Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Books, poems, drama…

Part 30 out of 32

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 3.2 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

Coastline:
356,000 km
Maritime claims:
range from 3 to 200 nm; 1 claim is rectangular; 112 states claim a 12 nm
limit; note - boundary situations with neighboring states prevent many
countries from extending their fishing or economic zones to a full 200 nm;
41 nations and other areas are landlocked and include Afghanistan, Andorra,
Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina,
Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Czechoslovakia, Hungary,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macedonia,
Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal, Niger, Paraguay, Rwanda, San Marino,
Swaziland, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan,
Vatican City, West Bank, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Contiguous zone:
39 states claim contiguous zone, 33 of which have 24 nm limits
Continental shelf:
approximately 78 states have specific continental shelf claims, the limit of
42 claims is based on depth (200 m) plus exploitability, 21 claims define
the continental shelf as 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Exclusive fishing zone:
23 claims with limits ranging from 12 nm to 200 nm
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ):
83 states claim an EEZ, with most limits being 200 nm
Territorial sea:
claims range from 3 to 200 nm, 112 states claim a 12 nm limit; note - 41
nations and miscellaneous areas are landlocked and comprise Afghanistan,
Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina,
Burundi, Byelarus, Central African Republic, Chad, Czechoslovakia, Hungary,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macebia,
Zimbabwe
Disputes:
major international land boundary or territorial diputes - Bahrain-Qatar,
Chad-Libya, China-India, China-Russia, Ecuador-Peru, El Salvador-Honduras,
Israel-Jordan, Israel-Syria, Japan-Russia, North Korea-South Korea, Saudi
Arabia-Yemen, South China Sea
Climate:
two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather narrow temperate
zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to subtropical climates
Terrain:
highest elevation is Mt. Everest at 8,848 meters and lowest depression is
the Dead Sea at 392 meters below sea level; greatest ocean depth is the
Marianas Trench at 10,924 meters
Natural resources:
the rapid using up of nonrenewable mineral resources, the depletion of
forest areas and wetlands, the extinction of animal and plant species, and
the deterioration in air and water quality (especially in Eastern Europe and
the former USSR) pose serious long-term problems that governments and
peoples are only beginning to address
Land use:
arable land 10%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 24%; forest and
woodland 31%; other 34%; includes irrigated 1.6%

:World Geography

Environment:
large areas subject to severe weather (tropical cyclones), natural disasters
(earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions), overpopulation,
industrial disasters, pollution (air, water, acid rain, toxic substances),
loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of
wildlife resources, soil degradation, soil depletion, erosion

:World People

Population:
5,515,617,484 (July 1992), growth rate 1.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
26 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
63 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
61 years male, 65 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.3 children born/woman (1992)
Literacy:
74% (male 81%, female 67%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
2.24 billion (1992)
Organized labor:
NA

:World Government

Administrative divisions:
187 sovereign nations plus 72 dependent, other, and miscellaneous areas
Legal system:
varies by individual country; 182 are parties to the United Nations
International Court of Justice (ICJ or World Court)
Diplomatic representation:
there are 178 members of the UN

:World Economy

Overview:
Aggregate world output in 1991 increased by 1.3%, in contrast to estimated
2% growth in 1990 and 3% growth in 1989. In 1991, the developed countries
grew by 2.5% and the LDCs by 3.5%, these gains being offset by a 10-15% drop
in the former Communist-dominated areas of the USSR and Eastern Europe. As
usual, results among individual countries differed widely. In the developed
group, Japan led with 4.5%, the West European members averaged 1.2%, and the
recession-plagued United States lagged,with GDP down 0.7%. As for the 15
former Soviet republics and the seven nations of Eastern Europe, output
plummeted in many economic sectors because of fundamental changes in the
rules of the game and in the channels of production and exchange. China and
the Four Dragons performed well in 1991 but many of the other developing
countries are mired in poverty and political instability. For the world as a
whole, the addition of nearly 100 million people each year to an already
overcrowded globe will exacerbate the problems of pollution,
desertification, underemployment, epidemics, and famine.
GWP (gross world product):
purchasing power equivalent - $25 trillion, per capita $4,600; real growth
rate 1.3% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
developed countries 5%; developing countries 50%, with wide variations (1991
est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Exports:
$3.34 trillion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
partners:
in value, about 75% of exports from developed countries
Imports:
$3.49 trillion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
partners:
in value, about 75% of imports by the developed countries
External debt:
$1.0 trillion for less developed countries (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3% (1990 est.)
Electricity:
2,864,000,000 kW capacity; 11,450,000 million kWh produced, 2,150 kWh per
capita (1990)
Industries:
industry worldwide is dominated by the onrush of technology, especially in
computers, robotics, telecommunications, and medicines and medical
equipment; most of these advances take place in OECD nations; only a small
portion of non-OECD countries have succeeded in rapidly adjusting to these
technological forces, and the technological gap between the industrial
nations and the less-developed countries continues to widen; the rapid
development of new industrial (and agricultural) technology is complicating
already grim environmental problems

:World Economy

Agriculture:
the production of major food crops has increased substantially in the last
20 years. The annual production of cereals, for instance, has risen by 50%,
from about 1.2 billion metric tons to about 1.8 billion metric tons;
production increases have resulted mainly from increased yields rather than
increases in planted areas; while global production is sufficient for
aggregate demand, about one-fifth of the world's population remains
malnourished, primarily because local production cannot adequately provide
for large and rapidly growing populations, which are too poor to pay for
food imports; conditions are especially bad in Africa where drought in
recent years has exacerbated the consequences of all other factors
Economic aid:
NA

