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Type:
in transition, President FUJIMORI on 5 April 1992 suspended the constitution
and dissolved the legislative and judicial branches
Capital:
Lima
Administrative divisions:
24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional
province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa,
Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La
Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura,
Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali; note - the 1979 Constitution and
legislation enacted from 1987 to 1990 mandate the creation of regions
(regiones, singular - region) intended to function eventually as autonomous
economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been
constituted from 23 existing departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres
Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa),
Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de
Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari
(from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno),
Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin
(from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has
been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to
merge with the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the
central government, the regions have yet to assume their responsibilities
and at the moment coexist with the departmental structure
Independence:
28 July 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
28 July 1980 (often referred to as the 1979 Constitution because the
Constituent Assembly met in 1979, but the Constitution actually took effect
the following year); suspended 5 April 1992
Legal system:
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Executive branch:
president, two vice presidents (vacant as of 19 May 1992), prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of an upper chamber or Senate
(Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados);
note - dissolved on 5 April 1992; being reconstituted
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Alberto FUJIMORI (since 28 July 1990); note - slots for first and
second Vice Presidents vacant as of 19 May 1992
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Oscar DE LA PUENTE Raygada (since 6 April 1992)

:Peru Government

Political parties and leaders:
Change 90 (Cambio 90), Alberto FUJIMORI; Popular Christian Party (PPC), Luis
BEDOYA Reyes; Popular Action Party (AP), Eduardo CALMELL del Solar; Liberty
Movement (ML), Luis BUSTAMANTE; American Popular Revolutionary Alliance
(APRA), Luis ALVA Castro, Alan GARCIA; National Front of Workers and
Peasants (FNTC), Roger CACERES; United Left (IU), leader NA; Independent
Moralizing Front (FIM), Fernando OLIVERA Vega; Socialist Left (IS), leader
NA; note - Democratic Front (FREDEMO) was a loosely organized coalition of
the PPC, AP, and ML during the 8 April 1990 elections, but the parties no
longer maintain a formal alliance
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held on 10 June 1990 (next to be held NA April 1995); results - Alberto
FUJIMORI 56.53%, Mario VARGAS Llosa 33.92%, other 9.55%
Senate:
last held on 8 April 1990; dissolved on 5 April 1992; because of suspension
of constitutional role, next election not yet scheduled; results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (62 total; 60 elected, 2 ex-presidents who are
senators for life) FREDEMO 20, APRA 16, Change 90 14, IU 6, IS 3, FNTC 1;
note - as a result of the dissolution of FREDEMO and defections and
expulsions from the various parties, the seats have been reallocated: APRA
17, Change 90 13, AP 8, IU 6, PPC 5, ML 4, IS 3, FNTC 1, independents 4,
other 1 (January 1992)
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 8 April 1990 dissolved on 5 April 1992; because of suspension of
constitutional role, next election not yet scheduled; results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (180 total) FREDEMO 62, APRA 53, Change 90 32, IU
16, IS 4, FNTC 3, other 10; note - as a result of the dissolution of FREDEMO
and defections and expulsions from the various parties, the seats have been
reallocated: APRA 53, AP 25, Change 90 25, PPC 23, IU 16, ML 7, FIM 3, IS 4,
FNTC 3, independents 15, other 4, and 2 currently nonvoting deputies
Communists:
Peruvian Communist Party-Unity (PCP-U), 2,000; other minor Communist parties
Other political or pressure groups:
leftist guerrilla groups:
Shining Path, Abimael GUZMAN; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, Nestor
SERPA and Victor POLAY
Member of:
AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador vacant; Chancery at 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20036; telephone (202) 833-9860 through 9869); Peruvian Consulates General
are located in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New
Jersey), San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US:
Ambassador Anthony C. E. QUAINTON; Embassy at the corner of Avenida Inca
Garcilaso de la Vega and Avenida Espana, Lima (mailing address is P. O. Box
1991, Lima 1, or APO AA 34031); telephone [51] (14) 33-8000; FAX [51] (14)
316682
Flag:
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the
coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield
bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow
cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath

:Peru Economy

Overview:
The Peruvian economy is becoming increasingly market oriented, with a large
dose of government ownership remaining in mining, energy, and banking. In
the 1980s the economy suffered from hyperinflation, declining per capita
output, and mounting external debt. Peru was shut off from IMF and World
Bank support in the mid-1980s because of its huge debt arrears. An austerity
program implemented shortly after the FUJIMORI government took office in
July 1990 contributed to a third consecutive yearly contraction of economic
activity, but the slide halted late in the year, and output rose 2.4% in
1991. After a burst of inflation as the austerity program eliminated
government price subsidies, monthly price increases eased to the
single-digit level and by December 1991 dropped to the lowest increase since
mid-1987. Lima obtained a financial rescue package from multilateral lenders
in September 1991, and, although it faces $14 billion in arrears on its
external debt, is working to pay some $1.8 billion of these to the IMF and
World Bank by 1993.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $20.6 billion, per capita $920; real growth rate
2.4% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
139% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
15.0%; underemployment 65% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $1.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $250 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$3.3 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
copper, fishmeal, zinc, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, refined
silver, coffee, cotton
partners:
EC 28%, US 22%, Japan 13%, Latin America 12%, former USSR 2%
Imports:
$3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, machinery, transport equipment, iron and steel semimanufactures,
chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners:
US 32%, Latin America 22%, EC 17%, Switzerland 6%, Japan 3%
External debt:
$19.4 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.0% (1991 est.); accounts for almost 24% of GDP
Electricity:
4,896,000 kW capacity; 15,851 million kWh produced, 709 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing,
cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication
Agriculture:
accounts for 10% of GDP, about 35% of labor force; commercial crops -
coffee, cotton, sugarcane; other crops - rice, wheat, potatoes, plantains,
coca; animal products - poultry, red meats, dairy, wool; not self-sufficient
in grain or vegetable oil; fish catch of 6.9 million metric tons (1990)

:Peru Economy

Illicit drugs:
world's largest coca leaf producer with about 121,000 hectares under
cultivation; source of supply for most of the world's coca paste and cocaine
base; at least 85% of coca cultivation is for illicit production; most of
cocaine base is shipped to Colombian drug dealers for processing into
cocaine for the international drug market
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.7 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.3 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $577 million
Currency:
(S/.) nuevo sol (plural - nuevos soles); 1 nuevo sol (S/.) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
nuevo sol (S/. per US$1 - 0.960 (March 1992), 0.772 (1991), 0.187 (1990),
2.666 (1989), 0.129 (1988), 0.017 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Peru Communications

Railroads:
1,801 km total; 1,501 km 1.435-meter gauge, 300 km 0.914-meter gauge
Highways:
69,942 km total; 7,459 km paved, 13,538 km improved, 48,945 km unimproved
earth
Inland waterways:
8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km Lago Titicaca
Pipelines:
crude oil 800 km, natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km
Ports:
Callao, Ilo, Iquitos, Matarani, Talara
Merchant marine:
26 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 286,313 GRT/461,233 DWT; includes 14
cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 petroleum tanker, 7
bulk; note - in addition, 8 naval tankers and 1 naval cargo are sometimes
used commercially
Civil air:
44 major transport aircraft
Airports:
221 total, 201 usable; 36 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways
over 3,659 m; 23 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 43 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fairly adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave system; 544,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 273 AM, no FM, 140 TV, 144 shortwave;
satellite earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 12 domestic

:Peru Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru), Air Force (Fuerza
Aerea del Peru), National Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 5,863,227; 3,964,930 fit for military service; 236,484 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $430 million, 2.4% of GDP (1991)

:Philippines Geography

Total area:
300,000 km2
Land area:
298,170 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Arizona
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
36,289 km
Maritime claims:
(measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)
Continental shelf:
to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by 1898
treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South
China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth
Disputes:
involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia,
Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; claims Malaysian state of Sabah
Climate:
tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon
(May to October)
Terrain:
mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
Natural resources:
timber, crude oil, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
Land use:
arable land 26%; permanent crops 11%; meadows and pastures 4%; forest and
woodland 40%; other 19%; includes irrigated 5%
Environment:
astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six
cyclonic storms per year; subject to landslides, active volcanoes,
destructive earthquakes, tsunami; deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution

:Philippines People

Population:
67,114,060 (July 1992), growth rate 2.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
28 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
53 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
62 years male, 68 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Filipino(s); adjective - Philippine
Ethnic divisions:
Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese 1.5%, other 3%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and other 3%
Languages:
Pilipino (based on Tagalog) and English; both official
Literacy:
90% (male 90%, female 90%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
24,120,000; agriculture 46%, industry and commerce 16%, services 18.5%,
government 10%, other 9.5% (1989)
Organized labor:
3,945 registered unions; total membership 5.7 million (includes 2.8 million
members of the National Congress of Farmers Organizations)

:Philippines Government

Long-form name:
Republic of the Philippines
Type:
republic
Capital:
Manila
Administrative divisions:
72 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del
Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique, Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*,
Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Batangas City*,
Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Butuan*, Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan,
Cagayan de Oro*, Calbayog*, Caloocan*, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur,
Camiguin, Canlaon*, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu
City*, Cotabato*, Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City* Davao, Davao del
Sur, Davao Oriental, Dipolog*, Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General Santos*,
Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Iloilo City*,
Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao
del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union, Legaspi*, Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*,
Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*, Marawi*, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro
Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental,
Mountain, Naga*, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato,
Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*, Oroquieta*,
Ozamis*, Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasay*, Puerto
Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Roxas*, Samar, San
Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in Pangasinan), San Jose*, San
Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan
Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao*, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*,
Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*, Tarlac, Tawitawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*,
Zambales, Zamboanga*, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur
Independence:
4 July 1946 (from US)
Constitution:
2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
Legal system:
based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day (from Spain), 12 June (1898)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress (Kongreso) consists of an upper house or Senate (Senado)
and a lower house or House of Representatives (Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Corazon C. AQUINO (since 25 February 1986); Vice President
Salvador H. LAUREL (since 25 February 1986)
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance of Philippine Democrats (LDP), Neptali GONZALES and Jose (Peping)
COJUANGCO; Nationalist People's Coalition (NPC), Fidel Valdes RAMOS; Liberal
Party, Jovito SALONGA; New Society Movement (KBL), Amelda MARCOS
Suffrage:
universal at age 15
Elections:
President:
last held 11 May 1992 (next election to be held NA May 1998);results - Fidel
Valdes RAMOS won 23.6% of votes, a narrow plurality

:Philippines Government

Senate:
last held 11 May 1992 (next election to be held NA May 1998); results - LDP
66%, NPC 20%, Lakas-NUCD 8%, Liberal 6%; seats - (24 total) LDP 24, NPC 5,
Lakas-NUCD 2, Liberal 1
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held 11 May 1992 (next election to be held NA May 1998); results - LDP
43.5%; Lakas-NUCD 25%, NPC 23.5%, Liberal 5%, KBL 3%;seats - (200 total) LDP
87, Lakas-NUCD 51, NPC 47, Liberal 10, KBL 5
Communists:
the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) controls about 15,500-16,500
full-time insurgents and is not recognized as a legal party; a second
Communist party, Philippine Communist Party (PKP), has quasi-legal status
Member of:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Emmanuel PELAEZ; Chancery at 1617 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20036; telephone (202) 483-1414; there are Philippine
Consulates General in Agana (Guam), Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles,
New York, San Francisco, and Seattle
US:
Ambassador Frank G. WISNER II; Embassy at 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Manila
(mailing address is APO AP 96440); telephone [63] (2) 521-7116; FAX [63] (2)
522-4361; there is a US Consulate in Cebu
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white equilateral
triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the triangle is a yellow
sun with eight primary rays (each containing three individual rays) and in
each corner of the triangle is a small yellow five-pointed star

:Philippines Economy

Overview:
Following the recession of 1984-85, the Philippine economy grew on the
average of 5.0% per year during 1986-89. It slowed again during the period
1990-91. The agricultural sector together with forestry and fishing, plays
an important role in the economy, employing about 45% of the work force and
providing almost 30% of GDP. The Philippines is the world's largest exporter
of coconuts and coconut products. Manufacturing contributes about 35% of
GDP. Major industries include food processing, chemicals, and textiles.
GNP:
exchange rate conversion - $47 billion, per capita $720; real growth rate
0.1% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
17.6% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
10.0% (1991 est.)
Budget:
$8.4 billion; expenditures $9.36 billion, including capital expenditures of
$1.8 billion (1991 est.)
Exports:
$8.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
electrical equipment 19%, textiles 16%, minerals and ores 11%, farm products
10%, coconut 10%, chemicals 5%, fish 5%, forest products 4%
partners:
US 36%, EC 19%, Japan 18%, ESCAP 9%, ASEAN 7%
Imports:
$12.3 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
raw materials 53%, capital goods 17%, petroleum products 17%
partners:
US 25%, Japan 17%, ESCAP 13%, EC 11%, ASEAN 10%, Middle East 10%
External debt:
$28.9 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate - 5% (1991 est.); accounts for 35% of GNP
Electricity:
7,500,000 kW capacity; 31,000 million kWh produced, 470 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing,
electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for about one-third of GNP and 45% of labor force; major crops -
rice, coconut, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapple, mango; animal products -
pork, eggs, beef; net exporter of farm products; fish catch of 2 million
metric tons annually
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; growers are
producing more and better quality cannabis despite government eradication
efforts
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.6 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $7.9 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million; Communist countries (1975-89), $123
million
Currency:
Philippine peso (plural - pesos); 1 Philippine peso (P) = 100 centavos

:Philippines Economy

Exchange rates:
Philippine pesos (P) per US$1 - 25.810 (March 1992), 27.479 (1991), 24.311
(1990), 21.737 (1989), 21.095 (1988), 20.568 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Philippines Communications

Railroads:
378 km operable on Luzon, 34% government owned (1982)
Highways:
156,000 km total (1984); 29,000 km paved; 77,000 km gravel, crushed-stone,
or stabilized-soil surface; 50,000 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
3,219 km; limited to shallow-draft (less than 1.5 m) vessels
Pipelines:
petroleum products 357 km
Ports:
Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras, Iloilo, Legaspi, Manila, Subic Bay
Merchant marine:
552 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,150,425 GRT/13,624,527 DWT;
includes 1 passenger, 11 short-sea passenger, 13 passenger-cargo, 155 cargo,
22 refrigerated cargo, 23 vehicle carrier, 8 livestock carrier, 13
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 8 container, 35 petroleum tanker, 1 chemical tanker,
6 liquefied gas, 2 combination ore/oil, 247 bulk, 7 combination bulk; note -
many Philippine flag ships are foreign owned and are on the register for the
purpose of long-term bare-boat charter back to their original owners who are
principally in Japan and Germany
Civil air:
53 major transport aircraft
Airports:
278 total, 244 usable; 72 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 9 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 53 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
good international radio and submarine cable services; domestic and
interisland service adequate; 872,900 telephones; broadcast stations - 267
AM (including 6 US), 55 FM, 33 TV (including 4 US); submarine cables
extended to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan; satellite earth
stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, and 11
domestic

:Philippines Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Coast Guard and Marine Corps), Air Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 16,719,421; 11,816,366 fit for military service; 698,683 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $915 million, 1.9% of GNP (1991)

:Pitcairn Islands Geography

Total area:
47 km2
Land area:
47 km2
Comparative area:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
51 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, hot, humid, modified by southeast trade winds; rainy season
(November to March)
Terrain:
rugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs
Natural resources:
miro trees (used for handicrafts), fish
Land use:
arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and pastures NA%; forest and
woodland NA%; other NA%
Environment:
subject to typhoons (especially November to March)
Note:
located in the South Pacific Ocean about halfway between Peru and New
Zealand

:Pitcairn Islands People

Population:
52 (July 1992), growth rate 0.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NA migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
NA years male, NA years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Pitcairn Islander(s); adjective - Pitcairn Islander
Ethnic divisions:
descendants of Bounty mutineers
Religions:
Seventh-Day Adventist 100%
Languages:
English (official); also a Tahitian/English dialect
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
NA; no business community in the usual sense; some public works; subsistence
farming and fishing
Organized labor:
NA

:Pitcairn Islands Government

Long-form name:
Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno Islands
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Adamstown
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
Local Government Ordinance of 1964
Legal system:
local island by-laws
National holiday:
Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second Saturday in June), 10 June
1989
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, island magistrate
Legislative branch:
unicameral Island Council
Judicial branch:
Island Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by the Governor and
UK High Commissioner to New Zealand David Joseph MOSS (since NA 1990)
Head of Government:
Island Magistrate and Chairman of the Island Council Brian YOUNG (since NA
1985)
Political parties and leaders:
NA
Suffrage:
universal at age 18 with three years residency
Elections:
Island Council:
last held NA (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (11 total, 5 elected) number of seats by party NA
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
SPC
Diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Pitcairn Islander coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag; the
coat of arms is yellow, green, and light blue with a shield featuring a
yellow anchor

:Pitcairn Islands Economy

Overview:
The inhabitants exist on fishing and subsistence farming. The fertile soil
of the valleys produces a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, including
citrus, sugarcane, watermelons, bananas, yams, and beans. Bartering is an
important part of the economy. The major sources of revenue are the sale of
postage stamps to collectors and the sale of handicrafts to passing ships.
GDP:
$NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $430,440; expenditures $429,983, including capital expenditures of
$NA (FY87 est.)
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
fruits, vegetables, curios
partners:
NA
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
fuel oil, machinery, building materials, flour, sugar, other foodstuffs
partners:
NA
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
110 kW capacity; 0.30 million kWh produced, 5,360 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
postage stamp sales, handicrafts
Agriculture:
based on subsistence fishing and farming; wide variety of fruits and
vegetables grown; must import grain products
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
New Zealand dollar (plural - dollars); 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100
cents
Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.8245 (March 1992), 1.7265 (1991),
1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6866 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Pitcairn Islands Communications

Railroads:
none
Highways:
6.4 km dirt roads
Ports:
Bounty Bay
Airports:
none
Telecommunications:
24 telephones; party line telephone service on the island; broadcast
stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; diesel generator provides electricity

:Pitcairn Islands Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Poland Geography

Total area:
312,680 km2
Land area:
304,510 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
3,321 km total; Belarus 605 km, Czechoslovakia 1,309 km, Germany 456 km,
Lithuania 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km, Ukraine 428 km
Coastline:
491 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent
precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers
Terrain:
mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border
Natural resources:
coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt
Land use:
arable land 46%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 13%; forest and
woodland 28%; other 12%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
plain crossed by a few north flowing, meandering streams; severe air and
water pollution in south
Note:
historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of
natural barriers on the North European Plain

:Poland People

Population:
38,385,617 (July 1992), growth rate 0.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
14 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
14 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
68 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.0 children born/woman(1992)
Nationality:
noun - Pole(s); adjective - Polish
Ethnic divisions:
Polish 97.6%, German 1.3%, Ukrainian 0.6%, Belorussian 0.5% (1990 est.)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing), Russian Orthodox, Protestant, and
other 5%
Languages:
Polish
Literacy:
98% (male 99%, female 98%) age 15 and over can read and write (1978)
Labor force:
17,104,000; industry and construction 36.1%; agriculture 27.3%; trade,
transport, and communications 14.8%; government and other 21.8% (1989)
Organized labor:
trade union pluralism

:Poland Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Poland
Type:
democratic state
Capital:
Warsaw
Administrative divisions:
49 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Biaa Podlaska, Biaystok,
Bielsko, Bydgoszcz, Chem, Ciechanow, Czestochowa, Elblag, Gdansk, Gorzow,
Jelenia Gora, Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Konin, Koszalin, Krakow, Krosno,
Legnica, Leszno, odz, omza, Lublin, Nowy Sacz, Olsztyn, Opole, Ostroteka,
Pia, Piotrkow, Pock, Poznan, Przemysl, Radom, Rzeszow, Siedlce, Sieradz,
Skierniewice, Supsk, Suwaki, Szczecin, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnow, Torun, Wabrzych,
Warszawa, Wocawek, Wrocaw, Zamosc, Zielona Gora
Independence:
11 November 1918, independent republic proclaimed
Constitution:
Communist-imposed Constitution of 22 July 1952; developing a democratic
Constitution
Legal system:
mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and holdover Communist legal
theory; changes being gradually introduced as part of broader
democratization process; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 3 May (1794)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly (Zgromadzenie Narodowe) consists of an upper
house or Senate (Senat) and a lower house or Diet (Sejm)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Lech WALESA (since 22 December 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Hanna SUCHOCKA (since 10 July 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
Solidarity Bloc:
Democratic Union (UD), Tadeusz MAZOWIECKI; Christian-National Union (ZCHN),
Wieslaw CHRZANOWSKI; Centrum (PC), Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI; Liberal-Democratic
Congress, Donald TUSK; Peasant Alliance (PL), Gabriel JANOWSKI; Solidarity
Trade Union (NSZZ), Marian KRZAKLEWSKI; Solidarity Labor (SP), Ryszard
BUGAJ; Christian-Democratic Party (PCHD), Pawel LACZKOWSKI;
Democratic-Social Movement (RDS), Zbigniew BUJAK; Kracow Coalition in
Solidarity with the President, Mieczyslaw GIL; Solidarity 80, Marian JURCZYK
Non-Communist, Non-Solidarity:
Confederation for an Independent Poland (KPN), Leszek MOCZULSKI; Beer
Lovers' Party (PPPP), Janusz REWINSKI; Christian Democrats (CHD), Andrzej
OWSINSKI; German Minority (MN), Henryk KROL; Western Union (KPN Front),
Damian JAKUBOWSKI; RealPolitik (UPR), Janusz KORWIN-MIKKE; Democratic Party
(SD), Antoni MACKIEWICZ
Communist origin or linked:
Social Democracy (SDRP, or SLD), Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz; Polish Peasants'
Party (PSL), Waldermar PAWLAK; Party X, Stanislaw Tyminski
Suffrage:
universal at age 18

:Poland Government

Elections:
President:
first round held 25 November 1990, second round held 9 December 1990 (next
to be held NA November 1995); results - second round Lech WALESA 74.7%,
Stanislaw TYMINSKI 25.3%
Senate:
last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held no later than NA October 1995);
results -
Solidarity Bloc:
UD 21%, NSZZ 11%, ZCHN 9%, PC 9%, Liberal-Democratic Congress 6%, PL 7%,
PCHD 3%, other local candidates 11%
Non-Communist, Non-Solidarity:
KPN 4%, CHD 1%, MN 1%, local candidates 5%
Communist origin or linked:
PSL 8%, SLD 4%; seats - (100 total)
Solidarity Bloc:
UD 21, NSZZ 11, ZCHN 9, Liberal-Democratic Congress 6, PL 7, PCHD 3, other
local candidates 11;
Non-Communist, Non-Solidarity:
KPN 4, CHD 1, MN 1 local candidates 5
Communist origin or linked:
PSL 8, SLD 4
Sejm:
last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held no later than NA October 1995);
results -
Solidarity Bloc:
UD 12.31%, ZCHN 8.73%, PL 8.71%, Liberal-Democratic Congress 7.48%, PL
5.46%, NSZZ 5.05%, SP 2.05%, PCHD 1.11%
Non-Communist, Non-Solidarity:
KPN 7.50%, PPPP 3.27%, CHD 2.36%, UPR 2.25%, MN 1.70%
Communist origin or linked:
SLD 11.98%, PSL 8.67%; seats - (460 total)
Solidarity Bloc:
UD 62, ZCHN 9, PC 44, Liberal-Democratic Congress 37, PL 28, NSZZ 27, SP 4,
PCHD 4, RDS 1, Krackow Coalition in Solidarity with the President 1, Piast
Agreement 1, Bydgoszcz Peasant List 1, Solidarity 80 1
Non-Communist, Non-Solidarity:
KPN 46, PPPP 16, MN 7, CHD 5, Western Union 4, UPR 3, Autonomous Silesia 2,
SD 1, Orthodox Election Committee 1, Committee of Women Against Hardships 1,
Podhale Union 1, Wielkopolska Group 1, Wielkopolska and Lubuski Inhabitants
1
Communist origin or linked:
SLD 60, PSL 48, Party X 3
Communists:
70,000 members in the Communist successor parties (1990)
Other political or pressure groups:
powerful Roman Catholic Church; Confederation for an Independent Poland
(KPN), a nationalist group; Solidarity (trade union); All Poland Trade Union
Alliance (OPZZ), populist program; Clubs of Catholic Intellectuals (KIKs)
Member of:
BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, CSCE, ECE, FAO, GATT, Hexagonale, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNDOF, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Kazimierz DZIEWANOWSKI; Chancery at 2640 16th Street NW,
Washington, DC 20009; telephone (202) 234-3800 through 3802; there are
Polish Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

:Poland Government

US:
Ambassador Thomas W. SIMONS, Jr.; Embassy at Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31, Warsaw
(mailing address is American Embassy Warsaw, Box 5010, or APO AE
09213-5010); telephone [48] (2) 628-8298; FAX [48] (2) 628-9326; there is a
US Consulate General in Krakow and a Consulate in Poznan
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; similar to the flags of
Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white

:Poland Economy

Overview:
Poland is undergoing a difficult transition from a Soviet-style economy -
with state ownership and control of productive assets - to a market economy.
On January 1, 1990, the new Solidarity-led government implemented shock
therapy by slashing subsidies, decontrolling prices, tightening the money
supply, stabilizing the foreign exchange rate, lowering import barriers, and
restraining state sector wages. As a result, consumer goods shortages and
lines disappeared, and inflation fell from 640% in 1989 to 60% in 1991.
Western governments, which hold two-thirds of Poland's $48 billion external
debt, pledged in 1991 to forgive half of Poland's official debt by 1994, and
the private sector grew, accounting for 22% of industrial production and 40%
of nonagricultural output by 1991. Production fell in state enterprises,
however, and the unemployment rate climbed steadily from virtually nothing
in 1989 to 11.4% in December 1991. Poland fell out of compliance with its
IMF program by mid-1991, and talks with commercial creditors stalled. The
increase in unemployment and the decline in living standards led to popular
discontent and a change in government in January 1991 and again in December.
The new government has promised selective industrial intervention, some
relaxation in monetary policy, and an improved social safety net, but will
be constrained by the decline in output and the growing budget deficit.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $162.7 billion, per capita $4,300; real growth
rate -5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
60% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
11.4% (end December 1991)
Budget:
revenues $19.5 billion; expenditures $22.4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $1.5 billion (1991 est.)
Exports:
$12.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machinery 23%, metals 17%, chemicals 13%, fuels 11%, food 10% (1991 est.)
partners:
FRG 25.1%, former USSR 15.3%, UK 7.1%, Switzerland 4.7% (1990)
Imports:
$12.9 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machinery 35%, fuels 20%, chemicals 13%, food 11%, light industry 7% (1991
est.)
partners:
FRG 20.1%, former USSR 19.8%, Italy 7.5%, Switzerland 6.4% (1990)
External debt:
$48.5 billion (January 1992); note - Poland's Western government creditors
promised in 1991 to forgive 30% of Warsaw's official debt - currently $33
billion - immediately and to forgive another 20% by 1994, if Poland adheres
to its IMF program
Industrial production:
growth rate -14% (State sector 1991 est.)
Electricity:
31,530,000 kW capacity; 136,300 million kWh produced, 3,610 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
machine building, iron and steel, extractive industries, chemicals,
shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles

:Poland Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for 15% of GDP and 27% of labor force; 75% of output from private
farms, 25% from state farms; productivity remains low by European standards;
leading European producer of rye, rapeseed, and potatoes; wide variety of
other crops and livestock; major exporter of pork products; normally
self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
illicit producers of opium for domestic consumption and amphetamines for the
international market; emerging as a transshipment point for illicit drugs to
Western Europe
Economic aid:
donor - bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed countries, $2.2
billion (1954-89); note - the G-24 has pledged $8 billion in grants and
credit guarantees to Poland
Currency:
Zoty (plural - Zotych); 1 Zoty (Z) = 100 groszy
Exchange rates:
Zotych (z) per US$1 - 13,443 (March 1992), 10,576 (1991), 9,500 (1990),
1,439.18 (1989), 430.55 (1988), 265.08 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Poland Communications

Railroads:
27,041 km total; 24,287 km 1.435-meter gauge, 397 km 1.520-meter gauge,
2,357 km narrow gauge; 8,987 km double track; 11,016 km electrified;
government owned (1989)
Highways:
299,887 km total; 130,000 km improved hard surface (concrete, asphalt, stone
block); 24,000 km unimproved hard surface (crushed stone, gravel); 100,000
km earth; 45,887 km other urban roads (1985)
Inland waterways:
3,997 km navigable rivers and canals (1989)
Pipelines:
natural gas 4,500 km, crude oil 1,986 km, petroleum products 360 km (1987)
Ports:
Gdansk, Gdynia, Szczecin, Swinoujscie; principal inland ports are Gliwice on
Kana Gliwice, Wrocaw on the Oder, and Warsaw on the Vistula
Merchant marine:
222 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,851,016 GRT/4,019,531 DWT; includes
5 short-sea passenger, 79 cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo, 14 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 12 container, 1 petroleum tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 102 bulk, 1
passenger; Poland owns 1 ship of 6,333 DWT operating under Liberian registry
Civil air:
48 major transport aircraft
Airports:
160 total, 160 usable; 85 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over
3,659 m; 35 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 65 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
severely underdeveloped and outmoded system; cable, open wire and microwave;
phone density is 10.5 phones per 100 residents (October 1990); 3.1 million
subscribers; exchanges are 86% automatic (February 1990); broadcast stations
- 27 AM, 27 FM, 40 (5 Soviet repeaters) TV; 9.6 million TVs; 1 satellite
earth station using INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, INMARSAT and Intersputnik

:Poland Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 9,785,823; 7,696,425 fit for military service; 294,191 reach
military age (19) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - 19.2 trillion zotych, NA% of GDP (1991); note -
conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

:Portugal Geography

Total area:
92,080 km2
Land area:
91,640 km2; includes Azores and Madeira Islands
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
1,214 km; Spain 1,214 km
Coastline:
1,793 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with Indonesia
Climate:
maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
Terrain:
mountainous north of the Tagus, rolling plains in south
Natural resources:
fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium ore, marble
Land use:
arable land 32%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and pastures 6%; forest and
woodland 40%; other 16%; includes irrigated 7%
Environment:
Azores subject to severe earthquakes
Note:
Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea
approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

:Portugal People

Population:
10,448,509 (July 1992), growth rate 0.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
12 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
10 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
71 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Portuguese (singular and plural); adjective - Portuguese
Ethnic divisions:
homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland, Azores, Madeira Islands;
citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during
decolonization number less than 100,000
Religions:
Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant denominations 1%, other 2%
Languages:
Portuguese
Literacy:
85% (male 89%, female 82%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
4,605,700; services 45%, industry 35%, agriculture 20% (1988)
Organized labor:
about 55% of the labor force; the Communist-dominated General Confederation
of Portuguese Workers - Intersindical (CGTP-IN) represents more than half of
the unionized labor force; its main competition, the General Workers Union
(UGT), is organized by the Socialists and Social Democrats and represents
less than half of unionized labor

:Portugal Government

Long-form name:
Portuguese Republic
Type:
republic
Capital:
Lisbon
Administrative divisions:
18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions*
(regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*,
Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria,
Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo,
Vila Real, Viseu
Independence:
1140; independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910
Constitution:
25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982 and 1 June 1989
Legal system:
civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality
of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Day of Portugal, 10 June
Executive branch:
president, Council of State, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council
of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia da Republica)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justica)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Dr. Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES (since 9 March 1986)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 6 November 1985)
Political parties and leaders:
Social Democratic Party (PSD), Anibal CAVACO Silva; Portuguese Socialist
Party (PS), Jorge SAMPAIO; Party of Democratic Renewal (PRD), Herminio
MARTINHO; Portuguese Communist Party (PCP), Alvaro CUNHAL; Social Democratic
Center (CDS), Andriano MORREIRA (interim); National Solidarity Party, Manuel
SERGIO; Center Democratic Party; United Democratic Coalition (CDU;
Communists)
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 13 February 1991 (next to be held NA February 1996); results - Dr.
Mario Lopes SOARES 70%, Basilio HORTA 14%, Carlos CARVALHAS 13%, Carlos
MARQUES 3%
Assembly of the Republic:
last held 6 October 1991 (next to be held NA October 1995); results - PSD
50.4%, PS 29.3%, CDU 8.8%, Center Democrats 4.4%, National Solidarity Party
1.7%, PRD 0.6%, other 4.8%; seats - (230 total) PSD 135, PS 72, CDU 17,
Center Democrats 5, National Solidarity Party 1
Communists:
Portuguese Communist Party claims membership of 200,753 (December 1983)

:Portugal Government

Member of:
AfDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, FAO, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (guest),
NATO, NEA, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Joao Eduardo M. PEREIRA BASTOS; Chancery at 2125 Kalorama Road
NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 328-8610; there are Portuguese
Consulates General in Boston, New York, and San Francisco, and Consulates in
Los Angeles, Newark (New Jersey), New Bedford (Massachusetts), and
Providence (Rhode Island)
US:
Ambassador Everett E. BRIGGS; Embassy at Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600
Lisbon (mailing address is PSC 83, APO AE 09726); telephone [351] (1)
726-6600 or 6659, 8670, 8880; FAX [351] (1) 726-9109; there is a US
Consulate in Oporto and Ponta Delgada (Azores)
Flag:
two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths)
with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line

:Portugal Economy

Overview:
Although Portugal has experienced strong growth since joining the EC in 1986
- at least 4% each year through 1990 - it remains one of the poorest
members. To prepare for the European single market, the government is
restructuring and modernizing the economy and in 1989 embarked on a major
privatization program. The global slowdown and tight monetary policies to
counter inflation caused growth to slow in 1991, but it is likely to recover
in 1992.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $87.3 billion, per capita $8,400; real growth
rate 2.7% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12.0% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4.0% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $27.0 billion; expenditures $33.9 billion, including capital
expenditures of $6.7 billion (1991 est.)
Exports:
$16.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
cotton textiles, cork and paper products, canned fish, wine, timber and
timber products, resin, machinery, appliances
partners:
EC 74%, other developed countries 13.2%, US 4.8%
Imports:
$25.1 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, agricultural products, chemicals,
petroleum, textiles
partners:
EC 69.1%, other developed countries 11.4% less developed countries 15.1%, US
3.9%
External debt:
$15.0 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 9.1% (1990); accounts for 40% of GDP
Electricity:
6,729,000 kW capacity; 16,000 million kWh produced, 1,530 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil
refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 6.1% of GDP and about 20% of labor force; small, inefficient
farms; imports more than half of food needs; major crops - grain, potatoes,
olives, grapes; livestock sector - sheep, cattle, goats, poultry, meat,
dairy products
Illicit drugs:
increasingly import gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the
European market
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.8 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.2 billion
Currency:
Portuguese escudo (plural - escudos); 1 Portuguese escudo (Esc) = 100
centavos

:Portugal Economy

Exchange rates:
Portuguese escudos (Esc) per US$1 - 143.09 (March 1992), 144.48 (1991),
142.55 (1990), 157.46 (1989), 143.95 (1988), 140.88 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Portugal Communications

Railroads:
3,613 km total; state-owned Portuguese Railroad Co. (CP) operates 2,858 km
1.665-meter gauge (434 km electrified and 426 km double track), 755 km
1.000-meter gauge; 12 km (1.435-meter gauge) electrified, double track,
privately owned
Highways:
73,661 km total; 61,599 km surfaced (bituminous, gravel, and crushed stone),
including 140 km of limited-access divided highway; 7,962 km improved earth;
4,100 km unimproved earth (motorable tracks)
Inland waterways:
820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to national economy, used by
shallow-draft craft limited to 300-metric-ton cargo capacity
Pipelines:
crude oil 11 km; petroleum products 58 km
Ports:
Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Velas (Azores), Setubal,
Sines
Merchant marine:
53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 738,774 GRT/1,300,787 DWT; includes 1
short-sea passenger, 20 cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 3 container, 1
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 13 petroleum tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 8 bulk, 2
vehicle carrier; note - Portugal has created a captive register on Madeira
(MAR) for Portuguese-owned ships that will have the taxation and crewing
benefits of a flag of convenience; although only one ship currently is known
to fly the Portuguese flag on the MAR register, it is likely that a majority
of Portuguese flag ships will transfer to this subregister in a few years
Civil air:
43 major transport aircraft
Airports:
65 total, 62 usable; 36 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over
3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 8 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
generally adequate integrated network of coaxial cables, open wire and radio
relay; 2,690,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 57 AM, 66 (22 repeaters)
FM, 66 (23 repeaters) TV; 6 submarine cables; 3 INTELSAT earth stations (2
Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean), EUTELSAT, domestic satellite systems
(mainland and Azores); tropospheric link to Azores

:Portugal Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National Republican Guard, Fiscal
Guard, Public Security Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 2,666,450; 2,166,341 fit for military service; 88,826 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.7 billion, 2.8% of GDP (1991)

:Puerto Rico Geography

Total area:
9,104 km2
Land area:
8,959 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than three times the size of Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
501 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine, mild, little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly mountains with coastal plain belt in north; mountains precipitous to
sea on west coast
Natural resources:
some copper and nickel; potential for onshore and offshore crude oil
Land use:
arable land 8%; permanent crops 9%; meadows and pastures 41%; forest and
woodland 20%; other 22%
Environment:
many small rivers and high central mountains ensure land is well watered;
south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north
Note:
important location between the Dominican Republic and the Virgin Islands
group along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the Panama Canal; San
Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors in the Caribbean

:Puerto Rico People

Population:
3,776,654 (July 1992), growth rate 1.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
17 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
14 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
70 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Puerto Rican(s); adjective - Puerto Rican
Ethnic divisions:
almost entirely Hispanic
Religions:
Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant denominations and other 15%
Languages:
Spanish (official); English is widely understood
Literacy:
89% (male 90%, female 88%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Labor force:
1,068,000; government 28%, manufacturing 15%, trade 14%, agriculture 3%,
other 40% (1990)
Organized labor:
115,000 members in 4 unions; the largest is the General Confederation of
Puerto Rican Workers with 35,000 members (1983)

:Puerto Rico Government

Long-form name:
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
Type:
commonwealth associated with the US
Capital:
San Juan
Administrative divisions:
none (commonwealth associated with the US)
Independence:
none (commonwealth associated with the US)
Constitution:
ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July 1952; effective 25
July 1952
Legal system:
based on Spanish civil code
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 25 July (1952)
Executive branch:
US president, US vice president, governor
Legislative branch:
bicameral Legislative Assembly consists of an upper house or Senate and a
lower house or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE
(since 20 January 1989)
Head of Government:
Governor Rafael HERNANDEZ Colon (since 2 January 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
National Republican Party of Puerto Rico, Freddy VALENTIN; Popular
Democratic Party (PPD), Rafael HERNANDEZ Colon; New Progressive Party (PNP),
Carlos ROMERO Barcelo; Puerto Rican Socialist Party (PSP), Juan MARI Bras
and Carlos GALLISA; Puerto Rican Independence Party (PIP), Ruben BERRIOS
Martinez; Puerto Rican Communist Party (PCP), leader(s) unknown; Puerto
Rican Renewal Party (PRP, breakaway group from PNP), leader (vacant); Puerto
Rico Democratic Party, Richard MACHADO
Suffrage:
universal at age 18; citizens of Puerto Rico are also US citizens, but do
not vote in US presidential elections
Elections:
Governor:
last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held 3 November 1992); results -
Rafael HERNANDEZ Colon (PPD) 48.7%, Baltasar CORRADA Del Rio (PNP) 45.8%,
Ruben BERRIOS Martinez (PIP) 5.5%
Senate:
last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held 3 November 1992); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (27 total) PPD 18, PNP 8, PIP 1
US House of Representatives:
last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held 3 November 1992); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) seats by party NA; note -
Puerto Rico elects one nonvoting representative to the US House of
Representatives, Jaime B. FUSTER
House of Representatives:
last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held 3 November 1992); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (53 total) PPD 36, PNP 15, PIP 2

:Puerto Rico Government

Other political or pressure groups:
all have engaged in terrorist activities - Armed Forces for National
Liberation (FALN), Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution, Boricua
Popular Army (also known as the Macheteros), Armed Forces of Popular
Resistance
Member of:
CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, ICFTU, IOC, WCL, WFTU, WTO (associate)
Diplomatic representation:
none (commonwealth associated with the US)
Flag:
five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom) alternating with white;
a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bears a large white
five-pointed star in the center; design based on the US flag

:Puerto Rico Economy

Overview:
Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the Caribbean region.
Industry has surpassed agriculture as the primary sector of economic
activity and income. Encouraged by duty free access to the US and by tax
incentives, US firms have invested heavily in Puerto Rico since the 1950s.
Important new industries include pharmaceuticals, electronics, textiles,
petrochemicals, and processed foods. Sugar production has lost out to dairy
production and other livestock products as the main source of income in the
agricultural sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important source of
income for the island. The economy has largely recovered from the
disruptions caused by Hurricane Hugo in September 1989. The tourism
infrastructure has been especially hard hit.
GNP:
purchasing power equivalent - $21.6 billion, per capita $6,600; real growth
rate 2.2% (FY90)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.3% (October 1990-91)
Unemployment rate:
15.5% (October 1991)
Budget:
revenues $5.8 billion; expenditures $5.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $258 million (FY89)
Exports:
NA
commodities:
pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, canned tuna, rum, beverage
concentrates, medical equipment, instruments
partners:
US 87% (FY90)
Imports:
NA
commodities:
chemicals, clothing, food, fish, petroleum products
partners:
US 68% (FY90)
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.8% (FY90)
Electricity:
4,149,000 kW capacity; 14,844 million kWh produced, 4,510 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products,
instruments; tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 3% of labor force; crops - sugarcane, coffee, pineapples,
plantains, bananas; livestock - cattle, chickens; imports a large share of
food needs
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
US currency is used
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Puerto Rico Communications

Railroads:
96 km rural narrow-gauge system for hauling sugarcane; no passenger
railroads
Highways:
13,762 km paved (1982)
Ports:
San Juan, Ponce, Mayaguez, Arecibo
Airports:
30 total; 24 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
900,000 or 99% of total households have TV; 1,067,787 telephones (1988);
broadcast stations - 50 AM, 63 FM, 9 TV (1990)

:Puerto Rico Defense Forces

Branches:
paramilitary National Guard, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 830,133; NA fit for military service
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

:Qatar Geography

Total area:
11,000 km2
Land area:
11,000 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
60 km total; Saudi Arabia 40 km, UAE 20 km
Coastline:
563 km
Maritime claims:
*** No entry for this item ***
Continental shelf:
not specific
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
location and status of Qatar's southern boundaries with Saudi Arabia and UAE
are unresolved; territorial dispute with Bahrain over the Hawar Islands;
maritime boundary with Bahrain
Climate:
desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer
Terrain:
mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel
Natural resources:
crude oil, natural gas, fish
Land use:
arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 5%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 95%
Environment:
haze, duststorms, sandstorms common; limited freshwater resources mean
increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities
Note:
strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major crude oil sources

:Qatar People

Population:
484,387 (July 1992), growth rate 3.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
21 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
4 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
15 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
24 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
69 years male, 74 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Qatari(s); adjective - Qatari
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 40%, Pakistani 18%, Indian 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%
Religions:
Muslim 95%
Languages:
Arabic (official); English is commonly used as second language
Literacy:
76% (male 77%, female 72%) age 15 and over can read and write (1986)
Labor force:
104,000; 85% non-Qatari in private sector (1983)
Organized labor:
trade unions are illegal

:Qatar Government

Long-form name:
State of Qatar
Type:
traditional monarchy
Capital:
Doha
Administrative divisions:
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 9 municipalities (baladiyat, singular -
baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al Khawr, Al Rayyan,
Al Wakrah, Ash Shamal, Jarayan al Batnah, Umm Salal
Independence:
3 September 1971 (from UK)
Constitution:
provisional constitution enacted 2 April 1970
Legal system:
discretionary system of law controlled by the amir, although civil codes are
being implemented; Islamic law is significant in personal matters
National holiday:
Independence Day, 3 September (1971)
Executive branch:
amir, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura)
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
Amir and Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Hamad Al Thani (since 22 February 1972);
Heir Apparent HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani (appointed 31 May 1977; son of
Amir)
Political parties and leaders:
none
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
Advisory Council:
constitution calls for elections for part of this consultative body, but no
elections have been held; seats - (30 total)
Member of:
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, IFAD,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC,
OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Hamad `Abd al-`Aziz AL-KAWARI, Chancery at Suite 1180, 600 New
Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037; telephone (202) 338-0111
US:
Ambassador Kenton W. KEITH; Embassy at 149 Ali Bin Ahmed St., Farig Bin
Omran (opposite the television station), Doha (mailing address is P. O. Box
2399, Doha); telephone (0974) 864701 through 864703; FAX (0974) 861669
Flag:
maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the hoist
side

:Qatar Economy

Overview:
Oil is the backbone of the economy and accounts for more than 85% of export
earnings and roughly 75% of government revenues. Proved oil reserves of 3.3
billion barrels should ensure continued output at current levels for about
25 years. Oil has given Qatar a per capita GDP of about $15,000, comparable
to the leading industrial countries. Production and export of natural gas is
becoming increasingly important.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $7.4 billion, per capita $15,000; real growth
rate NA (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.9% (1988 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $2.1 billion; expenditures $3.2 billion, including capital
expenditures of $490 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$3.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
petroleum products 85%, steel, fertilizers
partners:
Japan 61%, Brazil 9%, UAE 3%, Singapore 3%
Imports:
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, beverages, animal and vegetable oils, chemicals, machinery and
equipment
partners:
UK 13%, Japan 11%, US 8%, Italy 8%
External debt:
$1.1 billion (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0.6% (1987); accounts for 64% of GDP, including oil
Electricity:
1,520,000 kW capacity; 4,200 million kWh produced, 8,080 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
crude oil production and refining, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel,
cement
Agriculture:
farming and grazing on small scale, less than 2% of GDP; commercial fishing
increasing in importance; most food imported
Economic aid:
donor - pledged $2.7 billion in ODA to less developed countries (1979-88)
Currency:
Qatari riyal (plural - riyals); 1 Qatari riyal (QR) = 100 dirhams
Exchange rates:
Qatari riyals (QR) per US$1 - 3.6400 riyals (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Qatar Communications

Highways:
1,500 km total; 1,000 km paved, 500 km gravel or natural surface (est.)
Pipelines:
crude oil 235 km, natural gas 400 km
Ports:
Doha, Umm Sa'id, Halul Island
Merchant marine:
23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 473,042 GRT/716,039 DWT; includes 14
cargo, 5 container, 3 petroleum tanker, 1 refrigerated cargo
Civil air:
3 major transport aircraft
Airports:
4 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over
3,659 m; none with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
modern system centered in Doha; 110,000 telephones; tropospheric scatter to
Bahrain; radio relay to Saudi Arabia and UAE; submarine cable to Bahrain and
UAE; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 3 TV; satellite earth stations - 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT

:Qatar Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Public Security
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 211,812; 112,250 fit for military service; 3,414 reach military
age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA%, of GDP

:Reunion Geography

Total area:
2,510 km2
Land area:
2,500 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
201 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, but moderates with elevation; cool and dry from May to November,
hot and rainy from November to April
Terrain:
mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast
Natural resources:
fish, arable land
Land use:
arable land 20%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 4%; forest and
woodland 35%; other 39%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
periodic devastating cyclones
Note:
located 750 km east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean

:Reunion People

Population:
626,414 (July 1992), growth rate 2.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
26 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
70 years male, 77 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Reunionese (singular and plural); adjective - Reunionese
Ethnic divisions:
most of the population is of intermixed French, African, Malagasy, Chinese,
Pakistani, and Indian ancestry
Religions:
Roman Catholic 94%
Languages:
French (official); Creole widely used
Literacy:
69% (male 67%, female 74%) age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
Labor force:
NA; agriculture 30%, industry 21%, services 49% (1981); 63% of population of
working age (1983)
Organized labor:
General Confederation of Workers of Reunion (CGTR)

:Reunion Government

Long-form name:
Department of Reunion
Type:
overseas department of France
Capital:
Saint-Denis
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas department of France)
Independence:
none (overseas department of France)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French law
National holiday:
Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Executive branch:
French president, commissioner of the Republic
Legislative branch:
General Council, Regional Council
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeals (Cour d'Appel)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
Head of Government:
Commissioner of the Republic Jacques DEWATRE (since July 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Francois MAS; Union for French Democracy
(UDF), Gilbert GERARD; Communist Party of Reunion (PCR), Paul VERGES;
France-Reunion Future (FRA), Andre THIEN AH KOON; Socialist Party (PS),
Jean-Claude FRUTEAU; Social Democrats (CDS); other small parties
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
General Council:
last held September/October 1988 (next to be held NA 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (44 total) PCR 9, PS 4, UDF 6, other
left-wing 2, RPR 4, right-wing 19
Regional Council:
last held 16 March 1986 (next to be held NA March 1992); results - RPR/UDF
36.8%, PCR 28.2%, FRA and other right wing 17.3%, PS 14.1%, other 3.6%;
seats - (45 total) RPR/UDF 18, PCR 13, FRA and other right wing 8, PS 6
French Senate:
last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held NA September 1992); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (3 total) RPR-UDF 1, PS 1, independent
1
French National Assembly:
last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held NA June 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (5 total) PCR 2, RPR 1, UDF-CDS 1, FRA
1; note - Reunion elects 3 members to the French Senate and 5 members to the
French National Assembly who are voting members
Communists:
Communist party small but has support among sugarcane cutters, the minuscule
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Reunion (MPLR), and in the district
of Le Port
Member of:
FZ, WFTU

:Reunion Government

Diplomatic representation:
as an overseas department of France, Reunionese interests are represented in
the US by France
Flag:
the flag of France is used

:Reunion Economy

Overview:
The economy has traditionally been based on agriculture. Sugarcane has been
the primary crop for more than a century, and in some years it accounts for
85% of exports. The government has been pushing the development of a tourist
industry to relieve high unemployment, which recently amounted to one-third
of the labor force. The gap in Reunion between the well-off and the poor is
extraordinary and accounts for the persistent social tensions. The white and
Indian communities are substantially better off than other segments of the
population, often approaching European standards, whereas indigenous groups
suffer the poverty and unemployment typical of the poorer nations of the
African continent. The outbreak of severe rioting in February 1991
illustrates the seriousness of socioeconomic tensions. The economic
well-being of Reunion depends heavily on continued financial assistance from
France.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $3.37 billion, per capita $6,000 (1987 est.);
real growth rate 9% (1987 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.3% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
35% (February 1991)
Budget:
revenues $358 million; expenditures $914 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1986)
Exports:
$166 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
sugar 75%, rum and molasses 4%, perfume essences 4%, lobster 3%, vanilla and
tea 1%
partners:
France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy
Imports:
$1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
manufactured goods, food, beverages, tobacco, machinery and transportation
equipment, raw materials, and petroleum products
partners:
France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; about 25% of GDP
Electricity:
245,000 kW capacity; 546 million kWh produced, 965 kWh per capita (1989)
Industries:
sugar, rum, cigarettes, several small shops producing handicraft items
Agriculture:
accounts for 30% of labor force; dominant sector of economy; cash crops -
sugarcane, vanilla, tobacco; food crops - tropical fruits, vegetables, corn;
imports large share of food needs
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$14.8 billion
Currency:
French franc (plural - francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.6397 (March 1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
(1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987)

:Reunion Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Reunion Communications

Highways:
2,800 km total; 2,200 km paved, 600 km gravel, crushed stone, or stabilized
earth
Ports:
Pointe des Galets
Civil air:
3 major transport aircraft
Airports:
2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
adequate system; modern open-wire and microwave network; principal center
Saint-Denis; radiocommunication to Comoros, France, Madagascar; new
microwave route to Mauritius; 85,900 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM,
13 FM, 1 (18 repeaters) TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Reunion Defense Forces

Branches:
French Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 164,974; 85,370 fit for military service; 6,083 reach military
age (18) annually
Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

:Romania Geography

Total area:
237,500 km2
Land area:
230,340 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
2,508 km total; Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and
Montenegro 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (south) 169 km
Coastline:
225 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:

Book of the day: