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FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
IDA International Development Association
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IFC International Finance Corporation
ILO International Labor Organization
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
ITU International Telecommunication Union
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UPU Universal Postal Union
WHO World Health Organization
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
Related organizations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
Regional commissions
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
Functional commissions
Commission on Human Rights
Commission on Narcotic Drugs
Commission for Social Development
Commission on the Status of Women
Population Commission
Statistical Commission

5) Trusteeship Council

6) International Court of Justice (ICJ)

Appendix B

Abbreviations for International Organizations and Groups

ABEDA Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa
ACC Arab Cooperation Council
ACCT Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation
ACP African, Caribbean, and Pacific Countries
AfDB African Development Bank
AFESD Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development
AG Andean Group
AL Arab League
ALADI Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion; see Latin
American Integration Association (LAIA)
AMF Arab Monetary Fund
AMU Arab Maghreb Union
ANZUS Australia-New Zealand-United States Security Treaty
APEC Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
AsDB Asian Development Bank
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations

BAD Banque Africaine de Developpement;
see African Development Bank (AfDB)
BADEA Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique;
see Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA)
BCIE Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico; see Central
American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)
BDEAC Banque de Developpment des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale; see
Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC)
Benelux Benelux Economic Union
BID Banco Interamericano de Desarvollo; see Inter-American
Development Bank (IADB)
BIS Bank for International Settlements
BOAD Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement; see West African
Development Bank (WADB)

C Commonwealth
CACM Central American Common Market
CAEU Council of Arab Economic Unity
CARICOM Caribbean Community and Common Market
CCC Customs Cooperation Council
CDB Caribbean Development Bank
CE Council of Europe
CEAO Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest; see West
African Economic Community (CEAO)
CEEAC Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale; see
Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC)
CEMA Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; also known as CMEA or
Comecon; abolished 1 January 1991
CEPGL Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs; see Economic
Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)
CERN Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire; see European
Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
CG Contadora Group
CIS Commonwealth of Independent States
CMEA Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA); also known as
Comecon; abolished 1 January 1991
COCOM Coordinating Committee on Export Controls
Comecon Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA); also known as
CMEA; abolished 1 January 1991
CP Colombo Plan
CSCE Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe

DC developed country

EADB East African Development Bank
EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
EC European Community
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECAFE Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; see Economic and
Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLA Economic Commission for Latin America; see Economic Commission
for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ECOSOC Economic and Social Council
ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
ECWA Economic Commission for Western Asia; see Economic and Social
Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)
EFTA European Free Trade Association
EIB European Investment Bank
Entente Council of the Entente
ESA European Space Agency
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FLS Front Line States
FZ Franc Zone

G-2 Group of 2
G-3 Group of 3
G-5 Group of 5
G-6 Group of 6 (not to be confused with the Big Six)
G-7 Group of 7
G-8 Group of 8
G-9 Group of 9
G-10 Group of 10
G-11 Group of 11
G-15 Group of 15
G-19 Group of 19
G-24 Group of 24
G-30 Group of 30
G-33 Group of 33
G-77 Group of 77
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GCC Gulf Cooperation Council

Habitat see United Nations Center for Human Settlements (UNCHS)
HG Hexagonal Group

IADB Inter-American Development Bank
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IBEC International Bank for Economic Cooperation
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
ICC International Chamber of Commerce
ICEM Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration; see
International Organization for Migration (IOM)
ICFTU International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
ICJ International Court of Justice
ICM Intergovernmental Committee for Migration; see
International Organization for Migration (IOM)
ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross
IDA International Development Association
IDB Islamic Development Bank
IEA International Energy Agency
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IFC International Finance Corporation
IGADD Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development
IIB International Investment Bank
ILO International Labor Organization
IMCO Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization; see
International Maritime Organization (IMO)
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite Organization
INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization
IOC International Olympic Committee
IOM International Organization for Migration
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ITU International Telecommunication Union

LAES Latin American Economic System
LAIA Latin American Integration Association
LAS League of Arab States; see Arab League (AL)
LDC less developed country
LLDC least developed country
LORCS League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

MERCOSUR Southern Cone Common Market
MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime

NACC North Atlantic Cooperation Council
NAM Nonaligned Movement
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NC Nordic Council
NEA Nuclear Energy Agency
NIB Nordic Investment Bank
NIC newly industrializing country; see newly industrializing
economy (NIE)
NIE newly industrializing economy
NSG Nuclear Suppliers Group

OAPEC Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries
OAS Organization of American States
OAU Organization of African Unity
OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
OECS Organization of Eastern Caribbean States
OIC Organization of the Islamic Conference
OPANAL Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America
and the Caribbean
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

PCA Permanent Court of Arbitration

RG Rio Group

SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
SACU Southern African Customs Union
SADCC Southern African Development Coordination Conference
SELA Sistema Economico Latinoamericana; see Latin American Economic
System (LAES)
SPC South Pacific Commission
SPF South Pacific Forum

UDEAC Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale; see
Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)
UN United Nations
UNAVEM United Nations Angola Verification Mission
UNCHS United National Center for Human Settlements (also
known as Habitat)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDOF United Nations Disengagement Observer Force
UNDP United Nations Development Program
UNEP United Nations Environment Program
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization
UNFICYP United Nations Force in Cyprus
UNFPA United Nations Fund for Population Activities; see UN Population
Fund (UNFPA)
UNHCR United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund; see
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
UNIIMOG United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group
UNMOGIP United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees
in the Near East
UNTSO United Nations Truce Supervision Organization
UPU Universal Postal Union
USSR/EE USSR/Eastern Europe

WADB West African Development Bank
WCL World Confederation of Labor
WEU Western European Union
WFC World Food Council
WFP World Food Program
WFTU World Federation of Trade Unions
WHO World Health Organization
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WP Warsaw Pact (members met 1 July 1991 to dissolve the alliance)
WTO World Tourism Organization

ZC Zangger Committee

note: not all international organizations and groups have abbreviations

Appendix C:

International Organizations and Groups

**********

advanced developing countries

Note - another term for those less developed countries (LDCs)
with particularly rapid industrial development; see newly
industrializing economies (NIEs)

**********

African, Caribbean, and Pacific Countries (ACP)

established - 1 April 1976

aim - members have a preferential economic and aid relationship
with the EC

members - (69) Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas,
Barbados, Belize, Benin, Boswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo,
Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya,
Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea,
Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra
Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland,
Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda,
Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

**********

African Development Bank (AfDB), also known as Banque Africaine
de Developpement (BAD)

established - 4 August 1963

aim - to promote economic and social development

regional members - (51) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana,
Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,
Chad, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea,
Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory
Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger,
Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia,
Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

nonregional members - (25) Argentina, Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France,
Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Kuwait, Netherlands,
Norway, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US,
Yugoslavia

**********

Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique (ACCT)

Note - see Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation (ACCT)

**********

Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation (ACCT)

Note - acronym from Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique

established - 21 March 1970

aim - to promote cultural and technical cooperation among French-
speaking countries

members - (32) Belgium, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Canada, Central
African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Dominica,
France, Gabon, Guinea, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Lebanon, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Monaco, Niger, Rwanda, Sao Tome and
Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Togo, Tunisia, Vanuatu, Vietnam,
Zaire

associate members - (7) Cameroon, Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Laos,
Mauritania, Morocco, Saint Lucia

participating governments - (2) New Brunswick (Canada), Quebec
(Canada)

**********

Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America
and the Caribbean (OPANAL)

Note - acronym from Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas
Nucleares en la America Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL)

established - 14 February 1967

aim - to encourage the peaceful uses of atomic energy and
prohibit nuclear weapons

members - (24) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados,
Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras,
Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname,
Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela

**********

Andean Group (AG)

established - 26 May 1969, effective 16 October 1969

aim - to promote harmonious development through economic
integration

members - (5) Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela

associate member - (1) Panama

observers - (26) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil,
Canada, Costa Rica, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany,
India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Paraguay,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US, Uruguay, Yugoslavia

Note - The US view is that the Socialist Federal represents its
continuation. Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and
that none of the successor republics

**********

Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA)

Note - also known as Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en
Afrique (BADEA)

established - 18 February 1974

effective - 16 September 1974

aim - to promote economic development

members - (16 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization)
Algeria, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya,
Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria,
Tunisia, UAE, Palestine Liberation Organization; note - these are
all the members of the Arab League except Djibouti, Somalia, and
Yemen

**********

Arab Cooperation Council (ACC)

established - 16 February 1989

aim - to promote economic cooperation and integration, possibly
leading to an Arab Common Market

members - (4) Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Yemen

**********

Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD)

established - 16 May 1968

aim - to promote economic and social development

members - (20 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization)
Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt (suspended from 1979 to 1988),
Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman,
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen,
Palestine Liberation Organization

**********

Arab League (AL)

Note - also known as League of Arab States (LAS)

established - 22 March 1945

aim - to promote economic, social, political, and military
cooperation

members - (20 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization)
Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon,
Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia,
Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation
Organization

**********

Arab Maghreb Union (AMU)

established - 17 February 1989

aim - to promote cooperation and integration among the Arab
states of northern Africa

members - (5) Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia

**********

Arab Monetary Fund (AMF)

established - 27 April 1976

effective - 2 February 1977

aim - to promote Arab cooperation, development, and integration
in monetary and economic affairs

members - (19 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization)
Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya,
Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan,
Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization

**********

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

established - NA November 1989

aim - to promote trade and investment in the Pacific basin

members - (15) all ASEAN members (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia,
Philippines, Singapore, Thailand) plus Australia, Canada, China,
Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, NZ, Taiwan, US

**********

Asian Development Bank (AsDB)

established - 19 December 1966

aim - to promote regional economic cooperation

regional members - (35) Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh,
Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Fiji, Hong Kong,
India, Indonesia, Japan, Kiribati, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia,
Maldives, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia,
Mongolia, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines,
Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga,
Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Samoa

nonregional members - (15) Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US

**********

Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI)

Note - see Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)

**********

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

established - 9 August 1967

aim - regional economic, social, and cultural cooperation among
the non-Communist countries of Southeast Asia

members - (6) Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines,
Singapore, Thailand

observer - (1) Papua New Guinea

**********

Australia Group

established - 1984

aim - to consult on and coordinate export controls related to
chemical and biological weapons

members - (22) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, UK, US

**********

Australia - New Zealand - United States Security Treaty (ANZUS)

established - 1 September 1951, effective 29 April 1952

aim - trilateral mutual security agreement, although the US
suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986

members - (3) Australia, NZ, US

**********

Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico (BCIE)

Note - see Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)

**********

Banco Interamericano de Desarvollo (BID)

Note - see Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)

**********

Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

established - 20 January 1930

effective - 17 March 1930

aim - to promote cooperation among central banks in international
financial settlements

members - (29) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada,
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Romania, South Africa, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US, Yugoslavia

**********

Banque Africaine de Developpement (BAD)

Note - see African Development Bank (AfDB)

**********

Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique (BADEA)

Note - see Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA)

**********

Banque de Developpement des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale (BDEAC)

Note - see Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC)

**********

Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD)

Note - see West African Development Bank (WADB)

**********

Benelux Economic Union (Benelux)

Note - acronym from Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg

established - 3 February 1958

effective - 1 November 1960

aim - to develop closer economic cooperation and integration

members - (3) Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands

**********

Big Seven

Note - membership is the same as the Group of 7

established - NA

aim - to discuss and coordinate major economic policies

members - (7) Big Six (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK)
plus the US

**********

Big Six

Note - not to be confused with the Group of 6

established - NA

aim - economic cooperation

members - (6) Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK

**********

Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM)

established - 4 July 1973

effective - 1 August 1973

aim - to promote economic integration and development, especially
among the less developed countries

members - (13) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados,
Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint
Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Trinidad and Tobago

associate members - (2) British Virgin Islands, Turks and Caicos
Islands

observers - (10) Anguilla, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Dominican
Republic, Haiti, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico,
Suriname, Venezuela

**********

Caribbean Development Bank (CDB)

established - 18 October 1969

effective - 26 January 1970

aim - to promote economic development and cooperation

regional members - (20) Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The
Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman
Islands, Colombia, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Mexico,
Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands,
Venezuela

nonregional members - (5) Canada, France, Germany, Italy, UK

**********

Cartagena Group

Note - see Group of 11

**********

Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)

Note - acronym from Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique
Centrale

established - 8 December 1964

effective - 1 January 1966

aim - to promote the establishment of a Central African Common
Market

members - (6) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo,
Equatorial Guinea, Gabon

**********

Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC)

Note - acronym from Banque de Developpement des Etats de
l'Afrique Centrale

established - 3 December 1975

aim - to provide loans for economic development

members - (9) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo,
Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Germany, Kuwait

**********

Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)

Note - acronym from Banco Centroamericano de Integracion
Economico

established - 13 December 1960

aim - to promote economic integration and development

members - (5) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,
Nicaragua

**********

Central American Common Market (CACM)

established - 13 December 1960

effective - 3 June 1961

aim - to promote establishment of a Central American Common
Market

members - (5) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,
Nicaragua

**********

centrally planned economies

Note - a term applied mainly to the traditionally Communist
states that looked to the former USSR for leadership; most are
now evolving toward more democratic and market-oriented systems;
also known formerly as the Second World or as the Communist
countries; through the 1980s, this group included Albania,
Bulgaria, Cambodia, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Hungary,
North Korea, Laos, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam,
Yugoslavia

**********

Colombo Plan (CP)

established - 1 July 1951

aim - to promote economic and social development in Asia and the
Pacific

nembers - (26) Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma,
Cambodia, Canada, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, South
Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New
Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, UK, US

**********

Commission for Social Development

established - 21 June 1946 as the Social Commission, renamed 29
July 1966

aim - ECOSOC organization dealing with social development
programs

members - (31) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

**********

Commission on Human Rights

established - 18 February 1946

aim - ECOSOC organization dealing with human rights

members - (43) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

**********

Commission on Narcotic Drugs

established - 16 February 1946

aim - ECOSOC organization dealing with illicit drugs

members - (38) selected on a rotating basis from all regions with
emphasis on producing and processing countries

**********

Commission on the Status of Women

established - 21 June 1946

aim - ECOSOC organization dealing with women's rights

members - (32) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

**********

Commonwealth (C)

established - 31 December 1931

aim - voluntary association that evolved from the British Empire
and that seeks to foster multinational cooperation and assistance

members - (48) Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Canada, Cyprus,
Dominica, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, India, Jamaica,
Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta,
Mauritius, Namibia, NZ, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands,
Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago,
Uganda, UK, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Zambia, Zimbabwe

special members - (2) Nauru, Tuvalu

**********

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

established - 8 December 1991

effective - 21 December 1991

aim - to coordinate intercommonwealth relations and to provide a
mechanism for the orderly dissolution of the USSR

members - (11) Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine,
Uzbekistan

**********

Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest (CEAO)

Note - see West African Economic Community (CEAO)

**********

Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale (CEEAC)

Note - see Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC)

**********

Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs (CEPGL)

Note - see Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries
(CEPGL)

**********

Communist countries

Note - traditionally the Marxist-Leninist states with
authoritarian governments and command economies based on the
Soviet model; most of the successor states are no longer
Communist; see centrally planned economies

**********

Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)

established - NA November 1972

aim - discusses issues of mutual concern and reviews
implementation of the Helsinki Agreement

members - (52) Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus,
Belgium, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia,
Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,
Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US,
Uzbekistan, Vatican City, Yugoslavia

**********

Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire (CERN)

Note - see European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)

**********

Contadora Group (CG) -
Note - was established 5 January 1983 (on the Panamanian island
of Contadora) to reduce tensions and conflicts in Central America
but evolved into the Rio Group (RG); members included Colombia,
Mexico, Panama, Venezuela

**********

Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf

Note - see Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)

**********

Coordinating Committee on Export Controls (COCOM)

established - NA 1949

aim - to control the export of strategic products and technical
data from member countries to proscribed destinations

members - (17) Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France,
Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway,
Portugal, Spain, Turkey, UK, US

cooperating countries - (8) Austria, Finland, Ireland, South
Korea, NZ, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland

**********

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA)

Note - also known as CMEA or Comecon, was established 25 January
1949 to promote the development of socialist economies and was
abolished 1 January 1991; members included Afghanistan
(observer), Albania (had not participated since 1961 break with
USSR), Angola (observer), Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia,
Ethiopia (observer), GDR, Hungary, Laos (observer), Mongolia,
Mozambique (observer), Nicaragua (observer), Poland, Romania,
USSR, Vietnam, Yemen (observer), Yugoslavia (associate)

**********

Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU)

established - 3 June 1957

effective - 30 May 1964

aim - to promote economic integration among Arab nations

members - (11 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Egypt,
Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan, Syria,
UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization

**********

Council of Europe (CE)

established - 5 May 1949

effective - 3 August 1949

aim - to promote increased unity and quality of life in Europe

members - (28) Austria, Belgium, Belarus, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia,
Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands,
Norway, Poland, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
Turkey, Ukraine, UK

**********

Council of the Entente (Entente)

established - 29 May 1959

aim - to promote economic, social, and political coordination

members - (5) Benin, Burkina, Ivory Coast, Niger, Togo

**********

Customs Cooperation Council (CCC)

established - 15 December 1950

aim - to promote international cooperation in customs matters

members - (108) Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Australia, Austria,
The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil,
Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African
Republic, Chile, China, Congo, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia,
Denmark, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hong Kong,
Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel,
Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi,
Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco,
Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, South
Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,
Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,
Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia,
Zimbabwe

**********

developed countries (DCs)

Note - the top group in the comprehensive but mutually exclusive
hierarchy of developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern
Europe (former USSR/EE), and less developed countries (LDCs);
includes the market-oriented economies of the mainly democratic
nations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD), Bermuda, Israel, South Africa, and the
European ministates; also known as the First World, high-income
countries, the North, industrial countries; generally have a per
capita GNP/GDP in excess of $10,000 although some OECD countries
and South Africa have figures well under $10,000 and two of the
excluded OPEC countries have figures of more than $10,000. The
34 DCs are: Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda,
Canada, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein,
Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, San
Marino, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US,
Vatican City

**********

developing countries

Note - an imprecise term for the less developed countries with
growing economies; see less developed countries (LDCs)

**********

East African Development Bank (EADB)

established - 6 June 1967

effective - 1 December 1967

aim - to promote economic development

members - (3) Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda

**********

Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)

established - 28 March 1947 as Economic Commission for Asia and
the Far East (ECAFE)

aim - to promote economic development as a regional commission
for the UN's ECOSOC

members - (39) Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan,
Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, China, Fiji, France, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives,
Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New
Guinea, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri
Lanka, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, UK, US, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western
Samoa

associate members - (10) American Samoa, Cook Islands, Guam, Hong
Kong, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia,
Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Trust Territory of the Pacific
Islands (Palau)

**********

Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)

established - 9 August 1973 as Economic Commission for Western
Asia (ECWA)

aim - to promote economic development as a regional commission
for the UN's ECOSOC

members - (12 and the Palestine Liberation Organization) Bahrain,
Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,
Syria, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization

**********

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

established - 26 June 1945

effective - 24 October 1945

aim - to coordinate the economic and social work of the UN;
includes five regional commissions (see Economic Commission for
Africa, Economic Commission for Europe, Economic Commission for
Latin America and the Caribbean, Economic and Social Commission
for Asia and the Pacific, Economic and Social Commission for
Western Asia) and six functional commissions (see Commission for
Social Development, Commission on Human Rights, Commission on
Narcotic Drugs, Commission on the Status of Women, Population
Commission, and Statistical Commission)

members - (54) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

**********

Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)

established - 29 April 1958

aim - to promote economic development as a regional commission of
the UN's ECOSOC

members - (52) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina,
Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad,
Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia,
Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast,
Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger,
Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa (suspended), Sudan,
Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia,
Zimbabwe

**********

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE)

see Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
(ESCAP)

**********

Economic Commission for Europe (ECE)

established - 28 March 1947

aim - to promote economic development as a regional commission of
the UN's ECOSOC

members - (33) Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria,
Canada, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,
Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, Ukraine, US, Yugoslavia

**********

Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA)

see Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
(ECLAC)

**********

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

established - 25 February 1948 as Economic Commission for Latin
America (ECLA)

aim - to promote economic development as a regional commission of
the UN's ECOSOC

members - (41) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas,
Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa
Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,
France, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica,
Mexico, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal,
Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines, Spain, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US,
Uruguay, Venezuela

associate members - (5) Aruba, British Virgin Islands,
Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Virgin Islands

**********

Economic Commission for Western Asia (ECWA)

Note - see Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
(ESCWA)

**********

Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC) - acronym
from Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale

established - 18 October 1983

aim - to promote regional economic cooperation and establish a
Central African Common Market

members - (10) Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad,
Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe,
Zaire

observer - (1) Angola

**********

Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)

Note - acronym from Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands
Lacs

established - 26 September 1976

aim - to promote regional economic cooperation and integration

members - (3) Burundi, Rwanda, Zaire

**********

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

established - 28 May 1975

aim - to promote regional economic cooperation

members - (16) Benin, Burkina, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania,
Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

**********

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)

established - 15 April 1991

aim - to facilitate the transition of seven centrally planned
economies in Europe (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland,
Romania, former USSR, and former Yugoslavia) to market economies
by committing 60% of its loans to privatization

members - (35) Albania, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada,
Cyprus, Denmark, European Community (EC), Egypt, European
Investment Bank (EIB), Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Liechtenstein,
Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway,
Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US; note -
includes all 24 members of the OECD and the EC as an institution

**********

European Community (EC)

established - 8 April 1965

effective - 1 July 1967

aim - a fusing of the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom),
the European Coal and Steel Community (ESC), and the European
Economic Community (EEC or Common Market); the EC plans to
establish a completely integrated common market in 1992 and an
eventual federation of Europe

members - (12) Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece,
Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK

associate member - (1) Czechoslovakia

**********

European Free Trade Association (EFTA)

established - 4 January 1960

effective - 3 May 1960

aim - to promote expansion of free trade

members - (6) Austria, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden,
Switzerland

**********

European Investment Bank (EIB)

established - 25 March 1957

effective - 1 January 1958

aim - to promote economic development of the EC

members - (12) Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece,
Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK

**********

European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)

Note - acronym retained from the predecessor organization Conseil
Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire

established - 1 July 1953

effective - 29 September 1954

aim - to foster nuclear research for peaceful purposes only

members - (16) Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK

observers - (2) Turkey, Yugoslavia

**********

European Space Agency (ESA)

established - 31 July 1973

effective - 1 May 1975

aim - to promote peaceful cooperation in space research and
technology

members - (13) Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany,
Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
UK

associate member - (1) Finland

**********

First World

Note - another term for countries with advanced, industrialized
economies; this term is fading from use; see developed countries
(DCs)

**********

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

established - 16 October 1945

aim - UN specialized agency to raise living standards and
increase availability of agricultural products

members - (157) all UN members except Armenia, Azerbaijan,
Belarus, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Brunei, Croatia, Estonia,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova,
Russia, San Marino, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa,
Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan; other members are
Cook Islands, Switzerland, Tonga

**********

Former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE)

Note - the middle group in the comprehensive but mutually
exclusive hierarchy of developed countries (DCs), former
USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and less developed
countries (LDCs); these countries are in political and economic
transition and may well be grouped differently in the near
future; this includes Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus,
Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czecholovakia,
Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia,
Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovenia,
Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia

**********

Four Dragons

Note - the four small Asian less developed countries (LDCs) that
have experienced unusually rapid economic growth; also known as
the Four Tigers; this group includes Hong Kong, South Korea,
Singapore, Taiwan

**********

Four Tigers

Note - another term for the Four Dragons; see Four Dragons

**********

Franc Zone (FZ)

established - NA

aim - monetary union among countries whose currencies are linked
to the French franc

members - (15) Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African
Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon,
Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo; note - France includes
metropolitan France, the four overseas departments of France
(French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion), the two
territorial collectivities of France (Mayotte, Saint Pierre and
Miquelon), and the three overseas territories of France (French
Polynesia, New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna)

**********

Front Line States (FLS)

established - NA

aim - to achieve black majority rule in South Africa

members - (7) Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

**********

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

established - 30 October 1947

effective - 1 January 1948

aim - to promote the expansion of international trade on a
nondiscriminatory basis

members - (98) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia,
Austria, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Botswana,
Brazil, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central
African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Congo, Cuba, Cyprus,
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Finland,
France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala,
Guyana, Haiti, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, South
Korea, Kuwait, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco,
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad
and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK, US, Uruguay, Yugoslavia,
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

**********

Group of 2 (G-2)

established - informal term that came into use about 1986

aim - bilateral economic cooperation between the two most
powerful economic giants

members - (2) Japan, US

**********

Group of 3 (G-3)

established - NA October 1990

aim - mechanism for policy coordination

members - (3) Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela

**********

Group of 5 (G-5)

established - 22 September 1985

aim - the five major non-Communist economic powers

members - (5) France, Germany, Japan, UK, US

**********

Group of 6 (G-6)

Note - not to be confused with the Big Six

established - 22 May 1984

aim - seeks to achieve nuclear disarmament

members - (6) Argentina, Greece, India, Mexico, Sweden, Tanzania

**********

Group of 7 (G-7)

Note - membership is the same as the Big Seven

established - 22 September 1985

aim - the seven major non-Communist economic powers

members - (7) Group of 5 (France, Germany, Japan, UK, US) plus
Canada and Italy

**********

Group of 8 (G-8)

established - NA October 1975

aim - the developed countries (DCs) that participated in the
Conference on International Economic Cooperation (CIEC), held in
several sessions between NA December 1975 and 3 June 1977

members - (8) Australia, Canada, EC (as one member), Japan,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, US

**********

Group of 9 (G-9)

established - NA

aim - informal group that meets occasionally on matters of mutual
interest

members - (9) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland,
Hungary, Romania, Sweden, Yugoslavia

**********

Group of 10 (G-10)

Note - also known as the Paris Club

established - NA October 1962

aim - wealthiest members of the IMF who provide most of the money
to be loaned and act as the informal steering committee; name
persists in spite of the addition of Switzerland on NA April 1984

members - (11) Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan,
Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US

**********

Group of 11 (G-11)

Note - also known as the Cartagena Group

established - 22 June 1984, in Cartagena, Colombia

aim - forum for largest debtor nations in Latin America

members - (11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela

**********

Group of 15 (G-15)

Note - byproduct of the Non-Aligned Movement

established - 1989

aim - to promote economic cooperation among developing nations;
to act as the main political organ for the Non-Aligned Movement

members - (15) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, India,
Indonesia, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, Senegal,
Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe

**********

Group of 19 (G-19)

established - NA October 1975

aim - the less developed countries (LDCs) that participated in
the Conference on International Economic Cooperation (CIEC) held
in several sessions between NA December 1975 and 3 June 1977

members - (19) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Cameroon, Egypt,
India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan,
Peru, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia

**********

Group of 24 (G-24)

established - NA January 1972

aim - to promote the interests of developing countries in Africa,
Asia, and Latin America within the IMF

members - (24) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Egypt,
Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Iran, Ivory Coast,
Lebanon, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka,
Syria, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire

**********

Group of 30 (G-30)

established - NA 1979

aim - to discuss and propose solutions to the world's economic
problems

members - (30) informal group of 30 leading international
bankers, economists, financial experts, and businessmen organized
by Johannes Witteveen (former managing director of the IMF)

**********

Group of 33 (G-33)

established - NA 1987

aim - to promote solutions to international economic problems

members - (33) leading economists from 13 countries

**********

Group of 77 (G-77)

established - NA October 1967

aim - to promote economic cooperation among developing countries;
name persists in spite of increased membership

members - (127 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization)
Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan,
Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina, Burma, Burundi,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad,
Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus,
Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia,
Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica,
Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives,
Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman,
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,
Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,
Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands,
Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, UAE,
Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen,
Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation
Organization

**********

Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)

Note - also known as the Cooperation Council for the Arab States
of the Gulf

established - 25-26 May 1981

aim - to promote regional cooperation in economic, social,
political, and military affairs

members - (6) Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE

**********

Habitat

Note - see United Nations Center for Human Settlements (UNCHS)

**********

Hexagonal Group

Note - HG - the old Pentagonal Group plus one)

established - July 1991

aim - to form an economic and political cooperation group for the
region between the Adriatic and the Baltic Seas

members - (6) Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Italy, Poland,
Yugoslavia

**********

high-income countries

Note - another term for the industrialized countries with high
per capita GNPs/GDPs; see developed countries (DCs)

**********

industrial countries

Note - another term for the developed countries; see developed
countries (DCs)

**********

Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)

Note - also known as Banco Interamericano de Desarvollo (BID)

established - 8 April 1959

effective - 30 December 1959

aim - to promote economic and social development in Latin America

members - (44) Argentina, Austria, The Bahamas, Barbados,
Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Finland,
France, Germany, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Israel,
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway,
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Spain, Suriname, Sweden,
Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela,
Yugoslavia

**********

Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD)

established - NA January 1986

aim - to promote cooperation on drought-related matters

members - (6) Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda

**********

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

established - 26 October 1956

effective - 29 July 1957

aim - to promote peaceful uses of atomic energy

members - (115) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia,
Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile,
China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia,
Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan,
Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon,
Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar,
Malaysia, Mali, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco,
Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone,
Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda,
Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, Vietnam,
Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

**********

International Bank for Economic Cooperation (IBEC)

Note - established in 22 October 1963; aim was to promote
economic cooperation and development - members were Bulgaria,
Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland,
Romania, USSR, Vietnam; now a Russian bank with a new charter

**********

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

Note - also known as the World Bank

established - 22 July 1944

effective - 27 December 1945

aim - UN specialized agency that initially promoted economic
rebuilding after World War II and now provides economic
development loans

members - (156) all UN members except Armenia, Azerbaijan,
Brunei, Cuba, Estonia, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kyrgyzstan,
Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Marshall Islands, Federated
States of Micronesia, Moldova, San Marino, Tajikistan,
Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan; other members are Kiribati,
Tonga

**********

International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)

established - NA 1919

aim - to promote free trade and private enterprise and to
represent business interests at national and international levels

members - (58 national councils) Argentina, Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Brazil, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada, Colombia, Cyprus,
Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Greece,
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory
Coast, Japan, Jordan, South Korea, Lebanon, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway,
Pakistan, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, South
Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan,
Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia,
Zaire

**********

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

established - 7 December 1944

effective - 4 April 1947

aim - UN specialized agency to promote international cooperation
in civil aviation

members - (164) all UN members except Armenia, Azerbaijan,
Belarus, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia, Dominica, Estonia,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Moldova, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Slovenia, Tajikistan,
Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Western Samoa; other members
are Cook Islands, Kiribati, Monaco, Nauru, Switzerland, Tonga

**********

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)

established - NA 1863

aim - to provide humanitarian aid in wartime

members - (25 individuals) all Swiss nationals

**********

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)

established - NA December 1949

aim - to promote the trade union movement

members - (144 national organizations in the following 103 areas)
Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Basque Country, Belgium, Bermuda, Botswana,
Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Canada, Central African Republic,
Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Curacao, Cyprus,
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
El Salvador, Estonia, Falkland Islands, Fiji, Finland, France,
French Polynesia, The Gambia, Germany, Greece, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Hong Kong, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kiribati, South Korea,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi,
Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Montserrat, Morocco,
Netherlands, New Caledonia, NZ, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Puerto Rico, Russia, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland,
Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK, US, Vatican City, Venezuela,
Western Samoa

**********

International Court of Justice (ICJ)

Note - also known as the World Court

established - 26 June 1945

effective - 24 October 1945

aim - primary judicial organ of the UN

members - (15 judges) elected by the General Assembly and
Security Council to represent all principal legal systems

**********

International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL)

established - 13 June 1956

aim - to promote international cooperation between criminal
police authorities

members - (152) Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia,
Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,
Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad,
Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Denmark,
Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt,
Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The
Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory
Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea,
Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein,
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Mozambique,
Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua,
Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yemen, Yugoslavia,
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

**********

International Development Association (IDA)

established - 26 January 1960

effective - 24 September 1960

aim - UN specialized agency and IBRD affiliate that provides
economic loans for low income countries

members - (136) Part I - (22 more economically advanced
countries) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland,
France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kuwait,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, South Africa, Sweden, UAE,
UK, US

members - Part II - (114 less developed nations) Afghanistan,
Algeria, Argentina, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Greece,
Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Ivory
Coast, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Laos, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives,
Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Rwanda, Saint Kitts
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao
Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon
Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,
Turkey, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen,
Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

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International Energy Agency (IEA)

established - 15 November 1974

aim - established by the OECD to promote cooperation on energy
matters, especially emergency oil sharing and relations between
oil consumers and oil producers

members - (21) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US

**********

International Finance Corporation (IFC)

established - 25 May 1955

effective - 20 July 1956

aim - UN specialized agency and IBRD affiliate that helps private
enterprise sector in economic development

members - (133) Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium,
Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, Burma,

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