:World Communications

Railroads:
239,430 km of narrow gauge track; 710,754 km of standard gauge track;
251,153 km of broad gauge track; includes about 190,000 to 195,000 km of
electrified routes of which 147,760 km are in Europe, 24,509 km in the Far
East, 11,050 km in Africa, 4,223 km in South America, and only 4,160 km in
North America; fastest speed in daily service is 300 km/hr attained by
France's SNCF TGV-Atlantique line
Ports:
Mina al Ahmadi (Kuwait), Chiba, Houston, Kawasaki, Kobe, Marseille, New
Orleans, New York, Rotterdam, Yokohama
Merchant marine:
23,596 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 386,736,000 GRT/637,493,000 DWT;
includes 348 passenger-cargo, 12,441 freighters, 5,446 bulk carriers, and
5,361 tankers (January 1991)
Civil air:
14,500-16,000 major transport aircraft with gross take-off weight of 9,000
kg (20,000 lbs) or more (1992 est.)

:World Defense Forces

Branches:
ground, maritime, and air forces at all levels of technology
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,400,000,000; NA fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
$1.0 trillion, 4% of total world output; decline of 5-10% (1991 est.)

:Yemen Geography

Total area:
527,970 km2
Land area:
527,970 km2; includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or
North Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or
South Yemen)
Comparative area:
slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming
Land boundaries:
1,746 km total; Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km
Coastline:
1,906 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
North - 18 nm; South - 24 nm
Continental shelf:
North - 200 meters (depth); South - edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
undefined section of boundary with Saudi Arabia; Administrative Line with
Oman; there is a proposed treaty with Oman (which has not yet been formerly
accepted) to settle the Yemeni-Omani boundary
Climate:
mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western
mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh
desert in east
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains;
dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of
the Arabian Peninsula
Natural resources:
crude oil, fish, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal, gold, lead,
nickel, and copper; fertile soil in west
Land use:
arable land 6%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 30%; forest and
woodland 7%; other 57%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
subject to sand and dust storms in summer; scarcity of natural freshwater
resources; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Note:
controls Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden,
one of world's most active shipping lanes

:Yemen People

Population:
10,394,749 (July 1992), growth rate 3.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
51 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
16 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
118 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
49 years male, 52 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
7.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Yemeni(s); adjective - Yemeni
Ethnic divisions:
North - Arab 90%, Afro-Arab (mixed) 10%; South - almost all Arabs; a few
Indians, Somalis, and Europeans
Religions:
North - Muslim almost 100% (45% Sunni and 55% Zaydi Shi`a); NEGL Jewish;
South - Sunni Muslim, some Christian and Hindu
Languages:
Arabic
Literacy:
38% (male 53%, female 26%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
North - NA number of workers with agriculture and herding 70%, and
expatriate laborers 30% (est.); South - 477,000 with agriculture 45.2%,
services 21.2%, construction 13.4%, industry 10.6%, commerce and other 9.6%
(1983)
Organized labor:
North - NA; South - 348,200 and the General Confederation of Workers of the
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen had 35,000 members

:Yemen Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Yemen
Type:
republic
Capital:
Sanaa
Administrative divisions:
17 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Abyan, `Adan, Al Bayda',
Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb,
Lahij, Ma'rib, Sa`dah, San`a', Shabwah, Ta`izz
Independence:
Republic of Yemen was established on 22 May 1990 with the merger of the
Yemen Arab Republic {Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen} and the Marxist-dominated
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen {Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen};
previously North Yemen had become independent on NA November 1918 (from the
Ottoman Empire) and South Yemen had become independent on 30 November 1967
(from the UK); the union is to be solidified during a 30-month transition
period, which coincides with the remainder of the five-year terms of both
legislatures
Constitution:
16 April 1991
Legal system:
based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and local customary
law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Proclamation of the Republic, 22 May (1990)
Executive branch:
five-member Presidential Council (president, vice president, two members
from northern Yemen and one member from southern Yemen), prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
North - State Security Court; South - Federal High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President `Ali `Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president of
North Yemen); Vice President Ali Salim al-BIDH (since 22 May 1990, and
Secretary General of the Yemeni Socialist Party); Presidential Council
Member Salim Salih MUHAMMED; Presidential Council Member Kadi Abdul-Karim
al-ARASHI; Presidential Council Member Abdul-Aziz ABDUL-GHANI; Prime
Minister Haydar Abu Bakr al-`ATTAS (since 22 May 1990, former president of
South Yemen)
Political parties and leaders:
General People's Congress, `Ali `Abdallah SALIH; Yemeni Socialist Party
(YSP; formerly South Yemen's ruling party - a coalition of National Front,
Ba`th, and Communist Parties), Ali Salim al-BIDH; Yemen Grouping for Reform
or Islaah, Abdallah Husayn AHMAR
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held NA (next to be held NA November 1992); results - percent of vote
NA; seats - (301); number of seats by party NA; note - the 301 members of
the new House of Representatives come from North Yemen's Consultative
Assembly (159 members), South Yemen's Supreme People's Council (111
members), and appointments by the New Presidential Council (31 members)
Communists:
small number in North, greater but unknown number in South

:Yemen Government

Other political or pressure groups:
conservative tribal groups, Muslim Brotherhood, leftist factions - pro-Iraqi
Ba`thists, Nasirists, National Democratic Front (NDF)
Member of:
ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Muhsin Ahmad al-AYNI; Chancery at Suite 840, 600 New Hampshire
Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037; telephone (202) 965-4760 or 4761; there is
a Yemeni Consulate General in Detroit and a Consulate in San Francisco
US:
Ambassador Arthur H. HUGHES; Embassy at Dhahr Himyar Zone, Sheraton Hotel
District, Sanaa (mailing address is P. O. Box 22347 Sanaa, Republic of Yemen
or Sanaa - Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-6330); telephone [967]
(2) 238-842 through 238-852; FAX [967] (2) 251-563
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; similar to the
flag of Syria which has two green stars and of Iraq which has three green
stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the
white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle
centered in the white band

:Yemen Economy

Overview:
Whereas the northern city Sanaa is the political capital of a united Yemen,
the southern city Aden, with its refinery and port facilities, is the
economic and commercial capital. Future economic development depends heavily
on Western-assisted development of promising oil resources. South Yemen's
willingness to merge stemmed partly from the steady decline in Soviet
economic support.
Overview:
North:
The low level of domestic industry and agriculture have made northern Yemen
dependent on imports for virtually all of its essential needs. Large trade
deficits have been made up for by remittances from Yemenis working abroad
and foreign aid. Once self-sufficient in food production, northern Yemen has
become a major importer. Land once used for export crops - cotton, fruit,
and vegetables - has been turned over to growing qat, a mildly narcotic
shrub chewed by Yemenis which has no significant export market. Oil export
revenues started flowing in late 1987 and boosted 1988 earnings by about
$800 million.
South:
This has been one of the poorest Arab countries, with a per capita GNP of
about $500. A shortage of natural resources, a widely dispersed population,
and an arid climate have made economic development difficult. The economy
has grown at an average annual rate of only 2-3% since the mid-1970s. The
economy had been organized along socialist lines, dominated by the public
sector. Economic growth has been constrained by a lack of incentives, partly
stemming from centralized control over production decisions, investment
allocation, and import choices.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $5.3 billion, per capita $545; real growth rate
NA% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
North:
16.9% (1988)
South:
0% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
North:
13% (1986)
South:
NA%
Budget:
North:
revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $2.2 billion, including capital
expenditures of $590 million (1988 est.)
South:
revenues and grants $435 million; expenditures $1.0 billion, including
capital expenditure of $460 million (1988 est.)
Exports:
North:
$606 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
crude oil, cotton, coffee, hides, vegetables
partners:
FRG 29%, US 26%, Netherlands 12%
South:
$113.8 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
commodities:
cotton, hides, skins, dried and salted fish

:Yemen Economy

partners:
Japan, North Yemen, Italy
Imports:
North:
$1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988)
Imports:
commodities:
textiles and other manufactured consumer goods, petroleum products, sugar,
grain, flour, other foodstuffs, and cement
partners:
Saudi Arabia 12%, France 6%, US 5%, Australia 5% (1985)
South:
$553.9 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
commodities:
grain, consumer goods, crude oil, machinery, chemicals
partners:
USSR, UK, Ethiopia
External debt:
$5.75 billion (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
North:
growth rate 2% in manufacturing (1988)
South:
growth rate NA% in manufacturing
Electricity:
700,000 kW capacity; 1,200 million kWh produced, 120 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of
cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; fishing;
small aluminum products factory; cement
Agriculture:
North:
accounted for 26% of GDP and 70% of labor force; farm products - grain,
fruits, vegetables, qat (mildly narcotic shrub), coffee, cotton, dairy,
poultry, meat, goat meat; not self-sufficient in grain
South:
accounted for 17% of GNP and 45% of labor force; products - grain, qat
(mildly narcotic shrub), coffee, fish, livestock; fish and honey major
exports; most food imported
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $389 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.0 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $3.2 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.4
billion
Currency:
North Yemeni riyal (plural - riyals); 1 North Yemeni riyal (YR) = 100 fils;
South Yemeni dinar (plural - dinars); 1 South Yemeni dinar (YD) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates:
North Yemeni riyals (YR) per US$1 - 12,1000 (June 1992), 12.0000 (1991),
9.7600 (1990), 9.7600 (January 1989), 9.7717 (1988), 10.3417 (1987); South
Yemeni dinars (YD) per US$1 - 0.3454 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Yemen Communications

Highways:
15,500 km; 4,000 km paved, 11,500 km natural surface (est.)
Pipelines:
crude oil 644 km, petroleum products 32 km
Ports:
Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Khalf, Mocha, Nishtun, Ra's Kathib, Salif
Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,309 GRT/6,568 DWT; includes 2 cargo,
1 petroleum tanker
Civil air:
11 major transport aircraft
Airports:
46 total, 40 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
since unification in 1990, efforts are being made to create a national
domestic civil telecommunications network and to revitalize the
infrastructure of a united Yemen; the network consists of microwave, cable
and troposcatter; 65,000 telephones (est.); broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM,
10 TV; satellite earth stations - 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, 2 ARABSAT; microwave to Saudi Arabia, and Djibouti

:Yemen Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,981,710; 1,127,391 fit for military service; 130,405 reach
military age (14) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.06 billion, 20% of GDP (1990)

:Zaire Geography

Total area:
2,345,410 km2
Land area:
2,267,600 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than one-quarter the size of US
Land boundaries:
10,271 km total; Angola 2,511 km, Burundi 233 km, Central African Republic
1,577 km, Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km, Sudan 628 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia
1,930 km
Coastline:
37 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be
indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the
Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled; long section with Congo along the
Congo River is indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has been
made)
Climate:
tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in
southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator
- wet season April to October, dry season December to February; south of
Equator - wet season November to March, dry season April to October
Terrain:
vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east
Natural resources:
cobalt, copper, cadmium, crude oil, industrial and gem diamonds, gold,
silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium, radium, bauxite, iron ore,
coal, hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 4%; forest and
woodland 78%; other 15%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands;
periodic droughts in south
Note:
straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo
River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean

:Zaire People

Population:
39,084,400 (July 1992), growth rate 3.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
45 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
13 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
97 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
52 years male, 56 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Zairian(s); adjective - Zairian
Ethnic divisions:
over 200 African ethnic groups, the majority are Bantu; four largest tribes
- Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up
about 45% of the population
Religions:
Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, other
syncretic sects and traditional beliefs 10%
Languages:
French (official), Lingala, Swahili, Kingwana, Kikongo, Tshiluba
Literacy:
72% (male 84%, female 61%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
15,000,000; agriculture 75%, industry 13%, services 12%; wage earners 13%
(1981); population of working age 51% (1985)
Organized labor:
National Union of Zairian Workers (UNTZA) was the only officially recognized
trade union until April 1990; other unions are now in process of seeking
official recognition

:Zaire Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Zaire
Type:
republic with a strong presidential system
Capital:
Kinshasa
Administrative divisions:
10 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 town* (ville); Bandundu,
Bas-Zaire, Equateur, Haut-Zaire, Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental,
Kinshasa*, Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Shaba, Sud-Kivu
Independence:
30 June 1960 (from Belgium; formerly Belgian Congo, then Congo/Leopoldville,
then Congo/Kinshasa)
Constitution:
24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15 February 1978; amended April
1990; new constitution to be promulgated in 1992
Legal system:
based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Regime (Second Republic), 24 November (1965)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Council (Conseil Legislatif)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (since 24
November 1965)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Jean NGUZ a Karl-i-Bond (since 26 November 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
sole legal party until January 1991 - Popular Movement of the Revolution
(MPR); other parties include Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS),
Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa Mulumba; Democratic Social Christian Party (PDSC),
Joseph ILEO; Union of Federalists and Independent Republicans (UFERI), NGUZ
a Karl-I-Bond; and Congolese National Movement-Lumumba (MNC-L)
Suffrage:
universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 29 July 1984 (next to be scheduled by ongoing National
Conference); results - President MOBUTU was reelected without opposition
Legislative Council:
last held 6 September 1987 (next to be scheduled by ongoing National
Conference); results - MPR was the only party; seats - (210 total) MPR 210;
note - MPR still holds majority of seats but some deputies have joined other
parties
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, APC, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, CIPEC, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador TATANENE Manata; Chancery at 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20009; telephone (202) 234-7690 or 7691

:Zaire Government

US:
Ambassador Melissa F. WELLS; Embassy at 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa
(mailing address is APO AE 09828); telephone [243] (12) 21532, 21628; FAX
[243] (12) 21232; the US Consulate General in Lubumbashi was closed and
evacuated in October 1991 because of the poor security situation
Flag:
light green with a yellow disk in the center bearing a black arm holding a
red flaming torch; the flames of the torch are blowing away from the hoist
side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

:Zaire Economy

Overview:
In 1990, in spite of large mineral resources Zaire had a GDP per capita of
only about $260, putting it among the desperately poor African nations. The
country's chronic economic problems worsened in 1991, with copper and cobalt
production down 20-30%, inflation near 8,000% in 1991 as compared with 100%
in 1987-89, and IMF and most World Bank support suspended until the
institution of agreed-on changes. Agriculture, a key sector of the economy,
employs 75% of the population but generates under 25% of GDP. The main
potential for economic development has been the extractive industries.
Mining and mineral processing account for about one-third of GDP and
three-quarters of total export earnings. Zaire is the world's largest
producer of diamonds and cobalt.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $9.8 billion, per capita $260; real growth rate
-3% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8,000% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $685 million; expenditures $1.1 billion, does not include capital
expenditures mostly financed by donors (1990)
Exports:
$2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
commodities:
copper 37%, coffee 24%, diamonds 12%, cobalt, crude oil
partners:
US, Belgium, France, FRG, Italy, UK, Japan, South Africa
Imports:
$2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
commodities:
consumer goods, foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment,
fuels
partners:
South Africa, US, Belgium, France, FRG, Italy, Japan, UK
External debt:
$7.9 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -7.3%; accounts for almost 30% of GDP (1989)
Electricity:
2,580,000 kW capacity; 6,000 million kWh produced, 160 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
mining, mineral processing, consumer products (including textiles, footwear,
and cigarettes), processed foods and beverages, cement, diamonds
Agriculture:
cash crops - coffee, palm oil, rubber, quinine; food crops - cassava,
bananas, root crops, corn
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic consumption
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.1 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $6.9 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $263
million
Currency:
zaire (singular and plural); 1 zaire (Z) = 100 makuta
Exchange rates:
zaire (Z) per US$1 - 111,196 (March 1992), 15,587 (1991), 719 (1990), 381
(1989), 187 (1988), 112 (1987)

:Zaire Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Zaire Communications

Railroads:
5,254 km total; 3,968 km 1.067-meter gauge (851 km electrified); 125 km
1.000-meter gauge; 136 km 0.615-meter gauge; 1,025 km 0.600-meter gauge;
limited trackage in use because of civil strife
Highways:
146,500 km total; 2,800 km paved, 46,200 km gravel and improved earth;
97,500 unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
15,000 km including the Congo, its tributaries, and unconnected lakes
Pipelines:
petroleum products 390 km
Ports:
Matadi, Boma, Banana
Merchant marine:
2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,921 GRT/30,332 DWT; includes 1
passenger cargo, 1 cargo
Civil air:
45 major transport aircraft
Airports:
284 total, 239 usable; 24 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways
over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 73 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
barely adequate wire and microwave service; broadcast stations - 10 AM, 4
FM, 18 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 14 domestic

:Zaire Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary National Gendarmerie, Civil Guard,
Special Presidential Division
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 8,521,292; 4,333,492 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $49 million, 0.8% of GDP (1988)

:Zambia Geography

Total area:
752,610 km2
Land area:
740,720 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries:
5,664 km total; Angola 1,110 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia
233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zaire 1,930 km, Zimbabwe 797 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement;
Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be
indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the
Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled
Climate:
tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
Terrain:
mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
Natural resources:
copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium,
hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land 7%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 47%; forest and
woodland 27%; other 19%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Note:
landlocked

:Zambia People

Population:
8,745,284 (July 1992), growth rate 3.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
48 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
77 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
55 years male, 59 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Zambian(s); adjective - Zambian
Ethnic divisions:
African 98.7%, European 1.1%, other 0.2%
Religions:
Christian 50-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24-49%, remainder indigenous beliefs 1%
Languages:
English (official); about 70 indigenous languages
Literacy:
73% (male 81%, female 65%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
2,455,000; agriculture 85%; mining, manufacturing, and construction 6%;
transport and services 9%
Organized labor:
about 238,000 wage earners are unionized

:Zambia Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Zambia
Type:
multiparty system; on 17 December 1990, President Kenneth KAUNDA signed into
law the constitutional amendment that officially reintroduced the multiparty
system in Zambia ending 17 years of one-party rule
Capital:
Lusaka
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern,
North-Western, Southern, Western
Independence:
24 October 1964 (from UK; formerly Northern Rhodesia)
Constitution:
NA August 1991
Legal system:
based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Frederick CHILUBA (since 31 October 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD), Frederick CHILUBA; United National
Independence Party (UNIP), none; elections pending
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 31 October 1991 (next to be held mid-1995); results - Frederick
CHILUBA 84%, Kenneth KAUNDA 16%
National Assembly:
last held 31 October 1991 (next to be held mid-1995); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (150 total) MMD 125, UNIP 25
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-19, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADCC,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador (vacant); Chancery at 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-9717 through 9721
US:
Ambassador Gordon L. STREEB; Embassy at corner of Independence Avenue and
United Nations Avenue, Lusaka (mailing address is P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka);
telephone [2601] 228-595, 228-601, 228-602, 228-603; FAX [2601] 251-578
Flag:
green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and
orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag

:Zambia Economy

Overview:
The economy has been in decline for more than a decade with falling imports
and growing foreign debt. Economic difficulties stem from a sustained drop
in copper production and ineffective economic policies. In 1991 real GDP
fell by 2%. An annual population growth of more than 3% has brought a
decline in per capita GDP of 50% over the past decade. A high inflation rate
has also added to Zambia's economic woes in recent years.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $4.7 billion, per capita $600; real growth rate
-2% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
100% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $665 million; expenditures $767 million, including capital
expenditures of $300 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, tobacco
partners:
EC, Japan, South Africa, US, India
Imports:
$1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
machinery, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, fuels, manufactures
partners:
EC, Japan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, US
External debt:
$8 billion (December 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate -2% (1991); accounts for 50% of GDP
Electricity:
2,775,000 kW capacity; 12,000 million kWh produced, 1,400 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
copper mining and processing, transport, construction, foodstuffs,
beverages, chemicals, textiles, and fertilizer
Agriculture:
accounts for 17% of GDP and 85% of labor force; crops - corn (food staple),
sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava;
cattle, goats, beef, eggs
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $4.8 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.8 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $533
million
Currency:
Zambian kwacha (plural - kwacha); 1 Zambian kwacha (ZK) = 100 ngwee
Exchange rates:
Zambian kwacha (ZK) per US$1 - 128.2051 (March 1992), 61.7284 (1991),
28.9855 (1990), 12.9032 (1989), 8.2237 (1988), 8.8889 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Zambia Communications

Railroads:
1,266 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 13 km double track
Highways:
36,370 km total; 6,500 km paved, 7,000 km crushed stone, gravel, or
stabilized soil; 22,870 km improved and unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
2,250 km, including Zambezi and Luapula Rivers, Lake Tanganyika
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,724 km
Ports:
Mpulungu (lake port)
Civil air:
12 major transport aircraft
Airports:
117 total, 104 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways
over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
facilities are among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa; high-capacity microwave
connects most larger towns and cities; broadcast stations - 11 AM, 5 FM, 9
TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT

:Zambia Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, Police, paramilitary
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,818,545; 953,718 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Zimbabwe Geography

Total area:
390,580 km2
Land area:
386,670 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Montana
Land boundaries:
3,066 km total; Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225 km,
Zambia 797 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia is in disagreement
Climate:
tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)
Terrain:
mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in
east
Natural resources:
coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium,
lithium, tin, platinum group metals
Land use:
arable land 7%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 12%; forest and
woodland 62%; other 19%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare; deforestation; soil
erosion; air and water pollution
Note:
landlocked

:Zimbabwe People

Population:
11,033,376 (July 1992), growth rate 2.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
40 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
59 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
60 years male, 64 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
5.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Zimbabwean(s); adjective - Zimbabwean
Ethnic divisions:
African 98% (Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, other 11%); white 1%, mixed and Asian
1%
Religions:
syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%,
indigenous beliefs 24%, a few Muslim
Languages:
English (official); Shona, Sindebele
Literacy:
67% (male 74%, female 60%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
3,100,000; agriculture 74%, transport and services 16%, mining,
manufacturing, construction 10% (1987)
Organized labor:
17% of wage and salary earners have union membership

:Zimbabwe Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Zimbabwe
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Harare
Administrative divisions:
8 provinces; Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland
West, Masvingo (Victoria), Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands
Independence:
18 April 1980 (from UK; formerly Southern Rhodesia)
Constitution:
21 December 1979
Legal system:
mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 18 April (1980)
Executive branch:
executive president, 2 vice presidents, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice
President Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice President
Joshua M. NKOMO (since 6 August 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), Robert MUGABE;
Zimbabwe African National Union-Sithole (ZANU-S), Ndabaningi SITHOLE;
Zimbabwe Unity Movement (ZUM), Edgar TEKERE; Democratic Party (DP), Emmanuel
MAGOCHE
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Executive President:
last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held NA March 1996); results - Robert
MUGABE 78.3%, Edgar TEKERE 21.7%
Parliament:
last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held NA March 1995); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (150 total, 120 elected) ZANU-PF 117,
ZUM 2, ZANU-S 1
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OAU, PCA, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Counselor (Political Affairs), Head of Chancery, Ambassador Stanislaus
Garikai CHIGWEDERE; Chancery at 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20009; telephone (202) 332-7100
US:
Ambassador Edward Gibson LANPHER; Embassy at 172 Herbert Chitapo Avenue,
Harare (mailing address is P. O. Box 3340, Harare); telephone [263] (4)
794-521

:Zimbabwe Government

Flag:
seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and
green with a white equilateral triangle edged in black based on the hoist
side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in
the center of the triangle

:Zimbabwe Economy

Overview:
Agriculture employs three-fourths of the labor force and supplies almost 40%
of exports. The manufacturing sector, based on agriculture and mining,
produces a variety of goods and contributes 35% to GDP. Mining accounts for
only 5% of both GDP and employment, but supplies of minerals and metals
account for about 40% of exports. Wide year-to-year fluctuations in
agricultural production over the past six years have resulted in an uneven
growth rate, one that on average has matched the 3% annual increase in
population. Helped by an IMF/World Bank structural adjustment program,
output rose 3.5% in 1991. A drought beginning toward the end of 1991
suggests rough going for 1992.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $7.1 billion, per capita $660; real growth rate
3.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
25% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
at least 30% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $2.7 billion; expenditures $3.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $330 million (FY91)
Exports:
$1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
agricultural 35% (tobacco 20%, other 15%), manufactures 20%, gold 10%,
ferrochrome 10%, cotton 5%
partners:
Europe 55% (EC 40%, Netherlands 5%, other 15%), Africa 20% (South Africa
10%, other 10%), US 5%
Imports:
$1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment 37%, other manufactures 22%,
chemicals 16%, fuels 15%
partners:
EC 31%, Africa 29% (South Africa 21%, other 8%), US 8%, Japan 4%
External debt:
$2.96 billion (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5% (1991 est.); accounts for 35% of GDP
Electricity:
3,650,000 kW capacity; 7,500 million kWh produced, 700 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
mining, steel, clothing and footwear, chemicals, foodstuffs, fertilizer,
beverage, transportation equipment, wood products
Agriculture:
accounts for 11% of GDP and employs 74% of population; 40% of land area
divided into 4,500 large commercial farms and 42% in communal lands; crops -
corn (food staple), cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts;
livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-89), $389 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.6 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $36 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $134
million
Currency:
Zimbabwean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Zimbabwean dollar (Z$) = 100 cents

:Zimbabwe Economy

Exchange rates:
Zimbabwean dollars (Z$) per US$1 - 4.3066 (March 1992), 3.4282 (1991),
2.4480 (1990), 2.1133 (1989), 1.8018 (1988), 1.6611 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Zimbabwe Communications

Railroads:
2,745 km 1.067-meter gauge; 42 km double track; 355 km electrified
Highways:
85,237 km total; 15,800 km paved, 39,090 km crushed stone, gravel,
stabilized soil: 23,097 km improved earth; 7,250 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
Lake Kariba is a potential line of communication
Pipelines:
petroleum products 8 km
Civil air:
12 major transport aircraft
Airports:
491 total, 401 usable; 22 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways
over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 32 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor
maintenance; consists of microwave links, open-wire lines, and radio
communications stations; 247,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 8 AM, 18
FM, 8 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Zimbabwe Defense Forces

Branches:
Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe National Police
(including Police Support Unit, Paramilitary Police), People's Militia
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 2,355,965; 1,456,829 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $412.4 million, about 6% of GDP (FY91 est.)

********

Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations

Text (264 nations, dependent areas, and other entities)

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan

Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Hercegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina
Burma
Burundi

Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China (also see separate Taiwan entry)
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czechoslovakia

Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic

Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Island

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Gabon
Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana

Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary

Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries)
Italy
Ivory Coast

Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan (also see separate West Bank entry)
Juan de Nova Island

Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan

Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg

Macau
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique

Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway

Oman

Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the (Palau)
Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

Qatar

Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda

Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia and Montenegro
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria

Taiwan (follows Zimbabwe)
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu

Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan

Vanuatu
Vatican City
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands

Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
Western Samoa
World

Yemen

Zaire
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Taiwan

Appendixes

A: The United Nations System
B: Abbreviations for International Organizations and Groups
C: International Organizations and Groups
D: Weights and Measures
E: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names

Standard Time Zones of the World

Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations

There have been some significant changes in this edition. The Soviet Union,
Yugoslavia, and the Iraq - Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone have been dropped. All 15
former Soviet republics have been added - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus,
Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia,
Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. Bosnia and Hercegovina,
Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia have replaced
Yugoslavia. Three maps on areas of special interest have been added this
year - two maps on the Commonwealth of Independent States (European States
and Central Asian States) and a map of Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe.

Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for international organizations and groups)

avdp.: avoirdupois

c.i.f.: cost, insurance, and freight

CY: calendar year

DWT: deadweight ton

est.: estimate

Ex-Im: Export-Import Bank of the United States

f.o.b.: free on board

FRG: Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); used for information dated
before 3 October 1990 or CY91

FY: fiscal year

GDP: gross domestic product

GDR: German Democratic Republic (East Germany); used for information dated
before 3 October 1990 or CY91

GNP: gross national product

GRT: gross register ton

km: kilometer

km2: square kilometer

kW: kilowatt

kWh: kilowatt hour

m: meter

NA: not available

NEGL: negligible

nm: nautical mile

NZ: New Zealand

ODA: official development assistance

OOF: other official flows

PDRY: People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen];
used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

UAE: United Arab Emirates

UK: United Kingdom

US: United States

USSR: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union); used for information
dated before 25 December 1991

YAR: Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen]; used for information
dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and first-order
administrative divisions are generally those approved by the US Board on
Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on
by BGN are noted.

Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by
international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of
all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines,
excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Comparative areas
are based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the
entire US or one of the 50 states. The smaller entities are compared with
Washington, DC (178 km2, 69 miles2) or the Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 km2,
0.23 miles2, 146 acres).

Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year per 1,000
population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate.

Dates of information: In general, information available as of 1 January 1992
was used in the preparation of this edition. Population figures are estimates
for 1 July 1992, with population growth rates estimated for mid-1992 through
mid-1993. Major political events have been updated through 30 June 1992.
Military age figures are for 1992.

Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year per l,000
population at midyear; also known as crude death rate.

Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations with
176 nations (the US has not yet established full diplomatic relations with
Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia, and Slovenia). The US has diplomatic
relations with 167 of the 178 UN members - the exceptions are Angola, Bhutan,
Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Slovenia,
and Vietnam. In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 9 nations
that are not in the UN - Andorra, Kiribati, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino,
Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vatican City.

Disputes: This category includes a wide variety of situations that range from
traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or
another. Every international land boundary dispute in the ``Guide to Interna-
tional Boundaries,'' a map published by the Department of State, is included.
References to other situations may also be included that are border or
frontier relevant, such as maritime disputes, geopolitical questions, or
irredentist issues. However, inclusion does not necessarily constitute
official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.

Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of official develop-
ment assistance (ODA), which is defined as government grants that are
administered with the promotion of economic development and welfare of LDCs
as their main objective and are concessional in character and contain a
grant element of at least 25%, and other official flows (OOF) or transactions
by the official sector whose main objective is other than development
motivated or whose grant element is below the 25% threshold for ODA. OOF
transactions include official export credits (such as Eximbank credits),
official equity and portfolio investment, and debt reorganization by the
official sector that does not meet concessional terms. Aid is considered to
have been committed when agreements are initialed by the parties involved and
constitute a formal declaration of intent.

Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special sovereignty,
and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others
are not officially recognized by the US Government. ``Nation'' refers to a
people politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory.
``Dependent'' area refers to a broad category of political entities that are
associated in some way with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually
the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. The
long-form name is included in the ``Government'' section, and an entry of
``none'' indicates a long-form name does not exist. In some instances, no
short-form name exists - then the long-form name must serve for all usages.
There are 264 entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as
follows:

NATIONS

177 UN members (excluding Yugoslavia)

11 nations that are not members of the UN - Andorra, Georgia, Kiribati,
Macedonia, Monaco, Nauru, Serbia and Montenegro, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu,
Vatican City (Holy See)

OTHER

1 Taiwan

DEPENDENT AREAS

6 Australia - Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling)
Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island

2 Denmark - Faroe Islands, Greenland

16 France - Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Guiana,
French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands,
Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion,
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna

2 Netherlands - Aruba, Netherlands Antilles

3 New Zealand - Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

3 Norway - Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

1 Portugal - Macau

16 United Kingdom - Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British
Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey,
Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Jersey, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena,
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands

15 United States - American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis
Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern
Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Trust Territory of the Pacific
Islands (Palau), Virgin Islands, Wake Island

MISCELLANEOUS

6 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western
Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES

4 oceans - Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean

1 World

264 total

note: The US Government does not recognize the four so-called independent
homelands of Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, and Venda in South Africa.

Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all goods and services produced
domestically.

Gross national product (GNP): The value of all goods and services produced
domestically plus income earned abroad, minus income earned by foreigners
from domestic production.

GNP/GDP methodology: In the ``Economy'' section, GNP/GDP dollar estimates for
the OECD countries, the former Soviet republics, and the East European
countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations rather
than from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The PPP method
normally involves the use of international dollar price weights, which are
applied to the quantities of goods and services produced in a given economy.
In addition to the lack of reliable data from the majority of countries, the
statistician faces a major difficulty in specifying, identifying, and allowing
for the quality of goods and services. The division of a PPP GNP/GDP estimate
in dollars by the corresponding estimate in the local currency gives the PPP
conversion rate. One thousand dollars will buy the same market basket of goods
in the US as one thousand dollars - converted to the local currency at the PPP
conversion rate - will buy in the other country. GNP/GDP estimates for the
LDCs, on the other hand, are based on the conversion of GNP/GDP estimates in
local currencies to dollars at the official currency exchange rates. One
caution: the proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a percent of GNP/GDP
in local currency accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when
GNP/GDP accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer
estimates the dollar level of Russian or Japanese military expenditures;
similar problems exist when components are expressed in dollars under currency
exchange rate procedures. Finally, as academic research moves forward on the
PPP method, we hope to convert all GNP/GDP estimates to this method in future
editions of The World Factbook.

Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the population,
resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance
of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or
negative.

Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics,
stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These
categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as
well as those illegally produced and sold outside medical channels.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides
hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot,
Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish
(hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).

Coca (Erythroxylon coca) is a bush, and the leaves contain the stimulant
cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds
and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.

Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.

Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include
chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital),
benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide
(Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).

Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional,
or behavioral change in an individual.

Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results
in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.

Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and
emotion.

Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc,
buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP,
angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others
(psilocybin, psilocyn).

Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis
sativa).

Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.

Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium,
opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium
(paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol
w/codeine, Empirin w/codeine, Robitussan A-C), and thebaine. Semisynthetic
narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid).
Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan),
methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil).

Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy.

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural and
semisynthetic narcotics.

Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature dried opium
poppy.

Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis that
is chewed or drunk as tea.

Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and
activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn,
Dexedrine), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others
(Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one year old in
a given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same year.

Land use: Human use of the land surface is categorized as arable land - land
cultivated for crops that are replanted after each harvest (wheat, maize,
rice); permanent crops - land cultivated for crops that are not replanted
after each harvest (citrus, coffee, rubber); meadows and pastures - land
permanently used for herbaceous forage crops; forest and woodland - land
under dense or open stands of trees; and other - any land type not specifi-
cally mentioned above (urban areas, roads, desert). The percentage figure for
irrigated land refers to the portion of the entire amount of land area that
is artificially supplied with water.

Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country who
represents the state at official and ceremonial funcions but is not involved
with the day-to-day activities of the government. The head of government is
the administrative leader who manages the day-to-day activities of the
government. In the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the Prime
Minister is the head of government. In the US, the President is both the
chief of state and the head of government.

Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived by a group
of people all born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains
constant in the future.

Literacy: There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy.
Unless otherwise noted, all rates are based on the most common definition -
the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards
that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is
beyond the scope of this publication.

Maps: All maps will be available only in the printed version for the fore-
seeable future.

Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent some
national claims from being fully extended.

Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All commercial
vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing
vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.; also, a grouping of merchant ships by
nationality or register.

Captive register - A register of ships maintained by a territory, possession,
or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships owned in the parent
country; also referred to as an offshore register, the offshore equivalent
of an internal register. Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag
as the parent country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the
maritime laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the
nature of a captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in
the parent country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be
owned abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience
register, except that it is not the register of an independent state.

Flag of convenience register - A national register offering registration to a
merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major flags of convenience
(FOC) attract ships to their register by virtue of low fees, low or
nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal manning requirements. True FOC
registers are characterized by having relatively few of the ships registered
actually owned in the flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used
for ships under a given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where
the majority of the merchant fleet is owned abroad.
It is also referred to as an open register.

Flag state - The nation in which a ship is registered and which holds legal
jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or abroad.
Differences in flag state maritime legislation determine how a ship is manned
and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the register.

Internal register - A register of ships maintained as a subset of a national
register. Ships on the internal register fly the national flag and have that
nationality but are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those on
the main national register. These differences usually include lower taxation
of profits, manning by foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the
flag state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International
Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most notable
examples of an internal register.
Both have been instrumental in stemming flight from the national flag to
flags of convenience and in attracting foreign-owned ships to the Norwegian
and Danish flags.

Merchant ship - A vessel that carries goods against payment of freight;
commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately restricted to
commercial vessels only.

Register - The record of a ship's ownership and nationality as listed with
the maritime authorities of a country; also, the compendium of such individual
ships' registrations. Registration of a ship provides it with a nationality
and makes it subject to the laws of the country in which registered (the flag
state) regardless of the nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.

Money figures: All are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless
otherwise indicated.

Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons entering and
leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear
population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net
immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the
country as net emigration (-9.26 migrants/1,000 population).

Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census based on
statistics from population censuses, vital registration systems, or sample
surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on assumptions about future trends.

Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be born per
woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore
children according to a given fertility rate at each age.

Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as
fiscal year (FY).

Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from material
in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence Community estimates.
The Handbook of International Economic and Environmental Statistics,
published annually in September by the Central Intelligence Agency, contains
detailed economic information for the Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development (OECD) countries, Eastern Europe, the newly independent
republics of the former nations of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, and
selected other countries. The Handbook can be obtained wherever The World
Factbook is available.

Appendix A:

The United Nations System

The UN is composed of six principal organs and numerous subordinate
agencies and bodies as follows:

1) Secretariat

2) General Assembly:
UNCHS United Nations Center for Human Settlements (Habitat)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Program
UNEP United Nations Environment Program
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNHCR United Nations Office of High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNITAR United Nations Institute for Training and Research
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine
Refugees in the Near East
UNSF United Nations Special Fund
UNU United Nations University
WFC World Food Council
WFP World Food Program

3) Security Council:
UNAVEM United Nations Angola Verification Mission
UNDOF United Nations Disengagement Observer Force
UNFICYP United Nations Force in Cyprus
UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
UNIIMOG United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group
UNMOGIP United Nations Military Observer Group in India and
Pakistan
UNTSO United Nations Truce Supervision Organization

4) Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC):
Specialized agencies

Book of the day: