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200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers
with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Terrain:
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the plain of Moldavia on the
east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on
the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Natural resources:
crude oil (reserves being exhausted), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore,
salt
Land use:
arable land 43%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures 19%; forest and
woodland 28%; other 7%; includes irrigated 11%
Environment:
frequent earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure
and climate promote landslides; air pollution in south
Note:
controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova,
and the Ukraine

:Romania People

Population:
23,169,914 (July 1992), growth rate 0.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
14 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
22 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
68 years male, 74 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Romanian(s); adjective - Romanian
Ethnic divisions:
Romanian 89.1%, Hungarian 8.9%, German 0.4%, Ukrainian, Serb, Croat,
Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 1.6%
Religions:
Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6%, Greek Catholic (Uniate) 3%,
Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 15%
Languages:
Romanian, Hungarian, German
Literacy:
96% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
Labor force:
10,945,700; industry 38%, agriculture 28%, other 34% (1989)
Organized labor:
until December 1989, a single trade union system organized by the General
Confederation of Romanian Trade Unions (UGSR) under control of the Communist
Party; since CEAUSESCU'S overthrow, newly created trade and professional
trade unions are joining umbrella organizations, including the Organization
of Free Trade Unions, Fratia (Brotherhood), and the Alfa Cartel; many other
trade unions have been formed

:Romania Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
republic
Capital:
Bucharest
Administrative divisions:
40 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu);
Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov,
Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna,
Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi,
Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu,
Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea
Independence:
1881 (from Turkey); republic proclaimed 30 December 1947
Constitution:
8 December 1991
Legal system:
former mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory that
increasingly reflected Romanian traditions is being revised
National holiday:
National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)
Executive branch:
*** No entry for this item ***
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate (Senat) and a
lower house or House of Deputies (Adunarea Deputatilor)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 June 1990, previously President of
Provisional Council of National Unity since 23 December 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Teodor STOLOJAN (since 2 October 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
National Salvation Front (FSN), Petre ROMAN; Democratuc National Salvation
Front (DNSF), Olivia GHERMAN; Magyar Democratic Union (UDMR), Geza DOMOKOS;
National Liberal Party (PNL), Radu CAMPEANU; National Peasants' Christian
and Democratic Party (PNTCD), Corneliu COPOSU; Ecology Movement (MER), Toma
Gheorghe MAIORESCU; Romanian National Unity Party (PUNR), Radu CEONTEA;
there are now more than 100 other parties; note - although the Communist
Party has ceased to exist, small proto-Communist parties, notably the
Socialist Labor Party, have been formed
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA 1992); results - Ion ILIESCU 85%,
Radu CAMPEANU 10.5%, Ion RATIU 3.8%
Senate:
last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA 1992); results - FSN 67%, other
33%; seats - (118 total) FSN 92, UDMR 12, PNL 9, PUNR 2, PNTCD 1, MER 1,
other 1
House of Deputies:
last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA 1992); results - FSN 66%, UDMR 7%,
PNL 6%, MER 2%, PNTCD 2%, PUNR 2%, other 15%; seats - (387 total) FSN 263,
UDMR 29, PNL 29, PNTCD 12, MER 12, PUNR 9, other 33

:Romania Government

Member of:
BIS, CCC, CSCE, ECE, FAO, G-9, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, IFAD,
IFC, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM (guest), PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Aurel MUNTEANU; Chancery at 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC
20008; telephone (202) 232-4747
US:
Ambassador John R. DAVIS; Embassy at Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
(mailing address is APO AE 09213-5260); telephone [40] (0) 10-40-40; FAX
[40] (0) 12-03-95
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the
national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been
removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad

:Romania Economy

Overview:
Industry, which accounts for about one-third of the labor force and
generates over half the GDP, suffers from an aging capital plant and
persistent shortages of energy. The year 1991 witnessed about a 17% drop in
industrial production because of energy and input shortages and labor
unrest. In recent years the agricultural sector has had to contend with
flooding, mismanagement, shortages of inputs, and disarray caused by the
dismantling of cooperatives. A shortage of fuel and equipment in 1991
contributed to a lackluster harvest, a problem compounded by corruption and
a poor distribution system. The new government is loosening the tight
central controls of CEAUSESCU'S command economy. It has instituted moderate
land reforms, with more than one-half of cropland now in private hands, and
it has liberalized private agricultural output. Also, the new regime is
permitting the establishment of private enterprises, largely in services,
handicrafts, and small-scale industry. A law providing for the privatization
of large state firms has been passed. Most of the large state firms have
been converted into joint-stock companies, but the selling of shares and
assets to private owners has been delayed. While the government has halted
the old policy of diverting food from domestic consumption to hard currency
export markets, supplies remain scarce in some areas. Furthermore, real
wages in Romania fell about 20% in 1991, contributing to the unrest which
forced the resignation of ROMAN in September. The new government continues
to impose price ceilings on key consumer items.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $71.9 billion, per capita $3,100; real growth
rate - 12% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
215% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $19 billion; expenditures $20 billion, including capital
expenditures of $2.1 billion (1991 est.)
Exports:
$4.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment 29.3%, fuels, minerals and metals 32.1%,
manufactured consumer goods 18.1%, agricultural materials and forestry
products 9.0%, other 11.5% (1989)
partners:
USSR 27%, Eastern Europe 23%, EC 15%, US 5%, China 4% (1987)
Imports:
$5.4 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
fuels, minerals, and metals 56.0%, machinery and equipment 25.5%,
agricultural and forestry products 8.6%, manufactured consumer goods 3.4%,
other 6.5% (1989)
partners:
Communist countries 60%, non-Communist countries 40% (1987)
External debt:
$2 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate -17% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
22,700,000 kW capacity; 64,200 million kWh produced, 2,760 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, machine
building, food processing, petroleum

:Romania Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for 15% of GDP and 28% of labor force; major wheat and corn
producer; other products - sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, milk,
eggs, meat, grapes
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid:
donor - $4.4 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed
countries (1956-89)
Currency:
leu (plural - lei); 1 leu (L) = 100 bani
Exchange rates:
lei (L) per US$1 - 198.00 (March 1992), 76.39 (1991), 22.432 (1990), 14.922
(1989), 14.277 (1988), 14.557 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Romania Communications

Railroads:
11,275 km total; 10,860 km 1.435-meter gauge, 370 km narrow gauge, 45 km
broad gauge; 3,411 km electrified, 3,060 km double track; government owned
(1987)
Highways:
72,799 km total; 35,970 km paved; 27,729 km gravel, crushed stone, and other
stabilized surfaces; 9,100 km unsurfaced roads (1985)
Inland waterways:
1,724 km (1984)
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,800 km, petroleum products 1,429 km, natural gas 6,400 km
Ports:
Constanta, Galati, Braila, Mangalia; inland ports are Giurgiu, Drobeta-Turnu
Severin, Orsova
Merchant marine:
262 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,320,373 GRT/5,207,580 DWT; includes
1 passenger-cargo, 174 cargo, 2 container, 1 rail-car carrier, 9
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 13 petroleum tanker, 60 bulk, 2 combination ore/oil
Civil air:
59 major transport aircraft
Airports:
165 total, 165 usable; 25 with permanent-surface runways; 15 with runways
2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
poor service; about 2.3 million telephone customers; 89% of phone network is
automatic; cable and open wire; trunk network is microwave; present phone
density is 9.85 per 100 residents; roughly 3,300 villages with no service
(February 1990); broadcast stations - 12 AM, 5 FM, 13 TV (1990); 1 satellite
ground station using INTELSAT

:Romania Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Paramilitary Forces, Civil Defense
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 5,799,837; 4,909,642 fit for military service; 184,913 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - 50 billion lei (unofficial), NA% of GDP (1991);
note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

:Russia Geography

Total area:
17,075,200 km2
Land area:
16,995,800 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than 1.8 times the size of the US
Land boundaries:
20,139 km total; Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast) 3,605
km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 290 km, Finland 1,313 km, Georgia 723 km,
Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km, Lithuania
(Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,441 km, Norway 167 km, Poland
(Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km, Ukraine 1,576 km
Coastline:
37,653 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
NA nm
Continental shelf:
200-meter depth or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Exclusive fishing zone:
NA nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
inherited disputes from former USSR including: sections of the boundary with
China, a section of the boundary with Tajikistan; boundary with Latvia,
Lithuania, and Estonia; Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan Islands and the
Habomai island group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, claimed by Japan;
maritime dispute with Norway over portion of the Barents Sea; has made no
territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and
does not recognize the claims of any other nation
Climate:
ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of
European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north;
winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers
vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
Terrain:
broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra
in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
Natural resources:
wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas,
coal, and many strategic minerals; timber; note - formidable obstacles of
climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources
Land use:
NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest
and woodland; NA% other; includes NA% irrigated
Environment:
despite its size, only a small percentage of land is arable and much is too
far north; permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to
development; catastrophic pollution of land, air, water, including both
inland waterways and sea coasts
Note:
largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in
relation to major sea lanes of the world

:Russia People

Population:
149,527,479 (July 1992), growth rate 0.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
15 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
31 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
63 years male, 74 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Russian(s); adjective - Russian
Ethnic divisions:
Estonian NA%, Latvian NA%, Lithuanian NA%, Russian NA%, other NA%
Religions:
Russian Orthodox NA%, unknown NA%, none NA%, other NA%
Languages:
Estonian NA%, Latvian NA%, Lithuanian NA%, Russian NA%, other NA%
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write
Labor force:
78,682,000 (1989); industry and construction 43.0%, agriculture and forestry
13.0%, transport and communication 7.9%, trade and distribution 7.9%, other
28.2%
Organized labor:
NA

:Russia Government

Long-form name:
Russian Federation
Type:
federation
Capital:
Moscow
Administrative divisions:
20 autonomous republics (avtomnykh respublik, singular - automnaya
respublika); Adygea (Maykop), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatia (Ulan-Ude),
Checheno-Ingushetia (Groznyy), Chuvashia (Cheboksary), Dagestan
(Makhachkala), Gorno-Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Kabardino-Balkaria (Nal`chik),
Kalmykia (Elista), Karachay-Cherkessia (Cherkessk), Karelia (Petrozavodsk),
Khakassia (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mari El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordvinia
(Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz; formerly Ordzhonikidze), Tatarstan
(Kazan'), Tuva (Kyzyl), Udmurtia (Izhevsk), Yakutia (Yakutsk); 49 oblasts
(oblastey, singular - oblast'); Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk,
Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Chita, Irkutsk, Ivanovo,
Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchata (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Kemerovo, Kirov,
Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad (St. Petersburg), Lipetsk, Magadan,
Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhegorod (Nizhniy Novgorod; formerly Gor'kiy), Novgorod,
Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orel, Orenburg, Penza, Perm', Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan',
Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara (formerly Kuybyshev), Saratov,
Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver' (formerly
Kalinin), Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladmir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh,
Yaroslavl'; 6 krays (krayer, singular - kray); Altay (Barnaul), Khabarovsk,
Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Primorskiy (Vladivostok), Stavropol; note - the
cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg have oblast status; an administrative
division has the same name as its administrative center (exceptions have the
administrative center name following in parentheses); it is possible that 4
more administrative divisions will be added
Independence:
24 August 1991, declared by Supreme Council (from Soviet Union; formerly
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic); 1 December 1991 referendum on
independence passed
Constitution:
a new constitution is in the process of being drafted
Legal system:
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; does not
accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
NA
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Security Council, President's Administration,
Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
Congress of People's Deputies, Supreme Soviet
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
*** No entry for this item ***
President Boris YEL'TSIN (since 12 June 1991), Vice President Aleksandr
RUTSKOY (since 12 June 1991), State Secretary Gennadiy BURBULIS (since July
1991); 1st Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Yegor GAYDAR (since
March 1992), 2nd Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Aleksandr
SHOKHIN (since 7 November 1991)

:Russia Government

Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Russia, A. Lev PONOMAREV and Gleb YAKUNIN, cochairmen; Democratic
Party of Russia, Nikolay TRAVKIN, chairman; People's Party of Free Russia,
Aleksandr RUTSKOY, chairman; Russian Movement for Democratic Reforms,
Gavriil POPOV, chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 12 June 1991 (next to be held 1996); results - percent of vote by
party NA%
Congress of People's Deputies:
last held March 1990 (next to be held 1995); results - percent of vote by
party NA%; seats - (1,063 total) number of seats by party NA
Supreme Soviet:
last held May 1990 (next to be held 1995); results - percent of vote by
party NA%; seats - (252 total) number of seats by party NA
Communists:
NA
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
CIS, CSCE, ESCAP, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IMF, INTERPOL, IMO,
INMARSAT, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NSG, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNTSO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZG
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador LUKIN; Chancery at 1125 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036;
telephone (202) 628-7551
US:
Ambassador Robert S. STRAUSS; Embassy at Ulitsa Chaykovskogo 19/21/23,
Moscow (mailing address is APO AE 09721); telephone [7] (095) 252-2450
through 59; there is a consulate at St. Petersburg (formerly Leningrad);
future consulates will be in Yekaterinburg and Vladivostok
Flag:
tricolor; three equal bands of white (top), blue, red (bottom)

:Russia Economy

Overview:
Russia, one of the world's largest economies, possesses a wealth of natural
resources and a diverse industrial base. Within the now-dismantled USSR, it
had produced 60% of total output, with 55% of the total labor force and 60%
of the total capital stock. Russia depends on its world-class deposits of
oil and gas not only for its own needs but also for vital hard currency
earnings. Self-sufficient in coal and iron ore, it has a crude steel
production capacity of about 95 million tons, second only to Japan. Russia's
machine-building sector - 60% of the old USSR's - lags behind world
standards of efficiency and quality of product. Other major industrial
sectors - chemicals, construction materials, light industry, and food
processing - also suffer from quality problems, obsolescent capital
equipment, and pollution. Consumer goods have had lower priority, and the
product mix has not mirrored household preferences. Furthermore, the
transition to a more market-oriented economy has disrupted channels of
supply to factories and distribution outlets; substantial imports of foods
and medical supplies have helped maintain minimum standards of consumption.
Russia inherited 70% of the former USSR's defense production facilities and
is experiencing major social problems during conversion of many of these
plants to civilian production. Russia produces almost half of the old USSR's
farm products, but most warm-climate crops must be imported. Under the old
USSR, production of industrial and agricultural goods often was concentrated
in a single firm or a single republic. Today, producing units often have
lost their major customers and their major sources of supply, and the market
institutions and incentives for adjusting to the new political and economic
situations are only slowly emerging. Rank-and-file Russians will continue to
suffer major deprivations in 1992 and beyond before the country begins to
realize its great economic potential. The comprehensive economic reform
program enacted in January 1992 faces many economic and political hurdles
before it will lead to sustained economic growth.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate - 9%
(1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
89% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
NA
Exports:
$58.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and wood products, coal,
nonferrous metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military
manufactures
partners:
Western Europe, Japan, Eastern Europe
Imports:
$43.5 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, consumer goods, grain, meat,
semifinished metal products
partners:
Western and Eastern Europe, Japan, Third World countries, Cuba
External debt:
$40 billion (end of 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
-8% after adjustment for inflation due to shift to more expensive products,
-2% before this adjustment (1991)

:Russia Economy

Electricity:
42,500 MW capacity; 1,100 billion kWh produced, 7,430 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas,
chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to
high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; ship- building; road and rail
transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery,
tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and
transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer
durables
Agriculture:
grain, meat, milk, vegetables, fruits; because of its northern location
Russia does not grow citrus, cotton, tea, and other warm climate products
Illicit drugs:
illicit producers of cannabis and opium; mostly for domestic consumption;
government has active eradication program; used as transshipment point for
illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $NA; Western (non-US) countries,
ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-86), $NA; Communist countries
(1971-86), $NA million
Currency:
ruble (plural - rubles); 1 ruble (R) = 100 kopeks
Exchange rates:
150 rubles per US$1 (20 July 1992) but subject to wide fluctuations
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Russia Communications

Railroads:
87,180 km all 1.520-meter broad gauge (includes NA km electrified); does not
include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
879,100 km total (1990); 652,500 km hard-surfaced, 226,600 km earth
Inland waterways:
NA km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil and petroleum products 68,400 km, natural gas NA km
Ports:
maritime - St. Petersburg (Leningrad), Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Arkhangel'sk,
Novorossiysk, Vladivostok, Nakhodka, Kholmsk, Korsakov, Magadan, Tiksi,
Tuapse, Vanino, Vostochnyy, Vyborg; inland - Astrakhan', Nizhniy Novgorod
(Gor'kiy), Kazan', Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Samara (Kuybyshev), Moscow,
Rostov, Volgograd
Merchant marine:
842 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,151,393 GRT/11,308,812 DWT;
includes 494 cargo, 39 container, 2 barge carrier, 3 roll-on/float-off, 69
roll-on/roll-off, 131 petroleum tanker, 53 bulk cargo, 9 chemical tanker, 2
specialized liquid carriers, 17 combination ore/oil, 23 passenger
Civil air:
NA major transport aircraft
Airports:
NA total, NA usable; NA with permanent-surface runways; NA with runways over
3,659 m; NA with runways 2,440-3,659 m; NA with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
the telephone system is inadequate for a large industrial country,
consisting of about 36 million lines of which only about 3% are switched
automatically; as of 31 January 1990, 10.8 million applications for
telephones for household use could not be satisfied; telephone density is 11
per 100 persons; international connections are made via satellite, land
line, microwave, and outdated submarine cables, and are generally
unsatisfactory; the international gateway switch in Moscow handles
international traffic for the other former Soviet republics as well as for
Russia; broadcast stations - 1,050 AM/FM/SW (reach 98.6% of population), 310
TV (580 repeaters) (reach 98% of population); satellite ground stations -
INTELSAT, Intersputnik, INMARSAT, Orbita

:Russia Defense Forces

Branches:
Russian defence forces will be comprised of those ground-, air-, and
sea-based conventional assets currently on Russian soil and those scheduled
to be withdrawn from other countries; strategic forces will remain under CIS
control
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 36,288,000; 27,216,000 fit for military service; 1,020,341
reach military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:Rwanda Geography

Total area:
26,340 km2
Land area:
24,950 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries:
893 km total; Burundi 290 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km, Zaire 217 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild
in mountains with frost and snow possible
Terrain:
mostly grassy uplands and hills; mountains in west
Natural resources:
gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), natural gas,
hydropower
Land use:
arable land 29%; permanent crops 11%; meadows and pastures 18%; forest and
woodland 10%; other 32%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
deforestation; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; periodic droughts
Note:
landlocked

:Rwanda People

Population:
8,206,446 (July 1992), growth rate 3.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
52 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
14 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
108 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
51 years male, 55 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
8.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Rwandan(s); adjective - Rwandan
Ethnic divisions:
Hutu 90%, Tutsi 9%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 65%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 1%, indigenous beliefs and other
25%
Languages:
Kinyarwanda, French (official); Kiswahili used in commercial centers
Literacy:
50% (male 64%, female 37%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
3,600,000; agriculture 93%, government and services 5%, industry and
commerce 2%; 49% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
NA

:Rwanda Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Rwanda
Type:
republic; presidential system in which military leaders hold key offices; on
31 December 1990, the government announced a National Political Charter to
serve as a basis for transition to a presidential/parliamentary political
system; the 1978 constitution was replaced in June 1991 via popular
referendum by a new constitution creating a multiparty system with a
president and prime minister
Capital:
Kigali
Administrative divisions:
10 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture in French; plural - NA,
singular - prefegitura in Kinyarwanda); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro,
Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibungo, Kibuye, Rigali, Ruhengeri
Independence:
1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
Constitution:
18 June 1991
Legal system:
based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Development Council (Conseil National de Developpement)
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (consists of the Court of Cassation and the Council of
State in joint session)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Maj. Gen. Juvenal HABYARIMANA (since 5 July 1973)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Sylvestre NSANZIMANA (since NA October 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Republican Revolutionary Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND), Maj.
Gen. Juvenal HABYARIMANA; formerly a one-party state, Rwanda legalized
independent parties in mid-1991; since then, at least 10 new political
parties have registered; President HABYARIMANA's political movement - the
National Revolutionary Movement for Development (MRND) - reorganized itself
as a political party and changed its name to the Republican National
Movement for Democracy and Development (but kept the same initials - MRND);
significant independent parties include: Democratic Republican Movement
(MDR), leader NA; Liberal Party (PL), leader NA; Democratic and Socialist
Party (PSD), leader NA; note - since October 1990, Rwanda has been involved
in a low-intensity conflict with the Rwandan Patriotic Front/Rwandan
Patriotic Army (RPF/RPA); the RPF/RPA is primarily an ethnically based
organization
Suffrage:
universal adult, exact age NA
Elections:
President:
last held 19 December 1988 (next to be held NA December 1993); results -
President Maj. Gen. Juvenal HABYARIMANA reelected

:Rwanda Government

National Development Council:
last held 19 December 1988 (next to be held NA December 1993); results -
MRND is the only party; seats - (70 total) MRND 70
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Aloys UWIMANA; Chancery at 1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20009; telephone (202) 232-2882
US:
Ambassador Robert A. FLATEN; Embassy at Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali
(mailing address is B. P. 28, Kigali); telephone [250] 75601 through 75603;
FAX [250] 72128
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green with a
large black letter R
centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of
Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Guinea, which has a plain yellow band

:Rwanda Economy

Overview:
Almost 50% of GDP comes from the agricultural sector; coffee and tea make up
80-90% of total exports. The amount of fertile land is limited, however, and
deforestation and soil erosion have created problems. The industrial sector
in Rwanda is small, contributing only 17% to GDP. Manufacturing focuses
mainly on the processing of agricultural products. The Rwandan economy
remains dependent on coffee exports and foreign aid. Weak international
prices since 1986 have caused the economy to contract and per capita GDP to
decline. A structural adjustment program with the World Bank began in
October 1990. An outbreak of insurgency, also in October, has dampened any
prospects for economic improvement.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $2.1 billion, per capita $300; real growth rate
-6.8% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.2% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $391 million; expenditures $491 million, including capital
expenditures of $225 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
$111.7 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
coffee 85%, tea, tin, cassiterite, wolframite, pyrethrum
partners:
Germany, Belgium, Italy, Uganda, UK, France, US
Imports:
$279.2 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
textiles, foodstuffs, machines and equipment, capital goods, steel,
petroleum products, cement and construction material
partners:
US, Belgium, Germany, Kenya, Japan
External debt:
$911 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.2% (1988); accounts for 17% of GDP
Electricity:
30,000 kW capacity; 130 million kWh produced, 15 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
mining of cassiterite (tin ore) and wolframite (tungsten ore), tin, cement,
agricultural processing, small-scale beverage production, soap, furniture,
shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Agriculture:
accounts for almost 50% of GDP and about 90% of the labor force; cash crops
- coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums); main food
crops - bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; stock raising; self-sufficiency
declining; country imports foodstuffs as farm production fails to keep up
with a 3.8% annual growth in population
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $128 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.0 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $45 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $58
million; note - in October 1990 Rwanda launched a Structural Adjustment
Program with the IMF; since September 1991, the EC has given $46 million and
the US $25 million in support of this program
Currency:
Rwandan franc (plural - francs); 1 Rwandan franc (RF) = 100 centimes

:Rwanda Economy

Exchange rates:
Rwandan francs (RF) per US$1 - 121.40 (January 1992), 125.14 (1991), 82.60
(1990), 79.98 (1989), 76.45 (1988), 79.67 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Rwanda Communications

Highways:
4,885 km total; 460 km paved, 1,725 km gravel and/or improved earth, 2,700
km unimproved
Inland waterways:
Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft
Civil air:
2 major transport aircraft
Airports:
8 total, 8 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m;2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fair system with low-capacity radio relay system centered on Kigali;
broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 (7 repeaters) FM, no TV; satellite earth
stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 SYMPHONIE

:Rwanda Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (including Air Wing), Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,719,936; 876,659 fit for military service; no conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $37 million, 1.6% of GDP (1988 est.)

:Saint Helena Geography

Total area:
410 km2
Land area:
410 km2; includes Ascension, Gough Island, Inaccessible Island, Nightingale
Island, and Tristan da Cunha
Comparative area:
slightly more than 2.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
60 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; marine; mild, tempered by trade winds
Terrain:
rugged, volcanic; small scattered plateaus and plains
Natural resources:
fish; Ascension is a breeding ground for sea turtles and sooty terns; no
minerals
Land use:
arable land 7%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 7%; forest and
woodland 3%; other 83%
Environment:
very few perennial streams
Note:
located 1,920 km west of Angola, about two-thirds of the way between South
America and Africa; Napoleon Bonaparte's place of exile and burial; the
remains were taken to Paris in 1840

:Saint Helena People

Population:
6,698 (July 1992), growth rate 0.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
10 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
40 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
72 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Saint Helenian(s); adjective - Saint Helenian
Ethnic divisions:
NA
Religions:
Anglican majority; also Baptist, Seventh-Day Adventist, and Roman Catholic
Languages:
English
Literacy:
98% (male 97%, female 98%) age 15 and over can read and write (1987)
Labor force:
NA
Organized labor:
Saint Helena General Workers' Union, 472 members; crafts 17%, professional
and technical 10%, service 10%, management and clerical 9%, farming and
fishing 9%, transport 6%, sales 5%, and other 34%

:Saint Helena Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Jamestown
Administrative divisions:
1 administrative area and 2 dependencies*; Ascension*, Saint Helena, Tristan
da Cunha*
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
1 January 1967
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second Saturday in June), 10 June
1989
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Governor A. N. HOOLE
Political parties and leaders:
Saint Helena Labor Party, leader NA; Saint Helena Progressive Party, leader
NA; note - both political parties inactive since 1976
Suffrage:
NA
Elections:
Legislative Council:
last held October 1984 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (15 total, 12 elected) number of seats by party NA
Member of:
ICFTU
Diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Saint
Helenian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield features
a rocky coastline and three-masted sailing ship

:Saint Helena Economy

Overview:
The economy depends primarily on financial assistance from the UK. The local
population earns some income from fishing, the rearing of livestock, and
sales of handicrafts. Because there are few jobs, a large proportion of the
work force has left to seek employment overseas.
GDP:
$NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-1.1% (1986)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $3.2 million; expenditures $2.9 million, including capital
expenditures of NA (1984)
Exports:
$23.9 thousand (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities:
fish (frozen and salt-dried skipjack, tuna), handicrafts
partners:
South Africa, UK
Imports:
$2.4 million (c.i.f., 1984)
commodities:
food, beverages, tobacco, fuel oils, animal feed, building materials, motor
vehicles and parts, machinery and parts
partners:
UK, South Africa
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
9,800 kW capacity; 10 million kWh produced, 1,390 kWh per capita (1989)
Industries:
crafts (furniture, lacework, fancy woodwork), fish
Agriculture:
maize, potatoes, vegetables; timber production being developed; crawfishing
on Tristan da Cunha
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$198 million
Currency:
Saint Helenian pound (plural - pounds); 1 Saint Helenian pound (#S) = 100
pence
Exchange rates:
Saint Helenian pounds (#S) per US$1 - 0.5799 (March 1992), 0.5652 (1991),
0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987); note - the Saint Helenian pound
is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Saint Helena Communications

Highways:
87 km paved roads, 20 km earth roads on Saint Helena; 80 km paved roads on
Ascension; 2.7 km paved roads on Tristan da Cunha
Ports:
Jamestown (Saint Helena), Georgetown (Ascension)
Airports:
1 with permanent-surface runway 2,440-3,659 m on Ascension
Telecommunications:
1,500 radio receivers; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 550
telephones in automatic network; HF radio links to Ascension, then into
worldwide submarine cable and satellite networks; major coaxial submarine
cable relay point between South Africa, Portugal, and UK at Ascension; 2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

:Saint Helena Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Saint Kitts and Nevis Geography

Total area:
269 km2
Land area:
269 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
135 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal temperature
variation; rainy season (May to November)
Terrain:
volcanic with mountainous interiors
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land 22%; permanent crops 17%; meadows and pastures 3%; forest and
woodland 17%; other 41%
Environment:
subject to hurricanes (July to October)
Note:
located 320 km east-southeast of Puerto Rico

:Saint Kitts and Nevis People

Population:
40,061 (July 1992), growth rate 0.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
22 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-9 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
22 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
63 years male, 69 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Kittsian(s), Nevisian(s); adjective - Kittsian, Nevisian
Ethnic divisions:
mainly of black African descent
Religions:
Anglican, other Protestant sects, Roman Catholic
Languages:
English
Literacy:
98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 15 and over having ever attended school
(1970)
Labor force:
20,000 (1981)
Organized labor:
6,700

:Saint Kitts and Nevis Government

Long-form name:
Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis; formerly Federation of Saint
Christopher and Nevis
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Basseterre
Administrative divisions:
14 parishs; Christ Church Nichola Town, Saint Anne Sandy Point, Saint George
Basseterre, Saint George Gingerland, Saint James Windward, Saint John
Capisterre, Saint John Figtree, Saint Mary Cayon, Saint Paul Capisterre,
Saint Paul Charlestown, Saint Peter Basseterre, Saint Thomas Lowland, Saint
Thomas Middle Island, Trinity Palmetto Point
Independence:
19 September 1983 (from UK)
Constitution:
19 September 1983
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 19 September (1983)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Sir Clement Athelston ARRINDELL (since 19 September 1983, previously
Governor General of the Associated State since NA November 1981)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Dr. Kennedy Alphonse SIMMONDS (since 19 September 1983,
previously Premier of the Associated State since NA February 1980); Deputy
Prime Minister Michael Oliver POWELL (since NA)
Political parties and leaders:
People's Action Movement (PAM), Kennedy SIMMONDS; Saint Kitts and Nevis
Labor Party (SKNLP), Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS; Nevis Reformation Party (NRP),
Simeon DANIEL; Concerned Citizens Movement (CCM), Vance AMORY
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Elections:
House of Assembly:
last held 21 March 1989 (next to be held by 21 March 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (14 total, 11 elected) PAM 6, SKNLP 2,
NRP 2, CCM 1
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IMF, INTERPOL,
OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO
Diplomatic representation:
Minister-Counselor (Deputy Chief of Mission), Charge d'Affaires ad interim
Aubrey Eric HART; Chancery at Suite 608, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, DC
20037; telephone (202) 833-3550
US:
no official presence since the Charge resides in Saint John's (Antigua and
Barbuda)

:Saint Kitts and Nevis Government

Flag:
divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a broad black band bearing
two white five-pointed stars; the black band is edged in yellow; the upper
triangle is green, the lower triangle is red

:Saint Kitts and Nevis Economy

Overview:
The economy has historically depended on the growing and processing of
sugarcane and on remittances from overseas workers. In recent years, tourism
and export-oriented manufacturing have assumed larger roles.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $146.6 million, per capita $3,650; real growth
rate 2.1% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.2% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1989)
Budget:
revenues $38.1 million; expenditures $68 million, including capital
expenditures of $31.5 million (1991)
Exports:
$24.6 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
sugar, clothing, electronics, postage stamps
partners:
US 53%, UK 22%, Trinidad and Tobago 5%, OECS 5% (1988)
Imports:
$103.2 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
foodstuffs, intermediate manufactures, machinery, fuels
partners:
US 36%, UK 17%, Trinidad and Tobago 6%, Canada 3%, Japan 3%, OECS 4% (1988)
External debt:
$26.4 million (1988)
Industrial production:
growth rate 11.8% (1988 est.); accounts for 17% of GDP
Electricity:
15,800 kW capacity; 45 million kWh produced, 1,117 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
sugar processing, tourism, cotton, salt, copra, clothing, footwear,
beverages
Agriculture:
cash crop - sugarcane; subsistence crops - rice, yams, vegetables, bananas;
fishing potential not fully exploited; most food imported
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-88), $10.7 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $67 million
Currency:
East Caribbean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Saint Kitts and Nevis Communications

Railroads:
58 km 0.760-meter gauge on Saint Kitts for sugarcane
Highways:
300 km total; 125 km paved, 125 km otherwise improved, 50 km unimproved
earth
Ports:
Basseterre (Saint Kitts), Charlestown (Nevis)
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
good interisland VHF/UHF/SHF radio connections and international link via
Antigua and Barbuda and Saint Martin; 2,400 telephones; broadcast stations -
2 AM, no FM, 4 TV

:Saint Kitts and Nevis Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Saint Kitts and Nevis Police Force, Coast Guard
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Saint Lucia Geography

Total area:
620 km2
Land area:
610 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
158 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from January to
April, rainy season from May to August
Terrain:
volcanic and mountainous with some broad, fertile valleys
Natural resources:
forests, sandy beaches, minerals (pumice), mineral springs, geothermal
potential
Land use:
arable land 8%; permanent crops 20%; meadows and pastures 5%; forest and
woodland 13%; other 54%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
subject to hurricanes and volcanic activity; deforestation; soil erosion
Note:
located 700 km southeast of Puerto Rico

:Saint Lucia People

Population:
151,774 (July 1992), growth rate 1.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
26 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-4 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
18 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
70 years male, 75 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Saint Lucian(s); adjective - Saint Lucian
Ethnic divisions:
African descent 90.3%, mixed 5.5%, East Indian 3.2%, Caucasian 0.8%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 7%, Anglican 3%
Languages:
English (official), French patois
Literacy:
67% (male 65%, female 69%) age 15 and over having ever attended school
(1980)
Labor force:
43,800; agriculture 43.4%, services 38.9%, industry and commerce 17.7% (1983
est.)
Organized labor:
20% of labor force

:Saint Lucia Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Castries
Administrative divisions:
11 quarters; Anse-la-Raye, Castries, Choiseul, Dauphin, Dennery, Gros-Islet,
Laborie, Micoud, Praslin, Soufriere, Vieux-Fort
Independence:
22 February 1979 (from UK)
Constitution:
22 February 1979
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 22 February (1979)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
or House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Acting Governor
General Sir Stanislaus Anthony JAMES (since 10 October 1988)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister John George Melvin COMPTON (since 3 May 1982)
Political parties and leaders:
United Workers' Party (UWP), John COMPTON; Saint Lucia Labor Party (SLP),
Julian HUNTE; Progressive Labor Party (PLP), George ODLUM
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
House of Assembly:
last held 6 April 1987 (next to be held by 27 April 1992); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (17 total) UWP 10, SLP 7
Member of:
ACCT (associate), ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Dr. Joseph Edsel EDMUNDS; Chancery at Suite 309, 2100 M Street
NW, Washington, DC 30037; telephone (202) 463-7378 or 7379; there is a Saint
Lucian Consulate General in New York
US:
no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown (Barbados)
Flag:
blue with a gold isosceles triangle below a black arrowhead; the upper edges
of the arrowhead have a white border

:Saint Lucia Economy

Overview:
Since 1983 the economy has shown an impressive average annual growth rate of
almost 5% because of strong agricultural and tourist sectors. Saint Lucia
also possesses an expanding industrial base supported by foreign investment
in manufacturing and other activities, such as in data processing. The
economy, however, remains vulnerable because the important agricultural
sector is dominated by banana production. Saint Lucia is subject to periodic
droughts and/or tropical storms, and its protected market agreement with the
UK for bananas may end in 1992.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $295 million, per capita $1,930; real growth rate
4.0% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.2% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
16.0% (1988)
Budget:
revenues $131 million; expenditures $149 million, including capital
expenditures of $71 million (FY90 est.)
Exports:
$127 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
bananas 54%, clothing 17%, cocoa, vegetables, fruits, coconut oil
partners:
UK 51%, CARICOM 20%, US 19%, other 10%
Imports:
$270 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
manufactured goods 23%, machinery and transportation equipment 27%, food and
live animals 18%, chemicals 10%, fuels 6%
partners:
US 35%, CARICOM 16%, UK 15%, Japan 7%, Canada 4%, other 23%
External debt:
$54.5 million (1989)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.5% (1990 est.); accounts for 7% of GDP
Electricity:
32,500 kW capacity; 112 million kWh produced, 732 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
clothing, assembly of electronic components, beverages, corrugated boxes,
tourism, lime processing, coconut processing
Agriculture:
accounts for 16% of GDP and 43% of labor force; crops - bananas, coconuts,
vegetables, citrus fruit, root crops, cocoa; imports food for the tourist
industry
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$120 million
Currency:
East Caribbean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)

:Saint Lucia Communications

Highways:
760 km total; 500 km paved; 260 km otherwise improved
Ports:
Castries
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439
Telecommunications:
fully automatic telephone system; 9,500 telephones; direct microwave link
with Martinique and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; interisland
troposcatter link to Barbados; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (cable)

:Saint Lucia Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Saint Lucia Police Force, Coast Guard
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Saint Pierre and Miquelon Geography

Total area:
242 km2
Land area:
242 km2; includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon
groups
Comparative area:
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
120 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and France
Climate:
cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy
Terrain:
mostly barren rock
Natural resources:
fish, deepwater ports
Land use:
arable land 13%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 4%; other 83%
Environment:
vegetation scanty
Note:
located 25 km south of Newfoundland, Canada, in the North Atlantic Ocean

:Saint Pierre and Miquelon People

Population:
6,513 (July 1992), growth rate 0.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
9 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
10 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
75 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women); adjective - French
Ethnic divisions:
originally Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 98%
Languages:
French
Literacy:
99% (male 99%, female 99%) age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
Labor force:
2,850 (1988)
Organized labor:
Workers' Force trade union

:Saint Pierre and Miquelon Government

Long-form name:
Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Type:
territorial collectivity of France
Capital:
Saint-Pierre
Administrative divisions:
none (territorial collectivity of France)
Independence:
none (territorial collectivity of France); note - has been under French
control since 1763
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French law
National holiday:
National Day, 14 July (Taking of the Bastille)
Executive branch:
French president, commissioner of the Republic
Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council
Judicial branch:
Superior Tribunal of Appeals (Tribunal Superieur d'Appel)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
Head of Government:
Commissioner of the Republic Jean-Pierre MARQUIE (since February 1989);
President of the General Council Marc PLANTEGENET (since NA)
Political parties and leaders:
Socialist Party (PS); Union for French Democracy (UDF/CDS), Gerard GRIGNON
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
General Council:
last held September-October 1988 (next to be held NA September 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (19 total) Socialist and
other left-wing parties 13, UDF and right-wing parties 6
French President:
last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held NA May 1995); results - (second
ballot) Jacques CHIRAC 56%, Francois MITTERRAND 44%
French Senate:
last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held NA September 1992); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) PS 1
French National Assembly:
last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held NA June 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) UDF/CDS 1; note - Saint
Pierre and Miquelon elects 1 member each to the French Senate and the French
National Assembly who are voting members
Member of:
FZ, WFTU
Diplomatic representation:
as a territorial collectivity of France, local interests are represented in
the US by France
Flag:
the flag of France is used

:Saint Pierre and Miquelon Economy

Overview:
The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by
servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The
economy has been declining, however, because the number of ships stopping at
Saint Pierre has dropped steadily over the years. In March 1989, an
agreement between France and Canada set fish quotas for Saint Pierre's
trawlers fishing in Canadian and Canadian-claimed waters for three years.
The agreement settles a longstanding dispute that had virtually brought fish
exports to a halt. The islands are heavily subsidized by France. Imports
come primarily from Canada and France.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $60 million, per capita $9,500; real growth rate
NA% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
9.6% (1990)
Budget:
revenues $18.3 million; expenditures $18.3 million, including capital
expenditures of $5.5 million (1989)
Exports:
$25.5 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
fish and fish products, fox and mink pelts
partners:
US 58%, France 17%, UK 11%, Canada, Portugal
Imports:
$87.2 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials
partners:
Canada, France, US, Netherlands, UK
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
10,000 kW capacity; 25 million kWh produced, 3,970 kWh per capita (1989)
Industries:
fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism
Agriculture:
vegetables, cattle, sheep and pigs for local consumption; fish catch, 20,500
metric tons (1989)
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$500 million
Currency:
French franc (plural - francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.6397 (March 1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
(1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Saint Pierre and Miquelon Communications

Highways:
120 km total; 60 km paved (1985)
Ports:
Saint Pierre
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways, none with runways over
2,439 m; 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
3,601 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 3 FM, no TV; radio
communication with most countries in the world; 1 earth station in French
domestic satellite system

:Saint Pierre and Miquelon Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

:Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Geography

Total area:
340 km2
Land area:
340 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
84 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to
November)
Terrain:
volcanic, mountainous; Soufriere volcano on the island of Saint Vincent
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land 38%; permanent crops 12%; meadows and pastures 6%; forest and
woodland 41%; other 3%; includes irrigated 3%
Environment:
subject to hurricanes; Soufriere volcano is a constant threat
Note:
some islands of the Grenadines group are administered by Grenada

:Saint Vincent and the Grenadines People

Population:
115,339 (July 1992), growth rate 1.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
23 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-7 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
19 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
71 years male, 74 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Saint Vincentian(s) or Vincentian(s); adjectives - Saint Vincentian
or Vincentian
Ethnic divisions:
mainly of black African descent; remainder mixed, with some white, East
Indian, Carib Indian
Religions:
Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Seventh-Day Adventist
Languages:
English, some French patois
Literacy:
96% (male 96%, female 96%) age 15 and over having ever attended school
(1970)
Labor force:
67,000 (1984 est.)
Organized labor:
10% of labor force

:Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Kingstown
Administrative divisions:
6 parishes; Charlotte, Grenadines, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George,
Saint Patrick
Independence:
27 October 1979 (from UK)
Constitution:
27 October 1979
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 October (1979)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
David JACK (since 29 September 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister James F. MITCHELL (since 30 July 1984)
Political parties and leaders:
New Democratic Party (NDP), James (Son) MITCHELL; Saint Vincent Labor Party
(SVLP), Vincent BEACHE; United People's Movement (UPM), Adrian SAUNDERS;
Movement for National Unity (MNU), Ralph GONSALVES; National Reform Party
(NRP), Joel MIGUEL
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
House of Assembly:
last held 16 May 1989 (next to be held NA July 1994); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (21 total; 15 elected representatives and 6
appointed senators) NDP 15
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IMF,
IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Kingsley LAYNE; 1717 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Suite 102,
Washington, DC 20036; telephone NA
US:
no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown (Barbados)
Flag:
three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold (double width), and green;
the gold band bears three green diamonds arranged in a V pattern
*** No entry for this item ***

:Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Economy

Overview:
Agriculture, dominated by banana production, is the most important sector of
the economy. The services sector, based mostly on a growing tourist
industry, is also important. The economy continues to have a high
unemployment rate of 30% because of an overdependence on the weather-plagued
banana crop as a major export earner. Government progress toward
diversifying into new industries has been relatively unsuccessful.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $146 million, per capita $1,300; real growth rate
5.9% (1989)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.0% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
30% (1989 est.)
Budget:
revenues $62 million; expenditures $67 million, including capital
expenditures of $21 million (FY90 est.)
Exports:
$75 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
bananas, eddoes and dasheen (taro), arrowroot starch, tennis racquets, flour
partners:
UK 43%, CARICOM 37%, US 15%
Imports:
$130 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, chemicals and fertilizers, minerals and
fuels
partners:
US 42%, CARICOM 19%, UK 15%
External debt:
$50.9 million (1989)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0% (1989); accounts for 14% of GDP
Electricity:
16,594 kW capacity; 64 million kWh produced, 560 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
food processing (sugar, flour), cement, furniture, clothing, starch, sheet
metal, beverage
Agriculture:
accounts for 15% of GDP and 60% of labor force; provides bulk of exports;
products - bananas, coconuts, sweet potatoes, spices; small numbers of
cattle, sheep, hogs, goats; small fish catch used locally
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $11 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $81 million
Currency:
East Caribbean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
calendar year (as of January 1991); previously 1 July - 30 June

:Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Communications

Highways:
about 1,000 km total; 300 km paved; 400 km improved; 300 km unimproved
Ports:
Kingstown
Merchant marine:
407 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,388,427 GRT/5,511,325 DWT; includes
3 passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 222 cargo, 22 container, 19 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 14 refrigerated cargo, 24 petroleum tanker, 7 chemical tanker, 4
liquefied gas, 73 bulk, 13 combination bulk, 2 vehicle carrier, 1 livestock
carrier, 1 specialized tanker; note - China owns 3 ships; a flag of
convenience registry
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
6 total, 6 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
islandwide fully automatic telephone system; 6,500 telephones; VHF/UHF
interisland links from Saint Vincent to Barbados and the Grenadines; new SHF
links to Grenada and Saint Lucia; broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV
(cable)

:Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force, Coast Guard
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:San Marino Geography

Total area:
60 km2
Land area:
60 km2
Comparative area:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
39 km; Italy 39 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
Terrain:
rugged mountains
Natural resources:
building stones
Land use:
arable land 17%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 83%
Environment:
dominated by the Appenines
Note:
landlocked; world's smallest republic; enclave of Italy

:San Marino People

Population:
23,404 (July 1992), growth rate 0.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
8 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
5 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
74 years male, 79 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Sanmarinese (singular and plural); adjective - Sanmarinese
Ethnic divisions:
Sanmarinese, Italian
Religions:
Roman Catholic
Languages:
Italian
Literacy:
96% (male 96%, female 95%) age 14 and over can read and write (1976)
Labor force:
about 4,300
Organized labor:
Democratic Federation of Sanmarinese Workers (affiliated with ICFTU) has
about 1,800 members; Communist-dominated General Federation of Labor, 1,400
members

:San Marino Government

Long-form name:
Republic of San Marino
Type:
republic
Capital:
San Marino
Administrative divisions:
9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore,
Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino,
Serravalle
Independence:
301 AD (by tradition)
Constitution:
8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a
constitution
Legal system:
based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic, 3 September
Executive branch:
two captains regent, Congress of State (cabinet); real executive power is
wielded by the secretary of state for foreign affairs and the secretary of
state for internal affairs
Legislative branch:
unicameral Great and General Council (Consiglio Grande e Generale)
Judicial branch:
Council of Twelve (Consiglio dei XII)
Leaders:
Co-Chiefs of State:
Captain Regent Edda CETCOLI and Captain Regent Marino RICCARDI (since 1
October 1991)
Head of Government:
Secretary of State Gabriele GATTI (since July 1986)
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Party (DCS), Piermarino MENICUCCI; San Marino
Democratic Progressive Party (PPDS) formerly San Marino Communist Party
(PCS), Gilberto GHIOTTI; San Marino Socialist Party (PSS), Remy GIACOMINI;
Unitary Socialst Party (PSU); Democratic Movement (MD), Emilio Della BALDA;
San Marino Social Democratic Party (PSDS), Augusto CASALI; San Marino
Republican Party (PRS), Cristoforo BUSCARINI
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Great and General Council:
last held 29 May 1988 (next to be held by NA May 1993); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (60 total) DCS 27, PCS 18, PSU 8, PSS 7
Communists:
about 300 members
Member of:
CE, CSCE, ICAO, ICFTU, ILO, IMF (observer), IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS,
NAM (guest), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
San Marino maintains honorary Consulates General in Washington and New York
and an honorary Consulate in Detroit

:San Marino Government

US:
no mission in San Marino, but the Consul General in Florence (Italy) is
accredited to San Marino; Consulate General at Lungarno Amerigo Vespucci,
38, 50123 Firenze, Italy (mailing address is APO AE 09613; telephone [39]

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