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0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
35 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
67 years male, 71 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Thai (singular and plural); adjective - Thai
Ethnic divisions:
Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%
Religions:
Buddhism 95%, Muslim 3.8%, Christianity 0.5%, Hinduism 0.1%, other 0.6%
(1991)
Languages:
Thai; English is the secondary language of the elite; ethnic and regional
dialects
Literacy:
93% (male 96%, female 90%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
30,870,000; agriculture 62%, industry 13%, commerce 11%, services (including
government) 14% (1989 est.)
Organized labor:
309,000 union members (1989)

:Thailand Government

Long-form name:
Kingdom of Thailand
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Bangkok
Administrative divisions:
72 provinces (changwat, singular and plural); Ang Thong, Buriram,
Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai,
Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen,
Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon, Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong
Son, Maha Sarakham, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon
Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Khai,
Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao,
Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya,
Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi,
Rayong, Roi Et, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram,
Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri,
Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai
Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon
Independence:
1238 (traditional founding date); never colonized
Constitution:
22 December 1978; new constitution approved 7 December 1991
Legal system:
based on civil law system, with influences of common law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; martial law in effect since 23 February 1991
military coup
National holiday:
Birthday of His Majesty the King, 5 December (1927)
Executive branch:
monarch, interim prime minister, three interim deputy prime ministers,
interim Council of Ministers (cabinet), Privy Council; following the
military coup of 23 February 1991 a National Peace-Keeping Council was set
up
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly (Rathasatha) consists of an upper house or
Senate (Vuthisatha) and a lower house or House of Representatives
(Saphaphoothan-Rajsadhorn)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Sarndika)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King PHUMIPHON Adunlayadet (since 9 June 1946); Heir Apparent Crown Prince
WACHIRALONGKON (born 28 July 1952)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Anan PANYARACHUN (since 10 June 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
Justice Unity Party (Samakki Tham); Chart Thai Party; Solidarity Party; Thai
Citizens Party (TCP, Prachakorn Thai); Social Action Party (SAP); Democrat
Party (DP); Force of Truth Party (Palang Dharma); New Aspiration Party;
Rassadorn Party; Muanchon Party; Puangchon Chothai Party
Suffrage:
universal at age 21

:Thailand Government

Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held 22 March 1992 (next to be held by NA); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (360 total) Samakki Tham 79, Chart Thai Party 74, New
Aspiration Party 72, DP 44, Palang Dharma 41, SAP 31, TCP 7, Solidarity
Party 6, Rassadorn 4, Muanchon 1, Puangchon Chotahi 1
Communists:
illegal Communist party has 500 to 1,000 members; armed Communist insurgents
throughout Thailand total 200 (est.)
Member of:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador-designate PHIRAPHONG Kasemsi; Embassy at 2300 Kalorama Road NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-7200; there are Thai Consulates
General in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
US:
Ambassador David F. LAMBERTSON; Embassy at 95 Wireless Road, Bangkok
(mailing address is APO AP 96546); telephone [66] (2) 252-5040; FAX [66] (2)
254-2990; there is a US Consulate General in Chiang Mai and Consulates in
Songkhla and Udorn
Flag:
five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and
red

:Thailand Economy

Overview:
Thailand, one of the more advanced developing countries in Asia, enjoyed a
year of 8% growth in 1991, although down from an annual average of 11%
growth between 1987 and 1990. The increasingly sophisticated manufacturing
sector benefited from export-oriented investment. The manufacturing and
service sectors have accounted for the lion's share of economic growth.
Thailand's traditional agricultural sector continued to become less
important to the overall economy in 1991. The trade deficit continued to
increase in 1991, to $11 billion; earnings from tourism and remittances grew
marginally as a result of the Gulf War; and Thailand's import bill grew,
especially for manufactures and oil. The government has followed fairly
sound fiscal and monetary policies. Aided by increased tax receipts from the
fast-moving economy; Bangkok recorded its fourth consecutive budget surplus
in 1991. The government is moving ahead with new projects - especially for
telecommunications, roads, and port facilities - needed to refurbish the
country's overtaxed infrastructure. Political unrest and the military's
shooting of antigovernment demonstrators in May 1992 have caused
international businessmen to question Thailand's political stability.
Thailand's general economic outlook remains good, however, assuming the
continuation of the government's progrowth measures.
GNP:
exchange rate conversion - $92.6 billion, per capita $1,630; real growth
rate 8% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.6% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4.1% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $17.9 billion; expenditures $17.9 billion, including capital
expenditures of $5.0 billion (FY92 est.)
Exports:
$27.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
machinery and manufactures 62%, food 28%, crude materials 7% (1990)
partners:
US 23.4%, Japan 17.2%, Singapore 7.3%, Germany 5.3%, Hong Kong 4.8%, UK
4.4%, Netherlands 4.3%, Malaysia, France, China (1990)
Imports:
$39.0 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
machinery and manufactures 67%, chemicals l0%, fuels 9%, crude materials 6%
(1990)
partners:
Japan 30.2%, US 12%, Singapore 6.9%, Taiwan 5%, Germany 4.8%, China 3.2%,
South Korea, Malaysia, UK (1990)
External debt:
$25.1 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 14% (1990 est.); accounts for about 25% of GDP
Electricity:
7,400,000 kW capacity; 37,500 million kWh produced, 660 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
tourism is the largest source of foreign exchange; textiles and garments,
agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, other light
manufacturing, such as jewelry; electric appliances and components,
integrated circuits, furniture, plastics; world's second-largest tungsten
producer and third-largest tin producer

:Thailand Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for 12% of GDP and 60% of labor force; leading producer and
exporter of rice and cassava (tapioca); other crops - rubber, corn,
sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans; except for wheat, self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
a minor producer, major illicit trafficker of heroin, particularly from
Burma and Laos, and cannabis for the international drug market; eradication
efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and shifted some
production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has been
affected by eradication efforts
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $870 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $8.6 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million
Currency:
baht (plural - baht); 1 baht (B) = 100 satang
Exchange rates:
baht (B) per US$1 - 25.614 (March 1992), 25.517 (1991), 25.585 (1990),
25.702 (1989), 25.294 (1988), 25.723 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 October-30 September

:Thailand Communications

Railroads:
3,940 km 1.000-meter gauge, 99 km double track
Highways:
44,534 km total; 28,016 km paved, 5,132 km earth surface, 11,386 km under
development
Inland waterways:
3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with navigable depths of 0.9 m or
more throughout the year; numerous minor waterways navigable by
shallow-draft native craft
Pipelines:
natural gas 350 km, petroleum products 67 km
Ports:
Bangkok, Pattani, Phuket, Sattahip, Si Racha
Merchant marine:
151 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 628,225 GRT/957,095 DWT; includes 1
short-sea passenger, 87 cargo, 11 container, 31 petroleum tanker, 9
liquefied gas, 2 chemical tanker, 3 bulk, 4 refrigerated cargo, 2
combination bulk, 1 passenger
Civil air:
41 (plus 2 leased) major transport aircraft
Airports:
115 total, 97 usable; 50 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over
3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 28 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
service to general public inadequate; bulk of service to government
activities provided by multichannel cable and radio relay network; 739,500
telephones (1987); broadcast stations - over 200 AM, 100 FM, and 11 TV in
government-controlled networks; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT domestic satellite system being
developed

:Thailand Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy (including Royal Thai Marine Corps), Royal
Thai Air Force, Paramilitary Forces
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 16,361,393; 9,966,446 fit for military service; 612,748 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.7 billion, about 3% of GNP (1992 budget)

:Togo Geography

Total area:
56,790 km2
Land area:
54,390 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
1,647 km total; Benin 644 km, Burkina 126 km, Ghana 877 km
Coastline:
56 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
30 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain:
gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low
coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Natural resources:
phosphates, limestone, marble
Land use:
arable land 25%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 4%; forest and
woodland 28%; other 42%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; recent
droughts affecting agriculture; deforestation

:Togo People

Population:
3,958,863 (July 1992), growth rate 3.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
48 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
94 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
54 years male, 58 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
7.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Togolese (singular and plural); adjective - Togolese
Ethnic divisions:
37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabye; under 1%
European and Syrian-Lebanese
Religions:
indigenous beliefs about 70%, Christian 20%, Muslim 10%
Languages:
French, both official and language of commerce; major African languages are
Ewe and Mina in the south and Dagomba and Kabye in the north
Literacy:
43% (male 56%, female 31%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
NA; agriculture 78%, industry 22%; about 88,600 wage earners, evenly divided
between public and private sectors; 50% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
Federation of Togolese Workers (CNTT) was only legal labor union until
Spring 1991; at least two more groups established since then: Labor
Federation of Togolese Workers (CSTT) and the National Union of Independent
Syndicates (UNSIT), each with 10-12 member unions; four other civil service
unions have formed a loose coalition known as the Autonomous Syndicates of
Togo (CTSA)

:Togo Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Togo
Type:
republic; under transition to multiparty democratic rule
Capital:
Lome
Administrative divisions:
21 circumscriptions (circonscriptions, singular - circonscription); Amlame
(Amou), Aneho (Lacs), Atakpame (Ogou), Badou (Wawa), Bafilo (Assoli), Bassar
(Bassari), Dapango (Tone), Kande (Keran), Klouto (Kloto), Pagouda (Binah),
Lama-Kara (Kozah), Lome (Golfe), Mango (Oti), Niamtougou (Doufelgou), Notse
(Haho), Pagouda, Sotouboua, Tabligbo (Yoto), Tchamba, Nyala, Tchaoudjo,
Tsevie (Zio), Vogan (Vo); note - the 21 units may now be called prefectures
(prefectures, singular - prefecture) and reported name changes for
individual units are included in parentheses
Independence:
27 April 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French administration, formerly
French Togo)
Constitution:
1980 constitution nullified during national reform conference; transition
constitution adopted 24 August 1991; multiparty draft constitution sent to
High Council of the Republic for approval in November 1991, scheduled to be
put to public referendum in NA 1992
Legal system:
French-based court system
National holiday:
Independence Day 27 April (1960)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
National Assembly dissolved during national reform conference; 79-member
interim High Council for the Republic (HCR) formed to act as legislature
during transition to multiparty democracy; legislative elections scheduled
to be held in NA
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel), Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA (since 14 April 1967)
Head of Government:
interim Prime Minister Joseph Kokou KOFFIGOH (since 28 August 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) led by President EYADEMA was the only
party until the formation of multiple parties was legalized 12 April 1991;
more than 10 parties formed as of mid-May, though none yet legally
registered; a national conference to determine transition regime took place
10 July-28 August 1991
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Elections:
President:
last held 21 December 1986 (next to be held NA 1992); results - Gen. EYADEMA
was reelected without opposition
National Assembly:
last held 4 March 1990; dissolved during national reform conference (next to
be held April/May 1992); results - RPT was the only party; seats - (77
total) RPT 77

:Togo Government

Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO (observer), ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Ellom-Kodjo SCHUPPIUS; Chancery at 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-4212 or 4213
US:
Ambassador Harmon E. KIRBY; Embassy at Rue Pelletier Caventou and Rue
Vauban, Lome (mailing address is B. P. 852, Lome); telephone [228] 21-29-91
through 94 and 21-77-17; FAX [228] 21-79-52
Flag:
five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with
yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the upper
hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

:Togo Economy

Overview:
The economy is heavily dependent on subsistence agriculture, which accounts
for about 35% of GDP and provides employment for 78% of the labor force.
Primary agricultural exports are cocoa, coffee, and cotton, which together
account for about 30% of total export earnings. Togo is self-sufficient in
basic foodstuffs when harvests are normal. In the industrial sector
phosphate mining is by far the most important activity, with phosphate
exports accounting for about 40% of total foreign exchange earnings. Togo
serves as a regional commercial and trade center. The government, over the
past decade, with IMF and World Bank support, has been implementing a number
of economic reform measures, that is, actively encouraging foreign
investment and attempting to bring revenues in line with expenditures.
Political unrest throughout 1991, however, has jeopardized the reform
program and has disrupted vital economic activity.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $1.5 billion, per capita $400; real growth rate
2% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.0% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
2.0% (1987)
Budget:
revenues $330 million; expenditures $363 million, including capital
expenditures of $101 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$396 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
phosphates, cocoa, coffee, cotton, manufactures, palm kernels
partners:
EC 70%, Africa 9%, US 2%, other 19% (1985)
Imports:
$502 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
food, fuels, durable consumer goods, other intermediate goods, capital goods
partners:
EC 61%, US 6%, Africa 4%, Japan 4%, other 25% (1989)
External debt:
$1.3 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.9% (1987 est.); 6% of GDP
Electricity:
179,000 kW capacity; 209 million kWh produced, 60 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles,
beverages
Agriculture:
cash crops - coffee, cocoa, cotton; food crops - yams, cassava, corn, beans,
rice, millet, sorghum; livestock production not significant; annual fish
catch, 10,000-14,000 tons
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $132 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.9 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $51
million
Currency:
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
= 100 centimes

:Togo Economy

Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 281.99 (March
1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
(1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Togo Communications

Railroads:
515 km 1.000-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
6,462 km total; 1,762 km paved; 4,700 km unimproved roads
Inland waterways:
50 km Mono River
Ports:
Lome, Kpeme (phosphate port)
Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,975 GRT/34,022 DWT; includes 2
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 multifunction large-load carrier
Civil air:
3 major transport aircraft
Airports:
9 total, 9 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fair system based on network of radio relay routes supplemented by open wire
lines; broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 3 (2 relays) TV; satellite earth
stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 SYMPHONIE

:Togo Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 828,259; 435,113 fit for military service; no conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $43 million, about 3% of GDP (1989)

:Tokelau Geography

Total area:
10 km2
Land area:
10 km2
Comparative area:
about 17 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
101 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)
Terrain:
coral atolls enclosing large lagoons
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
lies in Pacific typhoon belt
Note:
located 3,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean, about
halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

:Tokelau People

Population:
1,760 (July 1992), growth rate 0.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NA migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
NA years male, NA years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Tokelauan(s); adjective - Tokelauan
Ethnic divisions:
all Polynesian, with cultural ties to Western Samoa
Religions:
Congregational Christian Church 70%, Roman Catholic 28%, other 2%; on Atafu,
all Congregational Christian Church of Samoa; on Nukunonu, all Roman
Catholic; on Fakaofo, both denominations, with the Congregational Christian
Church predominant
Languages:
Tokelauan (a Polynesian language) and English
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
NA
Organized labor:
NA

:Tokelau Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
territory of New Zealand
Capital:
none; each atoll has its own administrative center
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of New Zealand)
Independence:
none (territory of New Zealand)
Constitution:
administered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948, as amended in 1970
Legal system:
British and local statutes
National holiday:
Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New
Zealand), 6 February (1840)
Executive branch:
British monarch, administrator (appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs
in New Zealand), official secretary
Legislative branch:
Council of Elders (Taupulega) on each atoll
Judicial branch:
High Court in Niue, Supreme Court in New Zealand
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Administrator Neil WALTER (since NA February 1988); Official Secretary
Casimilo J. PEREZ, Office of Tokelau Affairs
Suffrage:
NA
Elections:
NA
Member of:
SPC
Diplomatic representation:
none (territory of New Zealand)
Flag:
the flag of New Zealand is used

:Tokelau Economy

Overview:
Tokelau's small size, isolation, and lack of resources greatly restrain
economic development and confine agriculture to the subsistence level. The
people must rely on aid from New Zealand to maintain public services, annual
aid being substantially greater than GDP. The principal sources of revenue
come from sales of copra, postage stamps, souvenir coins, and handicrafts.
Money is also remitted to families from relatives in New Zealand.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million, per capita $800; real growth rate
NA% (1988 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $430,830; expenditures $2.8 million, including capital expenditures
of $37,300 (FY87)
Exports:
$98,000 (f.o.b., 1983)
commodities:
stamps, copra, handicrafts
partners:
NZ
Imports:
$323,400 (c.i.f., 1983)
commodities:
foodstuffs, building materials, fuel
partners:
NZ
External debt:
none
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
200 kW capacity; 300,000 kWh produced, 180 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood work, plaited craft
goods; stamps, coins; fishing
Agriculture:
coconuts, copra; basic subsistence crops - breadfruit, papaya, bananas;
pigs, poultry, goats
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $24
million
Currency:
New Zealand dollar (plural - dollars); 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100
cents
Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.8245 (March 1992), l.7265 (1991),
1.6750 (1990), 1.6708 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April-31 March

:Tokelau Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
none; lagoon landings by amphibious aircraft from Western Samoa
Telecommunications:
telephone service between islands and to Western Samoa

:Tokelau Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

:Tonga Geography

Total area:
748 km2
Land area:
718 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
419 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
no specific limits
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool
season (May to December)
Terrain:
most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation;
others have limestone overlying volcanic base
Natural resources:
fish, fertile soil
Land use:
arable land 25%; permanent crops 55%; meadows and pastures 6%; forest and
woodland 12%; other 2%
Environment:
archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited); subject to cyclones (October to
April); deforestation
Note:
located about 2,250 km north-northwest of New Zealand, about two-thirds of
the way between Hawaii and New Zealand

:Tonga People

Population:
103,114 (July 1992), growth rate 0.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
26 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-11 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
22 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
65 years male, 70 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Tongan(s); adjective - Tongan
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian; about 300 Europeans
Religions:
Christian; Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents
Languages:
Tongan, English
Literacy:
100% (male 100%, female 100%) age 15 and over can read and write a simple
message in Tongan or English (1976)
Labor force:
NA; 70% agriculture; 600 engaged in mining
Organized labor:
none

:Tonga Government

Long-form name:
Kingdom of Tonga
Type:
hereditary constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Nuku`alofa
Administrative divisions:
three island groups; Ha`apai, Tongatapu, Vava`u
Independence:
4 June 1970 (from UK; formerly Friendly Islands)
Constitution:
4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967
Legal system:
based on English law
National holiday:
Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet), Privy Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly (Fale Alea)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King Taufa'ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 December 1965)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Baron VAEA (since 22 August 1991); Deputy Prime Minister S.
Langi KAVALIKU (since 22 August 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Reform Movement, 'Akilisi POHIVA
Suffrage:
all literate, tax-paying males and all literate females over 21
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held 14-15 February 1990 (next to be held NA February 1993); results -
percent of vote NA; seats - (29 total, 9 elected) 6 proreform, 3
traditionalist
Member of:
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, INTERPOL,
IOC, ITU, LORCS, SPC, SPF, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Siosaia a'Ulupekotofa TUITA resides in London
US:
the US has no offices in Tonga; the Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to
Tonga and makes periodic visits
Flag:
red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner

:Tonga Economy

Overview:
The economy's base is agriculture, which employs about 70% of the labor
force and contributes 50% to GDP. Coconuts, bananas, and vanilla beans are
the main crops and make up two-thirds of exports. The country must import a
high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. The manufacturing
sector accounts for only 11% of GDP. Tourism is the primary source of hard
currency earnings, but the island remains dependent on sizable external aid
and remittances to offset its trade deficit.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $92 million, per capita $900; real growth rate
2.5% (FY90 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.9% (third quarter 1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $30.6 million; expenditures $48.9 million, including capital
expenditures of $22.5 million (FY89 est.)
Exports:
$9.6 million (f.o.b., FY90 est.)
commodities:
coconut oil, desiccated coconut, copra, bananas, taro, vanilla beans,
fruits, vegetables, fish
partners:
NZ 35%, Australia 22%, US 13%, Fiji 5% (FY90)
Imports:
$59.9 million (c.i.f., FY90 est.)
commodities:
food products, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, fuels,
chemicals
partners:
NZ 30%, Australia 23%, US 12%, Japan 7% (FY90)
External debt:
$42.0 million (FY89)
Industrial production:
growth rate 15% (FY86); accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity:
6,000 kW capacity; 8 million kWh produced, 80 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tourism, fishing
Agriculture:
dominated by coconut, copra, and banana production; vanilla beans, cocoa,
coffee, ginger, black pepper
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $16 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $258 million
Currency:
pa'anga (plural - pa'anga); 1 pa'anga (T$) = 100 seniti
Exchange rates:
pa'anga (T$) per US$1 - 1.2987 (January 1992), 1.2961 (1991), 1.2809 (1990),
1.2637 (1989), 1.2799 (1988), 1.4282 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July-30 June

:Tonga Communications

Highways:
198 km sealed road (Tongatapu); 74 km (Vava`u); 94 km unsealed roads usable
only in dry weather
Ports:
Nukualofa, Neiafu, Pangai
Merchant marine:
4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,511 GRT/17,816 DWT; includes 2
cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 liquefied gas
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
6 total, 6 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
3,529 telephones; 66,000 radios; no TV sets; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no
FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Tonga Defense Forces

Branches:
Tonga Defense Force, Tonga Maritime Division, Royal Tongan Marines, Royal
Tongan Guard, Police
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Trinidad and Tobago Geography

Total area:
5,130 km2
Land area:
5,130 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Delaware
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
362 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
outer edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (June to December)
Terrain:
mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Natural resources:
crude oil, natural gas, asphalt
Land use:
arable land 14%; permanent crops 17%; meadows and pastures 2%; forest and
woodland 44%; other 23%; includes irrigated 4%
Environment:
outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms
Note:
located 11 km from Venezuela

:Trinidad and Tobago People

Population:
1,299,301 (July 1992), growth rate 1.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
21 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
17 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
68 years male, 73 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s); adjective - Trinidadian, Tobagonian
Ethnic divisions:
black 43%, East Indian 40%, mixed 14%, white 1%, Chinese 1%, other 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 32.2%, Hindu 24.3%, Anglican 14.4%, other Protestant 14%,
Muslim 6%, none or unknown 9.1%
Languages:
English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish
Literacy:
95% (male 97%, female 93%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Labor force:
463,900; construction and utilities 18.1%; manufacturing, mining, and
quarrying 14.8%; agriculture 10.9%; other 56.2% (1985 est.)
Organized labor:
22% of labor force (1988)

:Trinidad and Tobago Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Port-of-Spain
Administrative divisions:
8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward**; Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro, Nariva,
Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick, San
Fernando*, Tobago**, Victoria
Independence:
31 August 1962 (from UK)
Constitution:
31 August 1976
Legal system:
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the
Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 31 August (1962)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Noor Mohammed HASSANALI (since 18 March 1987)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Patrick Augustus Mervyn MANNING (since 17 December 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
People's National Movement (PNM), Patrick MANNING; United National Congress
(UNC), Basdeo PANDAY; National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR), Carson
CHARLES; Movement for Social Transformation (MOTION), David ABDULLAH;
National Joint Action Committee (NJAC), Makandal DAAGA
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held 16 December 1991 (next to be held by December 1996);results - PNM
32%, UNC 13%, NAR 2%; seats - (36 total) PNM 21, UNC 13, NAR 2
Communists:
Communist Party of Trinidad and Tobago; Trinidad and Tobago Peace Council,
James MILLETTE
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU,
LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Corinne BAPTISTE; Chancery at 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20036; telephone (202) 467-6490; Trinidad and Tobago has a
Consulate General in New York
US:
Ambassador Sally GROOMS-COWAL; Embassy at 15 Queen's Park West,
Port-of-Spain (mailing address is P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain); telephone
(809) 622-6372 through 6376, 6176; FAX (809) 628-5462

:Trinidad and Tobago Government

Flag:
red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side

:Trinidad and Tobago Economy

Overview:
Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum-based economy began to emerge from a lengthy
depression in 1990 and 1991. The economy fell sharply through most of the
1980s, largely because of the decline in oil prices. This sector accounts
for 80% of export earnings and more than 25% of GDP. The government, in
response to the oil revenue loss, pursued a series of austerity measures
that pushed the unemployment rate as high as 22% in 1988. The economy showed
signs of recovery in 1990, however, helped along by rising oil prices.
Agriculture employs only about 11% of the labor force and produces about 3%
of GDP. Since this sector is small, it has been unable to absorb the large
numbers of the unemployed. The government currently seeks to diversify its
export base.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $4.9 billion, per capita $3,600; real growth rate
0.7% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11.1% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
21% (1990)
Budget:
revenues $1.5 billion; expenditures $1.7 billion, including capital
expenditures of $150 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$2.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
includes reexports - petroleum and petroleum products 82%, steel products
9%, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus (1988)
partners:
US 54%, CARICOM 16%, EC 10%, Latin America 3% (1989)
Imports:
$1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
raw materials and intermediate goods 47%, capital goods 26%, consumer goods
26% (1988)
partners:
US 41%, Latin America 10%, UK 8%, Canada 5%, CARICOM 6% (1989)
External debt:
$2.5 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.3%, excluding oil refining (1986); accounts for 40% of GDP,
including petroleum
Electricity:
1,176,000 kW capacity; 3,480 million kWh produced, 2,708 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton
textiles
Agriculture:
highly subsidized sector; major crops - cocoa and sugarcane; sugarcane
acreage is being shifted into rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry
sector most important source of animal protein; must import large share of
food needs
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $373 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $518 million
Currency:
Trinidad and Tobago dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Trinidad and Tobago dollar
(TT$) = 100 cents

:Trinidad and Tobago Economy

Exchange rates:
Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TT$) per US$1 - 4.2500 (March 1992), 4.2500
(1991), 4.2500 (1990), 4.2500 (1989), 3.8438 (1988), 3.6000 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Trinidad and Tobago Communications

Railroads:
minimal agricultural railroad system near San Fernando
Highways:
8,000 km total; 4,000 km paved, 1,000 km improved earth, 3,000 km unimproved
earth
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,032 km, petroleum products 19 km, natural gas 904 km
Ports:
Port-of-Spain, Point Lisas, Pointe-a-Pierre
Civil air:
14 major transport aircraft
Airports:
6 total, 5 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
excellent international service via tropospheric scatter links to Barbados
and Guyana; good local service; 109,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2
AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Trinidad and Tobago Defense Forces

Branches:
Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (Army), Coast Guard, Air Wing, Trinidad
and Tobago Police Service
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 344,990; 248,912 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $59 million, 1-2% of GDP (1989 est.)

:Tromelin Island Geography

Total area:
1 km2
Land area:
1 km2
Comparative area:
about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
3.7 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claimed by Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
sandy
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other - scattered bushes 100%
Environment:
wildlife sanctuary
Note:
located 350 km east of Madagascar and 600 km north of Reunion in the Indian
Ocean; climatologically important location for forecasting cyclones

:Tromelin Island People

Population:
uninhabited

:Tromelin Island Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic Jacques
DEWATRE (since NA July 1991), resident in Reunion
Capital:
none; administered by France from Reunion

:Tromelin Island Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

:Tromelin Island Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
1 with runway less than 1,220 m
Telecommunications:
important meteorological station

:Tromelin Island Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

:Tunisia Geography

Total area:
163,610 km2
Land area:
155,360 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Georgia
Land boundaries:
1,424 km total; Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km
Coastline:
1,148 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
maritime boundary dispute with Libya; land boundary disputes with Algeria
under discussion
Climate:
temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in
south
Terrain:
mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the
Sahara
Natural resources:
crude oil, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt
Land use:
arable land 20%; permanent crops 10%; meadows and pastures 19%; forest and
woodland 4%; other 47%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Note:
strategic location in central Mediterranean; only 144 km from Italy across
the Strait of Sicily; borders Libya on east

:Tunisia People

Population:
8,445,656 (July 1992), growth rate 2.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
25 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
38 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
70 years male, 74 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Tunisian(s); adjective - Tunisian
Ethnic divisions:
Arab-Berber 98%, European 1%, Jewish less than 1%
Religions:
Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish less than 1%
Languages:
Arabic (official); Arabic and French (commerce)
Literacy:
65% (male 74%, female 56%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
2,250,000; agriculture 32%; shortage of skilled labor
Organized labor:
about 360,000 members claimed, roughly 20% of labor force; General Union of
Tunisian Workers (UGTT), quasi-independent of Constitutional Democratic
Party

:Tunisia Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Tunisia; note - may be changed to Tunisian Republic
Type:
republic
Capital:
Tunis
Administrative divisions:
23 governorates; Beja, Ben Arous, Bizerte, Gabes, Gafsa, Jendouba, Kairouan,
Kasserine, Kebili, L'Ariana, Le Kef, Mahdia, Medenine, Monastir, Nabeul,
Sfax, Sidi Bou Zid, Siliana, Sousse, Tataouine, Tozeur, Tunis, Zaghouan
Independence:
20 March 1956 (from France)
Constitution:
1 June 1959
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session
National holiday:
National Day, 20 March (1956)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Majlis al-Nuwaab)
Judicial branch:
Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Gen. Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November 1987)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Hamed KAROUI (since 26 September 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (RCD), President BEN ALI (official
ruling party); Movement of Democratic Socialists (MDS), Mohammed MOUAADA;
five other political parties are legal, including the Communist Party
Suffrage:
universal at age 20
Elections:
President:
last held 2 April 1989 (next to be held NA April 1994); results - Gen. Zine
el Abidine BEN ALI was reelected without opposition
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 2 April 1989 (next to be held NA April 1994); results - RCD 80.7%,
independents/Islamists 13.7%, MDS 3.2%, other 2.4%; seats - (141 total) RCD
141
Member of:
ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Ismail KHELIL; Chancery at 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20005; telephone (202) 862-1850
US:
Ambassador John T. McCARTHY; Embassy at 144 Avenue de la Liberte, 1002
Tunis-Belvedere; telephone [216] (1) 782-566; FAX [216] (1) 789-719
Flag:
red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling
a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of
Islam

:Tunisia Economy

Overview:
The economy depends primarily on petroleum, phosphates, tourism, and exports
of light manufactures. Following two years of drought-induced economic
decline, the economy made a strong recovery in 1990 as a result of a
bountiful harvest, continued export growth, and higher domestic investment.
Continued high inflation and unemployment have eroded popular support for
the government, however, and forced Tunis to slow the pace of economic
reform. Nonetheless, the government appears committed to implementing its
IMF-supported structural adjustment program and to servicing its foreign
debt.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $10.9 billion, per capita $1,320; real growth
rate 3.5% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.2% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $3.8 billion; expenditures $5.4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $970 million (1992 est.)
Exports:
$3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
hydrocarbons, agricultural products, phosphates and chemicals
partners:
EC 74%, Middle East 11%, US 2%, Turkey, USSR
Imports:
$4.9 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
industrial goods and equipment 57%, hydrocarbons 13%, food 12%, consumer
goods
partners:
EC 67%, US 6%, Canada, Japan, Switzerland, Turkey, Algeria
External debt:
$8.6 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5% (1989); accounts for about 25% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity:
1,493,000 kW capacity; 4,210 million kWh produced, 530 kWh per capita (1989)
Industries:
petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore), tourism, textiles,
footwear, food, beverages
Agriculture:
accounts for 16% of GDP and one-third of labor force; output subject to
severe fluctuations because of frequent droughts; export crops - olives,
dates, oranges, almonds; other products - grain, sugar beets, wine grapes,
poultry, beef, dairy; not self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 99,200
metric tons (1987)
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $730 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $5.2 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $684 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $410
million
Currency:
Tunisian dinar (plural - dinars); 1 Tunisian dinar (TD) = 1,000 millimes
Exchange rates:
Tunisian dinars (TD) per US$1 - 0.9272 (March 1992), 0.9246 (1991), 0.8783
(1990), 0.9493 (1989), 0.8578 (1988), 0.8287 (1987)

:Tunisia Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Tunisia Communications

Railroads:
2,115 km total; 465 km 1.435-meter (standard) gauge; 1,650 km 1.000-meter
gauge
Highways:
17,700 km total; 9,100 km bituminous; 8,600 km improved and unimproved earth
Pipelines:
crude oil 797 km, petroleum products 86 km, natural gas 742 km
Ports:
Bizerte, Gabes, Sfax, Sousse, Tunis, La Goulette, Zarzis
Merchant marine:
21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 160,069 GRT/218,791 DWT; includes 1
short-sea passenger, 4 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 petroleum tanker,
6 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 5 bulk
Civil air:
19 major transport aircraft
Airports:
29 total, 26 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
the system is above the African average; facilities consist of open-wire
lines, coaxial cable, and radio relay; key centers are Sfax, Sousse,
Bizerte, and Tunis; 233,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 7 AM, 8 FM, 19
TV; 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
and 1 ARABSAT with back-up control station; coaxial cable to Algeria and
Libya; radio relay to Algeria, and Libya

:Tunisia Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary forces, National Guard
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 2,117,864; 1,217,819 fit for military service; 88,619 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $520 million, 5% of GDP (1992 budget)

:Turkey Geography

Total area:
780,580 km2
Land area:
770,760 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries:
2,627 km total; Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia
252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km
Coastline:
7,200 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
in Black Sea only - to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former
USSR
Territorial sea:
6 nm in the Aegean Sea, 12 nm in Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea
Disputes:
complex maritime and air (but not territorial) disputes with Greece in
Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Hatay question with Syria; ongoing dispute with
downstream riparians (Syria and Iraq) over water development plans for the
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Climate:
temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
Terrain:
mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)
Natural resources:
antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulphur, iron ore
Land use:
arable land 30%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 12%; forest and
woodland 26%; other 28%; includes irrigated 3%
Environment:
subject to severe earthquakes, especially along major river valleys in west;
air pollution; desertification
Note:
strategic location controlling the Turkish straits (Bosporus, Sea of
Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas

:Turkey People

Population:
59,640,143 (July 1992), growth rate 2.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
27 births/1,000 populatition (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
55 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
68 years male, 72 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Turk(s); adjective - Turkish
Ethnic divisions:
Turkish 80%, Kurdish 17%, other 3% (est.)
Religions:
Muslim (mostly Sunni) 99.8%, other (Christian and Jews) 0.2%
Languages:
Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic
Literacy:
81% (male 90%, female 71%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
20,700,000; agriculture 49%, services 30%, industry 15%; about 1,500,000
Turks work abroad (1989)
Organized labor:
10% of labor force

:Turkey Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Turkey
Type:
republican parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Ankara
Administrative divisions:
73 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray,
Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik,
Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli,
Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep,
Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahraman
Maras, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir,
Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir,
Nigde, Ordu, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag,
Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Urfa, Usak, Van, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Independence:
29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
Constitution:
7 November 1982
Legal system:
derived from various continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29 October (1923)
Executive branch:
president, Presidential Council, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Grand National Assembly (Buyuk Millet Meclisi)
Judicial branch:
Court of Cassation
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Turgut OZAL (since 9 November 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Suleyman DEMIREL (since 30 November 1991); Deputy Prime
Minister Erdal INONU (since 30 November 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Correct Way Party (DYP), Suleyman DEMIREL; Motherland Party (ANAP), Mesut
YILMAZ; Social Democratic Populist Party (SHP), Erdal INONU; Refah Party
(RP), Necmettin ERBAKAN; Democratic Left Party (DSP), Bulent ECEVIT;
Nationalist Labor Party (MCP), Alpaslan TURKES; People's Labor Party (HEP),
Feridun YAZAR; Socialist Unity Party (SBP), leader NA; Great Anatolia Party
(BAP), leader NA; Democratic Center Party (DSP), Bedrettin DALAN; Grand
National Party (GNP), leader NA
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
Grand National Assembly:
last held 20 October 1991 (next to be held NA October 1996); results - DYP
27.03%, ANAP 24.01%, SHP 20.75%, RP 16.88%, DSP 10.75%, SBP 0.44%,
independent 0.14%; seats - (450 total) DYP 178, ANAP 115, SHP 86, RP 40, MCP
19, DSP 7, other 5

:Turkey Government

Member of:
AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NEA, OECD,
OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNRWA, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Nuzhet KANDEMIR; Chancery at 1606 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC;
20008; telephone (202) 387-3200; there are Turkish Consulates General in
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
US:
Ambassador Richard C. BARKLEY; Embassy at 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Ankara
(mailing address is PSC 88, Box 5000, Ankara, or APO AE 09823); telephone
[90] (4) 126 54 70; FAX [90] (4) 167-0057; there are US Consulates General
in Istanbul and Izmir, and a Consulate in Adana
Flag:
red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist
side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening

:Turkey Economy

Overview:
The impressive stream of benefits from the economic reforms that Turkey
launched in 1980 have begun to peter out. Although real growth in per capita
GDP averaged 5% annually between 1983 and 1988, recent economic performance
has fallen substantially. Moreover, inflation and interest rates remain
high, and a large budget deficit will continue to provide difficulties for a
country undergoing a substantial transformation from a centrally controlled
to a free market economy. Agriculture remains an important economic sector,
employing about half of the work force, accounting for 18% of GDP, and
contributing 19% to exports. The government has launched a
multibillion-dollar development program in the southeastern region, which
includes the building of a dozen dams on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to
generate electric power and irrigate large tracts of farmland. The planned
tapping of huge additional quantities of Euphrates water has raised serious
concern in the downstream riparian nations of Syria and Iraq. The Turkish
economy emerged from the Gulf War of early 1991 in stronger shape than
Ankara had expected. Although the negative effects of the crisis were felt
primarily in the politically sensitive southeast, aid pledges by the
coalition allies of more than $4 billion have helped offset the burden.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $198 billion, per capita $3,400; real growth
rate 1.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
71.1% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
11.1% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $41.9 billion; expenditures $49.7 billion, including capital
expenditures of $9.9 billion (1992)
Exports:
$13.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
industrial products (steel, chemicals) 81%; fruits, vegetables, tobacco and
meat products 19%
partners:
EC countries 49%, US 7%, Iran 5%
Imports:
$22.3 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, metals, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals, dyes, plastics, rubber, fertilizers, grain
partners:
EC countries 49%, US 7%, Iran 5%
External debt:
$49.0 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 10% (1990 est.); accounts for 29% of GDP
Electricity:
14,400,000 kW capacity; 44,000 million kWh produced, 750 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron minerals),
steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Agriculture:
accounts for 18% of GDP and employs about half of working force; products -
tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulses, citrus fruit, variety
of animal products; self-sufficient in food most years

:Turkey Economy

Illicit drugs:
one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government
maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output
of poppy straw concentrate
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.3 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.1 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $665 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $4.5
billion; note - aid for Persian Gulf war efforts from coalition allies
(1991), $4.1 billion; aid pledged for Turkish Defense Fund, $2.5 billion
Currency:
Turkish lira (plural - liras); 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus
Exchange rates:
Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 6,098.4 (March 1992), 4,171.8 (1991), 2,608.6
(1990), 2,121.7 (1989), 1,422.3 (1988), 857.2 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Turkey Communications

Railroads:
8,401 km 1.435-meter gauge; 479 km electrified
Highways:
49,615 km total; 26,915 km paved; 16,500 km gravel or crushed stone; 4,000
km improved earth; 2,200 km unimproved earth (1985)
Inland waterways:
about 1,200 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,738 km, petroleum products 2,321 km, natural gas 708 km
Ports:
Iskenderun, Istanbul, Mersin, Izmir
Merchant marine:
353 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,056,455 GRT/7,143,096 DWT; includes
7 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 191 cargo, 1 container, 5
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 1 livestock carrier, 37
petroleum tanker, 9 chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 10 combination
ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 80 bulk, 4 combination bulk
Civil air:
52 major transport aircraft (1991)
Airports:
109 total, 104 usable; 65 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways
over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 27 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fair domestic and international systems; trunk radio relay network; limited
open wire network; 3,400,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 15 AM; 94 FM;
357 TV; 1 satellite ground station operating in the INTELSAT (2 Atlantic
Ocean) and EUTELSAT systems; 1 submarine cable

:Turkey Defense Forces

Branches:
Land Forces, Navy (including Naval Air and Naval Infantry), Air Force, Coast
Guard, Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 15,274,591; 9,330,851 fit for military service; 597,814 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $5.2 billion, 3-4% of GDP (1992 budget)

:Turkmenistan Geography

Total area:
488,100 km2
Land area:
488,100 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
3,736 km total; Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km,
Uzbekistan 1,621 km
Coastline:
0 km
note:
Turkmenistan does border the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical desert
Terrain:
flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; borders Caspian Sea in west
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulphur, salt, magnesium
Land use:
NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest
and woodland; NA% other; includes NA% irrigated
Environment:
NA
Note:
landlocked

:Turkmenistan People

Population:
3,838,108 (July 1992), growth rate 2.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
36 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
94 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
59 years male, 66 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Turkmen(s); adjective - Turkmen
Ethnic divisions:
Turkmen 72%, Russian 9%, Uzbek 9%, other 10%
Religions:
Islam 85%, Eastern Orthodox 10%, unknown 5%
Languages:
Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA) age 15 and over can read and write
Labor force:
1,542,000; agriculture and forestry 42%, industry and construction 21%,
other 37% (1990)
Organized labor:
NA

:Turkmenistan Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
republic
Capital:
Ashgabat (Ashkhabad)
Administrative divisions:
4 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast'); Balkan (Nebit-Dag), Chardzhou,
Mary, Tashauz; note - the rayons around Ashgabat are under direct republic
jurisdiction; all oblasts have the same name as their administrative center
except Balkan Oblast, centered at Nebit-Dag
Independence:
27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union; formerly Turkmen Soviet Socialist
Republic)
Constitution:
adopted 18 May 1992
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 October (1991)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, two deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
Majlis
Judicial branch:
NA
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Saparmurad NIYAZOV (since 21 June 1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister (vacant), Deputy Prime Ministers V. G. OCHERTSOV and Atta
CHARYYEV (since NA 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party (formerly Communist), Saparmurad NIYAZOV, chairman
opposition:
Democratic Party, Durdymorad KHODZHA Mukhammed, chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 21 June 1992 (next to be held NA June 1997); results - Saparmurad
NIYAZOV 99.5% (ran unopposed)
Majlis:
last held 7 January 1990 (next to be held NA 1995); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (175 total) elections not officially by party, but
Communist Party members won nearly 90% of seats
Communists:
renamed Democratic Party, 16 December 1990
Other political or pressure groups:
Agzybirlik (Unity) Movement
Member of:
CIS, CSCE, IBRD, IMF, NACC, UN, UNCTAD
Diplomatic representation:
NA
US:
Ambassador-designate Joseph HULINGS; Embassy at Yubilenaya Hotel, Ashgabat
(Ashkhabad) (mailing address is APO; AE 09862); telephone [8] (011)
7-3630-24-49-08

:Turkmenistan Government

Flag:
green field with five claret carpet gels (that is, a repeated carpet
pattern) on the hoist side; a white crescent and five white stars in the
upper left corner to the right of the carpet gels

:Turkmenistan Economy

Overview:
Like the other 15 former Soviet republics, Turkmenistan faces enormous
problems of economic adjustment - to move away from Moscow-based central
planning toward a system of decisionmaking by private enterpreneurs, local
government authorities, and, hopefully, foreign investors. This process
requires wholesale changes in supply sources, markets, property rights, and
monetary arrangements. Industry - with 10% of the labor force - is heavily
weighted toward the energy sector, which produced 11% of the ex-USSR's gas
and 1% of its oil. Turkmenistan ranked second among the former Soviet
republics in cotton production, mainly in the irrigated western region,
where the huge Karakumskiy Canal taps the Amu Darya.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate -0.6%
(1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
85% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
20-25% (1991 est.)
Budget:
NA
Exports:
$239 million (1990)
commodities:
natural gas, oil, chemicals, cotton, textiles, carpets
partners:
Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
Imports:
$970 million (1990)
commodities:
machinery and parts, plastics and rubber, consumer durables, textiles
partners:
NA
External debt:
$650 million (end of 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.1% (1991)
Electricity:
3,170,000 kW capacity; 14,900 million kWh produced, 4,114 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
oil and gas, petrochemicals, fertilizers, food processing, textiles
Agriculture:
cotton, fruits, vegetables
Illicit drugs:
illicit producers of cannabis and opium; mostly for domestic consumption;
status of government eradication programs unknown; used as transshipment
points for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
As of May 1992, retaining ruble as currency
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Turkmenistan Communications

Railroads:
2,120 km all 1.520-meter gauge
Highways:
23,000 km total (1990); 18,300 km hard surfaced, 4,700 km earth
Inland waterways:
NA km
Pipelines:
NA
Ports:
inland - Krasnovodsk
Civil air:
NA
Airports:
NA
Telecommunications:
poorly developed; telephone density NA; linked by landline or microwave to
other CIS member states and Iran, and by leased connections via the Moscow
international gateway switch to other countries; satellite earth stations -
Orbita and INTELSAT (TV receive only)

:Turkmenistan Defense Forces

Branches:
Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard; CIS
Forces (Ground, Air and Air Defense)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service; NA reach military age (18)
annually
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:Turks and Caicos Islands Geography

Total area:
430 km2
Land area:
430 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
389 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry
Terrain:
low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps
Natural resources:
spiny lobster, conch
Land use:
arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures; 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 98%
Environment:
30 islands (eight inhabited); subject to frequent hurricanes
Note:
located 190 km north of the Dominican Republic in the North Atlantic Ocean

:Turks and Caicos Islands People

Population:
12,697 (July 1992), growth rate 3.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
16 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
22 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
13 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
73 years male, 77 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
no noun or adjectival forms
Ethnic divisions:
majority of African descent
Religions:
Baptist 41.2%, Methodist 18.9%, Anglican 18.3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.7%,
other 19.9% (1980)
Languages:
English (official)
Literacy:
98% (male 99%, female 98%) age 15 and over having ever attended school
(1970)
Labor force:
NA; majority engaged in fishing and tourist industries; some subsistence
agriculture
Organized labor:
Saint George's Industrial Trade Union

:Turks and Caicos Islands Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Grand Turk (Cockburn Town)
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
introduced 30 August 1976, suspended in 1986, and a Constitutional
Commission is currently reviewing its contents
Legal system:
based on laws of England and Wales with a small number adopted from Jamaica
and The Bahamas
National holiday:

Book of the day: