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172 petroleum tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 16 combination ore/oil, 47 chemical
tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 143 bulk, 7 combination bulk, 78 refrigerated
cargo;
note--a flag of convenience registry
*** No entry for this item ***
Civil air:
11 major transport aircraft
Airports:
59 total, 54 usable; 30 with permanent-surface runways; none with
runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3, 659 m; 26 with runways
1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
highly developed; 99,000 telephones in totally automatic system;
tropospheric scatter and submarine cable links to Florida; broadcast
stations--3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station
*** No entry for this item ***

:The Bahamas Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only), Royal Bahamas Police
Branches:
Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 68,020; NA fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion--$65 million, 2.7% of GDP (1990)

:Bahrain Geography

Total area:
620 km2
Land area:
620 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
161 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
not specific
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
territorial dispute with Qatar over the Hawar Islands; maritime boundary
with Qatar
Climate:
arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrain:
mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Natural resources:
oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish
Land use:
arable land 2%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 6%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 90%, includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
subsurface water sources being rapidly depleted (requires development of
desalination facilities); dust storms; desertification
Note:
close to primary Middle Eastern crude oil sources; strategic location in
Persian Gulf through which much of Western world's crude oil must transit to
reach open ocean

:Bahrain People

Population:
551,513 (July 1992), growth rate 3.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
27 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
4 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
7 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
21 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
70 years male, 75 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Bahraini(s); adjective - Bahraini
Ethnic divisions:
Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%, other 6%
Religions:
Muslim (Shi`a 70%, Sunni 30%)
Languages:
Arabic (official); English also widely spoken; Farsi, Urdu
Literacy:
77% (male 82%, female 69%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
140,000; 42% of labor force is Bahraini; industry and commerce 85%,
agriculture 5%, services 5%, government 3% (1982)
Organized labor:
General Committee for Bahrain Workers exists in only eight major designated
companies

:Bahrain Government

Long-form name:
State of Bahrain
Type:
traditional monarchy
Capital:
Manama
Administrative divisions:
12 districts (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al
Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al
Muharraq, Ar Rifa`wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad,
Madinat `Isa, Mintaqat Juzur Hawar, Sitrah
Independence:
15 August 1971 (from UK)
Constitution:
26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973
Legal system:
based on Islamic law and English common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 December
Executive branch:
amir, crown prince and heir apparent, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26 August 1975 and legislative
powers were assumed by the Cabinet
Judicial branch:
High Civil Appeals Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Amir `ISA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 2 November 1961); Heir Apparent HAMAD
bin `Isa Al Khalifa (son of Amir; born 28 January 1950)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 19 January 1970)
Political parties and leaders:
political parties prohibited; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic
fundamentalist groups are active
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
none
Member of:
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC,
OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador `Abd al-Rahman Faris Al KHALIFA; Chancery at 3502 International
Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 342-0741 or 342-0742; there
is a Bahraini Consulate General in New York
US:
Ambassador Dr. Charles W. HOSTLER; Embassy at Road No. 3119 (next to Alahli
Sports Club), Zinj; (mailing address is P. O. 26431, Manama, or FPO AE
09834-6210); telephone [973] 273-300; FAX (973) 272-594
Flag:
red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side

:Bahrain Economy

Overview:
Petroleum production and processing account for about 80% of export
receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 31% of GDP. Economic conditions
have fluctuated with the changing fortunes of oil since 1985, for example,
the Gulf crisis of 1990-91. The liberation of Kuwait in early 1991 has
improved short- to medium-term prospects and has raised investors'
confidence. Bahrain with its highly developed communication and transport
facilities is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the
Gulf. A large share of exports is petroleum products made from imported
crude.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $4.0 billion, per capita $7,500 (1990); real
growth rate 6.7% (1988)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.5% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
8-10% (1989)
Budget:
revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.32 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports:
$3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 80%, aluminum 7%, other 13%
partners:
UAE 18%, Japan 12%, India 11%, US 6%
Imports:
$3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
nonoil 59%, crude oil 41%
partners:
Saudi Arabia 41%, US 23%, Japan 8%, UK 8%
External debt:
$1.1 billion (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.8% (1988); accounts for 44% of GDP
Electricity:
3,600,000 kW capacity; 10,500 million kWh produced, 21,000 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore banking, ship
repairing
Agriculture:
including fishing, accounts for less than 2% of GDP; not self-sufficient in
food production; heavily subsidized sector produces fruit, vegetables,
poultry, dairy products, shrimp, and fish; fish catch 9,000 metric tons in
1987
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $24 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $45 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.8 billion
Currency:
Bahraini dinar (plural - dinars); 1 Bahraini dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates:
Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1 - 0.3760 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Bahrain Communications

Highways:
200 km bituminous surfaced, including 25 km bridge-causeway to Saudi Arabia
opened in November 1986; NA km natural surface tracks
Pipelines:
crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32 km
Ports:
Mina' Salman, Manama, Sitrah
Merchant marine:
9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 186,367 GRT/249,441 DWT; includes 5
cargo, 2 container, 1 liquefied gas, 1 bulk
Civil air:
27 major transport aircraft
Airports:
3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
excellent international telecommunications; good domestic services; 98,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; satellite earth stations
- 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT;
tropospheric scatter to Qatar, UAE, and microwave to Saudi Arabia; submarine
cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia

:Bahrain Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 190,937; 105,857 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $194 million, 6% of GDP (1990)

:Baker Island Geography

Total area:
1.4 km2
Land area:
1.4 km2
Comparative area:
about 2.3 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
4.8 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Terrain:
low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef
Natural resources:
guano (deposits worked until 1891)
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
treeless, sparse and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate
vines, and low growing shrubs; lacks fresh water; primarily a nesting,
roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife
Note:
remote location 2,575 km southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific Ocean,
just north of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and Australia

:Baker Island People

Population:
uninhabited; American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and
naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World War
II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit only
and generally restricted to scientists and educators

:Baker Island Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and Wildlife
Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National
Wildlife Refuge system
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

:Baker Island Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

:Baker Island Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the middle of the
west coast
Airports:
1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m
Telecommunications:
there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

:Baker Island Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast
Guard

:Bangladesh Geography

Total area:
144,000 km2
Land area:
133,910 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries:
4,246 km total; Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km
Coastline:
580 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
18 nm
Continental shelf:
up to outer limits of continental margin
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
a portion of the boundary with India is in dispute; water sharing problems
with upstream riparian India over the Ganges
Climate:
tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to
June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)
Terrain:
mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Natural resources:
natural gas, uranium, arable land, timber
Land use:
arable land 67%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 4%; forest and
woodland 16%; other 11%; includes irrigated 14%
Environment:
vulnerable to droughts; much of country routinely flooded during summer
monsoon season; overpopulation; deforestation
Note:
almost completely surrounded by India

:Bangladesh People

Population:
119,411,711 (July 1992), growth rate 2.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
36 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
112 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
55 years male, 54 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Bangladeshi(s); adjective - Bangladesh
Ethnic divisions:
Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, and tribals less than 1 million
Religions:
Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, Buddhist, Christian, and other less than 1%
Languages:
Bangla (official), English widely used
Literacy:
35% (male 47%, female 22%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
35,100,000; agriculture 74%, services 15%, industry and commerce 11% (FY86);
extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Oman (1991)
Organized labor:
3% of labor force belongs to 2,614 registered unions (1986 est.)

:Bangladesh Government

Long-form name:
People's Republic of Bangladesh
Type:
republic
Capital:
Dhaka
Administrative divisions:
64 districts (zillagulo, singular - zilla); Bagerhat, Bandarban, Barguna,
Barisal, Bhola, Bogra, Brahmanbaria, Chandpur, Chapai Nawabganj, Chattagram,
Chuadanga, Comilla, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka, Dinajpur, Faridpur, Feni, Gaibandha,
Gazipur, Gopalganj, Habiganj, Jaipurhat, Jamalpur, Jessore, Jhalakati,
Jhenaidah, Khagrachari, Khulna, Kishorganj, Kurigram, Kushtia, Laksmipur,
Lalmonirhat, Madaripur, Magura, Manikganj, Meherpur, Moulavibazar,
Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Naogaon, Narail, Narayanganj, Narsingdi, Nator,
Netrakona, Nilphamari, Noakhali, Pabna, Panchagar, Parbattya Chattagram,
Patuakhali, Pirojpur, Rajbari, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Satkhira, Shariyatpur,
Sherpur, Sirajganj, Sunamganj, Sylhet, Tangail, Thakurgaon
Independence:
16 December 1971 (from Pakistan; formerly East Pakistan)
Constitution:
4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24
March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended NA March 1991
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 26 March (1971)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Abdur Rahman BISWAS (since 8 October 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Khaleda ZIAUR Rahman (since 20 March 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), Khaleda ZIAUR Rahman; Awami League (AL),
Sheikh Hasina WAZED; Jatiyo Party (JP), Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD;
Jamaat-E-Islami (JI), Ali KHAN; Bangladesh Communist Party (BCP), Saifuddin
Ahmed MANIK; National Awami Party (Muzaffar); Workers Party, leader NA;
Jatiyo Samajtantik Dal (National Socialist Party - SIRAJ), M. A. JALIL;
Ganotantri Party, leader NA; Islami Oikya Jote, leader NA; National
Democratic Party (NDP), leader NA; Muslim League, Khan A. SABUR; Democratic
League, Khondakar MUSHTAQUE Ahmed; United People's Party, Kazi ZAFAR Ahmed
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
National Parliament:
last held 27 February 1991 (next to be held NA February 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (330 total, 300 elected and 30 seats
reserved for women) BNP 168, AL 93, JP 35, JI 20, CBP 5, National Awami
Party (Muzaffar) 1, Workers Party 1, SIRAJ 1, Ganotantri Party 1, Islami
Oikya Jote 1, NDP 1, independents 3
President:
last held 8 October 1991 (next to be held by NA October 1996); results -
Abdur Rahman BISWAS received 52.1% of parliamentary vote

:Bangladesh Government

Communists:
5,000 members (1987 est.)
Member of:
AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WHO, WFTU, WIPO,
WCL, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Abul AHSAN; Chancery at 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20007; telephone (202) 342-8372 through 8376; there is a Bangladesh
Consulate General in New York
US:
Ambassador William B. MILAM; Embassy at Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue,
Baridhara, Dhaka (mailing address is G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1212);
telephone [880] (2) 884700-22; FAX [880] (2) 883648
Flag:
green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center; green is
the traditional color of Islam

:Bangladesh Economy

Overview:
Bangladesh is one of the poorest nations in the world. The economy is based
on the output of a narrow range of agricultural products, such as jute,
which is the main cash crop and major source of export earnings, and rice.
Bangladesh is hampered by a relative lack of natural resources, population
growth of more than 2% a year, large-scale unemployment, and a limited
infrastructure; furthermore, it is highly vulnerable to natural disasters.
Despite these constraints, real GDP growth averaged about 3.5% annually
during 1985-89. A strong agricultural performance in FY90 pushed the growth
rate up to 6.2%, and FY91 saw further, though smaller, increases in output.
Alleviation of poverty remains the cornerstone of the government's
development strategy.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $23.1 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate
3.2% (FY91)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.9% (FY91 est.)
Unemployment rate:
30%, including underemployment (FY90 est.)
Budget:
revenues $2.24 billion; expenditures $3.7 billion (FY91)
Exports:
$1.7 billion (FY91 est.)
commodities:
garments, jute and jute goods, leather, shrimp
partners:
US 32%, Italy 8.1%, UK 6.2% (FY90)
Imports:
$3.5 billion (FY91 est.)
commodities:
capital goods, petroleum, food, textiles
partners:
Japan 9.2%, India 6.2%, Singapore 5.9%, US 5.7%
External debt:
$11.1 billion (FY91 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1% (FY91 est.); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
1,990,000 kW capacity; 5,700 million kWh produced, 50 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
jute manufacturing, cotton textiles, food processing, steel, fertilizer
Agriculture:
accounts for about 40% of GDP, 70% of employment, and one-third of exports;
imports 10% of food grain requirements; world's largest exporter of jute;
commercial products - jute, rice, wheat, tea, sugarcane, potatoes, beef,
milk, poultry; shortages include wheat, vegetable oils and cotton; fish
catch 778,000 metric tons in 1986
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.4 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $11.65 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $6.52 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.5
billion
Currency:
taka (plural - taka); 1 taka (Tk) = 100 paise
Exchange rates:
taka (Tk) per US$1 - 38.800 (January 1992), 36.596 (1991), 34.569 (1990),
32.270 (1989), 31.733 (1988), 30.950 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Bangladesh Communications

Railroads:
2,892 km total (1986); 1,914 km 1.000 meter gauge, 978 km 1.676 meter broad
gauge
Highways:
7,240 km total (1985); 3,840 km paved, 3,400 km unpaved
Inland waterways:
5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes 2,575-3,058 km main cargo
routes)
Pipelines:
natural gas 1,220 km
Ports:
Chittagong, Chalna
Merchant marine:
44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 328,382 GRT/479,985 DWT; includes 36
cargo, 2 petroleum tanker, 3 refrigerated cargo, 3 bulk
Civil air:
15 major transport aircraft
Airports:
16 total, 12 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
adequate international radio communications and landline service; fair
domestic wire and microwave service; fair broadcast service; 241,250
telephones; broadcast stations - 9 AM, 6 FM, 11 TV; 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT
satellite earth stations

:Bangladesh Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force; paramilitary forces - Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh
Ansars, Armed Police Reserve, Coastal Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 29,891,224; 17,745,343 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $339 million, 1.5% of GDP (FY92 budget)

:Barbados Geography

Total area:
430 km2
Land area:
430 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
97 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (June to October)
Terrain:
relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region
Natural resources:
crude oil, fishing, natural gas
Land use:
arable land 77%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 9%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 14%
Environment:
subject to hurricanes (especially June to October)
Note:
easternmost Caribbean island

:Barbados People

Population:
254,934 (July 1992), growth rate 0.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
16 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
--6 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
22 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
70 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Barbadian(s); adjective - Barbadian
Ethnic divisions:
African 80%, mixed 16%, European 4%
Religions:
Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other 12%),
Roman Catholic 4%; none 17%, unknown 3%, other 9% (1980)
Languages:
English
Literacy:
99% (male 99%, female 99%) age 15 and over having ever attended school
(1970)
Labor force:
120,900 (1991); services and government 37%; commerce 22%; manufacturing and
construction 22%; transportation, storage, communications, and financial
institutions 9%; agriculture 8%; utilities 2% (1985 est.)
Organized labor:
32% of labor force

:Barbados Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Bridgetown
Administrative divisions:
11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint James, Saint
John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip,
Saint Thomas; note - there may be a new city of Bridgetown
Independence:
30 November 1966 (from UK)
Constitution:
30 November 1966
Legal system:
English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts
National holiday:
Independence Day, 30 November (1966)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
or House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Judicature
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Dame Nita BARROW (since 6 June 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Lloyd Erskine SANDIFORD (since 2 June 1987)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Labor Party (DLP), Erskine SANDIFORD; Barbados Labor Party (BLP),
Henry FORDE; National Democratic Party (NDP), Richie HAYNES
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
House of Assembly:
last held 22 January 1991 (next to be held by January 1996); results - DLP
49.8%; seats - (28 total) DLP 18, BLP 10
Other political or pressure groups:
Industrial and General Workers Union, Sir Frank WALCOTT; People's
Progressive Movement, Eric SEALY; Workers' Party of Barbados, Dr. George
BELLE
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES,
LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Dr. Rudi WEBSTER; Chancery at 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-9200 through 9202; there is a Barbadian
Consulate General in New York and a Consulate in Los Angeles
US:
Ambassador G. Philip HUGHES; Embassy at Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce
Building, Broad Street, Bridgetown (mailing address is P. O. Box 302, Box B,
FPO AA 34054); telephone (809) 436-4950 through 4957; FAX (809) 429-5246

:Barbados Government

Flag:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and blue with the
head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the trident head
represents independence and a break with the past (the colonial coat of arms
contained a complete trident)

:Barbados Economy

Overview:
A per capita income of $6,500 gives Barbados one of the highest standards of
living of all the small island states of the eastern Caribbean.
Historically, the economy was based on the cultivation of sugarcane and
related activities. In recent years, however, the economy has diversified
into manufacturing and tourism. The tourist industry is now a major employer
of the labor force and a primary source of foreign exchange. The economy
slowed in 1990-91, however, and Bridgetown's declining hard currency
reserves and inability to finance its deficits have caused it to adopt an
austere economic reform program.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $1.7 billion, per capita $6,500; real growth
rate--3.1% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
18% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $514 million; expenditures $615 million (FY91-92)
Exports:
$210.6 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
sugar and molasses, chemicals, electrical components, clothing, rum,
machinery and transport equipment
partners:
CARICOM 30%, US 20%, UK 20%
Imports:
$704 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
foodstuffs, consumer durables, raw materials, machinery, crude oil,
construction materials, chemicals
partners:
US 35%, CARICOM 13%, UK 12%, Japan 6%, Canada 8%, Venezuela 4%
External debt:
$539.9 million (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate--2.7% (1990); accounts for 14% of GDP
Electricity:
152,100 kW capacity; 539 million kWh produced, 2,117 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export
Agriculture:
accounts for 10% of GDP; major cash crop is sugarcane; other crops -
vegetables and cotton; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $171 million
Currency:
Barbadian dollars (plural - dollars); 1 Barbadian dollar (Bds$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1 - 2.0113 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Barbados Communications

Highways:
1,570 km total; 1,475 km paved, 95 km gravel and earth
Ports:
Bridgetown
Merchant marine:
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,200 GRT/7,338 DWT
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m
Telecommunications:
islandwide automatic telephone system with 89,000 telephones; tropospheric
scatter link to Trinidad and Saint Lucia; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 2
(1 is pay) TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Barbados Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Barbados Defense Force, Coast Guard, Royal Barbados Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 69,678; 48,803 fit for military service, no conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $10 million, 0.7% of GDP (1989)

:Bassas da India Geography

Total area:
NA
Land area:
undetermined
Comparative area:
undetermined
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
35.2 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claimed by Madagascar
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
a volcanic rock 2.4 m high
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other (rock) 100%
Environment:
surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones
Note:
navigational hazard since it is usually under water during high tide;
located in southern Mozambique Channel about halfway between Africa and
Madagascar

:Bassas da India People

Population:
uninhabited

:Bassas da India Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic Jacques
DEWATRE (since July 1991), resident in Reunion
Capital:
none; administered by France from Reunion

:Bassas da India Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

:Bassas da India Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only

:Bassas da India Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

:Belarus Geography

Total area:
207,600 km2
Land area:
207,600 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Kansas
Land boundaries:
3,098 km total; Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 605 km, Russia 959
km, Ukraine 891 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
mild and moist; transitional between continental and maritime
Terrain:
generally flat and contains much marshland
Natural resources:
forest land and peat deposits
Land use:
arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and pastures NA%; forest and
woodland NA%; other NA%; includes irrigated NA%
Environment:
southern part of Belarus
highly contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at
Chernobyl'
Note:
landlocked

:Belarus People

Population:
10,373,881 (July 1992), growth rate 0.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
15 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
20 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
66 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Belarusian(s); adjective - Belarusian
Ethnic divisions:
Byelorussian 77.9%, Russian 13.2%, Poles 4.1%, Ukrainian 2.9%, Jews 1.1%,
other 0.8%
Religions:
Russian Orthodox NA%, unknown NA%, none NA%, other NA%
Languages:
Byelorussian NA%, Russian NA%, other NA%
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write
Labor force:
5,418,000; industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 20%,
other 38% (1990)
Organized labor:
NA

:Belarus Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Belarus
Type:
republic
Capital:
Mensk
Administrative divisions:
6 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast'); Brest, Gomel', Grodno, Minsk,
Mogilev, Vitebsk; note - all oblasts have the same name as their
administrative center
Independence:
1 January 1919 Belorussian Republic; 30 December 1922 joined with the USSR;
25 August 1991 redeclared independence
Constitution:
adopted April 1978
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
24 August (1991)
Executive branch:
NA
Legislative branch:
unicameral with 360 seats
Judicial branch:
NA
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Stanislav S. SHUSHKEVICH (since NA 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Vyacheslav F. KEBICH (since NA April 1990), First Deputy
Prime Minister Mikhail MYASNIKOVICH (since early 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Belarusian Popular Front, Zenon POZNYAK, chairman; United Democratic Party,
Stanislav GUSAK, co-chairman; Social Democratic Gramada, Mikhail TKACHEV,
chairman; Belarus Workers Union, Mikhail SOBOL, Chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
NA
Supreme Soviet:
last held 4 March 1990 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (360 total) number of seats by party NA; note - 50 seats
are for public bodies
Communists:
NA
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
CE, CIS, CSCE, ECE, IAEA, ILO, INMARSAT, IOC, ITU, NACC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Martynov; Chancery at NA NW, Washington, DC 200__; telephone NA
US:
Ambassador (vacant); David SWARTZ, Charge d'Affaires; Embassy at Hotel
Belarus (telephone 8-011-7-0172-69-08-02) plus 7 hours; (mailing address is
APO New York is 09862); telephone NA
Flag:
white, red, and white

:Belarus Economy

Overview:
In many ways Belarus resembles the three Baltic states, for example, in its
industrial competence, its higher-than-average standard of living, and its
critical dependence on the other former Soviet states for fuels and raw
materials. Belarus ranks fourth in gross output among the former Soviet
republics, producing 4% of the total GDP and employing 4% of the labor
force. Once a mainly agricultural area, it now supplies important producer
and consumer goods - sometimes as the sole producer - to the other states.
The soil in Belarus is not as fertile as the black earth of Ukraine, but by
emphasizing favorable crops and livestock (especially pigs and chickens),
Belarus has become a net exporter to the other republics of meat, milk,
eggs, flour, and potatoes. Belarus produces only small amounts of oil and
gas and receives most of its fuel from Russia through the Druzhba oil
pipeline and the Northern Lights gas pipeline. These pipelines transit
Belarus enroute to Eastern Europe. Belarus produces petrochemicals,
plastics, synthetic fibers (nearly 30% of former Soviet output), and
fertilizer (20% of former Soviet output). Raw material resources are limited
to potash and peat deposits. The peat (more than one-third of the total for
the former Soviet Union) is used in domestic heating as boiler fuel for
electric power stations and in the production of chemicals. The potash
supports fertilizer production.
GDP:
NA - $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate --2% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
81% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA million; expenditures $NA million, including capital
expenditures of $NA million
Exports:
$4.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners:
NA
Imports:
$5.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery, chemicals, textiles
partners:
NA
External debt:
$2.6 billion (end of 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate --1.5% (1991)
Electricity:
7,500,000 kW capacity; 38,700 million kWh produced, 3,770 kWh per capita
(1991)

:Belarus Economy

Industries:
employ about 27% of labor force and produce a wide variety of products
essential to the other states; products include (in percent share of total
output of former Soviet Union): tractors(12%); metal-cutting machine tools
(11%); off-highway dump trucksup to 110-metric- ton load capacity (100%);
wheel-type earthmovers for construction and mining (100%); eight-
wheel-drive, high-flotation trucks with cargo capacity of 25 metric tons for
use in tundra and roadless areas (100%); equipment for animal husbandry and
livestock feeding (25%); motorcycles (21.3%); television sets (11%);
chemical fibers (28%); fertilizer (18%); linen fabric (11%); wool fabric
(7%); radios; refrigerators; and other consumer goods
Agriculture:
accounts for 5.7% of total agricultural output of former Soviet Union;
employs 29% of the labor force; in 1988 produced the following (in percent
of total Soviet production): grain (3.6%), potatoes (12.2%), vegetables
(3.0%), meat (6.0%), milk (7.0%); net exporter of meat, milk, eggs, flour,
and potatoes
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of opium mostly for the domestic market; transshipment
point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
as of May 1992, retaining ruble as currency
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Belarus Communications

Railroads:
5,570 km (includes NA km electrified); does not include industrial lines
(1990)
Highways:
98,200 km total (1990); 66,100 km hard surfaced, 32,100 km earth
Inland waterways:
NA km
Pipelines:
NA
Ports:
none - landlocked
Merchant marine:
none - landlocked
Civil air:
NA major transport aircraft
Airports:
NA
Telecommunications:
telephone network has 1.7 million lines, 15% of which are switched
automatically; Minsk has 450,000 lines; telephone density is approximately
17 per 100 persons; as of 31 January 1990, 721,000 applications from
households for telephones were still unsatisfied; international connections
to other former Soviet republics are by landline or microwave and to other
countries by leased connection through the Moscow international gateway
switch

:Belarus Defense Forces

Branches:
Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops); CIS Forces (Ground,
Air, Air Defense, Strategic Rocket)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service; NA reach military age (18)
annually
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:Belgium Geography

Total area:
30,510 km2
Land area:
30,230 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
1,385 km total; France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
Netherlands 450 km
Coastline:
64 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
not specific
Exclusive fishing zone:
equidistant line with neighbors (extends about 68 km from coast)
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy
Terrain:
flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged mountains of
Ardennes Forest in southeast
Natural resources:
coal, natural gas
Land use:
arable land 24%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 20%; forest and
woodland 21%; other 34%, includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
air and water pollution
Note:
majority of West European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels; crossroads
of Western Europe; Brussels is the seat of the EC

:Belgium People

Population:
10,016,623 (July 1992), growth rate 0.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
12 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
73 years male, 80 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Belgian(s); adjective - Belgian
Ethnic divisions:
Fleming 55%, Walloon 33%, mixed or other 12%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 75%, remainder Protestant or other
Languages:
Flemish (Dutch) 56%, French 32%, German 1%; legally bilingual 11%; divided
along ethnic lines
Literacy:
99% (male 99%, female 99%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
Labor force:
4,126,000; services 63.6%, industry 28%, construction 6.1%, agriculture 2.3%
(1988)
Organized labor:
70% of labor force

:Belgium Government

Long-form name:
Kingdom of Belgium
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Brussels
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces (French - provinces, singular - province; Flemish - provincien,
singular - provincie); Antwerpen, Brabant, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg,
Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen, West-Vlaanderen
Independence:
4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)
Constitution:
7 February 1831, last revised 8-9 August 1980; the government is in the
process of revising the Constitution with the aim of federalizing the
Belgian state
Legal system:
civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory; judicial
review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
National Day, 21 July (ascension of King Leopold to the throne in 1831)
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Flemish -
Senaat, French - Senat) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Representatives
(Flemish - Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers, French - Chambre des
Representants)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Flemish - Hof van Cassatie, French - Cour de
Cassation)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King BAUDOUIN I (since 17 July 1951); Heir Apparent Prince ALBERT of Liege
(brother of the King; born 6 June 1934)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Jean-Luc DEHAENE (since 6 March 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
Flemish Social Christian (CVP), Herman van ROMPUY, president; Walloon Social
Christian (PSC) , Gerard DEPREZ, president; Flemish Socialist (SP), Frank
VANDENBROUCKE, president; Walloon Socialist (PS), NA; Flemish Liberal (PVV),
Guy VERHOF STADT, president; Walloon Liberal (PRL), Antoine DUQUESNE,
president; Francophone Democratic Front (FDF), Georges CLERFAYT, president;
Volksunie (VU), Jaak GABRIELS, president; Communist Party (PCB), Louis van
GEYT, president; Vlaams Blok (VB), Karel DILLEN, chairman; ROSSEM, Jean
Pierre VAN ROSSEM; National Front (FN), Werner van STEEN; Live Differently
(AGALEV), Leo COX; Ecologist (ECOLO), NA; other minor parties
Suffrage:
universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
Chamber of Representatives:
last held 24 November 1991 (next to be held by November 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (212 total) number of seats by party NA
Senate:
last held 24 November 1991 (next to be held by November 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (106 total) number of seats by party NA

:Belgium Government

Other political or pressure groups:
Christian and Socialist Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries;
numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers,
middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various
organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia;
various peace groups such as the Flemish Action Committee Against Nuclear
Weapons and Pax Christi
Member of:
ACCT, AfDB, AG, AsDB, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC,
ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Juan CASSIERS; Chancery at 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington,
DC 20008; telephone (202) 333-6900; there are Belgian Consulates General in
Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
US:
Ambassador Bruce S. GELB; Embassy at 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels
(mailing address is APO AE 09724); telephone [32] (2) 513-3830; FAX [32] (2)
511-2725; there is a US Consulate General in Antwerp
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red; the
design was based on the flag of France

:Belgium Economy

Overview:
This small private enterprise economy has capitalized on its central
geographic location, highly developed transport network, and diversified
industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated mainly in the
populous Flemish area in the north, although the government is encouraging
reinvestment in the southern region of Walloon. With few natural resources
Belgium must import essential raw materials, making its economy closely
dependent on the state of world markets. Over 70% of trade is with other EC
countries. During the period 1988-90, Belgium's economic performance was
marked by 4% average growth, moderate inflation, and a substantial external
surplus. Growth fell to 1.4% in 1991.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $171.8 billion, per capita $17,300; real
growth rate 1.4% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.2% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
9.4% est. (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $45.0 billion; expenditures $55.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of NA (1989)
Exports:
$118 billion (f.o.b., 1990) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union
commodities:
iron and steel, transportation equipment, tractors, diamonds, petroleum
products
partners:
EC 74%, US 5%, former Communist countries 2% (1989)
Imports:
$120 billion (c.i.f., 1990) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union
commodities:
fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners:
EC 73%, US 4%, oil-exporting less developed countries 4%, former Communist
countries 3% (1989)
External debt:
$28.8 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.2% (1991 est.); accounts for almost 30% of GDP
Electricity:
17,400,000 kW capacity; 67,100 million kWh produced, 6,767 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
engineering and metal products, processed food and beverages, chemicals,
basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum, coal
Agriculture:
accounts for 2.3% of GDP; emphasis on livestock production - beef, veal,
pork, milk; major crops are sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain,
and tobacco; net importer of farm products
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $5.8 billion
Currency:
Belgian franc (plural - francs); 1 Belgian franc (BF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Belgian francs (BF) per US$1 - 32.462 (January 1992), 34.148 (1991), 33.418
(1990), 39.404 (1989), 36.768 (1988), 37.334 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Belgium Communications

Railroads:
Belgian National Railways (SNCB) operates 3,667 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge, government owned; 2,563 km double track; 1,978 km electrified; 191 km
1.000-meter gauge, government owned and operated
Highways:
103,396 km total; 1,317 km limited access, divided autoroute; 11,717 km
national highway; 1,362 km provincial road; about 38,000 km paved and 51,000
km unpaved rural roads
Inland waterways:
2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)
Pipelines:
petroleum products 1,167 km; crude oil 161 km; natural gas 3,300 km
Ports:
Antwerp, Brugge, Gent, Oostende, Zeebrugge
Merchant marine:
23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,979 GRT/88,738 DWT; includes 10
cargo, 4 petroleum tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 5 chemical tanker, 1 bulk, 2
refrigerated cargo
Civil air:
47 major transport aircraft
Airports:
42 total, 42 usable; 24 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 14 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated
domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities; extensive
cable network; limited radio relay network; 4,720,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 3 AM, 39 FM, 32 TV; 5 submarine cables; 2 satellite earth
stations - Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and EUTELSAT systems; nationwide mobile
phone system

:Belgium Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 2,550,088; 2,133,483 fit for military service; 66,249 reach
military age (19) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $4.2 billion, 2.7% of GDP (1991)

:Belize Geography

Total area:
22,960 km2
Land area:
22,800 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
516 km total; Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km
Coastline:
386 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
12 nm in the north and 3 nm in the south; note - from the mouth of the
Sarstoon River to Ranguana Caye, Belize's territorial sea is 3 miles;
according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the purpose of this
limitation is to provide a framework for the negotiation of a definitive
agreement on territorial differences with the Republic of Guatemala''
Disputes:
claimed by Guatemala, but boundary negotiations to resolve the dispute have
begun
Climate:
tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)
Terrain:
flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south
Natural resources:
arable land potential, timber, fish
Land use:
arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 2%; forest and
woodland 44%; other 52%, includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
frequent devastating hurricanes (September to December) and coastal flooding
(especially in south); deforestation
Note:
national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize City to Belmopan because of
hurricanes; only country in Central America without a coastline on the North
Pacific Ocean

:Belize People

Population:
229,143 (July 1992), growth rate 3.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
31 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
4 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
30 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
67 years male, 73 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Belizean(s); adjective - Belizean
Ethnic divisions:
Creole 39.7%, Mestizo 33.1%, Maya 9.5%, Garifuna 7.6%, East Indian 2.1%,
other 8.0%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%, Methodist 6%, Mennonite
4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal 2%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1%, other
2%), none 2%, unknown 3%, other 3% (1980)
Languages:
English (official), Spanish, Maya, Garifuna (Carib)
Literacy:
91% (male 91%, female 91%) age 15 and over having ever attended school
(1970)
Labor force:
51,500; agriculture 30.0%, services 16.0%, government 15.4%, commerce 11.2%,
manufacturing 10.3%; shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical
personnel (1985)
Organized labor:
12% of labor force; 7 unions currently active

:Belize Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Belmopan
Administrative divisions:
6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo
Independence:
21 September 1981 (from UK; formerly British Honduras)
Constitution:
21 September 1981
Legal system:
English law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 21 September
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower
house or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Dame Elmira Minita GORDON (since 21 September 1981)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister George Cadle PRICE (since 4 September 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
People's United Party (PUP), George PRICE, Florencio MARIN, Said MUSA;
United Democratic Party (UDP), Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean LINDO, Dean BARROW;
Belize Popular Party (BPP), Louis SYLVESTRE
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held 4 September 1989 (next to be held September 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) PUP 15, UDP 13; note - in
January 1990 one member expelled from UDP joined PUP, making the seat count
PUP 16, UDP 12
Other political or pressure groups:
Society for the Promotion of Education and Research (SPEAR) headed by former
PUP minister; United Workers Front
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAS, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador James V. HYDE; Chancery at 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-9636
US:
Ambassador Eugene L. SCASSA; Embassy at Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street,
Belize City (mailing address is P. O. Box 286, Belize City); telephone [501]
(2) 77161; FAX [501] (2) 30802
Flag:
on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

:Belize Government

blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges; centered
is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of arms features a
shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany tree with the related
motto RA FLOREO (I Flourish in the Shade)

:Belize Economy

Overview:
The economy is based primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry, and
merchandising, with tourism and construction assuming increasing importance.
Agriculture accounts for about 30% of GDP and provides 75% of export
earnings, while sugar, the chief crop, accounts for almost 40% of hard
currency earnings. The US, Belize's main trading partner, is assisting in
efforts to reduce dependency on sugar with an agricultural diversification
program.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $373 million, per capita $1,635; real growth rate
10% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.5% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
12% (1988)
Budget:
revenues $126.8 million; expenditures $123.1 million, including capital
expenditures of $44.8 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$134 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
sugar, clothing, seafood, molasses, citrus, wood and wood products
partners:
US 47%, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Canada (1987)
Imports:
$194 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, food, manufactured goods, fuels,
chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners:
US 56%, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Mexico (1991)
External debt:
$142 million (December 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 9.7% (1989); accounts for 16% of GDP
Electricity:
34,532 kW capacity; 90 million kWh produced, 395 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
garment production, citrus concentrates, sugar refining, rum, beverages,
tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 30% of GDP (including fish and forestry); commercial crops
include sugarcane, bananas, coca, citrus fruits; expanding output of lumber
and cultured shrimp; net importer of basic foods
Illicit drugs:
an illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade;
eradication program cut marijuana production from 200 metric tons in 1987 to
about 50 metric tons in 1991; transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $104 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $215 million
Currency:
Belizean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Belizean dollar (Bz$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1 - 2.00 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Belize Communications

Highways:
2,710 km total; 500 km paved, 1,600 km gravel, 300 km improved earth, and
310 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft; seasonally navigable
Ports:
Belize City; additional ports for shallow draught craft include Corozol,
Punta Gorda, Big Creek
Merchant marine:
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,127 GRT/5,885 DWT
Civil air:
2 major transport aircraft
Airports:
44 total, 34 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
8,650 telephones; above-average system based on radio relay; broadcast
stations - 6 AM, 5 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

:Belize Defense Forces

Branches:
British Forces Belize, Belize Defense Force (including Army, Navy, Air
Force, and Volunteer Guard)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 55,333; 33,040 fit for military service; 2,509 reach military
age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $4.8 million, 1.8% of GDP (FY91)

:Benin Geography

Total area:
112,620 km2
Land area:
110,620 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
1,989 km total; Burkina 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644 km
Coastline:
121 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
200 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain:
mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains
Natural resources:
small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber
Land use:
arable land 12%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 4%; forest and
woodland 35%; other 45%, includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in winter; deforestation;
desertification
Note:
recent droughts have severely affected marginal agriculture in north; no
natural harbors

:Benin People

Population:
4,997,599 (July 1992), growth rate 3.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
49 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
15 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
115 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
49 years male, 53 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Beninese (singular and plural); adjective - Beninese
Ethnic divisions:
African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja, Yoruba,
Bariba); Europeans 5,500
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15%
Languages:
French (official); Fon and Yoruba most common vernaculars in south; at least
six major tribal languages in north
Literacy:
23% (male 32%, female 16%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
1,900,000 (1987); agriculture 60%, transport, commerce, and public services
38%, industry less than 2%; 49% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
about 75% of wage earners

:Benin Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Benin
Type:
republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped Marxism-Leninism December
1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition to multiparty
system completed 4 April 1991
Capital:
Porto-Novo
Administrative divisions:
6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Mono, Oueme, Zou
Independence:
1 August 1960 (from France; formerly Dahomey)
Constitution:
2 December 1990
Legal system:
based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 1 August (1990)
Executive branch:
president, cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Nicephore SOGLO (since 4 April 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance of the Democratic Union for the Forces of Progress (UDFP), Timothee
ADANLIN; Movement for Democracy and Social Progress (MDPS), Jean-Roger
AHOYO; and the Union for Liberty and Development (ULD), Marcellin DEGBE;
Alliance of the National Party for Democracy and Development (PNDD) and the
Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Pascal Chabi KAO; Alliance of the Social
Democratic Party (PSD) and the National Union for Solidarity and Progress
(UNSP), Bruno AMOUSSOU; Our Common Cause (NCC), Albert TEVOEDJRE; National
Rally for Democracy (RND), Joseph KEKE; Alliance of the National Movement
for Democracy and Development (MNDD), Bertin BORNA; Movement for Solidarity,
Union, and Progress (MSUP), Adebo ADENIYI; and Union for Democracy and
National Reconstruction (UDRN), Azaria FAKOREDE; Union for Democracy and
National Solidarity (UDS), Mama Amadou N'DIAYE; Assembly of Liberal
Democrats for National Reconstruction (RDL), Severin ADJOVI; Alliance of the
Alliance for Social Democracy (ASD), Robert DOSSOU, and Bloc for Social
Democracy (BSD), Michel MAGNIDE; Alliance of the Alliance for Democracy and
Progress (ADP), Akindes ADEKPEDJOU, and Democratic Union for Social Renewal
(UDRS), Bio Gado Seko N'GOYE; National Union for Democracy and Progress
(UNDP), Robert TAGNON; numerous other small parties
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held 10 and 24 March 1991; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats
- (64 total) UDFP-MDPS-ULD 12, PNDD/PRD 9, PSD/UNSP 8, NCC 7, RND 7,
MNDD/MSUP/UDRN 6, UDS 5, RDL 4, ASD/BSD 3, ADP/UDRS 2, UNDP 1
President:
last held 10 and 24 March 1991; results - Nicephore SOGLO 68%, Mathieu
KEREKOU 32%
Communists:
Communist Party of Dahomey (PCD) remains active

:Benin Government

Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Candide AHOUANSOU; Chancery at 2737 Cathedral Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-6656
US:
Ambassador Harriet W. ISOM; Embassy at Rue Caporal Anani Bernard, Cotonou
(mailing address is B. P. 2012, Cotonou); telephone [229] 30-06-50,
30-05-13, 30-17-92; FAX [229] 30-14-39 and 30-19-74
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a vertical green
band on the hoist side

:Benin Economy

Overview:
Benin is one of the least developed countries in the world because of
limited natural resources and a poorly developed infrastructure. Agriculture
accounts for about 35% of GDP, employs about 60% of the labor force, and
generates a major share of foreign exchange earnings. The industrial sector
contributes only about 15% to GDP and employs 2% of the work force. Low
prices in recent years have kept down hard currency earnings from Benin's
major exports of agricultural products and crude oil.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $2.0 billion, per capita $410; real growth rate
3% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.0% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $194 million; expenditures $390 million, including capital
expenditures of $104 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$263.3 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
crude oil, cotton, palm products, cocoa
partners:
FRG 36%, France 16%, Spain 14%, Italy 8%, UK 4%
Imports:
$428 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products, intermediate goods,
capital goods, light consumer goods
partners:
France 34%, Netherlands 10%, Japan 7%, Italy 6%, US 4%
External debt:
$1.0 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate --0.7% (1988); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
30,000 kW capacity; 25 million kWh produced, 5 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
textiles, cigarettes, construction materials, beverages, food production,
petroleum
Agriculture:
small farms produce 90% of agricultural output; production is dominated by
food crops - corn, sorghum, cassava, beans, and rice; cash crops include
cotton, palm oil, and peanuts; poultry and livestock output has not kept up
with consumption
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $46 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,300 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $101
million
Currency:
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
= 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
(1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Benin Communications

Railroads:
578 km, all 1.000-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
5,050 km total; 920 km paved, 2,600 laterite, 1,530 km improved earth
Inland waterways:
navigable along small sections, important only locally
Ports:
Cotonou
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
6 total, 5 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fair system of open wire, submarine cable, and radio relay; broadcast
stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Benin Defense Forces

Branches:
Armed Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
eligible 15-49, 2,165,515; of the 1,031,738 males 15-49, 528,366 are fit for
military service; of the 1,133,777 females 15-49, 572,603 are fit for
military service; about 55,697 males and 53,786 females reach military age
(18) annually; both sexes are liable for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $29 million, 1.7% of GDP (1988 est.)

:Bermuda Geography

Total area:
50 km2
Land area:
50 km2
Comparative area:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
103 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Climate:
subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
Terrain:
low hills separated by fertile depressions
Natural resources:
limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 20%; other 80%
Environment:
ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; consists of about 360
small coral islands
Note:
1,050 km east of North Carolina; some reclaimed land leased by US Government

:Bermuda People

Population:
60,213 (July 1992), growth rate 0.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
15 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
13 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
73 years male, 77 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Bermudian(s); adjective - Bermudian
Ethnic divisions:
black 61%, white and other 39%
Religions:
Anglican 37%, Roman Catholic 14%, African Methodist Episcopal (Zion) 10%,
Methodist 6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, other 28%
Languages:
English
Literacy:
98% (male 98%, female 99%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
Labor force:
32,000; clerical 25%, services 22%, laborers 21%, professional and technical
13%, administrative and managerial 10%, sales 7%, agriculture and fishing 2%
(1984)
Organized labor:
8,573 members (1985); largest union is Bermuda Industrial Union

:Bermuda Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Hamilton
Administrative divisions:
9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget,
Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton,
Warwick
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
8 June 1968
Legal system:
English law
National holiday:
Bermuda Day, 22 May
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, deputy governor, premier, deputy premier,
Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
or House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Lord
David WADDINGTON
Head of Government:
Premier John William David SWAN (since January 1982)
Political parties and leaders:
United Bermuda Party (UBP), John W. D. SWAN; Progressive Labor Party (PLP),
Frederick WADE; National Liberal Party (NLP), Gilbert DARRELL
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
House of Assembly:
last held 9 February 1989 (next to be held by February 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (40 total) UBP 23, PLP 15, NLP 1, other
1
Other political or pressure groups:
Bermuda Industrial Union (BIU), headed by Ottiwell SIMMONS
Member of:
CARICOM (observer), CCC, ICFTU, IOC
Diplomatic representation:
as a dependent territory of the UK, Bermuda's interests in the US are
represented by the UK
US:
Consul General L. Ebersole GAINES; Consulate General at Crown Hill, 16
Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton (mailing address is P. O. Box HM325,
Hamilton HMBX; PSC 1002, FPO AE 09727-1002); telephone (809) 295-1342; FAX
(809) 295-1592
Flag:
red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion holding a
scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in
1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

:Bermuda Economy

Overview:
Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, having
successfully exploited its location by providing luxury tourist facilities
and financial services. The tourist industry attracts more than 90% of its
business from North America. The industrial sector is small, and agriculture
is severely limited by a lack of suitable land. About 80% of food needs are
imported.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $1.3 billion, per capita $22,400; real growth
rate 2.0% (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):

Book of the day: