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Infant mortality rate:
65 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
64 years male, 70 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Uzbek(s); adjective - Uzbek
Ethnic divisions:
Uzbek 71%, Russian 8%, Tajik 5%, other 16%; note - includes 70% of Crimean
Tatars since their World War II deportation
Religions:
Muslim (mostly Sunnis) 75-80%, other (includes Farsi) 20-25%
Languages:
Uzbek 85%, Russian 5%, other 10%
Literacy:
NA%
Labor force:
7,941,000; agriculture and forestry 39%, industry and construction 24%,
other 37% (1990)
Organized labor:
NA

:Uzbekistan Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Uzbekistan
Type:
republic
Capital:
Tashkent (Toshkent)
Administrative divisions:
11 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast') and 1 autonomous republic*
(avtomnaya respublika); Andizhan, Bukhara, Dzhizak, Fergana, Karakalpakstan*
(Nukus), Kashkadar'ya (Karshi), Khorezm (Urgench), Namangan, Samarkand,
Surkhandar'ya (Termez), Syrdar'ya (Gulistan), Tashkent; note - an
administrative division has the same name as its administrative center
(exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence:
31 August 1991 from the Soviet Union; note - formerly Uzbek Soviet Socialist
Republic in the Soviet Union
Constitution:
NA
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
NA
Executive branch:
president
Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme Soviet
Judicial branch:
NA
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Islam KARIMOV (since 29 December 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Abdulhashim MUTALOV (since 13 January 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (formerly Communist Party), Islam
KARIMOV, chairman; ERK, Mukhammad SOLIKH, chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 29 December 1991 (next to be held NA December 1996); results -
Islam KARIMOV 86%, Mukhammad SOLIKH 12%, other 2%
Supreme Soviet:
last held NA March 1990 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (500 total) Communist 450, ERK 10, other 40
Communists:
NA
Other political or pressure groups:
Birlik (Unity) Abdurakhim PULATOV, chairman; Islamic Renaissance Party,
Abdulljon UTAEV, chairman
Member of:
CIS, CSCE, IMF, NACC, UN UNCTAD
Diplomatic representation:
NA
US:
Charge d'Affaires Michael MOZUR; Embassy at Hotel Uzbekistan, ;55
Chelendarskaya, Tashkent (mailing address is APO AE 09862); telephone [8]
(011) 7-3712-33-15-74

:Uzbekistan Government

Flag:
three equal horizontal bands - blue (top), white, and green with a crescent
moon and 12 stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant

:Uzbekistan Economy

Overview:
Although Uzbekistan accounted for only 3.4% of total Soviet output, it
produced two-thirds of the USSR's cotton. Moscow's push for ever-increasing
amounts of cotton included massive irrigation projects which caused
extensive environmental damage to the Aral Sea and rivers of the republic.
Furthermore, the lavish use of chemical fertilizers has caused extensive
pollution and widespread health problems. Recently the republic has sought
to encourage food production at the expense of cotton. The small industrial
sector specializes in such items as agricultural machinery, mineral
fertilizers, vegetable oil, and electrical cranes. Uzbekistan also has some
important natural resources including gold (about 30% of Soviet production),
uranium, and natural gas. The Uzbek government has encouraged land reform
but has shied away from other aspects of economic reform.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate -0.9%
(1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
83% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$1.5 billion (1990)
commodities:
cotton, gold, textiles, chemical and mineral fertilizers, vegetable oil
partners:
Russia, Ukraine, Eastern Europe
Imports:
$3.5 billion (1990)
commodities:
machinery and parts, consumer durables, grain, other foods
partners:
principally other former Soviet republics
External debt:
$2 billion (end of 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.8% (1991)
Electricity:
11,400,000 kW capacity; 54,100 million kWh produced, 2,662 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
chemical and mineral fertilizers, vegetable oil, textiles
Agriculture:
cotton, with much smaller production of grain, fruits, vegetables, and
livestock
Illicit drugs:
illicit producers of cannabis and opium; mostly for domestic consumption;
status of government eradication programs unknown; used as transshipment
points for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
as of May 1992, retaining ruble as currency
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Uzbekistan Communications

Railroads:
3,460 km all 1.520-meter gauge (includes NA km electrified); does not
include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
78,400 km total (1990); 67,000 km hard-surfaced, 11,400 km earth
Inland waterways:
NA km
Pipelines:
NA
Ports:
none - landlocked
Civil air:
NA
Airports:
NA
Telecommunications:
poorly developed; telephone density NA; linked by landline or microwave with
CIS member states and by leased connection via the Moscow international
gateway switch to other countries; satellite earth stations - Orbita and
INTELSAT (TV receive only)

:Uzbekistan Defense Forces

Branches:
Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard; CIS
Forces (Ground, Air and Air Defense)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service; NA reach military age (18)
annually
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:Vanuatu Geography

Total area:
14,760 km2
Land area:
14,760 km2; includes more than 80 islands
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
2,528 km
Maritime claims:
(measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Continental shelf:
edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds
Terrain:
mostly mountains of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains
Natural resources:
manganese, hardwood forests, fish
Land use:
arable land 1%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures 2%; forest and
woodland 1%; other 91%
Environment:
subject to tropical cyclones or typhoons (January to April); volcanism
causes minor earthquakes
Note:
located 5,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about
three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and Australia

:Vanuatu People

Population:
174,574 (July 1992), growth rate 3.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
35 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
30 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
67 years male, 72 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
5.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Ni-Vanuatu (singular and plural); adjective - Ni-Vanuatu
Ethnic divisions:
indigenous Melanesian 94%, French 4%, remainder Vietnamese, Chinese, and
various Pacific Islanders
Religions:
Presbyterian 36.7%, Anglican 15%, Catholic 15%, indigenous beliefs 7.6%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 6.2%, Church of Christ 3.8%, other 15.7%
Languages:
English and French (official); pidgin (known as Bislama or Bichelama)
Literacy:
53% (male 57%, female 48%) age 15 and over can read and write (1979)
Labor force:
NA
Organized labor:
7 registered trade unions - largest include Oil and Gas Workers' Union,
Vanuatu Airline Workers' Union

