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(55) 239-8276 through 8279 and 217-605; FAX [39] (55) 284-088
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national
coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield
(featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath, below a crown
and above a scroll bearing the word
Flag:
AS (Liberty)

:San Marino Economy

Overview:
More than 2 million tourists visit each year, contributing about 60% to GDP.
The sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors is another important income
producer. The manufacturing sector employs nearly 40% of the labor force and
agriculture less than 4%. The per capita level of output and standard of
living are comparable to northern Italy.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $400 million, per capita $17,000; real growth
rate NA% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
6.5% (1985)
Budget:
revenues $99.2 million; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of
$NA (1983)
Exports:
*** No entry for this item ***
trade data are included with the statistics for Italy; commodity trade
consists primarily of exchanging building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts,
wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceramics for a wide variety of consumer
manufactures
Imports:
see
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
supplied by Italy
Industries:
wine, olive oil, cement, leather, textile, tourism
Agriculture:
employs less than 4% of labor force; products - wheat, grapes, corn, olives,
meat, cheese, hides; small numbers of cattle, pigs, horses; depends on Italy
for food imports
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
Italian lira (plural - lire); 1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100 centesimi; also
mints its own coins
Exchange rates:
Italian lire (Lit) per US$1 - 1,248.4 (March 1992), 1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1
(1990), 1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:San Marino Communications

Highways:
104 km
Telecommunications:
automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system; 11,700
telephones; broadcast services from Italy; microwave and cable links into
Italian networks; no communication satellite facilities

:San Marino Defense Forces

Branches:
public security or police force of less than 50 people
Manpower availability:
all fit men ages 16-60 constitute a militia that can serve as an army
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Sao Tome and Principe Geography

Total area:
960 km2
Land area:
960 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than 5.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
209 km
Maritime claims:
(measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)
Terrain:
volcanic, mountainous
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land 1%; permanent crops 20%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and
woodland 75%; other 3%
Environment:
deforestation; soil erosion
Note:
located south of Nigeria and west of Gabon near the Equator in the North
Atlantic Ocean

:Sao Tome and Principe People

Population:
132,338 (July 1992), growth rate 2.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
38 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
58 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
64 years male, 68 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
5.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Sao Tomean(s); adjective - Sao Tomean
Ethnic divisions:
mestico, angolares (descendents of Angolan slaves), forros (descendents of
freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and
Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands), and
Europeans (primarily Portuguese)
Religions:
Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh-Day Adventist
Languages:
Portuguese (official)
Literacy:
57% (male 73%, female 42%) age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
Labor force:
21,096 (1981); most of population engaged in subsistence agriculture and
fishing; labor shortages on plantations and of skilled workers; 56% of
population of working age (1983)
Organized labor:
NA

:Sao Tome and Principe Government

Long-form name:
Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
Type:
republic
Capital:
Sao Tome
Administrative divisions:
2 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Principe, Sao Tome
Independence:
12 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Constitution:
5 November 1975, approved 15 December 1982
Legal system:
based on Portuguese law system and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 July (1975)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National People's Assembly (Assembleia Popular Nacional)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Miguel TROVOADA (since 4 April 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Noberto COSTA ALEGRE (since 16 May 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
Party for Democratic Convergence-Reflection Group (PCD-GR), Prime Minister
Daniel Lima Dos Santos DAIO, secretary general; Movement for the Liberation
of Sao Tome and Principe (MLSTP), Carlos da GRACA; Christian Democratic
Front (FDC), Alphonse Dos SANTOS; Democratic Opposition Coalition (CODO),
leader NA; other small parties
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 3 March 1991 (next to be held NA March 1996); results - Miguel
TROVOADA was elected without opposition in Sao Tome's first multiparty
presidential election
National People's Assembly:
last held 20 January 1991 (next to be held NA January 1996); results -
PCD-GR 54.4%, MLSTP 30.5%, CODO 5.2%, FDC 1.5%, other 8.3%; seats - (55
total) PCD-GR 33, MLSTP 21, CODO 1; note - this was the first multiparty
election in Sao Tome and Principe
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL,
ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Joaquim Rafael BRANCO; Chancery (temporary) at 801 Second Avenue,
Suite 603, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 697-4211
US:
Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe on a nonresident
basis and makes periodic visits to the islands

:Sao Tome and Principe Government

Flag:
three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width), and green with
two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the yellow
band and a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia

:Sao Tome and Principe Economy

Overview:
The economy has remained dependent on cocoa since the country gained
independence nearly 15 years ago. Since then, however, cocoa production has
gradually deteriorated because of drought and mismanagement, so that by 1987
output had fallen to less than 50% of its former levels. As a result, a
shortage of cocoa for export has created a serious balance-of-payments
problem. Production of less important crops, such as coffee, copra, and palm
kernels, has also declined. The value of imports generally exceeds that of
exports by a ratio of 4:1. The emphasis on cocoa production at the expense
of other food crops has meant that Sao Tome has to import 90% of food needs.
It also has to import all fuels and most manufactured goods. Over the years,
Sao Tome has been unable to service its external debt, which amounts to
roughly 80% of export earnings. Considerable potential exists for
development of a tourist industry, and the government has taken steps to
expand facilities in recent years. The government also implemented a
Five-Year Plan covering 1986-90 to restructure the economy and reschedule
external debt service payments in cooperation with the International
Development Association and Western lenders.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $46.0 million, per capita $400; real growth rate
1.5% (1989)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
36% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $10.2 million; expenditures $36.8 million, including capital
expenditures of $22.5 million (1989)
Exports:
$4.4 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
cocoa 85%, copra, coffee, palm oil
partners:
FRG, GDR, Netherlands, China
Imports:
$21.3 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
machinery and electrical equipment 54%, food products 23%, other 23%
partners:
Portugal, GDR, Angola, China
External debt:
$147 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.1% (1986)
Electricity:
5,000 kW capacity; 10 million kWh produced, 80 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
light construction, shirts, soap, beer, fisheries, shrimp processing
Agriculture:
dominant sector of economy, primary source of exports; cash crops - cocoa
(85%), coconuts, palm kernels, coffee; food products - bananas, papaya,
beans, poultry, fish; not self-sufficient in food grain and meat
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $8 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $89 million
Currency:
dobra (plural - dobras); 1 dobra (Db) = 100 centimos

:Sao Tome and Principe Economy

Exchange rates:
dobras (Db) per US$1 - 260.0 (November 1991), 122.48 (December 1988), 72.827
(1987), 36.993 (1986)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Sao Tome and Principe Communications

Highways:
300 km (two-thirds are paved); roads on Principe are mostly unpaved and in
need of repair
Ports:
Sao Tome, Santo Antonio
Civil air:
10 major transport aircraft
Airports:
2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
minimal system; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 2 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

:Sao Tome and Principe Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, National Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 30,188; 15,918 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Saudi Arabia Geography

Total area:
1,945,000 km2
Land area:
1,945,000 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US
Land boundaries:
4,532 km total; Iraq 808 km, Jordan 742 km, Kuwait 222 km, Oman 676 km,
Qatar 40 km, UAE 586 km, Yemen 1,458 km
Coastline:
2,510 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
18 nm
Continental shelf:
not specific
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
no defined boundaries with Yemen; location and status of Saudi Arabia's
boundaries with Qatar and UAE are unresolved; Kuwaiti ownership of Qaruh and
Umm al Maradim Islands is disputed by Saudi Arabia
Climate:
harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature
Terrain:
mostly uninhabited, sandy desert
Natural resources:
crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper
Land use:
arable land 1%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 39%; forest and
woodland 1%; other 59%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
no perennial rivers or permanent water bodies; developing extensive coastal
seawater desalination facilities; desertification
Note:
extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on
shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal

:Saudi Arabia People

Population:
17,050,934 (July 1992), growth rate 3.3% (1992); note - the population
figure is based on growth since the last official Saudi census of 1974 that
reported a total of 7 million persons and included foreign workers;
estimates from other sources may be 15-30% lower
Birth rate:
39 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
59 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
65 years male, 68 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Saudi(s); adjective - Saudi or Saudi Arabian
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%
Religions:
Muslim 100%
Languages:
Arabic
Literacy:
62% (male 73%, female 48%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
5,000,000; about 60% are foreign workers; government 34%, industry and oil
28%, services 22%, and agriculture 16%
Organized labor:
trade unions are illegal

:Saudi Arabia Government

Long-form name:
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Type:
monarchy
Capital:
Riyadh
Administrative divisions:
14 emirates (imarat, singular - imarah); Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah,
Al Jawf, Al Madinah, Al Qasim, Al Qurayyat, Ar Riyad, Ash Sharqiyah, `Asir,
Ha'il, Jizan, Makkah, Najran, Tabuk
Independence:
23 September 1932 (unification)
Constitution:
none; governed according to Shari`a (Islamic law)
Legal system:
based on Islamic law, several secular codes have been introduced; commercial
disputes handled by special committees; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)
Executive branch:
monarch and prime minister, crown prince and deputy prime minister, Council
of Ministers
Legislative branch:
none
Judicial branch:
Supreme Council of Justice
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
King and Prime Minister FAHD bin `Abd al-`Aziz Al Sa`ud (since 13 June
1982); Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister `ABDALLAH bin `Abd al-`Aziz Al
Sa`ud (half-brother to the King, appointed heir to the throne 13 June 1982)
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
none
Member of:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador BANDAR Bin Sultan; Chancery at 601 New Hampshire Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20037; telephone (202) 342-3800; there are Saudi Arabian
Consulates General in Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
US:
Ambassador Charles W. FREEMAN, Jr.; Embassy at Collector Road M, Diplomatic
Quarter, Riyadh (mailing address is American Embassy, Unit 61307, Riyadh;
International Mail: P. O. Box 94309, Riyadh 11693; or APO AE 09803-1307);
telephone [966] (1) 488-3800; Telex 406866; there are US Consulates General
in Dhahran and Jiddah (Jeddah)
Flag:
green with large white Arabic script (that may be translated as There is no
God but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God) above a white horizontal
saber (the tip points to the hoist side); green is the traditional color of
Islam

:Saudi Arabia Economy

Overview:
The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 70% of budget revenues, 37% of
GDP, and almost all export earnings. Saudi Arabia has the largest reserves
of petroleum in the world, ranks as the largest exporter of petroleum, and
plays a leading role in OPEC. For the 1990s the government intends to
encourage private economic activity and to foster the gradual process of
turning Saudi Arabia into a modern industrial state that retains traditional
Islamic values.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $104 billion, per capita $5,800; real growth rate
1.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
0% (1989 est.)
Budget:
revenues $40.3 billion; expenditures $48.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$44.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 85%
partners:
US 22%, Japan 22%, Singapore 7%, France 6%
Imports:
$21.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
manufactured goods, transportation equipment, construction materials,
processed food products
partners:
US 16%, UK 14%, Japan 14%, FRG 7%
External debt:
$18.9 billion (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1.1% (1989 est.); accounts for 37% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity:
30,000,000 kW capacity; 60,000 million kWh produced, 3,300 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals, cement,
small steel-rolling mill, construction, fertilizer, plastic
Agriculture:
accounts for about 10% of GDP, 16% of labor force; fastest growing economic
sector; subsidized by government; products - wheat, barley, tomatoes,
melons, dates, citrus fruit, mutton, chickens, eggs, milk; approaching
self-sufficiency in food
Economic aid:
donor - pledged $64.7 billion in bilateral aid (1979-89)
Currency:
Saudi riyal (plural - riyals); 1 Saudi riyal (SR) = 100 halalas
Exchange rates:
Saudi riyals (SR) per US$1 - 3.7450 (fixed rate since late 1986), 3.7033
(1986)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Saudi Arabia Communications

Railroads:
886 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
Highways:
74,000 km total; 35,000 km paved, 39,000 km gravel and improved earth
Pipelines:
crude oil 6,400 km, petroleum products 150 km, natural gas 2,200 km,
includes natural gas liquids 1,600 km
Ports:
Jiddah, Ad Dammam, Ras Tanura, Jizan, Al Jubayl, Yanbu al Bahr, Yanbu al
Sinaiyah
Merchant marine:
8l ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 884,470 GRT/1,254,882 DWT; includes 1
passenger, 7 short-sea passenger, 11 cargo, 14 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3
container, 6 refrigerated cargo, 5 livestock carrier, 24 petroleum tanker, 7
chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 1 specialized tanker, 1 bulk
Civil air:
104 major transport aircraft available
Airports:
211 total, 191 usable; 70 with permanent-surface runways; 14 with runways
over 3,659 m; 37 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 105 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
good system with extensive microwave and coaxial and fiber optic cable
systems; 1,624,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 43 AM, 13 FM, 80 TV;
radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and Sudan;
coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; submarine cable to Djibouti, Egypt and
Bahrain; earth stations - 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT, 1 INMARSAT

:Saudi Arabia Defense Forces

Branches:
Land Force (Army), Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, National Guard, Coast
Guard, Frontier Forces, Special Security Force, Public Security Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 5,619,147; 3,118,261 fit for military service; 133,314 reach
military age (17) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $14.5 billion, 13% of GDP (1992 budget)

:Senegal Geography

Total area:
196,190 km2
Land area:
192,000 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries:
2,640 km total; The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali
419 km, Mauritania 813 km
Coastline:
531 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Continental shelf:
edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
short section of the boundary with The Gambia is indefinite; the
International Court of Justice (ICJ) on 12 November 1991 rendered its
decision on the Guinea-Bissau/ Senegal maritime boundary in favor of Senegal
- that decision has been rejected by Guinea-Bissau; boundary with Mauritania
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (December to April) has strong southeast
winds; dry season (May to November) dominated by hot, dry harmattan wind
Terrain:
generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Natural resources:
fish, phosphates, iron ore
Land use:
arable land 27%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 30%; forest and
woodland 31%; other 12%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
lowlands seasonally flooded; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
desertification
Note:
The Gambia is almost an enclave

:Senegal People

Population:
8,205,058 (July 1992), growth rate 3.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
44 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
13 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
80 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
54 years male, 57 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Senegalese (singular and plural); adjective - Senegalese
Ethnic divisions:
Wolof 36%, Fulani 17%, Serer 17%, Toucouleur 9%, Diola 9%, Mandingo 9%,
European and Lebanese 1%, other 2%
Religions:
Muslim 92%, indigenous beliefs 6%, Christian 2% (mostly Roman Catholic)
Languages:
French (official); Wolof, Pulaar, Diola, Mandingo
Literacy:
38% (male 52%, female 25%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
2,509,000; 77% subsistence agricultural workers; 175,000 wage earners -
private sector 40%, government and parapublic 60%; 52% of population of
working age (1985)
Organized labor:
majority of wage-labor force represented by unions; however, dues-paying
membership very limited; major confederation is National Confederation of
Senegalese Labor (CNTS), an affiliate of the governing party

:Senegal Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Senegal
Type:
republic under multiparty democratic rule
Capital:
Dakar
Administrative divisions:
10 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack,
Kolda, Louga, Saint-Louis, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
Independence:
20 August 1960 (from France); The Gambia and Senegal signed an agreement on
12 December 1981 (effective 1 February 1982) that called for the creation of
a loose confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the agreement was
dissolved on 30 September 1989
Constitution:
3 March 1963, last revised in 1991
Legal system:
based on French civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in
Supreme Court, which also audits the government's accounting office; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Abdou DIOUF (since 1 January 1981)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Habib THIAM (since 7 April 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Socialist Party (PS), President Abdou DIOUF; Senegalese Democratic Party
(PDS), Abdoulaye WADE; 13 other small uninfluential parties
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 28 February 1988 (next to be held NA February 1993); results -
Abdou DIOUF (PS) 73%, Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 26%, other 1%
National Assembly:
last held 28 February 1988 (next to be held NA February 1993); results - PS
71%, PDS 25%, other 4%; seats - (120 total) PS 103, PDS 17
Other political or pressure groups:
students, teachers, labor, Muslim Brotherhoods
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNIIMOG, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Ibra Deguene KA; Chancery at 2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-0540 or 0541
US:
Ambassador Katherine SHIRLEY; Embassy on Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of
Avenue Kleber, Dakar (mailing address is B. P. 49, Dakar); telephone [221]
23-42-96 or 23-34-24; FAX [221] 22-29-91

:Senegal Government

Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a
small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia

:Senegal Economy

Overview:
The agricultural sector accounts for about 20% of GDP and provides
employment for about 75% of the labor force. About 40% of the total
cultivated land is used to grow peanuts, an important export crop. The
principal economic resource is fishing, which brought in about $200 million
or about 25% of total foreign exchange earnings in 1987. Mining is dominated
by the extraction of phosphate, but production has faltered because of
reduced worldwide demand for fertilizers in recent years. Over the past 10
years tourism has become increasingly important to the economy.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $5.0 billion, per capita $615; real growth rate
3.6% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.0% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
3.5% (1987)
Budget:
revenues $921 million; expenditures $1,024 million; including capital
expenditures of $14 million (FY89 est.)
Exports:
$814 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
manufactures 30%, fish products 27%, peanuts 11%, petroleum products 11%,
phosphates 10%
partners:
France, other EC members, Mali, Ivory Coast, India
Imports:
$1.05 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
semimanufactures 30%, food 27%, durable consumer goods 17%, petroleum 12%,
capital goods 14%
partners:
France, other EC, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Algeria, China, Japan
External debt:
$2.9 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.7% (1989); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
215,000 kW capacity; 760 million kWh produced, 100 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, petroleum refining,
building materials
Agriculture:
including fishing, accounts for 20% of GDP and more than 75% of labor force;
major products - peanuts (cash crop), millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton,
tomatoes, green vegetables; estimated two-thirds self-sufficient in food;
fish catch of 299,000 metric tons in 1987
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $551 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $5.23 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $589 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $295
million
Currency:
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
= 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
(1987)

:Senegal Economy

Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June; note - in January 1993, Senegal will switch to a calendar
year

:Senegal Communications

Railroads:
1,034 km 1.000-meter gauge; all single track except 70 km double track Dakar
to Thies
Highways:
14,007 km total; 3,777 km paved, 10,230 km laterite or improved earth
Inland waterways:
897 km total; 785 km on the Senegal, 112 km on the Saloum
Ports:
Dakar, Kaolack, Foundiougne, Ziguinchor
Merchant marine:
2 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 7,676 GRT/12,310 DWT; includes 1
cargo, 1 bulk
Civil air:
3 major transport aircraft
Airports:
25 total, 19 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
above-average urban system, using microwave and cable; broadcast stations -
8 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 3 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

:Senegal Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie, National Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,814,452; 947,723 fit for military service; 88,271 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $100 million, 2% of GDP (1989 est.)

:Serbia and Montenegro Geography

Total area:
102,350 km2
Land area:
102,136 km2: note - Serbia has a total area and a land area of 88,412 km2
while Montenegro has a total area of 13,938 km2 and a land area of 13,724
km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Kentucky; note - Serbia is slightly larger than Maine
while Montenegro is slightly larger than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
2,234 km total; Albania 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro),
Bosnia and Hercegovina 527 km (312 km with Serbia, 215 km with Montenegro),
Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 239 km, Croatia (south) 15 km, Hungary 151
km, Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km; note - the internal boundary between
Montenegro and Serbia is 211 km
Coastline:
199 km; Montenegro 199 km, Serbia 0 km
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Contiguous zone:
NA nm
Continental shelf:
NA meter depth
Exclusive fishing zone:
NA nm
Exclusive economic zone:
NA nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
Sandzak region bordering northern Montenegro and southeastern Serbia -
Muslims seeking autonomy; Vojvodina taken from Hungary and awarded to the
former Yugoslavia (Serbia) by Treaty of Trianon in 1920; disputes with
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia over Serbian populated areas; Albanian
minority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian Republic
Climate:
in the north, continental climate - cold winter and hot, humid summers with
well distributed rainfall; central portion, continental and Mediterranean
climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers
and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland
Terrain:
extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone
ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountain and hills; to the
southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast; home of
largest lake in former Yugoslavia, Lake Scutari
Natural resources:
oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome
Land use:
arable land 30%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures 20%; forest and
woodland 25%; other 20%; includes irrigated 5%
Environment:
coastal water pollution from sewage outlets, especially in tourist related
areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial
cities; water pollution along Danube from industrial waste dump into the
Sava which drains into the Danube; subject to destructive earthquakes
Note:
controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the
Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast

:Serbia and Montenegro People

Population:
10,642,000 (July 1992), growth rate NA% (1991)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NA migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
Serbia - 70.11 years male, 75.21 years female (1992); Montenegro - 76.33
years male, 82.27 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Serbian(s) and Montenegrin(s); adjective - Serbian and Montenegrin
Ethnic divisions:
Serbs 63%, Albanians 14%, Montenegrins 6%, Hungarians 4%
Religions:
Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%
Languages:
Serbo-Croatian 100%
Literacy:
89% (male 95%, female 83%) age 10 and over can read and write (1991 est.)
Labor force:
2,640,909; industry, mining 40%, agriculture 5% (1990)
Organized labor:
NA

:Serbia and Montenegro Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
republic
Capital:
Belgrade
Administrative divisions:
2 provinces (pokajine, singular - pokajina); and 2 automous provinces*;
Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*
Independence:
NA April 1992
Constitution:
NA April 1992
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
NA
Executive branch:
president, vice president, prime minister, deputy prime minister
Legislative branch:
Parliament
Judicial branch:
NA
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Dobric COSIC (since NA), Vice President Branko KOSTIC (since July
1991); note - Slobodan MILOSEVIC is president of Serbia
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Milan PANIC (since 14 July 1992), Deputy Prime Minister
Aleksandr MITROVIC (since March 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
former Communisty Party, Slobodan MILOSEVIC; Serbian Radical Party, Vojislav
SESELJ; Serbian Renewal Party, Vok DRASKOVIC
Suffrage:
at age 16 if employed, universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
NA
Parliament:
last held 4 June 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (138 total) former Community Party 73, Radical Party 33,
other 32
Communists:
NA
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
CSCE, UN
Diplomatic representation:
none; US does not recognize Serbia and Montenegro
Flag:
NA

:Serbia and Montenegro Economy

Overview:
The swift collapse of the Yugoslav federation has been accompanied by bloody
ethnic warfare, the destabilization of republic boundaries, and the breakup
of important interrepublic trade flows. The situation in Serbia and
Montenegro remains fluid in view of the extensive political and military
strife. This new state faces major economic problems. First, like the other
former Yugoslav republics, Serbia and Montenegro depended on their sister
republics for large amounts of foodstuffs, energy supplies, and
manufactures. Wide varieties in climate, mineral resources, and levels of
technology among the six republics accentuated this interdependence, as did
the Communist practice of concentrating much industrial output in a small
number of giant plants. The breakup of many of the trade links, the sharp
drop in output as industrial plants lost suppliers and markets, and the
destruction of physical assets in the fighting all have contributed to the
economic difficulties of the republics. One singular factor in the economic
situation of Serbia and Montenegro is the continuation in office of a
Communist government that is primarily interested in political and military
mastery, not economic reform. A further complication is the major economic
sanctions by the leading industrial nations.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $44 billion, per capita $4,200; real growth rate
NA% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
60% per month
Unemployment rate:
25-40%
Budget:
NA
Exports:
$4.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 29%, manufactured goods 28.5%,
miscellaneous manufactured articles 13.5%, chemicals 11%, food and live
animals 9%, raw materials 6%, fuels and lubricants 2%, beverages and tobacco
1%
partners:
principally the other former Yugoslav republics; Italy, Germany, other EC,
the former USSR, East European countries, US
Imports:
$6.4 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 26%, fuels and lubricants 18%,
manufactured goods 16%, chemicals 12.5%, food and live animals 11%,
miscellaneous manufactured items 8%, raw materials, including coking coal
for the steel industry, 7%, beverages, tobacco, and edible oils 1.5%
partners:
principally the other former Yugoslav republics; the former USSR, EC
countries (mainly Italy and Germany), East European countries, US
External debt:
$4.2 billion (may assume some part of foreign debt of former Yugoslavia)
Industrial production:
growth rate -20% or greater (1991 est.)
Electricity:
8,633,000 kW capacity; 34,600 million kWh produced, 3,496 kWh per capita
(1991)

:Serbia and Montenegro Economy

Industries:
machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; armored vehicles and
weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery), metallurgy (steel,
aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium), mining
(coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone), consumer goods
(textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances), electronics, petroleum
products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals
Agriculture:
the fertile plains of Vojvodina produce 80% of the cereal production of the
former Yugoslavia and most of the cotton, oilseeds, and chicory; Vojvodina
also produces fodder crops to support intensive beef and dairy production;
Serbia proper, although hilly, has a well-distributed rainfall and a long
growing season; produces fruit, grapes, and cereals; in this area, livestock
production (sheep and cattle) and dairy farming prosper; Kosovo province
produces fruits, vegetables, tobacco, and a small amount of cereals; the
mountainous pastures of Kosovo and Montenegro support sheep and goat
husbandry; Montenegro has only a small agriculture sector, mostly near the
coast where a Mediterranean climate permits the culture of olives, citrus,
grapes, and rice
Illicit drugs:
NA
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
Yugoslav New Dinar (plural - New Dinars); 1 Yugo New Dinar (YD) = 100 paras
Exchange rates:
Yugoslav New Dinars (YD) per US $1 - 28.230 (December 1991), 15.162 (1990),
15.528 (1989), 0.701 (1988), 0.176 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Serbia and Montenegro Communications

Railroads:
NA
Highways:
46,019 km total (1990); 26,949 km paved, 10,373 km gravel, 8,697 km earth
Inland waterways:
NA km
Pipelines:
crude oil 415 km, petroleum products 130 km, natural gas 2,110 km
Ports:
maritime - Bar; inland - Belgrade
Merchant marine:
43 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 866,915 GRT/1,449,094 DWT; includes 19
cargo, 5 container, 16 bulk carriers, 2 combination/ore carrier and 1
passenger ship, under Serbian and Montenegrin flag; note - Montenegro also
operates 3 bulk carriers under the flags of Panama and Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines
Civil air:
NA
Airports:
NA
Telecommunications:
700,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 26 AM, 9 FM, 18 TV; 2,015,000
radios; 1,000,000 TVs; satellite ground stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

:Serbia and Montenegro Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, and Air Forces
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 2,545,357; NA fit for military service; 96,832 reach military
age (18) annually (est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:Seychelles Geography

Total area:
455 km2
Land area:
455 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
491 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claims Tromelin Island
Climate:
tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to
September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)
Terrain:
Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly; others are
coral, flat, elevated reefs
Natural resources:
fish, copra, cinnamon trees
Land use:
arable land 4%; permanent crops 18%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 18%; other 60%
Environment:
lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; short droughts
possible; no fresh water - catchments collect rain; 40 granitic and about 50
coralline islands
Note:
located north-northeast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean

:Seychelles People

Population:
69,519 (July 1992), growth rate 0.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
23 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-8 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
15 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
65 years male, 75 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Seychellois (singular and plural); adjective - Seychelles
Ethnic divisions:
Seychellois (mixture of Asians, Africans, Europeans)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 90%, Anglican 8%, other 2%
Languages:
English and French (official); Creole
Literacy:
85% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Labor force:
27,700; industry and commerce 31%, services 21%, government 20%,
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 12%, other 16% (1985); 57% of population
of working age (1983)
Organized labor:
three major trade unions

:Seychelles Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Seychelles
Type:
republic
Capital:
Victoria
Administrative divisions:
23 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse
Louis, Anse Royale, Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel
Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand' Anse (on Mahe Island), Grand' Anse (on
Praslin Island), La Digue, La Riviere Anglaise, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri,
Plaisance, Pointe La Rue, Port Glaud, Saint Louis, Takamaka
Independence:
29 June 1976 (from UK)
Constitution:
5 June 1979
Legal system:
based on English common law, French civil law, and customary law
National holiday:
Liberation Day (anniversary of coup), 5 June (1977)
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral People's Assembly (Assemblee du Peuple)
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party - Seychelles People's Progressive Front (SPPF), France Albert
RENE; note - in December 1991, President RENE announced that the Seychelles
would begin an immediate transition to a multiparty political system;
registration of new political parties was scheduled to begin in January 1992
Suffrage:
universal at age 17
Elections:
election of delegates to a multiparty constitutional conference is scheduled
for June 1992
President:
last held 9-11 June 1989 (next to be held NA June 1994); results - President
France Albert RENE reelected without opposition
People's Assembly:
last held 5 December 1987 (next to be held NA December 1992); results - SPPF
was the only legal party; seats - (25 total, 23 elected) SPPF 23
Other political or pressure groups:
trade unions, Roman Catholic Church
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Second Secretary, Charge d'Affaires ad interim Marc R. MARENGO; Chancery
(temporary) at 820 Second Avenue, Suite 900F, New York, NY 10017; telephone
(212) 687-9766
US:
Ambassador Richard W. CARLSON; Embassy at 4th Floor, Victoria House,
Victoria (mailing address is Box 148, Victoria, and Victoria House, Box 251,
Victoria, Mahe, Seychelles, or APO AE 09815-2501); telephone (248) 25256;
FAX (248) 25189

:Seychelles Government

Flag:
three horizontal bands of red (top), white (wavy), and green; the white band
is the thinnest, the red band is the thickest

:Seychelles Economy

Overview:
In this small, open, tropical island economy, the tourist industry employs
about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of hard currency
earnings. In recent years the government has encouraged foreign investment
in order to upgrade hotels and other services. At the same time, the
government has moved to reduce the high dependence on tourism by promoting
the development of farming, fishing, and small-scale manufacturing.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $350 million, per capita $5,200; real growth rate
-4.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.8% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
9% (1987)
Budget:
revenues $180 million; expenditures $202 million, including capital
expenditures of $32 million (1989)
Exports:
$40 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
fish, copra, cinnamon bark, petroleum products (reexports)
partners:
France 63%, Pakistan 12%, Reunion 10%, UK 7% (1987)
Imports:
$186 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
manufactured goods, food, tobacco, beverages, machinery and transportation
equipment, petroleum products
partners:
UK 20%, France 14%, South Africa 13%, PDRY 13%, Singapore 8%, Japan 6%
(1987)
External debt:
$189 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7% (1987); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
30,000 kW capacity; 80 million kWh produced, 1,160 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
tourism, processing of coconut and vanilla, fishing, coir rope factory, boat
building, printing, furniture, beverage
Agriculture:
accounts for 7% of GDP, mostly subsistence farming; cash crops - coconuts,
cinnamon, vanilla; other products - sweet potatoes, cassava, bananas;
broiler chickens; large share of food needs imported; expansion of tuna
fishing under way
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $26 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1978-89), $315 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $60
million
Currency:
Seychelles rupee (plural - rupees); 1 Seychelles rupee (SRe) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Seychelles rupees (SRe) per US$1 - 5.2946 (March 1992), 5.2893 (1991),
5.3369 (1990), 5.6457 (1989), 5.3836 (1988), 5.6000 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Seychelles Communications

Highways:
260 km total; 160 km paved, 100 km crushed stone or earth
Ports:
Victoria
Merchant marine:
1 refrigerated cargo totaling 1,827 GRT/2,170 DWT
Civil air:
1 major transport aircraft
Airports:
14 total, 14 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
direct radio communications with adjacent islands and African coastal
countries; 13,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 2 TV; 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station; USAF tracking station

:Seychelles Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Presidential Protection Unit, Police Force, Militia
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 17,739; 9,096 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $12 million, 4% of GDP (1990 est.)

:Sierra Leone Geography

Total area:
71,740 km2
Land area:
71,620 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
958 km total; Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km
Coastline:
402 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
200 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry
season (December to April)
Terrain:
coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland plateau,
mountains in east
Natural resources:
diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold, chromite
Land use:
arable land 25%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 31%; forest and
woodland 29%; other 13%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
extensive mangrove swamps hinder access to sea; deforestation; soil
degradation

:Sierra Leone People

Population:
4,456,737 (July 1992), growth rate -0.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
46 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
20 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-28 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
148 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
43 years male, 48 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Sierra Leonean(s); adjective - Sierra Leonean
Ethnic divisions:
native African 99% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%); Creole, European, Lebanese, and
Asian 1%; 13 tribes
Religions:
Muslim 30%, indigenous beliefs 30%, Christian 10%, other or none 30%
Languages:
English (official); regular use limited to literate minority; principal
vernaculars are Mende in south and Temne in north; Krio is the language of
the resettled ex-slave population of the Freetown area and is lingua franca
Literacy:
21% (male 31%, female 11%) age 15 and over can read and write English,
Mende, Temne, or Arabic (1990 est.)
Labor force:
1,369,000 (est.); agriculture 65%, industry 19%, services 16% (1981); only
about 65,000 earn wages (1985); 55% of population of working age
Organized labor:
35% of wage earners

:Sierra Leone Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Sierra Leone
Type:
military government
Capital:
Freetown
Administrative divisions:
Western Area and 3 provinces; Eastern, Northern, Southern
Independence:
27 April 1961 (from UK)
Constitution:
1 October 1991; amended September 1991
Legal system:
based on English law and customary laws indigenous to local tribes; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Republic Day, 27 April (1961)
Executive branch:
National Provisional Ruling Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives (suspended after coup of 29 April 1992)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (suspended after coup of 29 April 1992)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Gen. Joseph Saidu MOMOH was ousted in coup of 29 April 1992;
succeeded by Chairman of the National Provisional Ruling Council Valentine
STRASSER (since 29 April 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
status of existing political parties are unknown following 29 April 1992
coup
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
suspended after 29 April 1992 coup; Chairman STRASSER promises multi-party
elections sometime in the future
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU,
OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador (vacant); Chancery at 1701 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009;
telephone (202) 939-9261
US:
Ambassador Johnny YOUNG; Embassy at the corner of Walpole and Siaka Stevens
Street, Freetown; telephone [232] (22) 226-481; FAX [232] (22) 225471
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of light green (top), white, and light blue

:Sierra Leone Economy

Overview:
The economic and social infrastructure is not well developed. Subsistence
agriculture dominates the economy, generating about one-third of GDP and
employing about two-thirds of the working population. Manufacturing, which
accounts for roughly 10% of GDP, consists mainly of the processing of raw
materials and of light manufacturing for the domestic market. Diamond mining
provides an important source of hard currency. The economy suffers from high
unemployment, rising inflation, large trade deficits, and a growing
dependency on foreign assistance. The government in 1990 was attempting to
get the budget deficit under control and, in general, to bring economic
policy in line with the recommendations of the IMF and the World Bank. Since
March 1991, however, military incursions by Liberian rebels in southern and
eastern Sierra Leone have severely strained the economy and have undermined
efforts to institute economic reforms.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $1.4 billion, per capita $330; real growth rate
3% (FY91 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
110% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $134 million; expenditures $187 million, including capital
expenditures of $32 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$138 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
rutile 50%, bauxite 17%, cocoa 11%, diamonds 3%, coffee 3%
partners:
US, UK, Belgium, FRG, other Western Europe
Imports:
$146 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
capital goods 40%, food 32%, petroleum 12%, consumer goods 7%, light
industrial goods
partners:
US, EC, Japan, China, Nigeria
External debt:
$572 million (1990)
Industrial production:
NA
Electricity:
85,000 kW capacity; 185 million kWh produced, 45 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
mining (diamonds, bauxite, rutile), small-scale manufacturing (beverages,
textiles, cigarettes, footwear), petroleum refinery
Agriculture:
accounts for over 30% of GDP and two-thirds of the labor force; largely
subsistence farming; cash crops - coffee, cocoa, palm kernels; harvests of
food staple rice meets 80% of domestic needs; annual fish catch averages
53,000 metric tons
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $161 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $848 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $18 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $101
million
Currency:
leone (plural - leones); 1 leone (Le) = 100 cents

:Sierra Leone Economy

Exchange rates:
leones (Le) per US$1 - 476.74 (March 1992), 295.34 (1991), 144.9275 (1990),
58.1395 (1989), 31.2500 (1988), 30.7692 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Sierra Leone Communications

Railroads:
84 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge mineral line is used on a limited basis
because the mine at Marampa is closed
Highways:
7,400 km total; 1,150 km paved, 490 km laterite (some gravel), remainder
improved earth
Inland waterways:
800 km; 600 km navigable year round
Ports:
Freetown, Pepel, Bonthe
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship totaling 5,592 GRT/9,107 DWT
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
12 total, 7 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
marginal telephone and telegraph service; national microwave system
unserviceable at present; 23,650 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1
FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Sierra Leone Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, National Police Force, Special Security Detachment
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 976,147; 472,112 fit for military service; no conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $6 million, 0.7% of GDP (1988 est.)

:Singapore Geography

Total area:
632.6 km2
Land area:
622.6 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
193 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
two islands in dispute with Malaysia
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry seasons;
thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)
Terrain:
lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and
nature preserve
Natural resources:
fish, deepwater ports
Land use:
arable land 4%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 5%; other 84%
Environment:
mostly urban and industrialized
Note:
focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

:Singapore People

Population:
2,792,092 (July 1992), growth rate 1.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
18 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
6 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
73 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Singaporean(s); adjective - Singapore
Ethnic divisions:
Chinese 76.4%, Malay 14.9%, Indian 6.4%, other 2.3%
Religions:
majority of Chinese are Buddhists or atheists; Malays are nearly all Muslim
(minorities include Christians, Hindus, Sikhs, Taoists, Confucianists)
Languages:
Chinese, Malay, Tamil, and English (all official); Malay (national)
Literacy:
88% (male 93%, female 84%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
1,485,800; financial, business, and other services 30.2%, manufacturing
28.4%, commerce 22.0%, construction 9.0%, other 10.4% (1990)
Organized labor:
210,000; 16.1% of labor force (1989)

:Singapore Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Singapore
Type:
republic within Commonwealth
Capital:
Singapore
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)
Constitution:
3 June 1959, amended 1965; based on preindependence State of Singapore
Constitution
Legal system:
based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 9 August (1965)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, two deputy prime ministers, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President WEE Kim Wee (since 3 September 1985)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 28 November 1990); Deputy Prime Minister
LEE Hsien Loong (since 28 November 1990); Deputy Prime Ministers ONG Teng
Cheong (since 2 January 1985) and LEE Hsien Loong
Political parties and leaders:
government:
People's Action Party (PAP), LEE Kuan Yew, secretary general;
opposition:
Workers' Party (WP), J. B. JEYARETNAM; Singapore Democratic Party (SDP),
CHIAM See Tong; National Solidarity Party (NSP), leader NA; Barisan Sosialis
(BS, Socialist Front), leader NA
Suffrage:
universal and compulsory at age 20
Elections:
President:
last held 31 August 1989 (next to be held NA August 1993); results -
President WEE Kim Wee was reelected by Parliament without opposition
Parliament:
last held 31 August 1991 (next to be held 31 August 1996); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (81 total) PAP 77, SDP 3, WP 1
Communists:
200-500; Barisan Sosialis infiltrated by Communists; note - Communist party
illegal
Member of:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador S. R. NATHAN; Chancery at 1824 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009;
telephone (202) 667-7555
US:
Ambassador Robert D. ORR; Embassy at 30 Hill Street, Singapore 0617 (mailing
address is FPO AP 96534); telephone [65] 338-0251; FAX [65] 338-4550

:Singapore Government

Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of
the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward
the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged
in a circle

:Singapore Economy

Overview:
Singapore has an open entrepreneurial economy with strong service and
manufacturing sectors and excellent international trading links derived from
its entrepot history. During the 1970s and early 1980s, the economy expanded
rapidly, achieving an average annual growth rate of 9%. Per capita GDP is
among the highest in Asia. The economy grew at a respectable 6.5% in 1991,
down from 8.3% in 1990, in part because of a slowdown in overseas demand and
lower growth in the financial and business services sector.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $38.3 billion, per capita $13,900; real growth
rate 6.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.4% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
1.5% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $9.8 billion; expenditures $9.0 billion, including capital
expenditures of $2.8 billion (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$57.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
includes transshipments to Malaysia - petroleum products, rubber,
electronics, manufactured goods
partners:
US 20%, Malaysia 15%, Japan 9%, Hong Kong 7%, Thailand 6%
Imports:
$65.8 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
includes transshipments from Malaysia - capital equipment, petroleum,
chemicals, manufactured goods, foodstuffs
partners:
Japan 21%, US 16%, Malaysia 15%, Taiwan 4%
External debt:
$3.8 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 9% (1991 est.); accounts for 29% of GDP (1990)
Electricity:
4,000,000 kW capacity; 14,400 million kWh produced, 5,300 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
petroleum refining, electronics, oil drilling equipment, rubber processing
and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, entrepot
trade, financial services, biotechnology
Agriculture:
occupies a position of minor importance in the economy; self-sufficient in
poultry and eggs; must import much of other food; major crops - rubber,
copra, fruit, vegetables
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $590 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.0 billion
Currency:
Singapore dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Singapore dollar (S$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Singapore dollars (S$) per US$1 - 1.6596 (March 1992), 1.7276 (1991), 1.8125
(1990), 1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988), 2.1060 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Singapore Communications

Railroads:
38 km of 1.000-meter gauge
Highways:
2,597 km total (1984)
Ports:
Singapore
Merchant marine:
468 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,751,619 GRT/14,195,718 DWT;
includes 1 passenger-cargo, 126 cargo, 74 container, 7 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 18 vehicle carrier, 1 livestock carrier, 144
petroleum tanker, 5 chemical tanker, 4 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized
tanker, 5 liquefied gas, 74 bulk, 2 combination bulk, 1 short-sea passenger;
note - many Singapore flag ships are foreign owned
Civil air:
38 major transport aircraft (est.)
Airports:
10 total, 10 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over
3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
good domestic facilities; good international service; good radio and
television broadcast coverage; 1,110,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 13
AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; submarine cables extend to Malaysia (Sabah and peninsular
Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; satellite earth stations - 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

:Singapore Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Defense Force, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 847,435; 626,914 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.7 billion, 4% of GDP (1990 est.)

:Slovenia Geography

Total area:
20,296 km2
Land area:
20,296 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
998 km total; Austria 262 km, Croatia 455 km, Italy 199 km, Hungary 83 km
Coastline:
32 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
NA nm
Continental shelf:
200 m or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:
NA nm
Exclusive fishing zone:
NA nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
dispute with Croatia over fishing rights in the Adriatic; small vocal
minority in northern Italy seeks the return of parts of southwestern
Slovenia
Climate:
Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot
summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Terrain:
a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to
Italy, mixed mountain and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
Natural resources:
lignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver
Land use:
arable land 10%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 20%; forest and
woodland 45%; other 23%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; heavy metals and
toxic chemicals along coastal waters; near Koper, forest damage from air
pollutants originating at metallurgical and chemical plants; subject to
flooding and earthquakes

:Slovenia People

Population:
1,963,000 (July 1992), growth rate 0.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NA migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
70 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Slovene(s); adjective - Slovenia
Ethnic divisions:
Slovene 91%, Croat 3%, Serb 2%, Muslim 1%, other 3%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 94%, Orthodox Catholic 2%, Muslim 1%, other 3%
Languages:
Slovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 7%, other 2%
Literacy:
99.2% (male 99.3%, female 99.1%) age 10 and over can read and write
Labor force:
786,036; 2% agriculture, manufacturing and mining 46%
Organized labor:
NA

:Slovenia Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Slovenia
Type:
emerging democracy
Capital:
Ljubljana
Administrative divisions:
62 provinces (pokajine, singular - pokajina)
Independence:
25 June 1991; 15 January 1992 from Yugoslavia
Constitution:
adopted 23 December 1991, effective 23 December 1991
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
NA
Executive branch:
president, 4 vice presidents
Legislative branch:
bicameral; consists of the State Assembly and the State Council; note - will
take effect after next election
Judicial branch:
NA
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Milan KUCAN (since 22 April 1990); Vice President Matjaz KMECL
(since 11 April 1990); Vice President Ivan OMAN (since 11 April 1990); Vice
President Dusan PLUT (since 11 April 1990); Vice President Ciril ZLOBEC
(since 11 April 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Janez DRNOVSEK (since 14 May 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic, Lozje PETERLE, chairman; Liberal Democratic, Janez
DRNOVSEK, chairman; Social Democratic, Joze PUNIK, chairman; Socialist,
Viktor ZAKELJ, chairman; Greens, Dusan PLUT, chairman; National Democratic,
Rajko PIRNAT, chairman; Democratic Peoples Party, Marjan PODOBNIK, chairman;
Reformed Socialists (former Communist Party), Ciril RIBICIC, chairman
Suffrage:
at age 16 if employed, universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held NA (next to be held NA)
State Assembly:
last held NA (next to be held NA);
State Council:
last held NA (next to be held NA)
Communists:
NA
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
CSCE, IMF, UN
Diplomatic representation:
Representative Ernest PETRIC; Chancery at 1300 19th Street NW, Washington,
DC 20036; telephone (202) 828-1650
US:
Ambassador Ignac GOLOB, Embassy at NA (mailing address is APO AE 09862);
telephone NA

:Slovenia Government

Flag:
a three color flag, white (hoist side), blue, and red of equal width with
the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav in white against a
blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting
seas and rivers; around it, there are three six-sided stars arranged in an
inverted triangle); the seal is located in the upper hoist side of the flag
centered in the white and blue band

:Slovenia Economy

Overview:
Slovenia was by far the most prosperous of the old Yugoslav republics, with
a per capita income more than twice the Yugoslav average, indeed not far
below the levels in neighboring Austria and Italy. Because of its strong
ties to Western Europe and the small scale of damage during internecine
fighting in Yugoslavia, Slovenia has the brightest prospects among the
former Yugoslav republics for economic reform and recovery over the next few
years. The political and economic disintegration of Yugoslavia, however, has
led to severe short-term dislocations in production, employment, and trade
ties. For example, overall industrial production fell 10% in 1991;
particularly hard hit were the iron and steel, machine-building, chemical,
and textile industries. Meanwhile, fighting has continued in other republics
leading to further destruction of long-established trade channels and to an
influx of tens of thousands of Croatian refugees. As in other former
Communist areas in Eastern Europe, economic reform has often sputtered not
only because of the vested interests of old bosses in retaining old rules of
the game but also because of the tangible losses experienced by
rank-and-file people in the transition to a more market-oriented system. The
key program for breaking up and privatizing major industrial firms has not
yet begun. Bright spots for encouraging Western investors are Slovenia's
comparatively well-educated work force, its developed infrastructure, and
its Western business attitudes. Slovenia in absolute terms is a small
economy, and a little Western investment would go a long way.
GDP:
$21 billion, per capita $10,700; real growth rate -10% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
15-20% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
10% (April 1992)
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$4,120 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 38%, other manufactured goods 44%,
chemicals 9%, food and live animals 4.6%, raw materials 3%, beverages and
tobacco less than 1%
partners:
principally the other former Yugoslav republics, Austria, and Italy
Imports:
$4,679 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 35%, other manufactured goods 26.7%,
chemicals 14.5%, raw materials 9.4%, fuels and lubricants 7%, food and live
animals 6%
partners:
principally the other former Yugoslav republics, Germany, former USSR, US,
Hungary, Italy, and Austria
External debt:
$2.5 billion
Industrial production:
industrial production has been declining at a rate of about 1% per month
(1991-92), mostly because of lost markets in the other former Yugoslav
republics
Electricity:
2,900,000 kW capacity; 12,250 million kWh produced, 6,447 kWh per capita
(1991)

:Slovenia Economy

Industries:
ferrous metallurgy and rolling mill products, aluminum reduction and rolled
products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics (including military
electronics), trucks, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles,
chemicals, machine tools
Agriculture:
dominated by stock breeding (sheep and cattle) and dairy farming; main crops
are potatoes, hops, hemp, and flax; although self-sufficient and having an
export surplus in these commodities, Slovenia must import many other
agricultural products and has a negative overall trade balance in this
sector
Illicit drugs:
NA
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
Slovene Tolar (plural - Tolars); 1 Tolar (SLT) = 100 NA
Exchange rates:
Tolars (SLT) per US$1 - 28 (January 1992)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Slovenia Communications

Railroads:
NA
Highways:
14,553 km total; 10,525 km paved, 4,028 km gravel
Inland waterways:
NA
Pipelines:
crude oil 290 km, natural gas 305 km
Ports:
maritime - Koper
Merchant marine:
0 ships (1,000 GRT or over) are under Slovenian flag; note - Slovenian
owners control 21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 334,995 GRT/558,621
DWT; includes 14 bulk carriers and 7 general cargo ships all under Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines flag
Civil air:
NA major transport aircraft
Airports:
3 main airports
Telecommunications:
130,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 5 FM, 7 TV; 370,000 radios;
330,000 TVs

Book of the day: