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Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa
Rica, Cyprus, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France,
Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland,
India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory
Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea,
Kuwait, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,
Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Saint
Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri
Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo,
Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US,
Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen,
Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

**********

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

established - NA November 1974

aim - UN specialized agency that promotes agricultural
development

members - (144) Category I - (21 industrialized aid contributors)
Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
NZ, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US

members - Category II - (12 petroleum-exporting aid contributors)
Algeria, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria,
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela

members - Category III - (111 aid recipients) Afghanistan,
Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, Burma,
Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad,
Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus,
Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, The Gambia, Ghana,
Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, India, Israel, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya,
North Korea, South Korea, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger,
Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis,
Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and
Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands,
Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Uganda, Uruguay, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia,
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

**********

International Investment Bank (IIB)

Note - established on 7 July 1970; to promote economic
development; members were Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East
Germany, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam; now a
Russian bank with a new charter

**********

International Labor Organization (ILO)

established - 11 April 1919 (affiliated with the UN 14 December
1946)

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with world labor issues

members - (150) all UN members except Armenia, Azerbaijan,
Bhutan, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Brunei, Croatia, Estonia, The
Gambia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Maldives, Marshall Islands, Federation of Micronesia, Moldova,
Oman, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
San Marino, Slovenia, South Africa, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan,
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Samoa; other member is
Switzerland

**********

International Maritime Organization (IMO)

Note - name changed from Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative
Organization (IMCO) on 22 May 1982

established - 17 March 1958

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with world maritime affairs

members - (135) Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burma,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia,
Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark,
Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France,
Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast,
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait,
Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi,
Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco,
Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Nigeria,
Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saint
Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe,
Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad
and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire

associate members - (2) Hong Kong, Macao

**********

International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT)

established - 3 September 1976

effective - 26 July 1979

aim - to provide worldwide communications for maritime and other
applications

members - (63) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Belarus,
Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China,
Colombia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France,
Gabon, Germany, Greece, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,
Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Kuwait, Liberia, Malaysia,
Monaco, Mozambique, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Oman,
Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar,
Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US,
Yugoslavia

**********

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

established - 22 July 1944

effective - 27 December 1945

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with world monetary
stability and economic development

members - (156) all UN members except Armenia, Azerbaijan,
Belarus, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Brunei, Croatia, Cuba, Estonia,
Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein,
Lithuania, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia,
Moldova, Russia, San Marino, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan,
Ukraine, Uzbekistan; other members are Kiribati and Tonga

**********

International Olympic Committee (IOC)

established - 23 June 1894

aim - to promote the Olympic ideals and administer the Olympic
games: 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France (8-23
February); 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain (25 July-9
August); 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer; Norway (12-27
February); 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, United States (20
July-4 August); 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan (date NA)

members - (167) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, American Samoa,
Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba,
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Bulgaria,
Burkina, Burma, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African
Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Cook Islands,
Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guam, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana,
Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan,
Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal,
Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,
Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Romania,
Russia, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino,
Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Virgin Islands, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

**********

International Organization for Migration (IOM) - established as
Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for the Movement of
Migrants from Europe; renamed Intergovernmental Committee for
European Migration (ICEM) on 15 November 1952; renamed
Intergovernmental Committee for Migration (ICM) in November 1980;
current name adopted 14 November 1989

established - 5 December 1951

aim - to facilitate orderly international emigration and
immigration

members - (39) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh,
Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cyprus,
Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Germany,
Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Italy, Kenya, South Korea,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay,
Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland,
Thailand, US, Uruguay, Venezuela

observers - (25) Belize, Brazil, Cape Verde, Egypt, Finland,
France, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, Japan, Mexico, NZ,
Pakistan, San Marino, Somalia, Sovereign Military Order of Malta,
Spain, Turkey, Uganda, UK, Vatican City, Vietnam, Yugoslavia,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

**********

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

established - NA February 1947

aim - to promote the development of international standards

members - (72 national standards organizations) Albania, Algeria,
Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil,
Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Cyprus,
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, North
Korea, South Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco,
Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Saudi Arabia,
Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, UK, US, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yugoslavia

correspondent members - (14) Bahrain, Barbados, Brunei, Guinea,
Hong Kong, Iceland, Jordan, Kuwait, Malawi, Mauritius, Oman,
Senegal, UAE, Uruguay

**********

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

established - NA 1928

aim - to promote worldwide humanitarian aid through the
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in wartime, and
League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS) in
peacetime

members - (9) 2 representatives from ICRC, 2 from LORCS, and 5
from national societies elected by the international conference
of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

**********

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

established - 9 December 1932

effective - 1 January 1934

affiliated with the UN - 15 November 1947

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with world
telecommunications

members - (164) all UN members except Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia
and Hercegovina, Croatia, Dominica, Estonia, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Marshall Islands, Federation of
Micronesia, Moldova, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,
Seychelles, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; other
members are Kiribati, Monaco, Nauru, Switzerland, Tonga, Vatican
City

**********

International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
(INTELSAT)

established - 20 August 1971

effective - 12 February 1973

aim - to develop and operate a global commercial
telecommunications satellite system

members - (118) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium,
Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada, Central
African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa
Rica, Cyprus, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast,
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon,
Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Mozambique,
Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman,
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,
Portugal, Qatar, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore,
Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland,
Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad
and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Vatican City, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

**********

Islamic Development Bank (IDB)

established - 15 December 1973

aim - to promote Islamic economic aid and social development

members - (43 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization)
Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei,
Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The
Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan,
Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania,
Morocco, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda,
UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization

**********

Latin American Economic System (LAES) - , also known as Sistema
Economico Latinoamericana (SELA)

established - 17 October 1975

aim - to promote economic and social development through regional
cooperation

members - (26) Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El
Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica,
Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and
Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela

**********

Latin American Integration Association (LAIA) - , also known as
Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI)

established - 12 August 1980

effective - 18 March 1981

aim - to promote freer regional trade

members - (11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia,
Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela

**********

League of Arab States (LAS)

Note - see Arab League (AL)

**********

League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS)

established - 5 May 1919

aim - to provide humanitarian aid in peacetime

members - (147) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria,
Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,
Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo,
Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji,
Finland, France, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras,
Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy,
Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South
Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco,
Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,
Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,
Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao
Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa,
Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

associate members - (2) Equatorial Guinea, Gabon

**********

least developed countries (LLDCs)

Note - that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs)
initially identified by the UN General Assembly in 1971 as having
no significant economic growth, per capita GNPs/GDPs normally
less than $500, and low literacy rates; also known as the
undeveloped countries. The 41 LLDCs are: Afghanistan,
Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Burkina, Burma, Burundi,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti,
Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Haiti, Kiribati, Laos, Lesotho, Malawi, Maldives, Mali,
Mauritania, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Sao Tome and
Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tuvalu,
Uganda, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Yemen

**********

less developed countries (LDCs)

Note - the bottom group in the comprehensive but mutually
exclusive hierarchy of developed countries (DCs), former
USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and less developed
countries (LDCs); mainly countries with low levels of output,
living standards, and technology; per capita GNPs/GDPs are
generally below $5,000 and often less than $1,000; however, the
group also includes a number of countries with high per capita
incomes, areas of advanced technology, and rapid rates of growth;
includes the advanced developing countries, developing countries,
Four Dragons (Four Tigers), least developed countries (LLDCs),
low-income countries, middle-income countries, newly
industrializing economies (NIEs), the South, Third World,
underdeveloped countries, undeveloped countries. The 173 LDCs
are: Afghanistan, Algeria, American Samoa, Angola, Anguilla,
Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana,
Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Burkina, Burma, Burundi,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African
Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands,
Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus,
Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Falkland
Islands, Fiji, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, The
Gambia, Gaza Strip, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greenland, Grenada,
Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, Guernsey, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jersey, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, North
Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
Libya, Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Isle
of Man, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mayotte, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia,
Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal,
Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,
Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Oman, Trust
Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), Pakistan, Panama, Papua
New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto
Rico, Qatar, Reunion, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and
Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia,
Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,
Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, UAE, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands, Wallis and Futuna, West Bank,
Western Sahara, Western Samoa, Yemen, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

**********

low-income countries

Note - another term for those less developed countries with
below-average per capita GNPs/GDPs; see less developed countries
(LDCs)

**********

middle-income countries

Note - another term for those less developed countries with
above-average per capita GNPs/GDPs; see less developed countries
(LDCs)

**********

Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)

established - April 1987

aim - to arrest missile proliferation by controlling the export
of key missile technologies and equipment

members - (20) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US

**********

newly industrializing countries (NICs)

Note - former term for the newly industrializing economies; see
newly industrializing economies (NIEs)

**********

newly industrializing economies (NIEs)

Note - that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs) that
has experienced particularly rapid industrialization of their
economies; formerly known as the newly industrializing countries
(NICs); also known as advanced developing countries; usually
includes the Four Dragons (Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore,
Taiwan) plus Brazil and Mexico

**********

Nonaligned Movement (NAM)

established - 1-6 September 1961

aim - political and military cooperation apart from the
traditional East or West blocs

members - (101 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization)
Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana,
Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African
Republic, Chad, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti,
Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia,
Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea,
Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint
Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,
Uganda, UAE, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia,
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization

observers - (9) Antigua and Barbuda, Brazil, Costa Rica,
Dominica, El Salvador, Mexico, Papua New Guinea, Philippines,
Uruguay

guests - (11) Australia, Austria, Dominican Republic, Finland,
Greece, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland

**********

Nordic Council (NC)

established - 16 March 1952

effective - 12 February 1953

aim - to promote regional economic, cultural, and environmental
cooperation

members - (5) Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden; note -
Denmark includes Faroe Islands and Greenland

**********

Nordic Investment Bank (NIB)

established - 4 December 1975

effective - 1 June 1976

aim - to promote economic cooperation and development

members - (5) Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden

**********

North

Note - a popular term for the rich industrialized countries
generally located in the northern portion of the Northern
Hemisphere; the counterpart of the South; see developed countries
(DCs)

**********

North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC) - an extension of NATO

established - 8 November 1991

effective - 20 December 1991

aim - to form a forum to discuss cooperation concerning mutual
political and security issues

members - (35) Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria,
Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany,
Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,
Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, Tajikistan, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan

**********

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

established - 17 September 1949

aim - mutual defense and cooperation in other areas

members - (16) Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece,
Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain,
Turkey, UK, US

**********

Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)

established - NA 1958

aim - associated with OECD, seeks to promote the peaceful uses of
nuclear energy

members - (23) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US

**********

Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

Note - also known as the London Suppliers Group

established - 1974

aim - to establish guidelines on exports of enrichment and
processing plant assistance and nuclear exports to countries of
proliferation concern and regions of conflict and instability

members - (27) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada,
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
UK, US

**********

Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la
America Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL)

Note - see Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin
America and the Caribbean (OPANAL)

**********

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

established - 14 December 1960, effective 30 September 1961

aim - to promote economic cooperation and development

members - (24) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US

special member - (1) Yugoslavia

**********

Organization of African Unity (OAU)

established - 25 May 1963

aim - to promote unity and cooperation among African states

members - (50) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina,
Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad,
Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia,
Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast,
Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda,
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania,
Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

**********

Organization of American States (OAS)

established - 30 April 1948

effective - 13 December 1951

aim - to promote peace and security as well as economic and
social development

members - (35) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas,
Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa
Rica, Cuba (excluded from formal participation since 1962),
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua,
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, US,
Uruguay, Venezuela

observers - (25) Algeria, Austria, Belgium, Belize, Cyprus, EC,
Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Guyana, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Morocco, Netherlands,
Pakistan, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Switzerland, Vatican
City

**********

Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC)

established - 9 January 1968

aim - to promote cooperation in the petroleum industry

members - (11) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya,
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, UAE

**********

Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)

established - 18 June 1981

effective - 4 July 1981

aim - to promote political, economic, and defense cooperation

members - (8) Antigua and Barbuda, British Virgin Islands,
Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

**********

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

established - 14 September 1960

aim - to coordinate petroleum policies

members - (13) Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela

**********

Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)

established - 22-25 September 1969

aim - to promote Islamic solidarity and cooperation in economic,
social, cultural, and political affairs

members - (47 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization)
Afghanistan (suspended), Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros,
Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lebanon,
Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger,
Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra
Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE,
Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization

observer - (1) Turkish-Cypriot administered area of Cyprus

**********

Paris Club

Note - see Group of 10

**********

Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

established - NA 1899

aim - to facilitate the settlement of international disputes

members - (75) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium,
Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,
Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland,
India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Laos, Lebanon,
Luxembourg, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,
Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland,
Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda,
Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zimbabwe

**********

Population Commission

established - 3 October 1946

aim - ECOSOC organization dealing with population matters

members - (27) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

**********

Rio Group (RG)

established - NA 1988

aim - a consultation mechanism on regional Latin American issues

members - (11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia,
Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela; note -
Panama was expelled in 1988

**********

Second World

Note - another term for the traditionally Marxist-Leninist states
with authoritarian governments and command economies based on the
Soviet model; the term is fading from use; see centrally planned
economies

**********

socialist countries

Note - in general, countries in which the government owns and
plans the use of the major factors of production; note - the term
is sometimes used incorrectly as a synonym for Communist
countries

**********

South

Note - a popular term for the poorer, less industrialized
countries generally located south of the developed countries; the
counterpart of the North; see less developed countries (LDCs)

**********

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

established - 8 December 1985

aim - to promote economic, social, and cultural cooperation

members - (7) Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal,
Pakistan, Sri Lanka

**********

South Pacific Commission (SPC)

established - 6 February 1947

effective - 29 July 1948

aim - to promote regional cooperation in economic and social
matters

members - (27) American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji,
France, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands,
Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, NZ, Niue,
Northern Mariana Islands, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
(Palau), Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn Islands, Solomon Islands,
Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, UK, US, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna,
Western Samoa

**********

South Pacific Forum (SPF)

established - 5 August 1971

aim - to promote regional cooperation in political matters

members - (15) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall
Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Papua
New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Western
Samoa

observer - (1) Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau)

**********

Southern African Customs Union (SACU)

established - 11 December 1969

aim - to promote free trade and cooperation in customs matters

members - (9) Bophuthatswana, Botswana, Ciskei, Lesotho, Namibia,
South Africa, Swaziland, Transkei, Venda

**********

Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC)

established - 1 April 1980

aim - to promote regional economic development and reduce
dependence on South Africa

members - (10) Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique,
Namibia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

**********

Southern Cone Common Market

**********

(MERCOSUR)

established - 26 March 1991

aim - regional economic cooperation

members - (4) Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay

**********

Statistical Commission

established - 21 June 1946

aim - ECOSOC organization dealing with development and
standardization of national statistics

members - (25) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

**********

Third World

Note - another term for the less developed countries; the term is
fading from use; see less developed countries (LDCs)

**********

underdeveloped countries

Note - refers to those less developed countries with the
potential for above-average economic growth; see less developed
countries (LDCs)

**********

undeveloped countries

Note - refers to those extremely poor less developed countries
(LDCs) with little prospect for economic growth; see least
developed countries (LLDCs)

**********

Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale (UDEAC)

Note - see Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)

**********

United Nations (UN)

established - 26 June 1945

effective - 24 October 1945

aim - to maintain international peace and security as well as
promote cooperation involving economic, social, cultural and
humanitarian problems

members - (178) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua
and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan,
The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium,
Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Botswana,
Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,
Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad,
Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Croatia,
Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The
Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast,
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South
Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia,
Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal,
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman,
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,
Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and
Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino,
Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra
Leone, Singapore, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South
Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,
Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US,
Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa,
Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe; note - all UN members
are represented in the General Assembly

observers - (3 and the Palestine Liberation Organization) Monaco,
Switzerland, Vatican City, Palestine Liberation Organization

**********

United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM)

established - 20 December 1988

aim - established by the UN Security Council to verify the
withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola

members - (10) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Congo, Czechoslovakia,
India, Jordan, Norway, Spain, Yugoslavia

**********

United Nations Center for Human Settlements (UNCHS or Habitat)

established - 12 October 1978

aim - to assist in solving human settlement problems

members - (88) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

**********

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

Note - acronym retained from the predecessor organization UN
International Children's Emergency Fund

established - 11 December 1946

aim - to help establish child health and welfare services

members - (41) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

**********

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

established - 30 December 1964

aim - to promote international trade

members - (181) all UN members plus Monaco, Switzerland, Tonga,
Vatican City

**********

United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

established - 22 November 1965

aim - to provide technical assistance to stimulate economic and
social development

members - (48) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

**********

United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)

established - 31 May 1974

aim - established by the UN Security Council to observe the 1973
Arab-Israeli ceasefire

members - (4) Austria, Canada, Finland, Poland

**********

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO)

established - 16 November 1945

effective - 4 November 1946

aim - to promote cooperation in education, science, and culture

members - (159) all UN members except Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia
and Hercegovina, Brunei, Croatia, Estonia, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Marshall Islands,
Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Singapore, Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, South Africa, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, UK, US,
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu; other members are Cook Islands, Kiribati,
Monaco, Switzerland, Tonga

associate members - (3) Aruba, British Virgin Islands,
Netherlands Antilles

**********

United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)

established - 15 December 1972

aim - to promote international cooperation on all environmental
matters

members - (58) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

**********

United Nations Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)

established - 4 March 1964

aim - established by the UN Security Council to serve as a
peacekeeping force beween Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in
Cyprus

members - (8) Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland,
Ireland, Sweden, UK

**********

United Nations General Assembly

established - 26 June 1945

effective - 24 October 1945

aim - primary deliberative organ in the UN

members - (178) all UN members are represented in the General
Assembly

**********

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

established - 17 November 1966

effective - 1 January 1967

aim - UN specialized agency that promotes industrial development
especially among the members

members - (150) all UN members except Antigua and Barbuda,
Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Brunei,
Burma, Cambodia, Chad, Croatia, Djibouti, Estonia, Iceland,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liberia, Liechtenstein,
Lithuania, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia,
Moldova, Singapore, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa,
Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Western Samoa; other
members are Switzerland, Tonga

**********

United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)

established - 19 March 1978

aim - established by the UN Security Council to confirm the
withdrawal of Israeli forces, restore peace, and reestablish
Lebanese authority in southern Lebanon

members - (9) Fiji, Finland, France, Ghana, Ireland, Italy,
Nepal, Norway, Sweden

**********

United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG)

established - 9 August 1988

aim - established by the UN Security Council to observe the 1988
Iran-Iraq ceasefire

members - (25) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Canada,
Denmark, Finland, Ghana, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland,
Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Poland, Senegal,
Sweden, Turkey, Uruguay, Yugoslavia, Zambia

**********

United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan
(UNMOGIP)

established - 13 August 1948

aim - established by the UN Security Council to observe the 1949
India-Pakistan ceasefire

members - (8) Belgium, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway,
Sweden, Uruguay

**********

United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees
(UNHCR)

established - 3 December 1949

effective - 1 January 1951

aim - to try to ensure the humanitarian treatment of refugees and
find permanent solutions to refugee problems

members - (43) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium,
Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Denmark, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Madagascar, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Nigeria,
Norway, Pakistan, Somalia, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania,
Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK, US, Vatican City,
Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire

**********

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

Note - acronym retained from predecessor organization UN Fund for
Population Activities

established - NA July 1967

aim - to promote assistance in dealing with population problems

members - (51) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

**********

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in
the Near East (UNRWA)

established - 8 December 1949

aim - to provide assistance to Palestinian refugees

members - (10) Belgium, Egypt, France, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon,
Syria, Turkey, UK, US

**********

United Nations Secretariat

established - 26 June 1945

effective - 24 October 1945

aim - primary administrative organ of the UN

members - Secretary General appointed for a five-year term by the
General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council

**********

United Nations Security Council

established - 26 June 1945

effective - 24 October 1945

aim - to maintain international peace and security

permanent members - (5) China, France, Russia, UK, US

nonpermanent members - (10) elected for two-year terms by the UN
General Assembly; Austria (1991-92), Belgium (1991-92), Cuba
(1990-91), Ecuador (1991-92), India (1991-92), Ivory Coast (1990-
91), Romania (1990-91), Yemen (1990-91), Zaire (1990-91),
Zimbabwe (1991-92)

**********

United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)

established - NA May 1948

aim - initially established by the UN Security Council to
supervise the 1948 Arab-Israeli ceasefire and subsequently
extended to work in the Sinai, Lebanon, Jordan, Afghanistan, and
Pakistan

members - (19) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada,
Chile, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy,
Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, US

**********

United Nations Trusteeship Council

established - 26 June 1945

effective - 24 October 1945

aim - to supervise the administration of the UN trust
territories; only one of the original 11 trusteeships remains -
the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau)

members - (5) China, France, Russia, UK, US

**********

Universal Postal Union (UPU)

established - 9 October 1874, affiliated with the UN 15 November
1947

effective - 1 July 1948

aim - UN specialized agency that promotes international postal
cooperation

members - (168) all UN members except Antigua and Barbuda,
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Estonia,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Marshall Islands,
Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Namibia, Slovenia,
South Africa, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; other members
are Kiribati, Monaco, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, Switzerland,
Tonga, Tuvalu, UK Overseas Territories, Vatican City

**********

Warsaw Pact (WP)

Note - was established 14 May 1955 to promote mutual defense;
members met 1 July 1991 to dissolve the alliance; member states
were Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the
USSR

**********

West African Development Bank (WADB)

Note - also known as Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement
(BOAD)

established - 14 November 1973

aim - to promote economic development and integration

members - (7) Benin, Burkina, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal,
Togo

**********

West African Economic Community (CEAO)

Note - acronym from Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest

established - 3 June 1972

aim - to promote regional economic development

members - (7) Benin, Burkina, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania,
Niger, Senegal

observer - (1) Togo

**********

Western European Union (WEU)

established - 23 October 1954

effective - 6 May 1955

aim - mutual defense and progressive political unification

members - (10) Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK

**********

World Bank

see International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(IBRD)

**********

World Bank Group

Note - includes International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (IBRD), International Development Association (IDA),
and International Finance Corporation (IFC)

**********

World Confederation of Labor (WCL)

established - 19 June 1920 as the International Federation of
Christian Trade Unions (IFCTU), renamed 4 October 1968

aim - to promote the trade union movement

members - (96 national organizations) Algeria, Angola, Antigua
and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium,
Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bonaire Island, Botswana, Brazil,
Burkina, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,
Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Curacao, Cyprus,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France,
French Guiana, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guadaloupe,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Indonesia,
Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Liechtenstein,
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Martinique, Mauritius,
Mexico, Montserrat, Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname,
Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, UK, US, Uruguay,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

**********

World Court

see International Court of Justice (ICJ)

**********

World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)

established - NA 1945

aim - to promote the trade union movement

members - (67) Afghanistan, Angola, Argentina, Australia,
Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina, Cambodia,
Chile, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, The Gambia,
Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, North Korea,
Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mongolia, Namibia,
Nepal, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru,
Philippines, Puerto Rico, Russia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Solomon Islands, South Africa,
Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Yemen, Zaire

**********

World Food Council (WFC)

established - 17 December 1974

aim - ECOSOC organization that studies world food problems and
recommends solutions

members - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

**********

World Food Program (WFP)

established - 24 November 1961

aim - ECOSOC organization that provides food aid to assist in
development or disaster relief

members - (30) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

**********

World Health Organization (WHO)

established - 22 July 1946

effective - 7 April 1948

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with health matters

members - (164) all UN members except Armenia, Azerbaijan,
Belize, Bosnia and Hercegovina, China, Croatia, Estonia,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova,
Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; other members are
Cook Islands, Kiribati, Monaco, Switzerland, Tonga

**********

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

established - 14 July 1967

effective - 26 April 1970

aim - UN specialized agency concerned with the protection of
literary, artistic, and scientific works

members - (125) Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Australia, Austria,
The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Benin,
Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central
African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa
Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras,
Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South
Korea, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein,
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco,
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Panama,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania,
Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK,
US, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia,
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

**********

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

established - 11 October 1947

effective - 4 April 1951

aim - specialized UN agency concerned with meteorological
cooperation

members - (162) all UN members except Armenia, Azerbaijan,
Bhutan, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia, Equatorial Guinea,
Estonia, Grenada, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein,
Lithuania, Moldova, Namibia, Poland, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan,
Uzbekistan, Western Samoa; South Africa is included although WMO
membership is suspended; other members are British Caribbean
Territories, French Polynesia, Hong Kong, Slovenia, Netherlands
Antilles, New Caledonia, Switzerland

**********

World Tourism Organization (WTO)

established - 2 January 1975

aim - promote tourism as a means of contributing to economic
development, international understanding, and peace

members - (102) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil,
Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Congo, Cuba, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guinea, Haiti, Hungary, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal,
Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Portugal,
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe,
Senegal, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland,
Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, US, Uruguay,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

associate members - (4) Aruba, Macau, Netherlands Antilles,
Puerto Rico

permanent observer - (1) Vatican City

**********

Zangger Committee (ZC)

established - early 1970s

aim - to establish guidelines for the export control provisions
of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

members - (23) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada,
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary,
Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,
Romania, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US

Appendix D: Weights and Measures
Mathematical Notation
Mathematical Power Name
10^18 or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 one quintillion
10^15 or 1,000,000,000,000,000 one quadrillion
10^12 or 1,000,000,000,000 one trillion
10^9 or 1,000,000,000 one billion
10^6 or 1,000,000 one million
10^3 or 1,000 one thousand
10^2 or 100 one hundred
10^1 or 10 ten
10^0 or 1 one
10^-1 or 0.1 one tenth
10^-2 or 0.01 one hundredth
10^-3 or 0.001 one thousandth
10^-6 or 0.000 001 one millionth
10^-9 or 0.000 000 001 one billionth
10^-12 or 0.000 000 000 001 one trillionth
10^-15 or 0.000 000 000 000 001 one quadrillionth
10^-18 or 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 one quintillionth
Metric Interrelationships
Conversions from a multiple or submultiple to the basic units of meters,
liters, or grams can be done using the table. For example, to convert from
kilometers to meters, multiply by 1,000 (9.26 kilometers equals 9,260
meters) or to convert from meters to kilometers, multiply by 0.001 (9,260
meters equals 9.26 kilometers)
Prefix Symbol Length, Area Volume
weight,
capacity
exa E 10^18 10^36 10^54
peta P 10^15 10^30 10^45
tera T 10^12 10^24 10^36
giga G 10^9 10^18 10^27
mega M 10^6 10^12 10^18
hectokilo hk 10^5 10^10 10^15
myria ma 10^4 10^8 10^12
kilo k 10^3 10^6 10^9
hecto h 10^2 10^4 10^6
basic unit - 1 meter, 1 meter^2 1 meter^3
1 gram,
1 liter
deci d 10^-1 10^-2 10^-3
centi c 10^-2 10^-4 10^-6
milli m 10^-3 10^-6 10^-9
decimilli dm 10^-4 10^-8 10^-12
centimilli cm 10^-5 10^-10 10^-15
micro u 10^-6 10^-12 10^-18
nano n 10^-9 10^-18 10^-27
pico p 10^-12 10^-24 10^-36
femto f 10^-15 10^-30 10^-45
atto a 10^-18 10^-36 10^-54

Equivalents

Unit Metric Equivalent US Equivalent
acre 0.404 685 64 hectares 43,560 feet^2
acre 4,046,856 4 meters^2 4,840 yards^2
acre 0.004 046 856 4 0.001 562 5 miles^2,
kilometers^2 statute
are 100 meters^2 119.599 yards^2
barrel (petroleum, US) 158.987 29 liters 42 gallons
barrel (proof spirits, 151.416 47 liters 40 gallons
US)
barrel (beer, US) 117.347 77 liters 31 gallons
bushel 35.239 07 liters 4 pecks
cable 219.456 meters 120 fathoms
chain (surveyor's) 20.116 8 meters 66 feet
cord (wood) 3.624 556 meters^3 128 feet^3
cup 0.236 588 2 liters 8 ounces, liquid (US)
degrees, celsius (water boils at 100. multiply by 1.8 and add
degrees C, freezes at 0. C) 32 to obtain .F
degrees, fahrenheit subtract 32 and divide by (water boils at 212 .F,
1.8 to obtain .C freezes at 32 .F)
dram, avoirdupois 1.771 845 2 grams 0.062 5 ounces, avoirdupois
dram, troy 3.887 934 6 grams 0.125 ounces, troy
dram, liquid (US) 3.696 69 milliliters 0.125 ounces, liquid
fathom 1.828 8 meters 6 feet
foot 30.48 centimeters
foot 0.304 8 meters 0.333 333 3 yards
foot 0.000 304 8 kilometers 0.000 189 39 miles,
statute
foot^2 929.030 4 centimeters^2 144 inches^2
foot 2 0.092 903 04 meters^2 0.111 111 1 yards^2
foot^3 28.316 846 592 liters 7.480 519 gallons
foot^3 0.028 316 847 meters^3 1,728 inches^3
furlong 201.168 meters 220 yards
gallon, liquid (US) 3.785 411 784 liters 4 quarts, liquid
gill (US) 118.294 118 milliliters 4 ounces, liquid
grain 64.798 91 milligrams 0.002 285 71 ounces,
advp.
gram 1,000 milligrams 0.035 273 96 ounces,
advp.
hand (height of horse) 10.16 centimeters 4 inches
hectare 10,000 meters^2 2.471 053 8 acres
hundredweight, long 50.802 345 kilograms 112 pounds, avoirdupois
hundredweight, short 45.359 237 kilograms 100 pounds, avoirdupois
inch 2.54 centimeters 0.083 333 33 feet
inch2 6.451 6 centimeters^2 0.006 944 44 feet^2
inch3 16.387 064 centimeters^3 0.000 578 7 feet^3
inch3 16.387 064 milliliters 0.029 761 6 pints, dry
inch3 16.387 064 milliliters 0.034 632 0 pints, liquid
kilogram 0.001 tons, metric 2.204 623 pounds,
avoirdupois
kilometer 1,000 meters 0.621 371 19 miles,
statute
kilometer^2 100 hectares 247.105 38 acres
kilometer^2 1,000,000 meters^2 0.386 102 16 miles^2,
statute
knot (1 nautical 1.852 kilometers/hour 1.151 statute miles/hour
mi/hr)
league, nautical 5.559 552 kilometers 3 miles, nautical
league, statute 4.828.032 kilometers 3 miles, statute
link (surveyor's) 20.116 8 centimeters 7.92 inches
liter 0.001 meters^3 61.023 74 inches^3
liter 0.1 dekaliter 0.908 083 quarts, dry
liter 1,000 milliliters 1.056 688 quarts, liquid
meter 100 centimeters 1.093 613 yards
meter^2 10,000 centimeters^2 1.195 990 yards^2
meter^3 1,000 liters 1.307 951 yards^3
micron 0.000 001 meter 0.000 039 4 inches
mil 0.025 4 millimeters 0.001 inch
mile, nautical 1.852 kilometers 1.150 779 4 miles,
statute
mile^2, nautical 3.429 904 kilometers^2 1.325 miles^2, statute
mile, statute 1.609 344 kilometers 5,280 feet or 8 furlongs
mile^2, statute 258.998 811 hectares 640 acres or 1 section
mile^2, statute 2.589 988 11 kilometers^2 0.755 miles^2, nautical
minim (US) 0.061 611 52 milliliters 0.002 083 33 ounces,
liquid
ounce, avoirdupois 28.349 523 125 grams 437.5 grains
ounce, liquid (US) 29.573 53 milliliters 0.062 5 pints, liquid
ounce, troy 31.103 476 8 grams 480 grains
pace 76.2 centimeters 30 inches
peck 8.809 767 5 liters 8 quarts, dry
pennyweight 1.555 173 84 grams 24 grains
pint, dry (US) 0.550 610 47 liters 0.5 quarts, dry
pint, liquid (US) 0.473 176 473 liters 0.5 quarts, liquid
point (typographical) 0.351 459 8 millimeters 0.013 837 inches
pound, avoirdupois 453.592 37 grams 16 ounces, avourdupois
pound, troy 373.241 721 6 grams 12 ounces, troy
quart, dry (US) 1.101 221 liters 2 pints, dry
quart, liquid (US) 0.946 352 946 liters 2 pints, liquid
quintal 100 kilograms 220.462 26 pounds, avdp.
rod 5.029 2 meters 5.5 yards
scruple 1.295 978 2 grams 20 grains
section (US) 2.589 988 1 kilometers^2 1 mile2, statute or 640
acres
span 22.86 centimeters 9 inches
stere 1 meter3 1.307 95 yards^3
tablespoon 14.786 76 milliliters 3 teaspoons
teaspoon 4.928 922 milliliters 0.333 333 tablespoons
ton, long or 1,016.046 909 kilograms 2,240 pounds, avoirdupois
deadweight

ton, metric 1,000 kilograms 2,204.623 pounds,
avoirdupois
ton, metric 1,000 kilograms 32,150.75 ounces, troy
ton, register 2.831 684 7 meters^3 100 feet^3
ton, short 907.184 74 kilograms 2,000 pounds, avoirdupois
township (US) 93.239 572 kilometers^2 36 miles^2, statute
yard 0.914 4 meters 3 feet
yard^2 0.836 127 36 meters^2 9 feet^2
yard^3 0.764 554 86 meters^3 27 feet^3
yard^3 764.554 857 984 liters 201.974 gallons

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