:Vanuatu Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Vanuatu
Type:
republic
Capital:
Port-Vila
Administrative divisions:
11 island councils; Ambrym, Aoba/Maewo, Banks/Torres, Efate, Epi, Malakula,
Paama, Pentecote, Santo/Malo, Shepherd, Tafea
Independence:
30 July 1980 (from France and UK; formerly New Hebrides)
Constitution:
30 July 1980
Legal system:
unified system being created from former dual French and British systems
National holiday:
Independence Day, 30 July (1980)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament; note - the National Council of Chiefs advises on
matters of custom and land
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Frederick TIMAKATA (since 30 January 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Maxime CARLOT (since 16 December 1991); Deputy Prime Minister
Sethy REGENVANU (since 17 December 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Vanuatu Party (VP), Donald KALPOKAS; Union of Moderate Parties (UMP), Serge
VOHOR; Melanesian Progressive Party (MPP), Barak SOPE; National United Party
(NUP), Walter LINI; Tan Union Party (TUP), Vincent BOULEKONE; Nagriamel
Party, Jimmy STEVENS; Friend Melanesian Party, leader NA
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Parliament:
last held 2 December 1991 (next to be held by November 1995); note - after
election, a coalition was formed by the Union of Moderate Parties and the
National United Party to form new government on 16 December 1991; seats -
(46 total) UMP 19; NUP 10; VP 10; MPP 4; TUP 1; Nagriamel 1; Friend 1
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, IMF, IMO,
IOC, ITU, NAM, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Vanuatu does not have a mission in Washington
US:
the ambassador in Papua New Guinea is accredited to Vanuatu
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green (bottom) with a black
isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) all separated by a black-edged
yellow stripe in the shape of a horizontal Y (the two points of the Y face
the hoist side and enclose the triangle); centered in the triangle is a
boar's tusk encircling two crossed namele leaves, all in yellow

:Vanuatu Economy

Overview:
The economy is based primarily on subsistence farming which provides a
living for about 80% of the population. Fishing and tourism are the other
mainstays of the economy. Mineral deposits are negligible; the country has
no known petroleum deposits. A small light industry sector caters to the
local market. Tax revenues come mainly from import duties.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $142 million, per capita $900 (1988 est.); real
growth rate 6% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $90.0 million; expenditures $103.0 million, including capital
expenditures of $45.0 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
$15.6 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
copra 59%, cocoa 11%, meat 9%, fish 8%, timber 4%
partners:
Netherlands, Japan, France, New Caledonia, Belgium
Imports:
$60.4 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
machines and vehicles 25%, food and beverages 23%, basic manufactures 18%,
raw materials and fuels 11%, chemicals 6%
partners:
Australia 36%, Japan 13%, NZ 10%, France 8%, Fiji 8%
External debt:
$30 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for about 10% of GDP
Electricity:
17,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced, 180 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
food and fish freezing, wood processing, meat canning
Agriculture:
accounts for 40% of GDP; export crops - copra, cocoa, coffee, and fish;
subsistence crops - copra, taro, yams, coconuts, fruits, and vegetables
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$606 million
Currency:
vatu (plural - vatu); 1 vatu (VT) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
vatu (VT) per US$1 - 112.55 (March 1992), 111.68 (1991), 116.57 (1990),
116.04 (1989), 104.43 (1988), 109.85 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Vanuatu Communications

Railroads:
none
Highways:
1,027 km total; at least 240 km sealed or all-weather roads
Ports:
Port-Vila, Luganville, Palikoulo, Santu
Merchant marine:
121 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,093,443 GRT/3,168,822 DWT; includes
26 cargo, 14 refrigerated cargo, 5 container, 11 vehicle carrier, 1
livestock carrier, 5 petroleum tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas,
51 bulk, 1 combination bulk, 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger; note - a
flag of convenience registry
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
33 total, 31 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, no TV; 3,000 telephones; satellite ground
stations - 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

:Vanuatu Defense Forces

Branches:
no military forces; Vanuatu Police Force (VPF), paramilitary Vanuatu Mobile
Force (VMF)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:Venezuela Geography

Total area:
912,050 km2
Land area:
882,050 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
4,993 km total; Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km
Coastline:
2,800 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
15 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claims all of Guyana west of the Essequibo river; maritime boundary dispute
with Colombia in the Gulf of Venezuela
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain:
Andes mountains and Maracaibo lowlands in northwest; central plains
(llanos); Guyana highlands in southeast
Natural resources:
crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower,
diamonds
Land use:
arable land 3%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 20%; forest and
woodland 39%; other 37%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts; increasing
industrial pollution in Caracas and Maracaibo
Note:
on major sea and air routes linking North and South America

:Venezuela People

Population:
20,675,970 (July 1992), growth rate 2.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
27 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
4 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
23 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
71 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Venezuelan(s); adjective - Venezuelan
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo 67%, white 21%, black 10%, Indian 2%
Religions:
nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%
Languages:
Spanish (official); Indian dialects spoken by about 200,000 Amerindians in
the remote interior
Literacy:
88% (male 87%, female 90%) age 15 and over can read and write (1981 est.)
Labor force:
5,800,000; services 56%, industry 28%, agriculture 16% (1985)
Organized labor:
32% of labor force

:Venezuela Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Venezuela
Type:
republic
Capital:
Caracas
Administrative divisions:
21 states (estados, singular - estado), 1 territory* (territorios, singular
- territorio), 1 federal district** (distrito federal), and 1 federal
dependence*** (dependencia federal); Amazonas*, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua,
Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Dependencias
Federales***, Distrito Federal**, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda,
Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy,
Zulia; note - the federal dependence consists of 11 federally controlled
island groups with a total of 72 individual islands
Independence:
5 July 1811 (from Spain)
Constitution:
23 January 1961
Legal system:
based on Napoleonic code; judicial review of legislative acts in Cassation
Court only; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 5 July (1811)
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la Republica) consists of an
upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies
(Camara de Diputados)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Carlos Andres PEREZ (since 2 February 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
Social Christian Party (COPEI), Hilarion CARDOZO, president, and Eduardo
FERNANDEZ, secretary general; Democratic Action (AD), Humberto CELLI,
president, and Luis ALFARO Ucero, secretary general; Movement Toward
Socialism (MAS), Argelia LAYA, president, and Freddy MUNOZ, secretary
general
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held NA December 1993); results -
Carlos Andres PEREZ (AD) 54.6%, Eduardo FERNANDEZ (COPEI) 41.7%, other 3.7%
Senate:
last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held NA December 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (49 total) AD 23, COPEI 22, other 4;
note - 3 former presidents (1 from AD, 2 from COPEI) hold lifetime senate
seats
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held NA December 1993); results - AD
43.7%, COPEI 31.4%, MAS 10.3%, other 14.6%; seats - (201 total) AD 97, COPEI
67, MAS 18, other 19
Communists:
10,000 members (est.)

:Venezuela Government

Other political or pressure groups:
FEDECAMARAS, a conservative business group; Venezuelan Confederation of
Workers, the Democratic Action - dominated labor organization
Member of:
AG, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Simon Alberto CONSALVI Bottaro; Chancery at 1099 30th Street NW,
Washington, DC 20007; telephone (202) 342-2214; there are Venezuelan
Consulates General in Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US:
Ambassador Michael Martin SKOL; Embassy at Avenida Francisco de Miranda and
Avenida Principal de la Floresta, Caracas (mailing address is P. O. Box
62291, Caracas 1060-A, or APO AA 34037); telephone [58] (2) 285-2222; FAX
[58] (2) 285-0336; there is a US Consulate in Maracaibo
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the coat of
arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of seven white
five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

:Venezuela Economy

Overview:
Petroleum is the cornerstone of the economy and accounted for 23% of GDP,
80% of central government revenues, and 80% of export earnings in 1991.
President PEREZ introduced an economic readjustment program when he assumed
office in February 1989. Lower tariffs and price supports, a free market
exchange rate, and market-linked interest rates threw the economy into
confusion, causing an 8% decline in GDP in 1989. However, the economy
recovered part way in 1990, and grew by 9.2% in 1991, led by the petroleum
sector.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $52.3 billion, per capita $2,590; real growth
rate 9.2% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
30.7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
9.3% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $13.2 billion; expenditures $13.1 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1991)
Exports:
$15.1 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
petroleum 80%, bauxite and aluminum, iron ore, agricultural products, basic
manufactures
partners:
US 50.7%, Europe 13.7%, Japan 4.0% (1989)
Imports:
$10.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, chemicals, manufactures, machinery and transport equipment
partners:
US 44%, FRG 8.0%, Japan 4%, Italy 7%, Canada 2% (1989)
External debt:
$30.9 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.4% (1991 est.); accounts for one-fourth of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity:
20,128,000 kW capacity; 55,753 million kWh produced, 2,762 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
petroleum, iron-ore mining, construction materials, food processing,
textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly
Agriculture:
accounts for 6% of GDP and 16% of labor force; products - corn, sorghum,
sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee, beef, pork, milk, eggs, fish;
not self-sufficient in food other than meat
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and coca leaf for the international drug trade
on a small scale; however, large quantities of cocaine transit the country
from Colombia
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-86), $488 million; Communist countries
(1970-89), $10 million
Currency:
bolivar (plural - bolivares); 1 bolivar (Bs) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates:
bolivares (Bs) per US$1 - 65.39 (March 1992), 56.82 (1991), 46.90 (1990),
34.68 (1989), 14.50 (fixed rate 1987-88)

:Venezuela Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Venezuela Communications

Railroads:
542 km total; 363 km 1.435-meter standard gauge all single track, government
owned; 179 km 1.435-meter gauge, privately owned
Highways:
77,785 km total; 22,780 km paved, 24,720 km gravel, 14,450 km earth roads,
and 15,835 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept oceangoing vessels
Pipelines:
crude oil 6,370 km; petroleum products 480 km; natural gas 4,010 km
Ports:
Amuay Bay, Bajo Grande, El Tablazo, La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Puerto Ordaz
Merchant marine:
57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 790,108 GRT/1,257,637 DWT; includes 1
short-sea passenger, 1 passenger cargo, 22 cargo, 1 container, 2
roll-on/roll-off, 17 petroleum tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 8
bulk, 1 vehicle carrier, 1 combination bulk
Civil air:
56 major transport aircraft
Airports:
308 total, 287 usable; 135 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 14 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 88 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
modern and expanding; 1,440,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 181 AM, no
FM, 59 TV, 26 shortwave; 3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite ground
stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3 domestic

:Venezuela Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces (Army), Naval Forces (including Navy, Marines, Coast Guard),
Air Forces, Armed Forces of Cooperation (National Guard)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 5,365,880; 3,884,558 fit for military service; 210,737 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.95 billion, 4% of GDP (1991)

:Vietnam Geography

Total area:
329,560 km2
Land area:
325,360
Comparative area:
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
3,818 km total; Cambodia 982 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 1,555 km
Coastline:
3,444 km; excludes islands
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Continental shelf:
edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
maritime boundary with Cambodia not defined; involved in a complex dispute
over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and
possibly Brunei; unresolved maritime boundary with Thailand; maritime
boundary dispute with China in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied
by China but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan
Climate:
tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid-May to
mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)
Terrain:
low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in
far north and northwest
Natural resources:
phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil deposits,
forests
Land use:
arable land 22%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and
woodland 40%; other 35%; includes irrigated 5%
Environment:
occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding

:Vietnam People

Population:
68,964,018 (July 1992), growth rate 2.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
29 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
47 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
63 years male, 67 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Vietnamese (singular and plural); adjective - Vietnamese
Ethnic divisions:
predominantly Vietnamese 85-90%; Chinese 3%; ethnic minorities include
Muong, Thai, Meo, Khmer, Man, Cham; other mountain tribes
Religions:
Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist, Roman Catholic, indigenous beliefs, Islamic,
Protestant
Languages:
Vietnamese (official), French, Chinese, English, Khmer, tribal languages
(Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Literacy:
88% (male 92%, female 84%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
32.7 million; agricultural 65%, industrial and service 35% (1990 est.)
Organized labor:
reportedly over 90% of wage and salary earners are members of the Vietnam
Federation of Trade Unions (VFTU)

:Vietnam Government

Long-form name:
Socialist Republic of Vietnam; abbreviated SRV
Type:
Communist state
Capital:
Hanoi
Administrative divisions:
50 provinces (tinh, singular and plural), 3 municipalities* (thanh pho,
singular and plural); An Giang, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Bac Thai, Ben Tre, Binh
Dinh, Binh Thuan, Can Tho, Cao Bang, Dac Las, Dong Nai, Dong Tay, Gia Lai,
Ha Bac, Ha Giang, Ha Noi*, Ha Tay, Ha Tinh, Hai Hung, Hai Phong*, Ho Chi
Minh*, Hoa Binh, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang
Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Minh Hai, Nam Ha, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu
Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam-Da Nang, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc
Trang, Son La, Song Be, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien, Tien
Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phu, Yen Bai; note -
diacritical marks are not included
Independence:
2 September 1945 (from France)
Constitution:
18 December 1980; new Constitution to be approved Spring 1992
Legal system:
based on Communist legal theory and French civil law system
National holiday:
Independence Day, 2 September (1945)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Quoc-Hoi)
Judicial branch:
Supreme People's Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Vo Chi CONG (since 18 June 1987)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Vo Van KIET (since 9 August 1991); Deputy Prime Minister Phan
Van KHAI (since 10 August 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
only party - Vietnam Communist Party (VCP), DO MUOI
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held 19 April 1987 (next to be held 19 July 1992); results - VCP is the
only party; seats - (496 total) VCP or VCP-approved 496; note - number of
seats under new government 395
Communists:
nearly 2 million
Member of:
ACCT, AsDB, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IIB,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
none
Flag:
red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center

:Vietnam Economy

Overview:
This is a formerly centrally planned, developing economy with extensive
government ownership and control of productive facilities. The economy is
primarily agricultural; the sector employs about 70% of the labor force and
accounts for half of GNP. Rice is the staple crop; substantial amounts of
maize, sorghum, cassava, and sweet potatoes are also grown. The government
permits sale of surplus grain on the open market. Most of the mineral
resources are located in the north, including coal, which is an important
export item. Oil was discovered off the southern coast in 1986 with
production reaching 70,000 barrels per day in 1991 and expected to increase
in the years ahead. Following the end of the war in 1975, heavy-handed
government measures undermined efforts at an efficient merger of the
agricultural resources of the south and the industrial resources of the
north. The economy remains heavily dependent on foreign aid and has received
assistance from UN agencies, France, Australia, Sweden, and Communist
countries. Inflation, although down from recent triple-digit levels, is
still a major weakness and is showing signs of accelerating upwards again.
Per capita output is among the world's lowest. Since late 1986 the
government has sponsored a broad reform program that seeks to turn more
economic activity over to the private sector.
GNP:
exchange rate conversion - $15 billion, per capita $220; real growth rate
2.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
80% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
30% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $551 million; expenditures $830 million, including capital
expenditures of $58 million (1990)
Exports:
$1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
agricultural and handicraft products, coal, minerals, crude petroleum, ores,
seafood
partners:
Japan, Singapore, Thailand, Eastern Europe, USSR
Imports:
$1.9 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum products, steel products, railroad equipment, chemicals,
medicines, raw cotton, fertilizer, grain
partners:
Japan, Singapore, Thailand, Eastern Europe, USSR
External debt:
$16.8 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -3.6% (1989); accounts for 30% of GNP
Electricity:
3,300,000 kW capacity; 9,200 million kWh produced, 140 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
food processing, textiles, machine building, mining, cement, chemical
fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for half of GNP; paddy rice, corn, potatoes make up 50% of farm
output; commercial crops (rubber, soybeans, coffee, tea, bananas) and animal
products other 50%; since 1989 self-sufficient in food staple rice; fish
catch of 943,100 metric tons (1989 est.)

:Vietnam Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-74), $3.1 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.9 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $61 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $12.0
billion
Currency:
new dong (plural - new dong); 1 new dong (D) = 100 xu
Exchange rates:
new dong (D) per US$1 - 11,100 (May 1992), 8,100 (July 1991), 7,280
(December 1990), 3,996 (March 1990), 2,047 (1988), 225 (1987); note -
1985-89 figures are end of year
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Vietnam Communications

Railroads:
3,059 km total; 2,454 1.000-meter gauge, 151 km 1.435-meter (standard)
gauge, 230 km dual gauge (three rails), and 224 km not restored to service
after war damage
Highways:
about 85,000 km total; 9,400 km paved, 48,700 km gravel or improved earth,
26,900 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
about 17,702 km navigable; more than 5,149 km navigable at all times by
vessels up to 1.8 meter draft
Pipelines:
petroleum products 150 km
Ports:
Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City
Merchant marine:
89 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 400,430 GRT/643,877 DWT; includes 73
cargo 4 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 8 petroleum tanker, 3 bulk;
note - Vietnam owns 11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 134,719 DWT
under the registries of Panama and Malta
Civil air:
controlled by military
Airports:
100 total, 100 usable; 50 with permanent-surface runways; 10 with runways
2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
25 telephones per 10,000 persons (1991); broadcast stations - 16 AM, 1 FM, 2
TV; 2,300,000 TV sets; 6,000,000 radio receivers; 3 satellite earth stations

:Vietnam Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground, Navy (including Naval Infantry), Air Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 16,839,400; 10,739,128 fit for military service; 787,026 reach
military age (17) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GNP

:Virgin Islands Geography

Total area:
352 km2
Land area:
349 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
188 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical, tempered by easterly tradewinds, relatively low humidity,
little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to November
Terrain:
mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level land
Natural resources:
sun, sand, sea, surf
Land use:
arable land 15%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and pastures 26%; forest and
woodland 6%; other 47%
Environment:
rarely affected by hurricanes; subject to frequent severe droughts, floods,
earthquakes; lack of natural freshwater resources
Note:
important location 1,770 km southeast of Miami and 65 km east of Puerto
Rico, along the Anegada Passage - a key shipping lane for the Panama Canal;
Saint Thomas has one of the best natural, deepwater harbors in the Caribbean

:Virgin Islands People

Population:
98,942 (July 1992), growth rate -1.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
21 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-26 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
13 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
74 years male, 77 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Virgin Islander(s); adjective - Virgin Islander; US citizens
Ethnic divisions:
West Indian (45% born in the Virgin Islands and 29% born elsewhere in the
West Indies) 74%, US mainland 13%, Puerto Rican 5%, other 8%; black 80%,
white 15%, other 5%; Hispanic origin 14%
Religions:
Baptist 42%, Roman Catholic 34%, Episcopalian 17%, other 7%
Languages:
English (official), but Spanish and Creole are widely spoken
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
45,500 (1988)
Organized labor:
90% of the government labor force

:Virgin Islands Government

Long-form name:
Virgin Islands of the United States
Type:
organized, unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Office of
Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the Interior
Capital:
Charlotte Amalie
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of the US)
Independence:
none (territory of the US)
Constitution:
Revised Organic Act of 22 July 1954
Legal system:
based on US
National holiday:
Transfer Day (from Denmark to US), 31 March (1917)
Executive branch:
US president, popularly elected governor and lieutenant governor
Legislative branch:
unicameral Senate
Judicial branch:
US District Court handles civil matters over $50,000, felonies (persons 15
years of age and over), and federal cases; Territorial Court handles civil
matters up to $50,000 small claims, juvenile, domestic, misdemeanors, and
traffic cases
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989); Governor Alexander A.
FARRELLY (since 5 January 1987); Lieutenant Governor Derek M. HODGE (since 5
January 1987)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party, Marilyn STAPLETON; Independent Citizens' Movement (ICM),
Virdin C. BROWN; Republican Party, Charlotte-Poole DAVIS
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Governor:
last held 6 November 1990 (next to be held November 1994); results -
Governor Alexander FARRELLY (Democratic Party) 56.5% defeated Juan LUIS
(independent) 38.5%
Senate:
last held 6 November 1990 (next to be held 3 November 1992); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total) number of seats by party NA
US House of Representatives:
last held 6 November 1990 (next to be held 3 November 1992); results - Ron
DE LUGO reelected as nonvoting delegate seats - (1 total); seat by party NA;
note - the Virgin Islands elects one nonvoting representative to the US
House of Representatives
Member of:
ECLAC (associate), IOC, applied for associate membership in OECS in February
1990
Diplomatic representation:
none (territory of the US)
Flag:
white with a modified US coat of arms in the center between the large blue
initials V and I; the coat of arms shows an eagle holding an olive branch in
one talon and three arrows in the other with a superimposed shield of
vertical red and white stripes below a blue panel

:Virgin Islands Economy

Overview:
Tourism is the primary economic activity, accounting for more than 70% of
GDP and 70% of employment. The manufacturing sector consists of textile,
electronics, pharmaceutical, and watch assembly plants. The agricultural
sector is small, most food being imported. International business and
financial services are a small but growing component of the economy. The
world's largest petroleum refinery is at Saint Croix.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $1.2 billion, per capita $11,000; real growth
rate NA% (1987)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
2.0% (1990)
Budget:
revenues $364.4 million; expenditures $364.4 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY90)
Exports:
$2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
refined petroleum products
partners:
US, Puerto Rico
Imports:
$3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer goods, building materials
partners:
US, Puerto Rico
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate 12%
Electricity:
358,000 kW capacity; 532 million kWh produced, 5,360 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tourism, petroleum refining, watch assembly, rum distilling, construction,
pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics
Agriculture:
truck gardens, food crops (small scale), fruit, sorghum, Senepol cattle
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $42
million
Currency:
US currency is used
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

:Virgin Islands Communications

Highways:
856 km total
Ports:
Saint Croix - Christiansted, Frederiksted; Saint Thomas - Long Bay, Crown
Bay, Red Hook; Saint John - Cruz Bay
Airports:
2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m;
international airports on Saint Thomas and Saint Croix
Telecommunications:
44,280 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 8 FM, 4 TV; modern system
using fiber-optic cable, submarine cable, microwave radio, and satellite
facilities; 98,000 radios; 63,000 TV (1988)

:Virgin Islands Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

:Wake Island Geography

Total area:
6.5 km2
Land area:
6.5 km2
Comparative area:
about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
19.3 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claimed by the Republic of the Marshall Islands
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
atoll of three coral islands built up on an underwater volcano; central
lagoon is former crater, islands are part of the rim; average elevation less
than four meters
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
subject to occasional typhoons
Note:
strategic location 3,700 km west of Honolulu in the North Pacific Ocean,
about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and the Northern Mariana Islands;
emergency landing location for transpacific flights

:Wake Island People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants; 381 temporary population (US Air Force personnel,
civilian weather service personnel, and US and Thai contractors) (January
1992); note - population peaked about 1970 with over 1,600 persons during
the Vietnam conflict

:Wake Island Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Air Force (under
an agreement with the US Department of Interior) since 24 June 1972
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC
Flag:
the US flag is used

:Wake Island Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is limited to providing services to US military personnel
and contractors located on the island. All food and manufactured goods must
be imported.
Electricity:
supplied by US military

:Wake Island Communications

Ports:
none; because of the reefs, there are only two offshore anchorages for large
ships
Airports:
1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m
Telecommunications:
underwater cables to Guam and through Midway to Honolulu; 1 Autovon circuit
off the Overseas Telephone System (OTS); Armed Forces Radio/Television
Service (AFRTS) radio and television service provided by satellite;
broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV
Note:
formerly an important commercial aviation base, now used only by US military
and some commercial cargo planes

:Wake Island Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

:Wallis and Futuna Geography

Total area:
274 km2
Land area:
274 km2; includes Ile Uvea (Wallis Island), Ile Futuna (Futuna Island), Ile
Alofi, and 20 islets
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
129 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool, dry season (May to
October)
Terrain:
volcanic origin; low hills
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land 5%; permanent crops 20%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 75%
Environment:
both island groups have fringing reefs
Note:
located 4,600 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about
two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

:Wallis and Futuna People

Population:
17,095 (July 1992), growth rate 3.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
27 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
8 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
29 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
70 years male, 71 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Wallisian(s), Futunan(s), or Wallis and Futuna Islanders; adjective -
Wallisian, Futunan, or Wallis and Futuna Islander
Ethnic divisions:
almost entirely Polynesian
Religions:
largely Roman Catholic
Languages:
French, Wallisian (indigenous Polynesian language)
Literacy:
50% (male 50%, female 51%) at all ages can read and write (1969)
Labor force:
NA
Organized labor:
NA

:Wallis and Futuna Government

Long-form name:
Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands
Type:
overseas territory of France
Capital:
Mata Utu (on Ile Uvea)
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of France)
Independence:
none (overseas territory of France)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French
National holiday:
Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Executive branch:
French president, chief administrator; note - there are three traditional
kings with limited powers
Legislative branch:
unicameral Territorial Assembly (Assemblee Territoriale)
Judicial branch:
none; justice generally administered under French law by the chief
administrator, but the three traditional kings administer customary law and
there is a magistrate in Mata Utu
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
Head of Government:
Chief Administrator Robert POMMIES (since 26 September 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR); Union Populaire Locale (UPL); Union Pour la
Democratie Francaise (UDF); Lua kae tahi (Giscardians); Mouvement des
Radicaux de Gauche (MRG)
Suffrage:
universal adult at age 18
Elections:
Territorial Assembly:
last held 15 March 1987 (next to be held NA March 1992); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (20 total) RPR 7, UPL 5, UDF 4, UNF 4
French Senate:
last held NA September 1989 (next to be held by NA September 1992); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) RPR 1
French National Assembly:
last held 12 June 1988 (next to be held by NA September 1992); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) MRG 1
Member of:
FZ, SPC
Diplomatic representation:
as an overseas territory of France, local interests are represented in the
US by France
Flag:
the flag of France is used

:Wallis and Futuna Economy

Overview:
The economy is limited to traditional subsistence agriculture, with about
80% of the labor force earning its livelihood from agriculture (coconuts and
vegetables), livestock (mostly pigs), and fishing. About 4% of the
population is employed in government. Revenues come from French Government
subsidies, licensing of fishing rights to Japan and South Korea, import
taxes, and remittances from expatriate workers in New Caledonia. Wallis and
Futuna imports food, fuel, clothing, machinery, and transport equipment, but
its exports are negligible, consisting of copra and handicrafts.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $25 million, per capita $1,500; real growth rate
NA% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $2.7 million; expenditures $2.7 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1983)
Exports:
negligible
commodities:
copra, handicrafts
partners:
NA
Imports:
$13.3 million (c.i.f., 1984)
commodities:
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, transportation equipment, fuel
partners:
France, Australia, New Zealand
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
1,200 kW capacity; 1 million kWh produced, 70 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
copra, handicrafts, fishing, lumber
Agriculture:
dominated by coconut production, with subsistence crops of yams, taro,
bananas, and herds of pigs and goats
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$118 million
Currency:
Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural - francs); 1 CFP franc (CFPF)
= 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 102.53 (March
1992), 102.57 (1991), 99.0 (1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30 (1988), 109.27
(1987); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French franc
Fiscal year:
NA

:Wallis and Futuna Communications

Highways:
100 km on Ile Uvea, 16 km sealed; 20 km earth surface on Ile Futuna
Inland waterways:
none
Ports:
Mata-Utu, Leava
Airports:
2 total; 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
225 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV

:Wallis and Futuna Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

:West Bank Header

Note:
The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended with Israel in
control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Sinai, and the Golan
Heights. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords and reaffirmed by
President Bush's post-Gulf crisis peace initiative, the final status of the
West Bank and the Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors, and a
peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the
concerned parties. Camp David further specifies that these negotiations will
resolve the respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this process,
it is US policy that the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip
has yet to be determined. In the view of the US, the term West Bank
describes all of the area west of the Jordan River under Jordanian
administration before the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. However, with respect to
negotiations envisaged in the framework agreement, it is US policy that a
distinction must be made between Jerusalem and the rest of the West Bank
because of the city's special status and circumstances. Therefore, a
negotiated solution for the final status of Jerusalem could be different in
character from that of the rest of the West Bank.

:West Bank Geography

Total area:
5,860 km2
Land area:
5,640 km2; includes West Bank, East Jerusalem, Latrun Salient, Jerusalem No
Man's Land, and the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea, but excludes Mt.
Scopus
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Delaware
Land boundaries:
404 km total; Israel 307 km, Jordan 97 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
Israeli occupied with status to be determined
Climate:
temperate, temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to hot
summers, cool to mild winters
Terrain:
mostly rugged dissected upland, some vegetation in west, but barren in east
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land 27%, permanent crops 0%, meadows and pastures 32%, forest and
woodland 1%, other 40%
Environment:
highlands are main recharge area for Israel's coastal aquifers
Note:
landlocked; there are 175 Jewish settlements in the West Bank and 14
Israeli-built Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem

:West Bank People

Population:
1,362,464 (July 1992), growth rate 3.1% (1992); in addition, there are
95,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank and 132,000 in East Jerusalem (1992
est.)
Birth rate:
35 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
37 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
68 years male, 71 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
NA
Ethnic divisions:
Palestinian Arab and other 88%, Jewish 12%
Religions:
Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 80%, Jewish 12%, Christian and other 8%
Languages:
Arabic, Israeli settlers speak Hebrew, English widely understood
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
NA; excluding Israeli Jewish settlers - small industry, commerce, and
business 29.8%, construction 24.2%, agriculture 22.4%, service and other
23.6% (1984)
Organized labor:
NA

:West Bank Government

Long-form name:
none
Note:
The West Bank is currently governed by Israeli military authorities and
Israeli civil administration. It is US policy that the final status of the
West Bank will be determined by negotiations among the concerned parties.
These negotiations will determine how the area is to governed.

:West Bank Economy

Overview:
Economic progress in the West Bank has been hampered by Israeli military
administration and the effects of the Palestinian uprising (intifadah).
Industries using advanced technology or requiring sizable investment have
been discouraged by a lack of local capital and restrictive Israeli
policies. Capital investment consists largely of residential housing, not
productive assets that would enable local firms to compete with Israeli
industry. A major share of GNP is derived from remittances of workers
employed in Israel and Persian Gulf states, but such transfers from the Gulf
dropped dramatically after Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. In the wake
of the Persian Gulf crisis, many Palestinians have returned to the West
Bank, increasing unemployment, and export revenues have plunged because of
the loss of markets in Jordan and the Gulf states. Israeli measures to
curtail the intifadah also have pushed unemployment up and lowered living
standards. The area's economic outlook remains bleak.
GNP:
exchange rate conversion - $1.3 billion, per capita $1,200; real growth rate
-10% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1990 est.)
Budget:
revenues $31.0 million; expenditures $36.1 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY88)
Exports:
$150 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.)
commodities:
NA
partners:
Jordan, Israel
Imports:
$410 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.)
commodities:
NA
partners:
Jordan, Israel
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate 1% (1989); accounts for about 4% of GNP
Electricity:
power supplied by Israel
Industries:
generally small family businesses that produce cement, textiles, soap,
olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have
established some small-scale modern industries in the settlements and
industrial centers
Agriculture:
accounts for about 15% of GNP; olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables,
beef, and dairy products
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
new Israeli shekel (plural - shekels) and Jordanian dinar (plural - dinars);
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot and 1 Jordanian dinar (JD) =
1,000 fils

:West Bank Economy

Exchange rates:
new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 2.4019 (March 1992), 2.2791 (1991),
2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987); Jordanian dinars
(JD) per US$1 - 0.6760 (January 1992), 0.6810 (1991), 0.6636 (1990), 0.5704
(1989), 0.3709 (1988), 0.3387 (1987)
Fiscal year:
previously 1 April - 31 March; FY91 was 1 April - 31 December, and since 1
January 1992 the fiscal year has conformed to the calendar year

:West Bank Communications

Highways:
small road network, Israelis developing east-west axial highways to service
new settlements
Airports:
2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
open-wire telephone system currently being upgraded; broadcast stations - no
AM, no FM, no TV

:West Bank Defense Forces

Branches:
NA
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Western Sahara Geography

Total area:
266,000 km2
Land area:
266,000 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Colorado
Land boundaries:
2,046 km total; Algeria 42 km, Mauritania 1,561 km, Morocco 443 km
Coastline:
1,110 km
Maritime claims:
contingent upon resolution of sovereignty issue
Disputes:
claimed and administered by Morocco, but sovereignty is unresolved and the
UN is attempting to hold a referendum on the issue; the UN-administered
cease-fire has been currently in effect since September 1991
Climate:
hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore currents produce fog and heavy
dew
Terrain:
mostly low, flat desert with large areas of rocky or sandy surfaces rising
to small mountains in south and northeast
Natural resources:
phosphates, iron ore
Land use:
arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 19%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 81%
Environment:
hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur during winter and spring;
widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of time, often severely restricting
visibility; sparse water and arable land

:Western Sahara People

Population:
201,467 (July 1992), growth rate 2.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
48 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
20 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
159 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
43 years male, 45 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
7.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Sahrawi(s), Sahraoui(s); adjective - Sahrawian, Sahraouian
Ethnic divisions:
Arab and Berber
Religions:
Muslim
Languages:
Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
12,000; 50% animal husbandry and subsistence farming
Organized labor:
NA

:Western Sahara Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
legal status of territory and question of sovereignty unresolved; territory
contested by Morocco and Polisario Front (Popular Front for the Liberation
of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro), which in February 1976 formally
proclaimed a government in exile of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
(SADR); territory partitioned between Morocco and Mauritania in April 1976,
with Morocco acquiring northern two-thirds; Mauritania, under pressure from
Polisario guerrillas, abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979;
Morocco moved to occupy that sector shortly thereafter and has since
asserted administrative control; the Polisario's government in exile was
seated as an OAU member in 1984; guerrilla activities continued
sporadically, until a UN-monitored cease-fire was implemented 6 September
1991
Capital:
none
Administrative divisions:
none (under de facto control of Morocco)
Leaders:
none
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation:
none

:Western Sahara Economy

Overview:
Western Sahara, a territory poor in natural resources and having little
rainfall, has a per capita GDP of roughly $300. Pastoral nomadism, fishing,
and phosphate mining are the principal sources of income for the population.
Most of the food for the urban population must be imported. All trade and
other economic activities are controlled by the Moroccan Government.
GDP:
$60 million, per capita $300; real growth rate NA% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$8 million (f.o.b., 1982 est.)
commodities:
phosphates 62%
partners:
Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade partners are
included in overall Moroccan accounts
Imports:
$30 million (c.i.f., 1982 est.)
commodities:
fuel for fishing fleet, foodstuffs
partners:
Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade partners are
included in overall Moroccan accounts
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
60,000 kW capacity; 79 million kWh produced, 425 kWh per capita (1989)
Industries:
phosphate, fishing, handicrafts
Agriculture:
limited largely to subsistence agriculture; some barley is grown in
nondrought years; fruit and vegetables are grown in the few oases; food
imports are essential; camels, sheep, and goats are kept by the nomadic
natives; cash economy exists largely for the garrison forces
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
Moroccan dirham (plural - dirhams); 1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1 - 8.889 (March 1992), 8.071 (1991), 8.242
(1990), 8.488 (1989), 8.209 (1988), 8.359 (1987)
Fiscal year:
NA

:Western Sahara Communications

Highways:
6,200 km total; 1,450 km surfaced, 4,750 km improved and unimproved earth
roads and tracks
Ports:
El Aaiun, Ad Dakhla
Airports:
13 total, 13 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
sparse and limited system; tied into Morocco's system by microwave,
tropospheric scatter, and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations linked to
Rabat, Morocco; 2,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 2 TV

:Western Sahara Defense Forces

Branches:
NA
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Western Samoa Geography

Total area:
2,860 km2
Land area:
2,850 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
403 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season (May to October)
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged mountains in interior
Natural resources:
hardwood forests, fish
Land use:
arable land 19%; permanent crops 24%; meadows and pastures NEGL%; forest and
woodland 47%; other 10%
Environment:
subject to occasional typhoons; active volcanism
Note:
located 4,300 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about
halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

:Western Samoa People

Population:
194,992 (July 1992), growth rate 2.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
34 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-4 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
40 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
65 years male, 70 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Western Samoan(s); adjective - Western Samoan
Ethnic divisions:
Samoan; Euronesians (persons of European and Polynesian blood) about 7%,
Europeans 0.4%
Religions:
Christian 99.7% (about half of population associated with the London
Missionary Society; includes Congregational, Roman Catholic, Methodist,
Latter Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventist)
Languages:
Samoan (Polynesian), English
Literacy:
97% (male 97%, female 97%) age 15 and over can read and write (1971)
Labor force:
38,000; 22,000 employed in agriculture (1987 est.)
Organized labor:
Public Service Association (PSA)

:Western Samoa Government

Long-form name:
Independent State of Western Samoa
Type:
constitutional monarchy under native chief
Capital:
Apia
Administrative divisions:
11 districts; A`ana, Aiga-i-le-Tai, Atua, Fa`asaleleaga, Gaga`emauga,
Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupa`itea, Tuamasaga, Va`a-o-Fonoti, Vaisigano
Independence:
1 January 1962 (from UN trusteeship administered by New Zealand)
Constitution:
1 January 1962
Legal system:
based on English common law and local customs; judicial review of
legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 1 June
Executive branch:
chief, Executive Council, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Chief Susuga Malietoa TANUMAFILI II (Co-Chief of State from 1 January 1962
until becoming sole Chief of State on 5 April 1963)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana (since 7 April 1988)
Political parties and leaders:
Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP), TOFILAU Eti, chairman; Samoan National
Development Party (SNDP), VA'AI Kolone, chairman
Suffrage:
universal adult over age 21, but only matai (head of family) are able to run
for the Legislative Assembly
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held NA February 1991 (next to be held by NA February 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (47 total) HRPP 30, SNDP 14,
independents 3
Member of:
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Fili (Felix) Tuaopepe WENDT; Chancery (temporary) at suite 510,
1155 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005; telephone (202) 833-1743
US:
the ambassador to New Zealand is accredited to Western Samoa (mailing
address is P.O. Box 3430, Apia); telephone (685) 21-631; FAX (685) 22-030
Flag:
red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side quadrant bearing five
white five-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross constellation

:Western Samoa Economy

Overview:
Agriculture employs more than half of the labor force, contributes 50% to
GDP, and furnishes 90% of exports. The bulk of export earnings comes from
the sale of coconut oil and copra. The economy depends on emigrant
remittances and foreign aid to support a level of imports several times
export earnings. Tourism has become the most important growth industry, and
construction of the first international hotel is under way.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $115 million, per capita $690 (1989); real growth
rate -4.5% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
15% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
NA%; shortage of skilled labor
Budget:
revenues $95.3 million; expenditures $95.4 million, including capital
expenditures of $41 million (FY92)
Exports:
$9 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
coconut oil and cream 54%, taro 12%, copra 9%, cocoa 3%
partners:
NZ 28%, American Samoa 23%, Germany 22%, US 6% (1990)
Imports:
$75 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
intermediate goods 58%, food 17%, capital goods 12%
partners:
New Zealand 41%, Australia 18%, Japan 13%, UK 6%, US 6%
External debt:
$83 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -4% (1990 est.); accounts for 14% of GDP
Electricity:
29,000 kW capacity; 45 million kWh produced, 240 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
timber, tourism, food processing, fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for 50% of GDP; coconuts, fruit (including bananas, taro, yams)
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $18 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $306 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million
Currency:
tala (plural - tala); 1 tala (WS$) = 100 sene
Exchange rates:
tala (WS$) per US$1 - 2,4284 (March 1992), 2,3975 (1991), 2.3095 (1990),
2.2686 (1989), 2.0790 (1988), 2.1204 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Western Samoa Communications

Highways:
2,042 km total; 375 km sealed; remainder mostly gravel, crushed stone, or
earth
Ports:
Apia
Merchant marine:
1 roll-on/roll-off ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,838 GRT/5,536 DWT
Civil air:
3 major transport aircraft
Airports:
3 total, 3 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
7,500 telephones; 70,000 radios; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1
Pacific Ocean INTELSAT ground station

:Western Samoa Defense Forces

Branches:
Department of Police and Prisons
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:World Geography

Total area:
510,072,000 km2
Land area:
148,940,000 km2 (29.2%)
Comparative area:
land area about 16 times the size of the US
Land boundaries:
442,000 km

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