Land area:
25,650 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
974 km; Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km, Zaire 233 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; warm; occasional frost in uplands
Terrain:
mostly rolling to hilly highland; some plains
Natural resources:
nickel, uranium, rare earth oxide, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet
exploited), vanadium
Land use:
arable land 43%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and pastures 35%; forest and
woodland 2%; other 12%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
soil exhaustion; soil erosion; deforestation
Note:
landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed

:Burundi People

Population:
6,022,341 (July 1992), growth rate 3.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
46 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
14 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
106 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
51 years male, 55 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Burundian(s); adjective - Burundi
Ethnic divisions:
Africans - Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%; other
Africans include about 70,000 refugees, mostly Rwandans and Zairians;
non-Africans include about 3,000 Europeans and 2,000 South Asians
Religions:
Christian about 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs
32%, Muslim 1%
Languages:
Kirundi and French (official); Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the
Bujumbura area)
Literacy:
50% (male 61%, female 40%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
1,900,000 (1983 est.); agriculture 93.0%, government 4.0%, industry and
commerce 1.5%, services 1.5%; 52% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
sole group is the Union of Burundi Workers (UTB); by charter, membership is
extended to all Burundi workers (informally); active membership figures NA

:Burundi Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Burundi
Type:
republic
Capital:
Bujumbura
Administrative divisions:
15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi,
Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi
Independence:
1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
Constitution:
20 November 1981; suspended following the coup of 3 September 1987; a
constitutional committee was charged with drafting a new constitution
created in February 1991; a referendum on the new constitution scheduled for
March 1992
Legal system:
based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Executive branch:
president; chairman of the Central Committee of the National Party of Unity
and Progress (UPRONA), prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) was dissolved following
the coup of 3 September 1987; at an extraordinary party congress held from
27 to 29 December 1990, the Central Committee of the National Party of Unity
and Progress (UPRONA) replaced the Military Committee for National
Salvation, and became the supreme governing body during the transition to
constitutional government
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Major Pierre BUYOYA, President (since 9 September 1987)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Adrien SIBOMANA (since 26 October 1988)
Political parties and leaders:
only party - National Party of Unity and Progress (UPRONA), Nicolas MAYUGI,
secretary general; note - although Burundi is still officially a one-party
state, at least four political parties were formed in 1991 in anticipation
of proposed constitutional reform in 1992 - Burundi Democratic Front
(FRODEBU), Organization of the People of Burundi (RPB), Socialist Party of
Burundi (PSB), Movement for Peace and Democracy (MPD) - the Party for the
Liberation of the Hutu People (PALIPEHUTU), formed in exile in the early
1980s, is an ethnically based political party dedicated to majority rule;
the government has long accused PALIPEHUTU of practicing devisive ethnic
politics and fomenting violence against the state. PALIPEHUTU's exclusivist
charter makes it an unlikely candidate for legalization under the new
constitution that will require party membership open to all ethnic groups
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Elections:
National Assembly:
dissolved after the coup of 3 September 1987; note - The National Unity
Charter outlining the principles for constitutional government was adopted
by a national referendum on 5 February 1991

:Burundi Government

Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Julien KAVAKURE; Chancery at Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20007; telephone (202) 342-2574
US:
Ambassador Cynthia Shepherd PERRY; B. P. 1720, Avenue des Etats-Unis,
Bujumbura; telephone [257] (222) 454; FAX [257] (222) 926
Flag:
divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green
panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at the
center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a
triangular design (one star above, two stars below)

:Burundi Economy

Overview:
A landlocked, resource-poor country in an early stage of economic
development, Burundi is predominately agricultural with only a few basic
industries. Its economic health depends on the coffee crop, which accounts
for an average 90% of foreign exchange earnings each year. The ability to
pay for imports therefore continues to rest largely on the vagaries of the
climate and the international coffee market. As part of its economic reform
agenda, launched in February 1991 with IMF and World Bank support, Burundi
is trying to diversify its export agriculture capability and attract foreign
investment in industry. Several state-owned coffee companies were privatized
via public auction in September 1991.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $1.13 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate
3.4% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.1% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $158 million; expenditures $204 million, including capital
expenditures of $131 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
$74.7 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
coffee 88%, tea, hides, and skins
partners:
EC 83%, US 5%, Asia 2%
Imports:
$234.6 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
capital goods 31%, petroleum products 15%, foodstuffs, consumer goods
partners:
EC 57%, Asia 23%, US 3%
External debt:
$1.0 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
real growth rate 5.1% (1986); accounts for about 10% of GDP
Electricity:
55,000 kW capacity; 105 million kWh produced, 20 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imports;
public works construction; food processing
Agriculture:
accounts for 60% of GDP; 90% of population dependent on subsistence farming;
marginally self-sufficient in food production; cash crops - coffee, cotton,
tea; food crops - corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc; livestock
- meat, milk, hides, and skins
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $71 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.2 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $32 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $175
million
Currency:
Burundi franc (plural - francs); 1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1 - 193.72 (January 1992), 181.51 (1991), 171.26
(1990), 158.67 (1989), 140.40 (1988), 123. 56 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Burundi Communications

Highways:
5,900 km total; 400 km paved, 2,500 km gravel or laterite, 3,000 km improved
or unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
Lake Tanganyika
Ports:
Bujumbura (lake port) connects to transportation systems of Tanzania and
Zaire
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
6 total, 6 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220 to 2,439 m
Telecommunications:
sparse system of wire, radiocommunications, and low-capacity radio relay
links; 8,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Burundi Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (includes naval and air units); paramilitary Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,306,611; 681,050 fit for military service; 59,676 reach
military age (16) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $28 million, 3.7% of GDP (1989)

:Cambodia Geography

Total area:
181,040 km2
Land area:
176,520 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Land boundaries:
2,572 km; Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km
Coastline:
443 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Continental shelf:
200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
offshore islands and three sections of the boundary with Vietnam are in
dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam not defined
Climate:
tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to October); dry season (December to
March); little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Natural resources:
timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower
potential
Land use:
arable land 16%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 3%; forest and
woodland 76%; other 4%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
a land of paddies and forests dominated by Mekong River and Tonle Sap
Note:
buffer between Thailand and Vietnam

:Cambodia People

Population:
7,295,706 (July 1992), growth rate 2.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
37 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
15 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
121 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
48 years male, 51 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Cambodian(s); adjective - Cambodian
Ethnic divisions:
Khmer 90%, Chinese 5%, other 5%
Religions:
Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%
Languages:
Khmer (official), French
Literacy:
35% (male 48%, female 22%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
2.5-3.0 million; agriculture 80% (1988 est.)
Organized labor:
Kampuchea Federation of Trade Unions (FSC); under government control

:Cambodia Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
currently administered by the Supreme National Council (SNC), a body set up
under United Nations' auspices, in preparation for an internationally
supervised election in 1993 and including representatives from each of the
country's four political factions
Capital:
Phnom Penh
Administrative divisions:
19 provinces (khet, singular and plural) and 2 autonomous cities* Banteay
Meanchey, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Saom City*,
Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri,
Phnom Phen City*, Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanokiri,
Siemreab-Otdar Meanchey, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
Independence:
8 November 1949 (from France)
Constitution:
a new constitution will be drafted after the national election in 1993
National holiday:
NGC - Independence Day, 17 April (1975); SOC - Liberation Day, 7 January
(1979)
Executive branch:
a twelve-member Supreme National Council (SNC), chaired by Prince NORODOM
SIHANOUK, composed of representatives from each of the four political
factions; faction names and delegation leaders are: State of Cambodia (SOC)
- HUN SEN; Democratic Kampuchea (DK or Khmer Rouge) - KHIEU SAMPHAN; Khmer
People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) - SON SANN; National United Front
for an Independent, Peaceful, Neutral, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC)
- Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH
Legislative branch:
pending a national election in 1993, the incumbent SOC faction's National
Assembly is the only functioning national legislative body
Judicial branch:
pending a national election in 1993, the incumbent SOC faction's Supreme
People's Court is the only functioning national judicial body
Leaders:
Chief of State:
SNC - Chairman Prince NORODOM SIHANOUK, under United Nations's supervision
Head of Government:
NGC - vacant, formerly held by SON SANN (since July 1982); will be
determined following the national election in 1993; SOC - Chairman of the
Council of Ministers HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Kampuchea (DK, also known as the Khmer Rouge) under KHIEU
SAMPHAN; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party (CPP) (name
changed and HENG SAMRIN replaced in October 1991) under CHEA SIM; Khmer
People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) under SON SANN; National United
Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia
(FUNCINPEC) under Prince NORODOM RANNARIDH
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
UN-supervised election for a 120-member constituent assembly based on
proportional representation within each province will be held nine months
after UN-organized voter registration is complete; the election is not
anticipated before April 1993; the assembly will draft and approve a
constitution and then transform itself into a legislature that will create a
new Cambodian Government

:Cambodia Government

Member of:
AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL,
ITU, LORCS, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
the Supreme National Council (SNC) represents Cambodia in international
organizations - it filled UN seat in September 1991
US:
Charles TWINNING is the US representative to Cambodia
Flag:
SNC - blue background with white map of Cambodia in middle; SOC - two equal
horizontal bands of red (top) and blue with a gold stylized five-towered
temple representing Angkor Wat in the center

:Cambodia Economy

Overview:
Cambodia is a desperately poor country whose economic development has been
stymied by deadly political infighting. The economy is based on agriculture
and related industries. Over the past decade Cambodia has been slowly
recovering from its near destruction by war and political upheaval. The food
situation remains precarious; during the 1980s famine was averted only
through international relief. In 1986 the production level of rice, the
staple food crop, was able to meet only 80% of domestic needs. The biggest
success of the nation's recovery program has been in new rubber plantings
and in fishing. Industry, other than rice processing, is almost nonexistent.
Foreign trade has been primarily with the former USSR and Vietnam, and both
trade and foreign aid are being adversely affected by the breakup of the
USSR. Statistical data on the economy continue to be sparse and unreliable.
Foreign aid from the former USSR and Eastern Europe has virtually stopped.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $930 million, per capita $130; real growth rate
NA (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
53% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $178 million expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of
$NA (1991)
Exports:
$32 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
natural rubber, rice, pepper, wood
partners:
Vietnam, USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, India
Imports:
$147 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
international food aid; fuels, consumer goods, machinery
partners:
Vietnam, USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, India
External debt:
$600 million (1989)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
140,000 kW capacity; 200 million kWh produced, 30 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining
Agriculture:
mainly subsistence farming except for rubber plantations; main crops - rice,
rubber, corn; food shortages - rice, meat, vegetables, dairy products,
sugar, flour
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $725 million; Western (non-US
countries) (1970-89), $300 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.8
billion
Currency:
riel (plural - riels); 1 riel (CR) = 100 sen
Exchange rates:
riels (CR) per US$1 - 714 (May 1992), 500 (December 1991), 560 (1990),
159.00 (1988), 100.00 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Cambodia Communications

Railroads:
612 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned
Highways:
13,351 km total; 2,622 km bituminous; 7,105 km crushed stone, gravel, or
improved earth; 3,624 km unimproved earth; some roads in disrepair
Inland waterways:
3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 meters; 282 km navigable to
craft drawing 1.8 meters
Ports:
Kampong Saom, Phnom Penh
Airports:
16 total, 8 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
service barely adequate for government requirements and virtually
nonexistent for general public; international service limited to Vietnam and
other adjacent countries; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV

:Cambodia Defense Forces

Branches:
SOC - Cambodian People's Armed Forces (CPAF); Communist resistance forces -
National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge); non-Communist
resistance forces - Armee National Kampuchea Independent (ANKI), which is
sometimes anglicized as National Army of Independent Cambodia (NAIC), and
Khmer People's National Liberation Armed Forces (KPNLAF) - under the Paris
peace agreement of October 1991, all four factions are to observe a
cease-fire and prepare for UN-supervised cantonment, disarmament, and 70%
demobilization before the election, with the fate of the remaining 30% to be
determined by the newly elected government - the United Nations Transitional
Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) will verify the cease-fire and disarm the
combatants
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,877,339; 1,032,102 fit for military service; 61,807 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Cameroon Geography

Total area:
475,440 km2
Land area:
469,440 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
4,591 km; Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km, Congo 523 km,
Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km, Nigeria 1,690 km
Coastline:
402 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
50 nm
Disputes:
demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has
led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification
by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; boundary commission created with
Nigeria to discuss unresolved land and maritime boundaries - has not yet
convened
Climate:
varies with terrain from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north
Terrain:
diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center,
mountains in west, plains in north
Natural resources:
crude oil, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land 13%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 18%; forest and
woodland 54%; other 13%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous gases; deforestation;
overgrazing; desertification
Note:
sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa

:Cameroon People

Population:
12,658,439 (July 1992), growth rate 3.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
44 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
81 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
55 years male, 60 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Cameroonian(s); adjective - Cameroonian
Ethnic divisions:
over 200 tribes of widely differing background; Cameroon Highlanders 31%,
Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern
Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African less than 1%
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16%
Languages:
English and French (official), 24 major African language groups
Literacy:
54% (male 66%, female 43%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
NA; agriculture 74.4%, industry and transport 11.4%, other services 14.2%
(1983); 50% of population of working age (15-64 years) (1985)
Organized labor:
under 45% of wage labor force

:Cameroon Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Cameroon
Type:
unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties
legalized 1990)
Capital:
Yaounde
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord,
Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest
Independence:
1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French administration; formerly
French Cameroon)
Constitution:
20 May 1972
Legal system:
based on French civil law system, with common law influence; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 20 May (1972)
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
Head of Government:
interim Prime Minister Sadou HAYATOU (since 25 April 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (RDPC), Paul BIYA, president, is
government-controlled and was formerly the only party; numerous small
parties formed since opposition parties were legalized in 1990
Suffrage:
universal at age 20
Elections:
National Assembly:
next to be held 1 March 1992
President:
last held 24 April 1988 (next to be held April 1993); results - President
Paul BIYA reelected without opposition
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Paul PONDI; Chancery at 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-8790 through 8794
US:
Ambassador Frances D. COOK; Embassy at Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde (mailing
address is B. P. 817, Yaounde); telephone [237] 234014; FAX [237] 230753;
there is a US Consulate General in Douala

:Cameroon Government

Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow with a
yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia

:Cameroon Economy

Overview:
Because of its offshore oil resources, Cameroon has one of the highest
incomes per capita in tropical Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious
problems facing other underdeveloped countries, such as political
instability, a top-heavy civil service, and a generally unfavorable climate
for business enterprise. The development of the oil sector led rapid
economic growth between 1970 and 1985. Growth came to an abrupt halt in 1986
precipitated by steep declines in the prices of major exports: coffee,
cocoa, and petroleum. Export earnings were cut by almost one-third, and
inefficiencies in fiscal management were exposed. In 1990-92, with support
from the IMF and World Bank, the government has begun to introduce reforms
designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture,
and recapitalize the nation's banks. Nationwide strikes organized by
opposition parties in 1991, however, undermined these efforts.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $11.5 billion, per capita $1,040; real growth
rate 0.7% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.6% (FY88)
Unemployment rate:
25% (1990 est.)
Budget:
revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA million (FY89)
Exports:
$2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
petroleum products 56%, coffee, cocoa, timber, manufactures
partners:
EC (particularly France) about 50%, US 10%
Imports:
$2.1 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
machines and electrical equipment, transport equipment, chemical products,
consumer goods
partners:
France 41%, Germany 9%, US 4%
External debt:
$4.9 billion (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate - 6.4% (FY87); accounts for 30% of GDP
Electricity:
755,000 kW capacity; 2,940 million kWh produced, 270 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
crude oil products, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles,
sawmills
Agriculture:
the agriculture and forestry sectors provide employment for the majority of
the population, contributing nearly 25% to GDP and providing a high degree
of self-sufficiency in staple foods; commercial and food crops include
coffee, cocoa, timber, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, livestock,
root starches
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $440 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.5 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $29 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $125
million

:Cameroon Economy

Currency:
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
= 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
(1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Cameroon Communications

Railroads:
1,003 km total; 858 km 1.000-meter gauge, 145 km 0.600-meter gauge
Highways:
about 65,000 km total; includes 2,682 km paved, 32,318 km gravel and
improved earth, and 30,000 km of unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
2,090 km; of decreasing importance
Ports:
Douala
Merchant marine:
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,122 GRT/33,509 DWT
Civil air:
5 major transport aircraft
Airports:
56 total, 50 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over
3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 21 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
good system of open wire, cable, troposcatter, and radio relay; 26,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 11 AM, 11 FM, 1 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations

:Cameroon Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including naval infantry), Air Force; National Gendarmerie,
Presidential Guards
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 2,753,059; 1,385,706 fit for military service; 120,011 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $219 million, 1.7% of GDP (1990 est.)

:Canada Geography

Total area:
9,976,140 km2
Land area:
9,220,970 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than US
Land boundaries:
8,893 km with US (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
Coastline:
243,791 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
maritime boundary disputes with the US
Climate:
varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Terrain:
mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
Natural resources:
nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber,
wildlife, coal, crude oil, natural gas
Land use:
arable land 5%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 3%; forest and
woodland 35%; other 57%; includes NEGL% irrigated
Environment:
80% of population concentrated within 160 km of US border; continuous
permafrost in north a serious obstacle to development
Note:
second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between
Russia and US via north polar route

:Canada People

Population:
27,351,509 (July 1992), growth rate 1.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
14 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
6 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
74 years male, 81 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Canadian(s); adjective - Canadian
Ethnic divisions:
British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other European 20%, indigenous
Indian and Eskimo 1.5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 46%, United Church 16%, Anglican 10%
Languages:
English and French (both official)
Literacy:
99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1981 est.)
Labor force:
13,380,000; services 75%, manufacturing 14%, agriculture 4%, construction
3%, other 4% (1988)
Organized labor:
30.6% of labor force; 39.6% of nonagricultural paid workers

:Canada Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
confederation with parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Ottawa
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New
Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario,
Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
Independence:
1 July 1867 (from UK)
Constitution:
amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to Canada 17 April 1982;
charter of rights and unwritten customs
Legal system:
based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based
on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
Canada Day, 1 July (1867)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of an upper house or Senate
(Senat) and a lower house or House of Commons (Chambre des Communes)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Raymond John HNATSHYN (since 29 January 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister (Martin) Brian MULRONEY (since 4 September 1984); Deputy
Prime Minister Donald Frank MAZANKOWSKI (since June 1986)
Political parties and leaders:
Progressive Conservative Party, Brian MULRONEY; Liberal Party, Jean
CHRETIEN; New Democratic Party, Audrey McLAUGHLIN
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
House of Commons:
last held 21 November 1988 (next to be held by November 1993); results -
Progressive Conservative Party 43.0%, Liberal Party 32%, New Democratic
Party 20%, other 5%; seats - (295 total) Progressive Conservative Party 159,
Liberal Party 80, New Democratic Party 44, independents 12
Communists:
3,000
Member of:
ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB,
COCOM, CP, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG,
OAS, OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG,
UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

:Canada Government

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Derek BURNEY; Chancery at 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20001; telephone (202) 682-1740; there are Canadian Consulates General in
Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles,
Minneapolis, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Seattle
US:
Ambassador Peter TEELEY; Embassy at 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa
(mailing address is P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430); telephone
(613) 238-5335 or (613) 238-4470; FAX (613) 238-5720; there are US
Consulates General in Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and
Vancouver
Flag:
three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width, square), and
red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

:Canada Economy

Overview:
As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles
the US in per capita output, market-oriented economic system, and pattern of
production. Since World War II the impressive growth of the manufacturing,
mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural
economy into one primarily industrial and urban. In the 1980s, Canada
registered one of the highest rates of real growth among the OECD nations,
averaging about 3.2%. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force,
and modern capital plant, Canada has excellent economic prospects. However,
the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking
areas has observers discussing a possible split in the confederation;
foreign investors are becoming edgy.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $521.5 billion, per capita $19,400; real
growth rate -1.1% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.2% (November 1991, annual rate)
Unemployment rate:
10.3% (November 1991)
Budget:
revenues $111.8 billion; expenditures $138.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY90 est.)
Exports:
$124.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas,
aluminum, motor vehicles and parts; telecommunications equipment
partners:
US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China
Imports:
$118 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
crude petroleum, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer
goods, electronic computers; telecommunications equipment and parts
partners:
US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea
External debt:
$247 billion (1987)
Industrial production:
growth rate -3.8% (August 1991); accounts for 34% of GDP
Electricity:
106,464,000 kW capacity; 479,600 million kWh produced, 17,872 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products,
transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products, petroleum and natural
gas
Agriculture:
accounts for about 3% of GDP; one of the world's major producers and
exporters of grain (wheat and barley); key source of US agricultural
imports; large forest resources cover 35% of total land area; commercial
fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons, of which 75% is
exported
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of
hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of
high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a transit point for heroin
and cocaine entering the US market

:Canada Economy

Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $7.2 billion
Currency:
Canadian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.1565 (January 1992), 1.1457 (1991),
1.1668 (1990), 1.1840 (1989), 1.2307 (1988), 1.3260 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Canada Communications

Railroads:
93,544 km total; two major transcontinental freight railway systems -
Canadian National (government owned) and Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger
service - VIA (government operated)
Highways:
884,272 km total; 712,936 km surfaced (250,023 km paved), 171,336 km earth
Inland waterways:
3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway
Pipelines:
crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km
Ports:
Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), Saint John's
(Newfoundland), Toronto, Vancouver
Merchant marine:
70 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 500,904 GRT/727,118 DWT; includes 1
passenger, 3 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 10 cargo, 2 railcar
carrier, 1 refrigerated cargo, 8 roll-on/roll-off, 1 container, 28 petroleum
tanker, 5 chemical tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 8 bulk; note - does not
include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes
Civil air:
636 major transport aircraft; Air Canada is the major carrier
Airports:
1,416 total, 1,168 usable; 455 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with
runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 338 with runways
1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
excellent service provided by modern media; 18.0 million telephones;
broadcast stations - 900 AM, 29 FM, 53 (1,400 repeaters) TV; 5 coaxial
submarine cables; over 300 earth stations operating in INTELSAT (including 4
Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and domestic systems

:Canada Defense Forces

Branches:
Canadian Armed Forces (including Mobile Command, Maritime Command, Air
Command, Communications Command, Canadian Forces Europe, Training Commands),
Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 7,366,675; 6,387,459 fit for military service; 190,752 reach
military age (17) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $11.4 billion, 1.7% of GDP (FY91); $10.5 billion,
NA% of GDP (FY 92)

:Cape Verde Geography

Total area:
4,030 km2
Land area:
4,030 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
965 km
Maritime claims:
(measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; warm, dry, summer; precipitation very erratic
Terrain:
steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
Natural resources:
salt, basalt rock, pozzolana, limestone, kaolin, fish
Land use:
arable land 9%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 6%; forest and
woodland NEGL%; other 85%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
subject to prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure visibility;
volcanically and seismically active; deforestation; overgrazing
Note:
strategic location 500 km from African coast near major north-south sea
routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling
site

:Cape Verde People

Population:
398,276 (July 1992), growth rate 3.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
48 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
- 8 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
61 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
60 years male, 64 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Cape Verdean(s); adjective - Cape Verdean
Ethnic divisions:
Creole (mulatto) about 71%, African 28%, European 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs
Languages:
Portuguese and Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West African words
Literacy:
66% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1989 est.)
Labor force:
102,000 (1985 est.); agriculture (mostly subsistence) 57%, services 29%,
industry 14% (1981); 51% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
Trade Unions of Cape Verde Unity Center (UNTC-CS)

:Cape Verde Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Cape Verde
Type:
republic
Capital:
Praia
Administrative divisions:
14 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio,
Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz,
Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal
Independence:
5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Constitution:
7 September 1980; amended 12 February 1981, December 1988, and 28 September
1990 (legalized opposition parties)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 5 July (1975)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, deputy minister, secretaries of state, Council of
Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral People's National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional Popular)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justia)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Antonio Monteiro MASCARENHAS (since 22 March 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Carlos VEIGA (since 13 January 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Movement for Democracy (MPD), Prime Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and
chairman; African Party for Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV), Pedro Verona
Rodrigues PIRES, chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
People's National Assembly:
last held 13 January 1991 (next to be held January 1996); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (79 total) MPD 56, PAICV 23; note - this
multiparty Assembly election ended 15 years of single-party rule
President:
last held 17 February 1991 (next to be held February 1996); results -
Antonio Monteiro MASCARENHAS (MPD) received 72.6% of vote
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTERPOL, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Carlos Alberto Santos SILVA; Chancery at 3415 Massachusetts
Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone (202) 965-6820; there is a Cape
Verdean Consulate General in Boston
US:
Ambassador Francis T. (Terry) McNAMARA; Embassy at Rua Hoji Ya Henda Yenna
81, Praia (mailing address is C. P. 201, Praia); telephone [238] 61-43-63 or
61-42-53; FAX [238] 61-13-55

:Cape Verde Government

Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical red
band on the hoist side; in the upper portion of the red band is a black
five-pointed star framed by two corn stalks and a yellow clam shell; uses
the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of
Guinea-Bissau, which is longer and has an unadorned black star centered in
the red band

:Cape Verde Economy

Overview:
Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor natural resource base, a
17-year drought, and a high birthrate. The economy is service oriented, with
commerce, transport, and public services accounting for 65% of GDP during
the period 1985-88. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural
areas, agriculture's share of GDP is only 16%; the fishing sector accounts
for 4%. About 90% of food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly
lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. In 1988 fishing represented only
3.5% of GDP. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by
remittances from emigrants and foreign aid. Economic reforms launched by the
new democratic government in February 1991 are aimed at developing the
private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $310 million, per capita $800; real growth rate
4% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
25% (1988)
Budget:
revenues $98.3 million; expenditures $138.4 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1988 est.)
Exports:
$10.9 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
commodities:
fish, bananas, salt
partners:
Portugal 40%, Algeria 31%, Angola, Netherlands (1990 est.)
Imports:
$107.8 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities:
petroleum, foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial products
partners:
Sweden 33%, Spain 11%, Germany 5%, Portugal 3%, France 3%, Netherlands, US
(1990 est.)
External debt:
$150 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 18% (1988 est.); accounts for 7% of GDP
Electricity:
15,000 kW capacity; 15 million kWh produced, 40 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
fish processing, salt mining, clothing factories, ship repair, construction
materials, food and beverage production
Agriculture:
accounts for 16% of GDP; largely subsistence farming; bananas are the only
export crop; other crops - corn, beans, sweet potatoes, coffee; growth
potential of agricultural sector limited by poor soils and limited rainfall;
annual food imports required; fish catch provides for both domestic
consumption and small exports
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY75-89), $88 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $537 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $12 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $36
million
Currency:
Cape Verdean escudo (plural - escudos); 1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100
centavos

:Cape Verde Economy

Exchange rates:
Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1 - 71.28 (March 1992), 71.41 (1991),
64.10 (November 1990), 74.86 (December 1989), 72.01 (1988), 72.5 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Cape Verde Communications

Ports:
Mindelo, Praia
Merchant marine:
7 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,717 GRT/19,000 DWT
Civil air:
3 major transport aircraft
Airports:
6 total, 6 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
interisland radio relay system, high-frequency radio to Senegal and
Guinea-Bissau; over 1,700 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 6 FM, 1 TV;
2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Cape Verde Defense Forces

Branches:
People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP) - Army and Navy are separate
components of FARP; Security Service
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 72,916; 43,010 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Cayman Islands Geography

Total area:
260 km2
Land area:
260 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
160 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool, relatively
dry winters (November to April)
Terrain:
low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs
Natural resources:
fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 8%; forest and
woodland 23%; other 69%
Environment:
within the Caribbean hurricane belt
Note:
important location between Cuba and Central America

:Cayman Islands People

Population:
29,139 (July 1992), growth rate 4.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
16 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
33 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
75 years male, 79 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Caymanian(s); adjective - Caymanian
Ethnic divisions:
40% mixed, 20% white, 20% black, 20% expatriates of various ethnic groups
Religions:
United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican, Baptist, Roman
Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant denominations
Languages:
English
Literacy:
98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 15 and over having ever attended school
(1970)
Labor force:
8,061; service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%, construction 12.5%, finance
and investment 6.7%, directors and business managers 5.9% (1979)
Organized labor:
Global Seaman's Union; Cayman All Trade Union

:Cayman Islands Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
George Town
Administrative divisions:
8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West
End, Western
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
1959, revised 1972
Legal system:
British common law and local statutes
National holiday:
Constitution Day (first Monday in July)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly
Judicial branch:
Grand Court, Cayman Islands Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Michael
GORE (since May 1992)
Head of Government:
Governor and President of the Executive Council Alan James SCOTT (since NA
1987)
Political parties and leaders:
no formal political parties
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held November 1988 (next to be held November 1992); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total, 12 elected)
Member of:
CARICOM (observer), CDB, IOC
Diplomatic representation:
as a dependent territory of the UK, Caymanian interests in the US are
represented by the UK
US:
none
Flag:
blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the
flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a shield with
three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll at the bottom
bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS
HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

:Cayman Islands Economy

Overview:
The economy depends heavily on tourism (70% of GDP and 75% of export
earnings) and offshore financial services, with the tourist industry aimed
at the luxury market and catering mainly to visitors from North America.
About 90% of the islands' food and consumer goods needs must be imported.
The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest standards of living in the region.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $384 million, per capita $14,500 (1989); real
growth rate 8% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $83.6 million; expenditures $98.9 million, including capital

Book of the day: