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:Slovenia Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 444,030; NA fit for military service; 18,219 reach military age
(18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - 13.5 billion Slovene Tolars, 4.5% of GDP (1992);
note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

:Solomon Islands Geography

Total area:
28,450 km2
Land area:
27,540 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
5,313 km
Maritime claims:
(measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather
Terrain:
mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls
Natural resources:
fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates
Land use:
arable land 1%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and
woodland 93%; other 4%
Environment:
subject to typhoons, which are rarely destructive; geologically active
region with frequent earth tremors
Note:
located just east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific Ocean

:Solomon Islands People

Population:
360,010 (July 1992), growth rate 3.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
40 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
30 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
67 years male, 72 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Solomon Islander(s); adjective - Solomon Islander
Ethnic divisions:
Melanesian 93.0%, Polynesian 4.0%, Micronesian 1.5%, European 0.8%, Chinese
0.3%, other 0.4%
Religions:
almost all at least nominally Christian; Anglican 34%, Roman Catholic 19%,
Baptist 17%, United (Methodist/Presbyterian) 11%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10%,
other Protestant 5%
Languages:
120 indigenous languages; Melanesian pidgin in much of the country is lingua
franca; English spoken by 1-2% of population
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
23,448 economically active; agriculture, forestry, and fishing 32.4%;
services 25%; construction, manufacturing, and mining 7.0%; commerce,
transport, and finance 4.7% (1984)
Organized labor:
NA, but most of the cash-economy workers have trade union representation

:Solomon Islands Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Honiara
Administrative divisions:
7 provinces and 1 town*; Central, Guadalcanal, Honiara*, Isabel, Makira,
Malaita, Temotu, Western
Independence:
7 July 1978 (from UK; formerly British Solomon Islands)
Constitution:
7 July 1978
Legal system:
common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 7 July (1978)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Parliament
Judicial branch:
High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Sir George LEPPING (since 27 June 1989, previously acted as governor general
since 7 July 1988)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Solomon MAMALONI (since 28 March 1989); Deputy Prime Minister
Sir Baddeley DEVESI (since NA October 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
People's Alliance Party (PAP); United Party (UP), leader NA; Solomon Islands
Liberal Party (SILP), Bartholemew ULUFA'ALU; Nationalist Front for Progress
(NFP), Andrew NORI; Labor Party (LP), Joses TUHANUKU
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
National Parliament:
last held 22 February 1989 (next to be held NA February 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (38 total) PAP 13, UP 6, NFP 4, SILP 4,
LP 2, independents 9
Member of:
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
IOC, ITU, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador (vacant) resides in Honiara (Solomon Islands)
US:
the ambassador in Papua New Guinea is accredited to the Solomon Islands;
Embassy at Mud Alley, Honiara (mailing address is American Embassy, P. O.
Box 561, Honiara); telephone (677) 23890; FAX (677) 23488
Flag:
divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the lower hoist-side corner;
the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with five white five-pointed stars
arranged in an X pattern; the lower triangle is green

:Solomon Islands Economy

Overview:
About 90% of the population depend on subsistence agriculture, fishing, and
forestry for at least part of their livelihood. Agriculture, fishing, and
forestry contribute about 70% to GDP, with the fishing and forestry sectors
being important export earners. The service sector contributes about 25% to
GDP. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be imported. The
islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such as lead, zinc,
nickel, and gold. The economy suffered from a severe cyclone in mid-1986
that caused widespread damage to the infrastructure.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $200 million, per capita $600; real growth rate
6.0% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10.2% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $44 million; expenditures $45 million, including capital
expenditures of $22 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
$67.3 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
fish 46%, timber 31%, copra 5%, palm oil 5%
partners:
Japan 51%, UK 12%, Thailand 9%, Netherlands 8%, Australia 2%, US 2% (1985)
Imports:
$86.0 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
plant and machinery 30%, fuel 19%, food 16%
partners:
Japan 36%, US 23%, Singapore 9%, UK 9%, NZ 9%, Australia 4%, Hong Kong 4%,
China 3% (1985)
External debt:
$128 million (1988 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0% (1987); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity:
21,000 kW capacity; 39 million kWh produced, 115 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
copra, fish (tuna)
Agriculture:
including fishing and forestry, accounts for about 70% of GDP; mostly
subsistence farming; cash crops - cocoa, beans, coconuts, palm kernels,
timber; other products - rice, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, cattle, pigs;
not self-sufficient in food grains; 90% of the total fish catch of 44,500
metric tons was exported (1988)
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89),
$250 million
Currency:
Solomon Islands dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Solomon Islands dollar (SI$) =
100 cents
Exchange rates:
Solomon Islands dollars (SI$) per US$1 - 2.8740 (March 1992), 2.7148 (1991),
2.5288 (1990), 2.2932 (1989), 2.0825 (1988), 2.0033 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Solomon Islands Communications

Highways:
about 2,100 km total (1982); 30 km paved, 290 km gravel, 980 km earth, 800
private logging and plantation roads of varied construction
Ports:
Honiara, Ringi Cove
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
33 total, 30 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 2,439 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
3,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

:Solomon Islands Defense Forces

Branches:
Police Force
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Somalia Geography

Total area:
637,660 km2
Land area:
627,340 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
2,340 km total; Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,600 km, Kenya 682 km
Coastline:
3,025 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
200 nm
Disputes:
southern half of boundary with Ethiopia is a Provisional Administrative
Line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden; possible claims to
Djibouti and parts of Ethiopia and Kenya based on unification of ethnic
Somalis
Climate:
desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), cooler southwest monsoon
(May to October); irregular rainfall; hot, humid periods (tangambili)
between monsoons
Terrain:
mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
Natural resources:
uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite,
copper, salt
Land use:
arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 46%; forest and
woodland 14%; other 38%; includes irrigated 3%
Environment:
recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Note:
strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el
Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

:Somalia People

Population:
7,235,226 (July 1992), growth rate 2.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
46 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
13 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-12 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
115 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
56 years male, 57 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
7.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Somali(s); adjective - Somali
Ethnic divisions:
Somali 85%, rest mainly Bantu; Arabs 30,000, Europeans 3,000, Asians 800
Religions:
almost entirely Sunni Muslim
Languages:
Somali (official); Arabic, Italian, English
Literacy:
24% (male 36%, female 14%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
2,200,000; very few are skilled laborers; pastoral nomad 70%, agriculture,
government, trading, fishing, handicrafts, and other 30%; 53% of population
of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
General Federation of Somali Trade Unions was controlled by the government
prior to January 1991; the fall of SIAD regime may have led to collapse of
Trade Union organization

:Somalia Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
none
Capital:
Mogadishu
Administrative divisions:
16 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay,
Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal,
Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed
Independence:
1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent
from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became
independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to
form the Somali Republic)
Constitution:
25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979
National holiday:
NA
Executive branch:
president, two vice presidents, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral People's Assembly (Golaha Shacbiga)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Interim President ALI Mahdi Mohamed (since 27 January 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister OMAR Arteh Ghalib (since 27 January 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
the United Somali Congress (USC) ousted the former regime on 27 January
1991; note - formerly the only party was the Somali Revolutionary Socialist
Party (SRSP), headed by former President and Commander in Chief of the Army
Maj. Gen. Mohamed SIAD Barre
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 23 December 1986 (next to be held NA); results - President SIAD
was reelected without opposition
People's Assembly:
last held 31 December 1984 (next to be held NA); results - SRSP was the only
party; seats - (177 total, 171 elected) SRSP 171; note - the United Somali
Congress (USC) ousted the regime of Maj. Gen. Mohamed SIAD Barre on 27
January 1991; the provisional government has promised that a democratically
elected government will be established
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador (vacant); Chancery at Suite 710, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20037; telephone (202) 342-1575; there is a Somali Consulate
General in New York; note - Somalian Embassy ceased operations on 8 May 1991

:Somalia Government

US:
Ambassador (vacant); Embassy at K-7, AFGOI Road, Mogadishu (mailing address
is P. O. Box 574, Mogadishu); telephone [252] (01) 39971; note - US Embassy
evacuated and closed indefinitely in January 1991
Flag:
light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; design based
on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN trust territory)

:Somalia Economy

Overview:
One of the world's poorest and least developed countries, Somalia has few
resources. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, with the
livestock sector accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export
earnings. Nomads and seminomads who are dependent upon livestock for their
livelihoods make up more than half of the population. Crop production
generates only 10% of GDP and employs about 20% of the work force. The main
export crop is bananas; sugar, sorghum, and corn are grown for the domestic
market. The small industrial sector is based on the processing of
agricultural products and accounts for less than 10% of GDP. Greatly
increased political turmoil in 1991-92 has resulted in a substantial drop in
output, with widespread famine a grim fact of life.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $1.7 billion, per capita $210; real growth rate
-1.4% (1988)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
210% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $190 million; expenditures $195 million, including capital
expenditures of $111 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
$58.0 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
bananas, livestock, fish, hides, skins
partners:
US 0.5%, Saudi Arabia, Italy, FRG (1986)
Imports:
$249 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials
partners:
US 13%, Italy, FRG, Kenya, UK, Saudi Arabia (1986)
External debt:
$1.9 billion (1989)
Industrial production:
growth rate -5.0% (1988); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity:
75,000 kW capacity; 60 million kWh produced, 10 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
a few small industries, including sugar refining, textiles, petroleum
refining
Agriculture:
dominant sector, led by livestock raising (cattle, sheep, goats); crops -
bananas, sorghum, corn, mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food;
fishing potential largely unexploited
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $639 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.8 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.1 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $336
million
Currency:
Somali shilling (plural - shillings); 1 Somali shilling (So. Sh.) = 100
centesimi
Exchange rates:
Somali shillings (So. Sh.) per US$1 - 3,800.00 (December 1990), 490.7
(1989), 170.45 (1988), 105.18 (1987), 72.00 (1986)

:Somalia Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Somalia Communications

Highways:
15,215 km total; including 2,335 km paved, 2,880 km gravel, and 10,000 km
improved earth or stabilized soil (1983)
Pipelines:
crude oil 15 km
Ports:
Mogadishu, Berbera, Chisimayu, Bosaso
Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,913 GRT/8,718 DWT; includes 2 cargo,
1 refrigerated cargo
Civil air:
1 major transport aircraft
Airports:
53 total, 40 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over
3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
minimal telephone and telegraph service; microwave and troposcatter system
centered on Mogadishu connects a few towns; 6,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station;
scheduled to receive an ARABSAT ground station

:Somalia Defense Forces

Branches:
NA
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,673,542; 942,153 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:South Africa Geography

Total area:
1,221,040 km2
Land area:
1,221,040 km2; includes Walvis Bay, Marion Island, and Prince Edward Island
Comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
4,973 km total; Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km, Mozambique 491 km,
Namibia 1,078 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km
Coastline:
2,881 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claim by Namibia to Walvis Bay exclave and 12 offshore islands administered
by South Africa; South Africa and Namibia have agreed to jointly administer
the area for an interim period; the terms and dates to be covered by joint
administration arrangements have not been established at this time; and
Namibia will continue to maintain a claim to sovereignty over the entire
area
Climate:
mostly semiarid; subtropical along coast; sunny days, cool nights
Terrain:
vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain
Natural resources:
gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates,
tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas
Land use:
arable land 10%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 65%; forest and
woodland 3%; other 21%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water
conservation and control measures
Note:
Walvis Bay is an exclave of South Africa in Namibia; South Africa completely
surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland

:South Africa People

Population:
41,688,360 (July 1992), growth rate 2.6% (1992); includes the 10 so-called
homelands, which are not recognized by the US
Population:
four independent homelands:
Bophuthatswana 2,489,347, growth rate 2.86%; Ciskei 1,088,476, growth rate
2.99%; Transkei 4,746,796, growth rate 4.13%; Venda 718,207, growth rate
3.81%
six other homelands:
Gazankulu 803,806, growth rate 3.96%; Kangwane 597,783, growth rate 3.60%;
KwaNdebele 373,012, growth rate 3.40%; KwaZulu 5,748,950, growth rate 3.58%;
Lebowa 2,924,584, growth rate 3.90%; QwaQwa 288,155, growth rate 3.60%
Birth rate:
34 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
50 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
62 years male, 67 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - South African(s); adjective - South African
Ethnic divisions:
black 75.2%, white 13.6%, Colored 8.6%, Indian 2.6%
Religions:
most whites and Coloreds and about 60% of blacks are Christian; about 60% of
Indians are Hindu; Muslim 20%
Languages:
Afrikaans, English (both official); many vernacular languages, including
Zulu, Xhosa, North and South Sotho, Tswana
Literacy:
76% (male 78%, female 75%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Labor force:
11,000,000 economically active (1989); services 34%, agriculture 30%,
industry and commerce 29%, mining 7% (1985)
Organized labor:
about 17% of total labor force belongs to a registered trade union (1989);
African unions represent 15% of black labor force

:South Africa Government

Long-form name:
Republic of South Africa; abbreviated RSA
Type:
republic
Capital:
Pretoria (administrative); Cape Town (legislative); Bloemfontein (judicial)
Administrative divisions:
4 provinces; Cape, Natal, Orange Free State, Transvaal; there are 10
homelands not recognized by the US - 4 independent (Bophuthatswana, Ciskei,
Transkei, Venda) and 6 other (Gazankulu, Kangwane, KwaNdebele, KwaZulu,
Lebowa, QwaQwa)
Independence:
31 May 1910 (from UK)
Constitution:
3 September 1984
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Republic Day, 31 May (1910)
Executive branch:
state president, Executive Council (cabinet), Ministers' Councils (from the
three houses of Parliament)
Legislative branch:
tricameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of the House of Assembly
(Volksraad; whites), House of Representatives (Raad van Verteenwoordigers;
Coloreds), and House of Delegates (Raad van Afgevaardigdes; Indians)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
State President Frederik W. DE KLERK (since 13 September 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
white political parties and leaders:
National Party (NP), Frederik W. DE KLERK (majority party); Conservative
Party (CP), Dr. Andries P. TREURNICHT (official opposition party);
Democratic Party (DP), Zach DE BEER
Colored political parties and leaders:
Labor Party (LP), Allan HENDRICKSE (majority party); Freedom Party; note -
the Democratic Reform Party (DRP) and the United Democratic Party (UDP) were
disbanded in May 1991
Indian political parties and leaders:
Solidarity, J. N. REDDY (majority party); National People's Party (NPP),
Amichand RAJBANSI; Merit People's Party
Suffrage:
universal at age 18, but voting rights are racially based
Elections:
House of Assembly (whites):
last held 6 September 1989 (next to be held by NA March 1995); results - NP
58%, CP 23%, DP 19%; seats - (178 total, 166 elected) NP 103, CP 41, DP 34;
note - by February 1992 because of byelections, changes in number of seats
held by parties were as follows: NP 102, CP 42, DP 33, vacant 1
House of Representatives (Coloreds):
last held 6 September 1989 (next to be held no later than March 1995);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (85 total, 80 elected) LP 69,
DRP 5, UDP 3, Freedom Party 1, independents 2; note - since the National
Party became multiracial, by February 1992 many representatives from other
parties have changed their allegiance causing the following changes in
seating: LP 39, NP 38, Freedom Party 1, independents 7

:South Africa Government

House of Delegates (Indians):
last held 6 September 1989 (next to be held no later than March 1995);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (45 total, 40 elected)
Solidarity 16, NPP 9, Merit People's Party 3, independents 6, other 6; note
- due to delegates changing party affiliation, seating as of February 1992
is as follows: Solidarity 25, NPP 7, Merit People's Party 2, other 5,
independents 5, vacancy 1
Communists:
South African Communist Party, Chris HANI, secretary general, and Joe SLOVO,
national chairman
Other political or pressure groups:
African National Congress (ANC), Nelson MANDELA, president; Inkatha Freedom
Party (IFP), Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI, president; Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC),
Clarence MAKWETU, president
Member of:
BIS, CCC, ECA, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO (suspended), ICC, IDA, IFC, IMF,
INTELSAT, ISO, ITU (suspended), LORCS, SACU, UN, UNCTAD, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO (suspended)
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Harry SCHWARZ; Chancery at 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-4400; there are South African
Consulates General in Beverly Hills (California), Chicago, Houston, and New
York
US:
Ambassador William L. SWING; Embassy at Thibault House, 225 Pretorius
Street, Pretoria; telephone [27] (12) 28-4266, FAX [27] (12) 21-92-78; there
are US Consulates General in Cape Town, Durban, and Johannesburg
Flag:
actually four flags in one - three miniature flags reproduced in the center
of the white band of the former flag of the Netherlands, which has three
equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and blue; the miniature flags
are a vertically hanging flag of the old Orange Free State with a horizontal
flag of the UK adjoining on the hoist side and a horizontal flag of the old
Transvaal Republic adjoining on the other side

:South Africa Economy

Overview:
Many of the white one-seventh of the South African population enjoy incomes,
material comforts, and health and educational standards equal to those of
Western Europe. In contrast, most of the remaining population suffers from
the poverty patterns of the Third World, including unemployment, lack of job
skills, and barriers to movement into higher-paying fields. Inputs and
outputs thus do not move smoothly into the most productive employments, and
the effectiveness of the market is further lowered by international
constraints on dealings with South Africa. The main strength of the economy
lies in its rich mineral resources, which provide two-thirds of exports.
Average growth of less than 2% in output in recent years falls far short of
the 5% to 6% level needed to absorb some 300,000 new entrants to the labor
force annually. Economic developments in the 1990s will be driven partly by
the changing relations among the various ethnic groups.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $104 billion, per capita $2,600; real growth rate
- 0.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
15.7% (March 1992)
Unemployment rate:
40% (1991); well over 50% in some homeland areas (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $29.4 billion; expenditures $35.0 billion, including capital
expenditures of $1.1 billion (FY93 est.)
Exports:
$24.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
gold 25-30%, minerals and metals 20-25%, food 5%, chemicals 3%
partners:
Italy, Japan, US, FRG, UK, other EC members, Hong Kong
Imports:
$18.8 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
machinery 32%, transport equipment 15%, chemicals 11%, oil, textiles,
scientific instruments, base metals
partners:
FRG, Japan, UK, US, Italy
External debt:
$19.0 billion (December 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for about 40% of GDP
Electricity:
46,000,000 kW capacity; 180,000 million kWh produced, 4,100 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile
assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron and steel, chemical,
fertilizer, foodstuffs
Agriculture:
accounts for about 5% of GDP and 30% of labor force; diversified
agriculture, with emphasis on livestock; products - cattle, poultry, sheep,
wool, milk, beef, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables;
self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
rand (plural - rand); 1 rand (R) = 100 cents

:South Africa Economy

Exchange rates:
rand (R) per US$1 - 2.7814 (January 1992), 2.7563 (1991), 2.5863 (1990),
2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:South Africa Communications

Railroads:
20,638 km route distance total; 35,079 km of 1.067-meter gauge trackage
(counts double and multiple tracking as single track); 314 km of 610 mm
gauge
Highways:
188,309 km total; 54,013 km paved, 134,296 km crushed stone, gravel, or
improved earth
Pipelines:
crude oil 931 km, petroleum products 1,748 km, natural gas 322 km
Ports:
Durban, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Richard's Bay, Saldanha, Mosselbaai,
Walvis Bay
Merchant marine:
5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 213,708 GRT/201,043 DWT; includes 4
container, 1 vehicle carrier
Civil air:
90 major transport aircraft
Airports:
901 total, 732 usable; 132 with permanent-surface runways; 5 with runways
over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 224 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
the system is the best developed, most modern, and has the highest capacity
in Africa; it consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables,
radio relay links, fiber optic cable, and radiocommunication stations; key
centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth,
and Pretoria; over 4,500,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 14 AM, 286 FM,
67 TV; 1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT
and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

:South Africa Defense Forces

Branches:
South African Defense Force (SADF; including Army, Navy, Air Force, Medical
Services), South African Police (SAP)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 10,051,202; 6,133,484 fit for military service; 420,275 reach
military age (18) annually; obligation for service in Citizen Force or
Commandos begins at 18; volunteers for service in permanent force must be
17; national service obligation is one year; figures include the so-called
homelands not recognized by the US
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $3.5 billion, about 3% of GDP (FY92)

:South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Geography

Total area:
4,066 km2
Land area:
4,066 km2; includes Shag and Clerke Rocks, South Georgia, Bird Island, South
Sandwich Islands
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
undetermined
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina
Climate:
variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year, interspersed with
periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow
Terrain:
most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged and
mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep, glacier-covered
mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic origin with some
active volcanoes
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%; largely covered by permanent ice and snow with some
sparse vegetation consisting of grass, moss, and lichen
Environment:
reindeer, introduced early in this century, live on South Georgia; weather
conditions generally make it difficult to approach the South Sandwich
Islands; the South Sandwich Islands are subject to active volcanism
Note:
the north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which provide good
anchorage

:South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands People

Population:
no permanent population; there is a small military garrison on South
Georgia, and the British Antarctic Survey has a biological station on Bird
Island; the South Sandwich Islands are uninhabited

:South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Government

Long-form name:
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (no short-form name)
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
none; Grytviken on South Georgia is the garrison town
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
3 October 1985
Legal system:
English common law
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)
Executive branch:
British monarch, commissioner
Legislative branch:
none
Judicial branch:
none
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Commissioner
William Hugh FULLERTON (since 1988; resident at Stanley, Falkland Islands)

:South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Economy

Overview:
Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There is a potential source of
income from harvesting fin fish and krill. The islands receive income from
postage stamps produced in the UK.
Budget:
revenues $291,777; expenditures $451,011, including capital expenditures of
$NA (FY88 est.)
Electricity:
900 kW capacity; 2 million kWh produced, NA kWh per capita (1990)

:South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Communications

Highways:
NA
Ports:
Grytviken on South Georgia
Airports:
5 total, 5 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway
2,440-3,659 m
Telecommunications:
coastal radio station at Grytviken; no broadcast stations

:South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Spain Geography

Total area:
504,750 km2
Land area:
499,400 km2; includes Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, and five places of
sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - Ceuta,
Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la
Gomera
Comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
Land boundaries:
1,903.2 km total; Andorra 65 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal
1,214 km
Coastline:
4,964 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
Gibraltar question with UK; Spain controls five places of sovereignty
(plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - the coastal enclaves
of Ceuta and Melilla, which Morocco contests, as well as the islands of
Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas
Climate:
temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along
coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
Terrain:
large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees in
north
Natural resources:
coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum, zinc,
lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, potash, hydropower
Land use:
arable land 31%; permanent crops 10%; meadows and pastures 21%; forest and
woodland 31%; other 7%; includes irrigated 6%
Environment:
deforestation; air pollution
Note:
strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

:Spain People

Population:
39,118,399 (July 1992), growth rate 0.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
11 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
74 years male, 81 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Spaniard(s); adjective - Spanish
Ethnic divisions:
composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types
Religions:
Roman Catholic 99%, other sects 1%
Languages:
Castilian Spanish; second languages include Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque
2%
Literacy:
95% (male 97%, female 93%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
14,621,000; services 53%, industry 24%, agriculture 14%, construction 9%
(1988)
Organized labor:
less 10% of labor force (1988)

:Spain Government

Long-form name:
Kingdom of Spain
Type:
parliamentary monarchy
Capital:
Madrid
Administrative divisions:
17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad
autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias, Canarias, Cantabria, Castilla-La
Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna, Communidad Valencia, Extremadura,
Galicia, Islas Baleares, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco; note
- there are five places of sovereignty on and off the coast of Morocco
(Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de
la Gomera) with administrative status unknown
Independence:
1492 (expulsion of the Moors and unification)
Constitution:
6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978
Legal system:
civil law system, with regional applications; does not accept compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 12 October
Executive branch:
monarch, president of the government (prime minister), deputy prime
minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet), Council of State
Legislative branch:
bicameral The General Courts or National Assembly (Las Cortes Generales)
consists of an upper house or Senate (Senado) and a lower house or Congress
of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Felipe GONZALEZ Marquez (since 2 December 1982); Deputy Prime
Minister Narcis SERRA (since 13 March 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
principal national parties, from right to left - Popular Party (PP), Jose
Maria AZNAR; Popular Democratic Party (PDP), Luis DE GRANDES; Social
Democratic Center (CDS), Rafael Calvo ORTEGA; Spanish Socialist Workers
Party (PSOE), Felipe GONZALEZ Marquez; Socialist Democracy Party (DS),
Ricardo Garcia DAMBORENEA; Spanish Communist Party (PCE), Julio ANGUITA;
chief regional parties - Convergence and Unity (CiU), Jordi PUJOL Saley, in
Catalonia; Basque Nationalist Party (PNV), Xabier ARZALLUS; Basque
Solidarity (EA), Carlos GARAICOETXEA Urizza; Basque Popular Unity (HB), Jon
IDIGORAS; Basque Left (EE), Kepa AULESTIA; Andalusian Party (PA), Pedro
PACHECO; Independent Canary Group (AIC); Aragon Regional Party (PAR);
Valencian Union (UV)
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Senate:
last held 29 October 1989 (next to be held NA October 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (208 total) PSOE 106, PP 79, CiU 10,
PNV 4, HB 3, AIC 1, other 5

:Spain Government

Congress of Deputies:
last held 29 October 1989 (next to be held NA October 1993); results - PSOE
39.6%, PP 25.8%, CDS 9%, Communist-led coalition (IU) 9%, CiU 5%, PNV 1.2%,
HB 1%, PA 1%, other 8.4%; seats - (350 total) PSOE 175, PP 106, CiU 18, IU
17, CDS 14, PNV 5, HB 4, other 11
Communists:
PCE membership declined from a possible high of 160,000 in 1977 to roughly
60,000 in 1987; the party gained almost 1 million voters and 10 deputies in
the 1989 election; voters came mostly from the disgruntled socialist left;
remaining strength is in labor, where it dominates the Workers Commissions
trade union (one of the country's two major labor centrals), which claims a
membership of about 1 million; experienced a modest recovery in 1986
national election, nearly doubling the share of the vote it received in 1982
Other political or pressure groups:
on the extreme left, the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) and the First
of October Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO) use terrorism to oppose the
government; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977) include the
Communist-dominated Workers Commissions (CCOO); the Socialist General Union
of Workers (UGT), and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union (USO);
the Catholic Church; business and landowning interests; Opus Dei; university
students
Member of:
AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, ECLAC,
EIB, ESA, FAO, G-8, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer),
ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, OAS (observer),
OECD, PCA, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Jaime de OJEDA; Chancery at 2700 15th Street NW, Washington, DC
20009; telephone (202) 265-0190 or 0191; there are Spanish Consulates
General in Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New
York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US:
Ambassador Joseph ZAPPALA; Embassy at Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid (mailing
address is APO AE 09642); telephone [34] (1) 577-4000, FAX [34] (1)
577-5735; there is a US Consulate General in Barcelona and a Consulate in
Bilbao
Flag:
three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the
national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms
includes the royal seal framed by the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two
promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the
Strait of Gibraltar

:Spain Economy

Overview:
Spain has done well since joining the EC in 1986. In accordance with its
accession treaty, Spain has almost wholly liberalized trade and capital
markets. Foreign and domestic investment has spurred average growth of 4%
per year. Beginning in 1989, Madrid implemented a tight monetary policy to
fight inflation - around 7% in 1989 and 1990. As a result growth slowed to
2.5% in 1991. Spanish policymakers remain concerned with inflation - still
hovering at 6%. Government officials also are worried about 16%
unemployment, although many people listed as unemployed work in the
underground economy. Spanish economists believe that structural adjustments
due to the ongoing integration of the European market are likely to lead to
more displaced workers.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $487.5 billion, per capita $12,400; real
growth rate 2.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.9% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
16.0% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $111.0 billion; expenditures $115.9 billion, including capital
expenditures of $20.8 billion (1991 est.)
Exports:
$60.1 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
cars and trucks, semifinished manufactured goods, foodstuffs, machinery
partners:
EC 71.0%, US 4.9%, other developed countries 7.9%
Imports:
$93.1 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery, transport equipment, fuels, semifinished goods, foodstuffs,
consumer goods, chemicals
partners:
EC 60.0%, US 8.0%, other developed countries 11.5%, Middle East 2.6%
External debt:
$45 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.0% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
46,589,000 kW capacity; 157,040 million kWh produced, 3,980 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and
metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools,
tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for about 5% of GDP and 14% of labor force; major products - grain,
vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus fruit, beef, pork,
poultry, dairy; largely self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 1.4 million
metric tons is among top 20 nations
Illicit drugs:
key European gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the
European market
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1.9 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-79), $545.0 million; not
currently a recipient

:Spain Economy

Currency:
peseta (plural - pesetas); 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates:
pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 104.79 (March 1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93 (1990),
118.38 (1989), 116.49 (1988), 123.48 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Spain Communications

Railroads:
15,430 km total; Spanish National Railways (RENFE) operates 12,691 km
1.668-meter gauge, 6,184 km electrified, and 2,295 km double track; FEVE
(government-owned narrow-gauge railways) operates 1,821 km of predominantly
1.000-meter gauge and 441 km electrified; privately owned railways operate
918 km of predominantly 1.000-meter gauge, 512 km electrified, and 56 km
double track
Highways:
150,839 km total; 82,513 km national (includes 2,433 km limited-access
divided highway, 63,042 km bituminous treated, 17,038 km intermediate
bituminous, concrete, or stone block) and 68,326 km provincial or local
roads (bituminous treated, intermediate bituminous, or stone block)
Inland waterways:
1,045 km, but of minor economic importance
Pipelines:
crude oil 265 km, petroleum products 1,794 km, natural gas 1,666 km
Ports:
Algeciras, Alicante, Almeria, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz, Cartagena, Castellon
de la Plana, Ceuta, El Ferrol del Caudillo, Puerto de Gijon, Huelva, La
Coruna, Las Palmas (Canary Islands), Mahon, Malaga, Melilla, Rota, Santa
Cruz de Tenerife, Sagunto, Tarragona, Valencia, Vigo, and 175 minor ports
Merchant marine:
278 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,915,409 GRT/5,228,378 DWT; includes
2 passenger, 9 short-sea passenger, 86 cargo, 13 refrigerated cargo, 15
container, 32 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 4 vehicle carrier, 48 petroleum
tanker, 14 chemical tanker, 7 liquefied gas, 3 specialized tanker, 45 bulk
Civil air:
210 major transport aircraft
Airports:
105 total, 99 usable; 60 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways over
3,659 m; 22 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 25 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
generally adequate, modern facilities; 15,350,464 telephones; broadcast
stations - 190 AM, 406 (134 repeaters) FM, 100 (1,297 repeaters) TV; 22
coaxial submarine cables; 2 communications satellite earth stations
operating in INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean); MARECS, INMARSAT,
and EUTELSAT systems; tropospheric links

:Spain Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Civil Guard, National Police, Coastal Civil
Guard
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 10,205,741; 8,271,151 fit for military service; 337,407 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $8.7 billion, 2% of GDP (1991)

:Spratly Islands Geography

Total area:
NA but less than 5 km2
Land area:
less than 5 km2; includes 100 or so islets, coral reefs, and sea mounts
scattered over the South China Sea
Comparative area:
undetermined
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
926 km
Maritime claims:
undetermined
Disputes:
all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts
of them are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei
established an exclusive economic zone, which encompasses Louisa Reef, but
has not publicly claimed the island
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
flat
Natural resources:
fish, guano; undetermined oil and natural gas potential
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
subject to typhoons; includes numerous small islands, atolls, shoals, and
coral reefs
Note:
strategically located near several primary shipping lanes in the central
South China Sea; serious navigational hazard

:Spratly Islands People

Population:
no permanent inhabitants; garrisons

:Spratly Islands Government

Long-form name:
none

:Spratly Islands Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is limited to commercial fishing, proximity to nearby oil-
and gas-producing sedimentary basins suggests the potential for oil and gas
deposits, but the Spratlys region is largely unexplored, and there are no
reliable estimates of potential reserves; commercial exploitation has yet to
be developed.
Industries:
none

:Spratly Islands Communications

Ports:
no natural harbors
Airports:
2 total, 2 usable; none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

:Spratly Islands Defense Forces

Note:
44 small islands or reefs are occupied by China, Malaysia, the Philippines,
Taiwan, and Vietnam

:Sri Lanka Geography

Total area:
65,610 km2
Land area:
64,740 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
1,340 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Continental shelf:
edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; monsoonal; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest
monsoon (June to October)
Terrain:
mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior
Natural resources:
limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphates, clay
Land use:
arable land 16%; permanent crops 17%; meadows and pastures 7%; forest and
woodland 37%; other 23%; includes irrigated 8%
Environment:
occasional cyclones, tornados; deforestation; soil erosion
Note:
only 29 km from India across the Palk Strait; near major Indian Ocean sea
lanes

:Sri Lanka People

Population:
17,631,528 (July 1992), growth rate 1.2% (1992); note - about 120,000 people
fled to India in 1991 because of fighting between government forces and
Tamil insurgents; about 200,000 Tamils will be repatriated in 1992
Birth rate:
20 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
21 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
69 years male, 74 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Sri Lankan(s); adjective - Sri Lankan
Ethnic divisions:
Sinhalese 74%; Tamil 18%; Moor 7%; Burgher, Malay, and Veddha 1%
Religions:
Buddhist 69%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 8%
Languages:
Sinhala (official); Sinhala and Tamil listed as national languages; Sinhala
spoken by about 74% of population, Tamil spoken by about 18%; English
commonly used in government and spoken by about 10% of the population
Literacy:
86% (male 91%, female 81%) age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
Labor force:
6,600,000; agriculture 45.9%, mining and manufacturing 13.3%, trade and
transport 12.4%, services and other 28.4% (1985 est.)
Organized labor:
about 30% of labor force, over 50% of which are employed on tea, rubber, and
coconut estates

:Sri Lanka Government

Long-form name:
Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Type:
republic
Capital:
Colombo
Administrative divisions:
the administrative structure now includes 9 provinces - Central, Eastern,
North, North Central, North Western, Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva, and
Western and 24 districts - Amparai, Anuradhapura, Badulla, Batticaloa,
Colombo, Galle, Gampaha, Hambantota, Jaffna, Kalutara, Kandy, Kegalla,
Kurunegala, Mannar, Matale, Matara, Moneragala, Mullaittivu, Nuwara Eliya,
Polonnaruwa, Puttalam, Ratnapura, Trincomalee, Vavuniya; note - in the
future there may be only 8 provinces (combining the two provinces of North
and Eastern into one province of North Eastern) and 25 districts (adding
Kilinochchi to the existing districts)
Independence:
4 February 1948 (from UK; formerly Ceylon)
Constitution:
31 August 1978
Legal system:
a highly complex mixture of English common law, Roman-Dutch, Muslim,
Sinhalese, and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence and National Day, 4 February (1948)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Ranasinghe PREMADASA (since 2 January 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Dingiri Banda WIJETUNGE (since 6 March 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
United National Party (UNP), Ranasinghe PREMADASA; Sri Lanka Freedom Party
(SLFP), Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress (SLMC), M. H. M.
ASHRAFF; All Ceylon Tamil Congress (ACTC), Kumar PONNAMBALAM; People's
United Front (MEP, or Mahajana Eksath Peramuna), Dinesh GUNAWARDENE; Eelam
Democratic Front (EDF), Edward Sebastian PILLAI; Tamil United Liberation
Front (TULF), leader (vacant); Eelam Revolutionary Organization of Students
(EROS), Velupillai BALAKUMARAN; New Socialist Party (NSSP, or Nava Sama
Samaja Party), Vasudeva NANAYAKKARA; Lanka Socialist Party/Trotskyite (LSSP,
or Lanka Sama Samaja Party), Colin R. de SILVA; Sri Lanka People's Party
(SLMP, or Sri Lanka Mahajana Party), Ossie ABEYGUNASEKERA; Communist Party,
K. P. SILVA; Communist Party/Beijing (CP/B), N. SHANMUGATHASAN; note - the
United Socialist Alliance (USA) includes the NSSP, LSSP, SLMP, CP/M, and
CP/B
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 19 December 1988 (next to be held NA December 1994); results -
Ranasinghe PREMADASA (UNP) 50%, Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE (SLFP) 45%, other 5%

:Sri Lanka Government

Parliament:
last held 15 February 1989 (next to be held by NA February 1995); results -
UNP 51%, SLFP 32%, SLMC 4%, TULF 3%, USA 3%, EROS 3%, MEP 1%, other 3%;
seats - (225 total) UNP 125, SLFP 67, other 33
Other political or pressure groups:
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and other smaller Tamil separatist
groups; Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP or People's Liberation Front);
Buddhist clergy; Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups; labor unions
Member of:
AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador W. Susanta De ALWIS; Chancery at 2148 Wyoming Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-4025 through 4028; there is a Sri
Lankan Consulate in New York
US:
Ambassador Marion V. CREEKMORE, Jr.; Embassy at 210 Galle Road, Colombo 3
(mailing address is P. O. Box 106, Colombo); telephone [94] (1) 44180107,
FAX [94] (1) 43-73-45
Flag:
yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two equal vertical
bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other panel is a large dark red
rectangle with a yellow lion holding a sword, and there is a yellow bo leaf
in each corner; the yellow field appears as a border that goes around the
entire flag and extends between the two panels

:Sri Lanka Economy

Overview:
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing dominate the economy, employing half of
the labor force and accounting for one quarter of GDP. The plantation crops
of tea, rubber, and coconuts provide about one-third of export earnings. The
economy has been plagued by high rates of unemployment since the late 1970s.
Economic growth, which has been depressed by ethnic unrest, accelerated in
1991 as domestic conditions began to improve.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $7.2 billion, per capita $410; real growth rate
5.0% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
14% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $2.0 billion; expenditures $3.7 billion, including capital
expenditures of $500 million (1992)
Exports:
$2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
textiles and garment, teas, petroleum products, coconut, rubber,
agricultural products, gems and jewelry, marine products
partners:
US 25%, FRG, Japan, UK, Belgium, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China
Imports:
$3.0 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
food and beverages, textiles and textile materials, petroleum, machinery and
equipment
partners:
Japan, Iran, US 7.7%, India, Taiwan, Singapore, FRG, UK
External debt:
$5.8 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 8% (1991 est.); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
1,300,000 kW capacity; 4,200 million kWh produced, 240 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, and other agricultural commodities;
cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco, clothing
Agriculture:
accounts for 26% of GDP and nearly half of labor force; most important
staple crop is paddy rice; other field crops - sugarcane, grains, pulses,
oilseeds, roots, spices; cash crops - tea, rubber, coconuts; animal products
- milk, eggs, hides, meat; not self-sufficient in rice production
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.0 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $5.1 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $169 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $369
million
Currency:
Sri Lankan rupee (plural - rupees); 1 Sri Lankan rupee (SLRe) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Sri Lankan rupees (SLRes) per US$1 - 43.112 (March 1992), 41.372 (1991),
40.063 (1990), 36.047 (1989), 31.807 (1988), 29.445 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Sri Lanka Communications

Railroads:
1,948 km total (1990); all 1.868-meter broad gauge; 102 km double track; no
electrification; government owned
Highways:
75,749 km total (1990); 27,637 km paved (mostly bituminous treated), 32,887
km crushed stone or gravel, 14,739 km improved earth or unimproved earth;
several thousand km of mostly unmotorable tracks (1988 est.)
Inland waterways:
430 km; navigable by shallow-draft craft
Pipelines:
crude oil and petroleum products 62 km (1987)
Ports:
Colombo, Trincomalee
Merchant marine:
30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 310,173 GRT/489,378 DWT; includes 13
cargo, 6 refrigerated cargo, 5 container, 3 petroleum tanker, 3 bulk
Civil air:
8 major transport (including 1 leased)
Airports:
14 total, 13 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
good international service; 114,000 telephones (1982); broadcast stations -
12 AM, 5 FM, 5 TV; submarine cables extend to Indonesia and Djibouti; 2
Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

:Sri Lanka Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 4,709,203; 3,678,952 fit for military service; 177,554 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $432 million, 6% of GDP (1991)
\

:Sudan Geography

Total area:
2,505,810 km2
Land area:
2,376,000 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US
Land boundaries:
7,697 km total; Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km, Egypt
1,273 km, Ethiopia 2,221 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya 383 km, Uganda 435 km,
Zaire 628 km
Coastline:
853 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
18 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
administrative boundary with Kenya does not coincide with international
boundary; administrative boundary with Egypt does not coincide with
international boundary
Climate:
tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season (April to October)
Terrain:
generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in east and west
Natural resources:
small reserves of crude oil, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten,
mica, silver, crude oil
Land use:
arable land 5%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 24%; forest and
woodland 20%; other 51%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
dominated by the Nile and its tributaries; dust storms; desertification
Note:
largest country in Africa

:Sudan People

Population:
28,305,046 (July 1992), growth rate 3.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
44 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
13 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
83 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
53 years male, 54 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Sudanese (singular and plural); adjective - Sudanese
Ethnic divisions:
black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%
Religions:
Sunni Muslim (in north) 70%, indigenous beliefs 20%, Christian (mostly in
south and Khartoum) 5%
Languages:
Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic,
Nilo-Hamitic, and Sudanic languages, English; program of Arabization in
process
Literacy:
27% (male 43%, female 12%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
6,500,000; agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 10%, government 6%; labor
shortages for almost all categories of skilled employment (1983 est.); 52%
of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
trade unions suspended following 30 June 1989 coup; now in process of being
legalized anew

:Sudan Government

Long-form name:
Republic of the Sudan
Type:
military; civilian government suspended and martial law imposed after 30
June 1989 coup
Capital:
Khartoum
Administrative divisions:
9 states (wilayat, singular - wilayat or wilayah*); A'ali an Nil, Al Wusta*,
Al Istiwa'iyah*, Al Khartum, Ash Shamaliyah*, Ash Sharqiyah*, Bahr al
Ghazal, Darfur, Kurdufan
Independence:
1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK; formerly Anglo-Egyptian Sudan)
Constitution:
12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim
constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June 1989
Legal system:
based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 January 1991, the
Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law in the six northern states
of Al Wusta, Al Khartum, Ash Shamaliyah, Ash Sharqiyah, Darfur, and
Kurdufan; the council is still studying criminal provisions under Islamic
law; Islamic law will apply to all residents of the six northern states
regardless of their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
Executive branch:
executive and legislative authority vested in a 12-member Revolutionary
Command Council (RCC); chairman of the RCC acts as prime minister; in July
1989, RCC appointed a predominately civilian 22-member cabinet to function
as advisers
Legislative branch:
appointed 300-member Transitional National Assembly; note - as announced 1
January 1992 by RCC Chairman BASHIR, the Assembly assumes all legislative
authority for Sudan until the eventual, unspecified resumption of national
elections
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Special Revolutionary Courts
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
Revolutionary Command Council Chairman and Prime Minister Lt. Gen. Umar
Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 30 June 1989); Deputy Chairman of the Command
Council and Deputy Prime Minister Maj. Gen. al-Zubayr Muhammad SALIH Ahmed
(since 9 July 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
none; banned following 30 June 1989 coup
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
none
Member of:
ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador `Abdallah Ahmad `ABDALLAH; Chancery at 2210 Massachusetts Avenue
NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 338-8565 through 8570; there is a
Sudanese Consulate General in New York

:Sudan Government

US:
Ambassador James R. CHEEK (will be replaced summer of 1992); Embassy at
Shar'ia Ali Abdul Latif, Khartoum (mailing address is P. O. Box 699,
Khartoum, or APO AE 09829); telephone 74700 or 74611; Telex 22619
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green
isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

:Sudan Economy

Overview:
Sudan is buffeted by civil war, chronic political instability, adverse
weather, high inflation, and counterproductive economic policies. The
economy is dominated by governmental entities that account for more than 70%
of new investment. The private sector's main areas of activity are
agriculture and trading, with most private industrial investment predating
1980. The economy's base is agriculture, which employs 80% of the work
force. Industry mainly processes agricultural items. Sluggish economic
performance over the past decade, attributable largely to declining annual
rainfall, has reduced levels of per capita income and consumption. A high
foreign debt and huge arrearages continue to cause difficulties. In 1990 the
International Monetary Fund took the unusual step of declaring Sudan
noncooperative because of its nonpayment of arrearages to the Fund. Despite
subsequent government efforts to implement reforms urged by the IMF and the
World Bank, the economy remained stagnant in FY91 as entrepreneurs lack the
incentive to take economic risks.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $12.1 billion, per capita $450; real growth rate
0% (FY91 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
95% (FY91 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15% (FY91 est.)
Budget:
revenues $1.3 billion; expenditures $2.1 billion, including capital
expenditures of $505 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$325 million (f.o.b., FY91 est.)
commodities:
cotton 52%, sesame, gum arabic, peanuts
partners:
Western Europe 46%, Saudi Arabia 14%, Eastern Europe 9%, Japan 9%, US 3%
(FY88)
Imports:
$1.40 billion (c.i.f., FY91 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, petroleum products, manufactured goods, machinery and equipment,
medicines and chemicals, textiles
partners:
Western Europe 32%, Africa and Asia 15%, US 13%, Eastern Europe 3% (FY88)
External debt:
$14.6 billion (June 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for 11% of GDP (FY89)
Electricity:
610,000 kW capacity; 905 million kWh produced, 40 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling,
shoes, petroleum refining
Agriculture:
accounts for 35% of GDP and 80% of labor force; water shortages; two-thirds
of land area suitable for raising crops and livestock; major products -
cotton, oilseeds, sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sheep; marginally
self-sufficient in most foods
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.5 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $5.1 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $3.1 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $588
million

:Sudan Economy

Currency:
Sudanese pound (plural - pounds); 1 Sudanese pound (#Sd) = 100 piasters
Exchange rates:
official rate - Sudanese pounds (#Sd) per US$1 - 90.1 (March 1992), 5.4288
(1991), 4.5004 (fixed rate since 1987), 2.8121 (1987); note - free market
rate 83 (December 1991)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Sudan Communications

Railroads:
5,500 km total; 4,784 km 1.067-meter gauge, 716 km 1.6096-meter-gauge
plantation line
Highways:
20,000 km total; 1,600 km bituminous treated, 3,700 km gravel, 2,301 km
improved earth, 12,399 km unimproved earth and track
Inland waterways:
5,310 km navigable
Pipelines:
refined products 815 km
Ports:
Port Sudan, Swakin
Merchant marine:
5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 42,277 GRT/59,588 DWT; includes 3
cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo
Civil air:
18 major transport aircraft
Airports:
72 total, 57 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 31 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
large, well-equipped system by African standards, but barely adequate and
poorly maintained by modern standards; consists of microwave, cable, radio
communications, and troposcatter; domestic satellite system with 14
stations; broadcast stations - 11 AM, 3 TV; satellite earth stations - 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT

:Sudan Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 6,432,270; 3,949,518 fit for military service; 302,696 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $610 million, 7.2% of GDP (1989 est.)

:Suriname Geography

Total area:
163,270 km2
Land area:
161,470 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Georgia
Land boundaries:
1,707 km total; Brazil 597 km, French Guiana 510 km, Guyana 600 km
Coastline:
386 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claims area in French Guiana between Litani Rivier and Riviere Marouini
(both headwaters of the Lawa); claims area in Guyana between New (Upper
Courantyne) and Courantyne/Kutari Rivers (all headwaters of the Courantyne)
Climate:
tropical; moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps
Natural resources:
timber, hydropower potential, fish, shrimp, bauxite, iron ore, and small
amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, gold
Land use:
arable land NEGL%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures NEGL%; forest
and woodland 97%; other 3%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
mostly tropical rain forest

:Suriname People

Population:
410,016 (July 1992), growth rate 1.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
26 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-5 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
34 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
66 years male, 71 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Surinamer(s); adjective - Surinamese
Ethnic divisions:
Hindustani (East Indian) 37.0%, Creole (black and mixed) 31.0%, Javanese
15.3%, Bush black 10.3%, Amerindian 2.6%, Chinese 1.7%, Europeans 1.0%,
other 1.1%
Religions:
Hindu 27.4%, Muslim 19.6%, Roman Catholic 22.8%, Protestant (predominantly
Moravian) 25.2%, indigenous beliefs about 5%
Languages:
Dutch (official); English widely spoken; Sranan Tongo (Surinamese, sometimes
called Taki-Taki) is native language of Creoles and much of the younger
population and is lingua franca among others; also Hindi Suriname Hindustani
(a variant of Bhoqpuri) and Javanese
Literacy:
95% (male 95%, female 95%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
104,000 (1984)
Organized labor:
49,000 members of labor force

:Suriname Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Suriname
Type:
republic
Capital:
Paramaribo
Administrative divisions:
10 districts (distrikten, singular - distrikt); Brokopondo, Commewijne,
Coronie, Marowijne, Nickerie, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca, Sipaliwini,
Wanica
Independence:
25 November 1975 (from Netherlands; formerly Netherlands Guiana or Dutch
Guiana)
Constitution:
ratified 30 September 1987
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 November (1975)
Executive branch:
president, vice president and prime minister, Cabinet of Ministers, Council
of State; note - Commander in Chief of the National Army maintains
significant power
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Ronald VENETIAAN (since 16 September 1991); Vice President and
Prime Minister Jules AJODHIA (since 16 September 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
traditional ethnic-based parties:
The New Front (NF), a coalition formed of four parties following the 24
December 1990 military coup - Progressive Reform Party (VHP), Jaggernath
LACHMON; National Party of Suriname (NPS), Henck ARRON; Indonesian Peasants
Party (KTPI), Willie SOEMITA; and Suriname Labor Party (SPA) Fred DERBY;
promilitary:
National Democratic Party (NDP), Orlando VAN AMSON; Democratic Alternative
'91 (DA '91), Winston JESSURUN, a coalition of five parties formed in
January 1991 - Alternative Forum (AF), Gerard BRUNINGS, Winston JESSURUN;
Reformed Progressive Party (HPP), Panalal PARMESSAR; Party for Brotherhood
and Unity in Politics (BEP), Cipriano ALLENDY; Pendawalima, Marsha JAMIN;
and Independent Progressive Group, Karam RAMSUNDERSINGH;
leftists:
Revolutionary People's Party (RVP), Michael NAARENDORP; Progressive Workers
and Farmers (PALU), Iwan KROLIS
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 6 September 1991 (next to be held NA May 1996); results - elected
by the National Assembly - Ronald VENETIAAN (NF) 80% (645 votes), Jules
WIJDENBOSCH (NDP) 14% (115 votes), Hans PRADE (DA '91) 6% (49 votes)
National Assembly:
last held 25 May 1991 (next to be held NA May 1996); results - percent of
vote NA; seats - (51 total) NF 30, NDP 12, DA '91 9

:Suriname Government

Member of:
ACP, CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, FAO, GATT, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Willem A. UDENHOUT; Chancery at Suite 108, 4301 Connecticut
Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 244-7488 or 7490 through
7492; there is a Surinamese Consulate General in Miami
US:
Ambassador John (Jack) P. LEONARD; Embassy at Dr. Sophie Redmonstraat 129,
Paramaribo (mailing address is P. O. Box 1821, Paramaribo); telephone [597]
472900, 477881, or 476459; FAX [597] 410025
Flag:
five horizontal bands of green (top, double width), white, red (quadruple
width), white, and green (double width); there is a large yellow
five-pointed star centered in the red band

:Suriname Economy

Overview:
The economy is dominated by the bauxite industry, which accounts for about
70% of export earnings and 40% of tax revenues. The economy has been in
trouble since the Dutch ended development aid in 1982. A drop in world
bauxite prices which started in the late 1970s and continued until late 1986
was followed by the outbreak of a guerrilla insurgency in the interior that
crippled the important bauxite sector. Although the insurgency has since
ebbed and the bauxite sector recovered, a military coup in December 1990
reflected continued political instability and deterred investment and
economic reform. High inflation, high unemployment, widespread black market
activity, and hard currency shortfalls continue to mark the economy.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $1.4 billion, per capita $3,400; real growth rate
0% (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
50% (1989 est.)
Unemployment rate:
33% (1990)
Budget:
revenues $466 million; expenditures $716 million, including capital
expenditures of $123 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
$549 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
commodities:
alumina, bauxite, aluminum, rice, wood and wood products, shrimp and fish,
bananas
partners:
Norway 33%, Netherlands 20%, US 15%, FRG 9%, Brazil 5%, UK 5%, Japan 3%,
other 10%
Imports:
$331 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
commodities:
capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton, consumer goods
partners:
US 37%, Netherlands 15%, Netherlands Antilles 11%, Trinidad and Tobago 9%,
Brazil 5%, UK 3%, other 20%
External debt:
$138 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA; accounts for 22% of GDP
Electricity:
458,000 kW capacity; 2,018 million kWh produced, 5,015 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
bauxite mining, alumina and aluminum production, lumbering, food processing,
fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for 11% of GDP; paddy rice planted on 85% of arable land and
represents 60% of total farm output; other products - bananas, palm kernels,
coconuts, plantains, peanuts, beef, chicken; shrimp and forestry products of
increasing importance; self-sufficient in most foods
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $2.5 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.5 billion
Currency:
Surinamese guilder, gulden, or florin (plural - guilders, gulden, or
florins); 1 Surinamese guilder, gulden, or florin (Sf.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Surinamese guilders, gulden, or florins (Sf.) per US$1 - 1.7850 (fixed rate)

:Suriname Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Suriname Communications

Railroads:
166 km total; 86 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned, and 80 km
1.435-meter standard gauge; all single track
Highways:
8,300 km total; 500 km paved; 5,400 km bauxite gravel, crushed stone, or
improved earth; 2,400 km sand or clay
Inland waterways:

Book of the day: