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Long-form name:
Kingdom of Norway
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Oslo
Administrative divisions:
19 provinces (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud,
Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag,
Oppland, Oslo, OCstfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag,
Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
Independence:
26 October 1905 (from Sweden)
Constitution:
17 May 1814, modified in 1884
Dependent areas:
Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
Legal system:
mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions;
Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, State Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (Storting) with an Upper Chamber (Lagting) and a Lower
Chamber (Odelsting)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Hoiesterett)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON
MAGNUS (born 20 July 1973)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Gro Harlem BRUNDTLAND (since 3 November 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
Labor, Gro Harlem BRUNDTLAND; Conservative, Kaci Kullmann FIVE; Center
Party, Anne Enger LAHNSTEIN; Christian People's, Kjell Magne BONDEVIK;
Socialist Left, Erick SOLHEIM; Norwegian Communist, Kare Andre NILSEN;
Progress, Carl I. HAGEN; Liberal, Odd Einar DORUM; Finnmark List, leader NA
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Storting:
last held on 11 September 1989 (next to be held 6 September 1993); results -
Labor 34.3%, Conservative 22.2%, Progress 13.0%, Socialist Left 10.1%,
Christian People's 8.5%, Center Party 6.6%, Finnmark List 0.3%, other 5%;
seats - (165 total) Labor 63, Conservative 37, Progress 22, Socialist Left
17, Christian People's 14, Center Party 11, Finnmark List 1
Communists:
15,500 est.; 5,500 Norwegian Communist Party (NKP); 10,000 Workers Communist
Party Marxist-Leninist (AKP-ML, pro-Chinese)
Member of:
AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, ECE,
EFTA, ESA, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, PCA, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC

:Norway Government

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Kjeld VIBE; Chancery at 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC
20008; telephone (202) 333-6000; there are Norwegian Consulates General in
Houston, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and San Francisco, and
Consulates in Miami and New Orleans
US:
Ambassador Loret Miller RUPPE; Embassy at Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo 2
(mailing address is APO AE 09707); telephone [47] (2) 44-85-50; FAX [47] (2)
43-07-77
Flag:
red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the
flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

:Norway Economy

Overview:
Norway has a mixed economy involving a combination of free market activity
and government intervention. The government controls key areas, such as the
vital petroleum sector, through large-scale state enterprises and
extensively subsidizes agricultural, fishing, and other sectors. Norway also
maintains an extensive welfare system that helps propel public-sector
expenditures to slightly more than 50% of the GDP and results in one of the
highest average tax burdens in the world (54%). A small country with a high
dependence on international trade, Norway is basically an exporter of raw
materials and semiprocessed goods, with an abundance of small- and
medium-sized firms, and is ranked among the major shipping nations. The
country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum, hydropower,
fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on its oil sector to
keep its economy afloat. Although one of the government's main priorities is
to reduce this dependency, this situation is not likely to improve for years
to come. The government also hopes to reduce unemployment and strengthen and
diversify the economy through tax reform and an expansionary 1992 budget.
Forecasters predict that economic growth will rise slightly in 1992 because
of public-sector expansion and moderate improvements in private investment
and demand. Inflation will remain about 3%, while unemployment continues at
record levels of over 5% because of the weakness of the economy outside the
oil sector. Oslo, a member of the European Free Trade Area, is continuing to
deregulate and harmonize with EC regulations to prepare for the European
Economic Area (EEA) - which creates a EC/EFTA market with free movement of
capital, goods, services, and labor - which takes effect in 1993.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $72.9 billion, per capita $17,100; real growth
rate 4.1% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.5% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
5.4% (1991, excluding people in job-training programs)
Budget:
revenues $47.9 billion; expenditures $52.7 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1991)
Exports:
$34.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 36.5%, natural gas 7.5%, fish 7%, aluminum
6%, ships 6.2%, pulp and paper
partners:
EC 66.5%, Nordic countries 19.5%, developing countries 7.8%, US 4.6%, Japan
1.9% (1991)
Imports:
$25.1 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
machinery, fuels and lubricants, transportation equipment, chemicals,
foodstuffs, clothing, ships
partners:
EC 46.8%, Nordic countries 26.1%, developing countries 12.3%, US 7.8%, Japan
4.7% (1991)
External debt:
$10.2 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.7% (1991)
Electricity:
26,735,000 kW capacity; 121,685 million kWh produced, 28,950 kWh per capita
(1991)

:Norway Economy

Industries:
petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products,
metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for 2.8% of GDP and 6.4% of labor force; among world's top 10
fishing nations; livestock output exceeds value of crops; over half of food
needs imported; fish catch of 1.76 million metric tons in 1989
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $4.4 billion
Currency:
Norwegian krone (plural - kroner); 1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 re
Exchange rates:
Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 6.1956 (January 1992), 6.4829 (1991),
6.2597 (1990), 6.9045 (1989), 6.5170 (1988), 6.7375 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Norway Communications

Railroads:
4,223 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; Norwegian State Railways (NSB) operates
4,219 km (2,450 km electrified and 96 km double track); 4 km other
Highways:
79,540 km total; 38,580 km paved; 40,960 km gravel, crushed stone, and earth
Inland waterways:
1,577 km along west coast; 2.4 m draft vessels maximum
Pipelines:
refined products 53 km
Ports:
Oslo, Bergen, Fredrikstad, Kristiansand, Stavanger, Trondheim
Merchant marine:
864 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,978,202 GRT/40,128,177 DWT;
includes 12 passenger, 20 short-sea passenger, 118 cargo, 2 passenger-cargo,
19 refrigerated cargo, 16 container, 49 roll-on/roll-off, 22 vehicle
carrier, 1 railcar carrier, 180 oil tanker, 93 chemical tanker, 83 liquefied
gas, 28 combination ore/oil, 211 bulk, 10 combination bulk; note - the
government has created a captive register, the Norwegian International Ship
Register (NIS), as a subset of the Norwegian register; ships on the NIS
enjoy many benefits of flags of convenience and do not have to be crewed by
Norwegians; the majority of ships (777) under the Norwegian flag are now
registered with the NIS
Civil air:
76 major transport aircraft
Airports:
103 total, 102 usable; 64 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 16 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
high-quality domestic and international telephone, telegraph, and telex
services; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 3,102,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 46 AM, 350 private and 143 government FM, 54 (2,100 repeaters)
TV; 4 coaxial submarine cables; 3 communications satellite earth stations
operating in the EUTELSAT, INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean), MARISAT, and
domestic systems

:Norway Defense Forces

Branches:
Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy, Royal Norwegian Air Force, Home Guard
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,129,871; 944,290 fit for military service; 33,175 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $3.8 billion, 3.8% of GDP (1991)

:Oman Geography

Total area:
212,460 km2
Land area:
212,460 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Kansas
Land boundaries:
1,374 km total; Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km, Yemen 288 km
Coastline:
2,092 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
to be defined
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
no defined boundary with most of UAE; Administrative Line with UAE in far
north; there is a proposed treaty with Yemen (which has not yet been
formally accepted) to settle the Omani-Yemeni boundary
Climate:
dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest
summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
Terrain:
vast central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south
Natural resources:
crude oil, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum,
natural gas
Land use:
arable land NEGL%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 5%; forest
and woodland NEGL%; other 95%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
summer winds often raise large sandstorms and duststorms in interior; sparse
natural freshwater resources
Note:
strategic location with small foothold on Musandam Peninsula controlling
Strait of Hormuz (17% of world's oil production transits this point going
from Persian Gulf to Arabian Sea)

:Oman People

Population:
1,587,581 (July 1992), growth rate 3.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
41 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
40 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
65 years male, 69 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Omani(s); adjective - Omani
Ethnic divisions:
mostly Arab, with small Balochi, Zanzibari, and South Asian (Indian,
Pakistani, Bangladeshi) groups
Religions:
Ibadhi Muslim 75%; remainder Sunni Muslim, Shi`a Muslim, some Hindu
Languages:
Arabic (official); English, Balochi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
430,000; agriculture 60% (est.); 58% are non-Omani
Organized labor:
trade unions are illegal

:Oman Government

Long-form name:
Sultanate of Oman
Type:
absolute monarchy; independent, with residual UK influence
Capital:
Muscat
Administrative divisions:
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 3 governorates (muhafazah, singular - muhafazat);
Musqat, Musandam, Zufar
Independence:
1650, expulsion of the Portuguese
Constitution:
none
Legal system:
based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate appeal to the sultan;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 18 November
Executive branch:
sultan, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
National Assembly
Judicial branch:
none; traditional Islamic judges and a nascent civil court system
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Sa`id Al Sa`id (since 23 July 1970)
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
elections scheduled for October 1992
Other political or pressure groups:
outlawed Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman (PFLO), based in Yemen
Member of:
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFC, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Awadh bin Badr AL-SHANFARI; Chancery at 2342 Massachusetts Avenue
NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-1980 through 1982
US:
Ambassador Richard W. BOEHM; Embassy at address NA, Muscat (mailing address
is P. O. Box 50202 Madinat Qaboos, Muscat); telephone [968] 698-989; FAX
[968] 604-316
Flag:
three horizontal bands of white (top, double width), red, and green (double
width) with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the national
emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two crossed swords in
scabbards) in white is centered at the top of the vertical band

:Oman Economy

Overview:
Economic performance is closely tied to the fortunes of the oil industry.
Petroleum accounts for more than 90% of export earnings, about 80% of
government revenues, and roughly 40% of GDP. Oman has proved oil reserves of
4 billion barrels, equivalent to about 20 years' supply at the current rate
of extraction. Although agriculture employs a majority of the population,
urban centers depend on imported food.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $10.6 billion, per capita $6,925 (1990); real
growth rate 0.5% (1989)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.3% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $4.9 billion; expenditures $4.9 billion, including capital
expenditures of $825 million (1990)
Exports:
$5.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
petroleum, reexports, fish, processed copper, fruits and vegetables
partners:
Japan 35%, South Korea 21%, Singapore 7%, US 6%
Imports:
$2.5 billion (f.o.b, 1990)
commodities:
machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock,
lubricants
partners:
UK 20%, UAE 20%, Japan 17%, US 7%
External debt:
$3.1 billion (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 10% (1989), including petroleum sector
Electricity:
1,120,000 kW capacity; 5,000 million kWh produced, 3,800 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
crude oil production and refining, natural gas production, construction,
cement, copper
Agriculture:
accounts for 6% of GDP and 60% of the labor force (including fishing); less
than 2% of land cultivated; largely subsistence farming (dates, limes,
bananas, alfalfa, vegetables, camels, cattle); not self-sufficient in food;
annual fish catch averages 100,000 metric tons
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $137 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $148 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $797 million
Currency:
Omani rial (plural - rials); 1 Omani rial (RO) = 1,000 baiza
Exchange rates:
Omani rials (RO) per US$1 - 0.3845 (fixed rate since 1986)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Oman Communications

Highways:
26,000 km total; 6,000 km paved, 20,000 km motorable track
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,300 km; natural gas 1,030 km
Ports:
Mina' Qabus, Mina' Raysut
Merchant marine:
1 passenger ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,442 GRT/1,320 DWT
Civil air:
19 major transport aircraft
Airports:
134 total, 127 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over
3,659 m; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 73 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fair system of open-wire, microwave, and radio communications stations;
limited coaxial cable 50,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 7
TV; satellite earth stations - 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT, and 8
domestic

:Oman Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Royal Oman Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 359,394; 204,006 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.73 billion, 16% of GDP (1992 budget)

:Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the Geography

Total area:
458 km2
Land area:
458 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
1,519 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
wet season May to November; hot and humid
Terrain:
about 200 islands varying geologically from the high, mountainous main
island of Babelthuap to low, coral islands usually fringed by large barrier
reefs
Natural resources:
forests, minerals (especially gold), marine products; deep-seabed minerals
Land use:
arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and pastures NA%; forest and
woodland NA%; other NA%
Environment:
subject to typhoons from June to December; archipelago of six island groups
totaling over 200 islands in the Caroline chain
Note:
important location 850 km southeast of the Philippines; includes World War
II battleground of Peleliu and world-famous rock islands

:Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the People

Population:
15,775 (July 1992), growth rate 1.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
23 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
25 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
69 years male, 73 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Palauan(s); adjective - Palauan
Ethnic divisions:
Palauans are a composite of Polynesian, Malayan, and Melanesian races
Religions:
predominantly Christian, including Catholics, Seventh-Day Adventists,
Jehovah's Witnesses, the Assembly of God, the Liebenzell Mission, and
Latter-Day Saints; a third of the population observes the Modekngei
religion, indigenous to Palau
Languages:
English is an official language, though Palauan is also official in 13 of
Palau's 16 states, and Tobi and Sonsorolese are official in the 3 other
states
Literacy:
92% (male 93%, female 91%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Labor force:
NA
Organized labor:
NA

:Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the Government

Long-form name:
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (no short-form name); may change to
Republic of Palau after independence; note - Belau, the native form of
Palau, is sometimes used
Type:
UN trusteeship administered by the US; constitutional government signed a
Compact of Free Association with the US on 10 January 1986, which was never
approved in a series of UN-observed plebiscites; until the UN trusteeship is
terminated with entry into force of the Compact, Palau remains under US
administration as the Palau District of the Trust Territory of the Pacific
Islands
Capital:
Koror; a new capital is being built about 20 km northeast in eastern
Babelthuap
Administrative divisions:
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 16 states; Aimeliik, Airai, Angaur, Kayangel,
Koror, Melekeok, Ngaraard, Ngardmau, Ngaremlengui, Ngatpang, Ngchesar,
Ngerchelong, Ngiwal, Peleliu, Sonsorol, Tobi
Independence:
still part of the US-administered UN trusteeship (the last polity remaining
under the trusteeship; the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Federated
States of Micronesia, and Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas have left);
administered by the Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US
Department of Interior
Constitution:
1 January 1981
Legal system:
based on Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal, common,
and customary laws
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 9 July (1979)
Executive branch:
US president, US vice president, national president, national vice president
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Olbiil Era Kelulau or OEK) consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Delegates
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, National Court, and Court of Common Pleas
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989); represented by the Assistant
Secretary for Territorial Affairs, US Department of the Interior, Stella
GUERRA (since 21 July 1989) and J. Victor HOBSON Jr., Director (since 16
December 1990)
Head of Government:
President Ngiratkel ETPISON (since 2 November 1988), Vice-President Kuniwo
NAKAMURA (since 2 November 1988)
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
House of Delegates:
last held 2 November 1988 (next to be held NA November 1992); results -
percent of vote NA; seats - (16 total); number of seats by party NA
President:
last held on 2 November 1988 (next to be held NA November 1992); results -
Ngiratkel ETPISON 26.3%, Roman TMETUCHL 25.9%, Thomas REMENGESAU 19.5%,
other 28.3%

:Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the Government

Senate:
last held 2 November 1988 (next to be held NA November 1992); results -
percent of vote NA; seats - (14 total); number of seats by party NA
Member of:
ESCAP (associate), SPC, SPF (observer)
Diplomatic representation:
none
US:
US Liaison Officer Lloyed W. MOSS; US Liaison Office at Top Side, Neeriyas,
Koror (mailing address: P. O. Box 6028, Koror, PW 96940); telephone (680)
488-2920; (680) 488-2911
Flag:
light blue with a large yellow disk (representing the moon) shifted slightly
to the hoist side

:Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the Economy

Overview:
The economy consists primarily of subsistence agriculture and fishing.
Tourism provides some foreign exchange, although the remote location of
Palau and a shortage of suitable facilities has hindered development. The
government is the major employer of the work force, relying heavily on
financial assistance from the US.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $31.6 million, per capita $2,260; real growth
rate NA% (1986); note - GDP numbers reflect US spending
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
20% (1986)
Budget:
revenues $6.0 million; expenditures NA, including capital expenditures of NA
(1986)
Exports:
$0.5 million (f.o.b., 1986)
commodities:
NA
partners:
US, Japan
Imports:
$27.2 million (c.i.f., 1986)
commodities:
NA
partners:
US
External debt:
about $100 million (1989)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
16,000 kW capacity; 22 million kWh produced, 1,540 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tourism, craft items (shell, wood, pearl), some commercial fishing and
agriculture
Agriculture:
subsistence-level production of coconut, copra, cassava, sweet potatoes
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2,560 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $92 million
Currency:
US currency is used
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

:Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the Communications

Highways:
22.3 km paved, some stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads (1991)
Ports:
Koror
Airports:
2 with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

:Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US and that will not change when the UN
trusteeship terminates if the Compact of Free Association with the US goes
into effect

:Pacific Ocean Geography

Total area:
165,384,000 km2
Land area:
165,384,000 km2; includes Arafura Sea, Banda Sea, Bellingshausen Sea, Bering
Sea, Bering Strait, Coral Sea, East China Sea, Gulf of Alaska, Makassar
Strait, Philippine Sea, Ross Sea, Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, South China
Sea, Tasman Sea, and other tributary water bodies
Comparative area:
slightly less than 18 times the size of the US; the largest ocean (followed
by the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean); covers about
one-third of the global surface; larger than the total land area of the
world
Coastline:
135,663 km
Disputes:
some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate:
the western Pacific is monsoonal - a rainy season occurs during the summer
months, when moisture-laden winds blow from the ocean over the land, and a
dry season during the winter months, when dry winds blow from the Asian land
mass back to the ocean
Terrain:
surface in the northern Pacific dominated by a clockwise, warm-water gyre
(broad, circular system of currents) and in the southern Pacific by a
counterclockwise, cool-water gyre; sea ice occurs in the Bering Sea and Sea
of Okhotsk during winter and reaches maximum northern extent from Antarctica
in October; the ocean floor in the eastern Pacific is dominated by the East
Pacific Rise, while the western Pacific is dissected by deep trenches; the
world's greatest depth is 10,924 meters in the Marianas Trench
Natural resources:
oil and gas fields, polymetallic nodules, sand and gravel aggregates, placer
deposits, fish
Environment:
endangered marine species include the dugong, sea lion, sea otter, seals,
turtles, and whales; oil pollution in Philippine Sea and South China Sea;
dotted with low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands in the
southwestern Pacific Ocean; subject to tropical cyclones (typhoons) in
southeast and east Asia from May to December (most frequent from July to
October); tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico and strike
Central America and Mexico from June to October (most common in August and
September); southern shipping lanes subject to icebergs from Antarctica;
occasional El Nino phenomenon occurs off the coast of Peru when the trade
winds slacken and the warm Equatorial Countercurrent moves south, killing
the plankton that is the primary food source for anchovies; consequently,
the anchovies move to better feeding grounds, causing resident marine birds
to starve by the thousands because of their lost food source
Note:
the major choke points are the Bering Strait, Panama Canal, Luzon Strait,
and the Singapore Strait; the Equator divides the Pacific Ocean into the
North Pacific Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean; ships subject to
superstructure icing in extreme north from October to May and in extreme
south from May to October; persistent fog in the northern Pacific from June
to December is a hazard to shipping; surrounded by a zone of violent
volcanic and earthquake activity sometimes referred to as the Pacific Ring
of Fire

:Pacific Ocean Economy

Overview:
The Pacific Ocean is a major contributor to the world economy and
particularly to those nations its waters directly touch. It provides cheap
sea transportation between East and West, extensive fishing grounds,
offshore oil and gas fields, minerals, and sand and gravel for the
construction industry. In 1985 over half (54%) of the world's total fish
catch came from the Pacific Ocean, which is the only ocean where the fish
catch has increased every year since 1978. Exploitation of offshore oil and
gas reserves is playing an ever-increasing role in the energy supplies of
Australia, New Zealand, China, US, and Peru. The high cost of recovering
offshore oil and gas, combined with the wide swings in world prices for oil
since 1985, has slowed but not stopped new drillings.
Industries:
fishing, oil and gas production

:Pacific Ocean Communications

Ports:
Bangkok (Thailand), Hong Kong, Los Angeles (US), Manila (Philippines), Pusan
(South Korea), San Francisco (US), Seattle (US), Shanghai (China),
Singapore, Sydney (Australia), Vladivostok (Russia), Wellington (NZ),
Yokohama (Japan)
Telecommunications:
several submarine cables with network focused on Guam and Hawaii

:Pakistan Geography

Total area:
803,940 km2
Land area:
778,720 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
6,774 km total; Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909
km
Coastline:
1,046 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Continental shelf:
edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
boundary with India; border question (Durand line); water sharing problems
with upstream riparian India over the Indus
Climate:
mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Terrain:
flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan
plateau in west
Natural resources:
land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited crude oil, poor quality coal,
iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Land use:
arable land 26%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 6%; forest and
woodland 4%; other 64%; includes irrigated 19%
Environment:
frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west;
flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August); deforestation;
soil erosion; desertification; water logging
Note:
controls Khyber Pass and Malakand Pass, traditional invasion routes between
Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

:Pakistan People

Population:
121,664,539 (July 1992), growth rate 2.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
43 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
13 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
105 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
56 years male, 57 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Pakistani(s); adjective - Pakistani
Ethnic divisions:
Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India
and their descendents)
Religions:
Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi`a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3%
Languages:
Urdu and English (both official); total spoken languages - Punjabi 64%,
Sindhi 12%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu 7%, Balochi and other 9%; English is lingua
franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries, but official
policies are promoting its gradual replacement by Urdu
Literacy:
35% (male 47%, female 21%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
28,900,000; agriculture 54%, mining and manufacturing 13%, services 33%;
extensive export of labor (1987 est.)
Organized labor:
about 10% of industrial work force

:Pakistan Government

Long-form name:
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Type:
parliamentary with strong executive, federal republic
Capital:
Islamabad
Administrative divisions:
4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally
Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West
Frontier, Punjab, Sindh; note - the Pakistani-administered portion of the
disputed Jammu and Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern
Areas
Independence:
14 August 1947 (from UK; formerly West Pakistan)
Constitution:
10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments, 30 December
1985
Legal system:
based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's
stature as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
Pakistan Day (proclamation of the republic), 23 March (1956)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Majlis-e-Shoora) consists of an upper house or Senate
and a lower house or National Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Federal Islamic (Shari`at) Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President GHULAM ISHAQ Khan (since 13 December 1988)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Mian Nawaz SHARIF (since 6 November 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
Islamic Democratic Alliance (Islami Jamuri Ittehad or IJI) - the Pakistan
Muslim League (PML) led by Mohammed Khan JUNEJO is the main party in the
IJI; Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Benazir BHUTTO; note - in September 1990
the PPP announced the formation of the People's Democratic Alliance (PDA),
an electoral alliance including the following four parties - PPP, Solidarity
Movement (Tehrik Istiqlal), Movement for the Implementation of Shi`a
Jurisprudence (Tehrik-i-Nifaz Fiqh Jafariya or TNFJ), and the PML (Malik
faction); Muhajir Qaumi Movement (MQM), Altaf HUSSAIN; Awami National Party
(ANP), Khan Abdul Wali KHAN; Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Islam (JUI), Fazlur RAHMAN;
Jamhoori Watan Party (JWP), Mohammad Akbar Khan BUGTI; Pakistan National
Party (PNP), Mir Ghaus Bakhsh BIZENJO; Pakistan Khawa Milli Party (PKMP),
leader NA; Assembly of Pakistani Clergy (Jamiat-ul-Ulema-e-Pakistan or JUP),
Maulana Shah Ahmed NOORANI; Jamaat-i-Islami (JI), Qazi Hussain AHMED
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
President:
last held on 12 December 1988 (next to be held NA December 1993); results -
Ghulam Ishaq KHAN was elected by Parliament and the four provincial
assemblies

:Pakistan Government

Senate:
last held March 1991 (next to be held NA March 1994); seats - (87 total) IJI
57, Tribal Area Representatives (nonparty) 8, PPP 5, ANP 5, JWP 4, MQM 3,
PNP 2, PKMP 1, JUI 1, independent 1
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held on 24 October 1990 (next to be held by NA October 1995); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (217 total) IJI 107, PDA 45, MQM 15,
ANP 6, JUI 2, JWP 2, PNP 2, PKMP 1, independents 14, religious minorities
10, Tribal Area Representatives (nonparty) 8, vacant 1
Communists:
the Communist party is officially banned but is allowed to operate openly
Other political or pressure groups:
military remains dominant political force; ulema (clergy), industrialists,
and small merchants also influential
Member of:
AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Abida HUSSAIN; Chancery at 2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-6200; there is a Pakistani
Consulate General in New York
US:
Ambassador Nicholas PLATT; Embassy at Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
(mailing address is P. O. Box 1048, PSC 1212, Box 2000, Islamabad or APO AE
09812-2000); telephone [92] (51) 826161 through 79; FAX [92] (51) 822004;
there are US Consulates General in Karachi and Lahore and a Consulate in
Peshawar
Flag:
green with a vertical white band on the hoist side; a large white crescent
and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color
green are traditional symbols of Islam

:Pakistan Economy

Overview:
Pakistan is a poor Third World country faced with the usual problems of
rapidly increasing population, sizable government deficits, and heavy
dependence on foreign aid. In addition, the economy must support a large
military establishment and provide for the needs of 4 million Afghan
refugees. A real economic growth rate averaging 5-6% in recent years has
enabled the country to cope with these problems. Almost all agriculture and
small-scale industry is in private hands. In 1990, Pakistan embarked on a
sweeping economic liberalization program to boost foreign and domestic
private investment and lower foreign aid dependence. The SHARIF government
has denationalized several state-owned firms and has attracted some foreign
investment. Pakistan likely will have difficulty raising living standards
because of its rapidly expanding population. At the current rate of growth,
population would double in 25 years.
GNP:
exchange rate conversion - $45.4 billion, per capita $380; real growth rate
4.8% (FY91 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12.3% (FY91)
Unemployment rate:
10% (FY91 est.)
Budget:
revenues $6.4 billion; expenditures $10 billion, including capital
expenditures of $2.6 billion (FY92 est.)
Exports:
$6.0 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
commodities:
cotton, textiles, clothing, rice
partners:
EC 31%, Japan 9%, US 13% (FY90)
Imports:
$7.9 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
commodities:
petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, transportation, equipment,
vegetable oils, animal fats, chemicals
partners:
EC 21%, US 14%, Japan 13% (FY90)
External debt:
$20.1 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.7% (FY91); accounts for almost 20% of GNP
Electricity:
8,500,000 kW capacity; 35,000 million kWh produced, 300 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, beverages, construction materials, clothing,
paper products, shrimp
Agriculture:
25% of GNP, over 50% of labor force; world's largest contiguous irrigation
system; major crops - cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, and
vegetables; live-stock products - milk, beef, mutton, eggs; self-sufficient
in food grain
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of opium and hashish for the international drug trade;
government eradication efforts on poppy cultivation of limited success

:Pakistan Economy

Economic aid:
(including Bangladesh only before 1972) US commitments, including Ex-Im
(FY70-89), $4.5 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1980-89), $9.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.3
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $3.2 billion
Currency:
Pakistani rupee (plural - rupees); 1 Pakistani rupee (PRe) = 100 paisa
Exchange rates:
Pakistani rupees (PRs) per US$1 - 24.980 (March 1992), 23.801 (1991), 21.707
(1990), 20.541 (1989), 18.003 (1988), 17.399 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Pakistan Communications

Railroads:
8,773 km total; 7,718 km broad gauge, 445 km 1-meter gauge, and 610 km less
than 1-meter gauge; 1,037 km broad-gauge double track; 286 km electrified;
all government owned (1985)
Highways:
101,315 km total (1987); 40,155 km paved, 23,000 km gravel, 29,000 km
improved earth, and 9,160 km unimproved earth or sand tracks (1985)
Pipelines:
crude oil 250 km; natural gas 4,044 km; petroleum products 885 km (1987)
Ports:
Gwadar, Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim
Merchant marine:
28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 334,227 GRT/495,425 DWT; includes 3
passenger-cargo, 24 cargo, 1 petroleum tanker
Civil air:
40 major transport aircraft
Airports:
112 total, 104 usable; 75 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways
over 3,659 m; 31 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 43 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
good international communication service over microwave and INTELSAT
satellite; domestic communications poor; 813,000 telephones (1990);
broadcast service good; broadcast stations - 19 AM, 8 FM, 29 TV; satellite
earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

:Pakistan Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed Forces, National Guard
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 27,811,099; 17,064,073 fit for military service; 1,287,041
reach military age (17) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.9 billion, 6% of GNP (1992 budget)

:Palmyra Atoll Geography

Total area:
11.9 km2
Land area:
11.9 km2
Comparative area:
about 20 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
14.5 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
equatorial, hot, and very rainy
Terrain:
low, with maximum elevations of about 2 meters
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 100%; other 0%
Environment:
about 50 islets covered with dense vegetation, coconut trees, and balsa-like
trees up to 30 meters tall
Note:
located 1,600 km south-southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific Ocean,
almost halfway between Hawaii and American Samoa

:Palmyra Atoll People

Population:
uninhabited

:Palmyra Atoll Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US; privately owned, but administered by the
Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the
Interior
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

:Palmyra Atoll Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

:Palmyra Atoll Communications

Ports:
the main harbor is West Lagoon, which is entered by a channel on the
southwest side of the atoll; both the channel and harbor will accommodate
vessels drawing 4 meters of water; much of the road and many causeways built
during the war are unserviceable and overgrown
Airports:
1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

:Palmyra Atoll Defense Forces

Branches:
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

:Panama Geography

Total area:
78,200 km2
Land area:
75,990 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
555 km total; Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km
Coastline:
2,490 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
200 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short
dry season (January to May)
Terrain:
interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains;
coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills
Natural resources:
copper, mahogany forests, shrimp
Land use:
arable land 6%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 15%; forest and
woodland 54%; other 23%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
dense tropical forest in east and northwest
Note:
strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting
North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Atlantic
Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean

:Panama People

Population:
2,529,902 (July 1992), growth rate 2.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
25 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
17 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
73 years male, 77 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Panamanian(s); adjective - Panamanian
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 70%, West Indian 14%, white
10%, Indian 6%
Religions:
Roman Catholic over 93%, Protestant 6%
Languages:
Spanish (official); English as native tongue 14%; many Panamanians bilingual
Literacy:
88% (male 88%, female 88%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
770,472 (1987); government and community services 27.9%; agriculture,
hunting, and fishing 26.2%; commerce, restaurants, and hotels 16%;
manufacturing and mining 10.5%; construction 5.3%; transportation and
communications 5.3%; finance, insurance, and real estate 4.2%; Canal Zone
2.4%; shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor
Organized labor:
17% of labor force (1986)

:Panama Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Panama
Type:
centralized republic
Capital:
Panama
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 territory* (comarca);
Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama,
San Blas*, Veraguas
Independence:
3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain 28 November
1821)
Constitution:
11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983
Legal system:
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the
Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 3 November (1903)
Executive branch:
president, two vice presidents, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia) currently being
reorganized
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Guillermo ENDARA (since 20 December 1989, elected 7 May 1989);
First Vice President Ricardo ARIAS Calderon (since 20 December 1989, elected
7 May 1989); Second Vice President Guillermo FORD Boyd (since 20 December
1989, elected 7 May 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
government alliance:
Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (MOLIRENA), Alfredo RAMIREZ;
Authentic Liberal Party (PLA), Arnulfo ESCALONA; Arnulfista Party (PA),
Mireya MOSCOSO DE GRUBER;
opposition parties:
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Ricardo ARIAS Calderon; Democratic
Revolutionary Party (PRD, ex-official government party), Gerardo GONZALEZ;
Agrarian Labor Party (PALA), Carlos LOPEZ Guevara; Liberal Party (PL),
Roderick ESQUIVEL; Popular Action Party (PAPO); Socialist Workers Party
(PST, leftist), Jose CAMBRA; Revolutionary Workers Party (PRT, leftist),
Graciela DIXON
Suffrage:
universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held on 7 May 1989, annulled but later upheld (next to be held NA May
1994); results - anti-NORIEGA coalition believed to have won about 75% of
the total votes cast
Legislative Assembly:
last held on 27 January 1991 (next to be held NA May 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (67 total)
progovernment parties:
PDC 28, MOLIRENA 16, PA 7, PLA 4

:Panama Government

opposition parties:
PRD 10, PALA 1, PL 1; note - the PDC went into opposition after President
Guillermo ENDARA ousted the PDC from the coalition government in April 1991
Communists:
People's Party (PdP), mainline Communist party, did not obtain the necessary
3% of the total vote in the 1984 election to retain its legal status; about
3,000 members
Other political or pressure groups:
National Council of Organized Workers (CONATO); National Council of Private
Enterprise (CONEP); Panamanian Association of Business Executives (APEDE);
National Civic Crusade; National Committee for the Right to Life
Member of:
AG (associate), CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES,
LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Jaime FORD; Chancery at 2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC
20008; telephone (202) 483-1407; the status of the Consulates General and
Consulates has not yet been determined
US:
Ambassador Deane R. HINTON; Embassy at Avenida Balboa and Calle 38, Apartado
6959, Panama City 5 (mailing address is Box E, APO AA 34002); telephone
(507) 27-1777; FAX (507) 27-1964
Flag:
divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white with a blue
five-pointed star in the center (hoist side) and plain red, the bottom
quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star
in the center

:Panama Economy

Overview:
GDP expanded by roughly 9.3% in 1991, following growth of 4.6% in 1990 and a
0.4% contraction in 1989. Delay in coming to terms with the international
financial institutions on policies to implement structural reform in Panama
generated uncertainty in the private sector and tempered the pace of
business expansion in 1991. Public investment was limited as the
administration kept the fiscal deficit below 3% of GDP. Unemployment and
economic reform are the two major issues the government must face in
1992-93.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $5.0 billion, per capita $2,040; real growth rate
9.3% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.0% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
17% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $1.5 billion; expenditures $1.7 billion, including capital
expenditures of $140 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$380 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
bananas 28%, shrimp 14%, sugar 12%, clothing 5%, coffee 4%
partners:
US 44%, Central America and Caribbean, EC (1991 est.)
Imports:
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
capital goods 13%, crude oil 12%, foodstuffs 10%, consumer goods, chemicals
(1990)
partners:
US 37%, Japan, EC, Central America and Caribbean, Mexico, Venezuela (1989
est.)
External debt:
$5.4 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.2% (1991 est.); accounts for almost 9.4% of GDP
Electricity:
1,135,000 kW capacity; 3,397 million kWh produced, 1,372 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
manufacturing and construction activities, petroleum refining, brewing,
cement and other construction material, sugar mills
Agriculture:
accounts for 12% of GDP (1991 est.), 25% of labor force (1989); crops -
bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane; livestock; fishing; importer of food
grain, vegetables
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $516 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $582 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $4 million
Currency:
balboa (plural - balboas); 1 balboa (B) = 100 centesimos
Exchange rates:
balboas (B) per US$1 - 1.000 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Panama Communications

Railroads:
238 km total; 78 km 1.524-meter gauge, 160 km 0.914-meter gauge
Highways:
8,530 km total; 2,745 km paved, 3,270 km gravel or crushed stone, 2,515 km
improved and unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km Panama Canal
Pipelines:
crude oil 130 km
Ports:
Cristobal, Balboa, Puerto de La Bahia de Las Minas
Merchant marine:
3,004 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 41,314,623 GRT/73,325,176 DWT;
includes 20 passenger, 22 short-sea passenger, 3 passenger-cargo, 1,046
cargo, 205 refrigerated cargo, 175 container, 65 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 111
vehicle carrier, 9 livestock carrier, 4 multifunction large-load carrier,
340 petroleum tanker, 177 chemical tanker, 23 combination ore/oil, 101
liquefied gas, 8 specialized tanker, 659 bulk, 35 combination bulk, 1 barge
carrier; note - all but 5 are foreign owned and operated; the top 4 foreign
owners are Japan 36%, Greece 8%, Hong Kong 8%, and the US 7%; (China owns at
least 128 ships, Vietnam 4, former Yugoslavia 4, Cuba 4, Cyprus 5, and the
republics of the former USSR 12)
Civil air:
5 major transport aircraft
Airports:
112 total, 102 usable; 39 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
domestic and international facilities well developed; connection into
Central American Microwave System; 220,000 telephones; broadcast stations -
91 AM, no FM, 23 TV; 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite ground stations -
2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

:Panama Defense Forces

Branches:
note - the Panamanian Defense Forces (PDF) ceased to exist as a military
institution shortly after the United States invaded Panama on 20 December
1989; President ENDARA has restructured the forces into a civilian police
service under the new name of Panamanian Public Forces (PPF); a Council of
Public Security and National Defense under Menalco SOLIS in the office of
the president coordinates the activities of the security forces; the
Institutional Protection Service under Carlos BARES is attached to the
presidency
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 661,101; 455,412 fit for military service; no conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $75.5 million, 1.5% of GDP (1990)

:Papua New Guinea Geography

Total area:
461,690 km2
Land area:
451,710 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
820 km; Indonesia 820 km
Coastline:
5,152 km
Maritime claims:
(measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to
October); slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills
Natural resources:
gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil potential
Land use:
arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures NEGL%; forest
and woodland 71%; other 28%
Environment:
one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast; some active volcanos;
frequent earthquakes
Note:
shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia

:Papua New Guinea People

Population:
4,006,509 (July 1992), growth rate 2.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
34 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
67 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
55 years male, 56 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Papua New Guinean(s); adjective - Papua New Guinean
Ethnic divisions:
predominantly Melanesian and Papuan; some Negrito, Micronesian, and
Polynesian
Religions:
Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%, Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary
Society 8%, Anglican 5%, Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%,
other Protestant sects 10%; indigenous beliefs 34%
Languages:
715 indigenous languages; English spoken by 1-2%, pidgin English widespread,
Motu spoken in Papua region
Literacy:
52% (male 65%, female 38%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
NA
Organized labor:
more than 50 trade unions, some with fewer than 20 members

:Papua New Guinea Government

Long-form name:
Independent State of Papua New Guinea
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Port Moresby
Administrative divisions:
20 provinces; Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East
Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New
Ireland, Northern, North Solomons, Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western,
Western Highlands, West New Britain
Independence:
16 September 1975 (from UN trusteeship under Australian administration)
Constitution:
16 September 1975
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 September (1975)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
National Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Parliament (sometimes referred to as the House of
Assembly)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen Elizabeth II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Wiwa KOROWI (since NA November 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Paias WINGTI (since 17 July 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
Papua New Guinea United Party (Pangu Party), Rabbie NAMALIU; People's
Democratic Movement (PDM), Paias WINGTI; People's Action Party (PAP), Akoka
DOI; People's Progress Party (PPP), Sir Julius CHAN; United Party (UP), Paul
TORATO; Papua Party (PP), Galeva KWARARA; National Party (NP), Paul PORA;
Melanesian Alliance (MA), Fr. John MOMIS
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
National Parliament:
last held 13-26 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - percent by
party NA; seats - (109 total) Pangu Party 24, PDM 17, PPP 10, PAP 10,
independents 30, others 18
Member of:
ACP, AsDB, ASEAN (observer), C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM
(observer), SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Margaret TAYLOR; Chancery at 3rd floor, 1615 New Hampshire Avenue
NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone (202) 745-3680
US:
Ambassador Robert W. FARRAND; Embassy at Armit Street, Port Moresby (mailing
address is P. O. Box 1492, Port Moresby, or APO AE 96553); telephone [675]
211-455 or 594, 654; FAX [675] 213-423

:Papua New Guinea Government

Flag:
divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is red
with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is black
with five white five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation
centered

:Papua New Guinea Economy

Overview:
Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, but exploitation
has been hampered by the rugged terrain and the high cost of developing an
infrastructure. Agriculture provides a subsistence livelihood for 85% of the
population. Mining of numerous deposits, including copper and gold, accounts
for about 60% of export earnings. Budgetary support from Australia and
development aid under World Bank auspices have helped sustain the economy.
Robust growth in 1991 was led by the mining sector; the opening of a large
new gold mine featured in the advance.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $3.1 billion, per capita $800; real growth rate
9% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.8% (first half 1991)
Unemployment rate:
5% (1988)
Budget:
revenues $1.26 billion; expenditures $1.46 billion, including capital
expenditures of $273 million (1992 est.)
Exports:
$1.14 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
copper ore, gold, coffee, logs, palm oil, cocoa, lobster
partners:
FRG, Japan, Australia, UK, Spain, US
Imports:
$1.18 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, food, fuels, chemicals, consumer goods
partners:
Australia, Singapore, Japan, US, New Zealand, UK
External debt:
$2.2 billion (April 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.4% (1990 est.); accounts for 25% of GDP
Electricity:
397,000 kW capacity; 1,510 million kWh produced, 400 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
copra crushing, oil palm processing, plywood processing, wood chip
production, gold, silver, copper, construction, tourism
Agriculture:
one-third of GDP; livelihood for 85% of population; fertile soils and
favorable climate permits cultivating a wide variety of crops; cash crops -
coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels; other products - tea, rubber, sweet
potatoes, fruit, vegetables, poultry, pork; net importer of food for urban
centers
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $40.6 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $6.5 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $17 million
Currency:
kina (plural - kina); 1 kina (K) = 100 toea
Exchange rates:
kina (K) per US$1 - 1.0413 (March 1992), 1.0508 (1991), 1.0467 (1990),
1.1685 (1989), 1.1538 (1988), 1.1012 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Papua New Guinea Communications

Railroads:
none
Highways:
19,200 km total; 640 km paved, 10,960 km gravel, crushed stone, or
stabilized-soil surface, 7,600 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
10,940 km
Ports:
Anewa Bay, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul
Merchant marine:
8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 14,102 GRT/16,016 DWT; includes 2
cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 combination ore/oil, 1 bulk, 1 container
Civil air:
about 15 major transport aircraft
Airports:
503 total, 460 usable; 18 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 39 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
services are adequate and being improved; facilities provide radiobroadcast,
radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and
international radiocommunication services; submarine cables extend to
Australia and Guam; 51,700 telephones (1985); broadcast stations - 31 AM, 2
FM, 2 TV (1987); 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Papua New Guinea Defense Forces

Branches:
Papua New Guinea Defense Force (including Army, Navy, Air Force)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,013,812; 564,081 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $42 million, 1.3% of GDP (1989 est.)

:Paracel Islands Geography

Total area:
NA
Land area:
undetermined
Comparative area:
undetermined
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
518 km
Maritime claims:
undetermined
Disputes:
occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
undetermined
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
subject to typhoons
Note:
located 400 km east of Vietnam in the South China Sea about one-third of the
way between Vietnam and the Philippines

:Paracel Islands People

Population:
no permanent inhabitants

:Paracel Islands Government

Long-form name:
none

:Paracel Islands Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

:Paracel Islands Communications

Ports:
small Chinese port facilities on Woody Island and Duncan Island currently
under expansion
Airports:
1 on Woody Island

:Paracel Islands Defense Forces

Note:
occupied by China

:Paraguay Geography

Total area:
406,750 km2
Land area:
397,300 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than California
Land boundaries:
3,920 km total; Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km, Brazil 1,290 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
short section of the boundary with Brazil (just west of Guaira Falls on the
Rio Parana) has not been determined
Climate:
varies from temperate in east to semiarid in far west
Terrain:
grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west
of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and
thorny scrub elsewhere
Natural resources:
iron ore, manganese, limestone, hydropower, timber
Land use:
arable land 20%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 39%; forest and
woodland 35%; other 5%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
local flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained plains
may become boggy (early October to June)
Note:
landlocked; buffer between Argentina and Brazil

:Paraguay People

Population:
4,929,446 (July 1992), growth rate 2.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
33 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
28 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
71 years male, 74 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Paraguayan(s); adjective - Paraguayan
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo (Spanish and Indian) 95%, white and Indian 5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 90%; Mennonite and other Protestant denominations
Languages:
Spanish (official) and Guarani
Literacy:
90% (male 92%, female 88%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
1,418,000 (1991 est.); agriculture, industry and commerce, services,
government (1986)
Organized labor:
about 2% of labor force

:Paraguay Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Paraguay
Type:
republic
Capital:
Asuncion
Administrative divisions:
19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alto Paraguay, Alto
Parana, Amambay, Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Chaco,
Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Nueva Asuncion,
Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro
Independence:
14 May 1811 (from Spain)
Constitution:
25 August 1967; Constituent Assembly rewrote the Constitution that was
promulgated on 20 June 1992
Legal system:
based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes; judicial review of
legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice; does not accept compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Days, 14-15 May (1811)
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers (cabinet), Council of State
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of an upper chamber or Chamber of
Senators (Camara de Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies
(Camara de Diputados)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Gen. Andres RODRIGUEZ Pedotti (since 15 May 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
Colorado Party, Luis Maria ARGANA, acting president; Authentic Radical
Liberal Party (PLRA), Juan Manuel BENITEZ Florentin; Christian Democratic
Party (PDC), Jose Angel BURRO; Febrerista Revolutionary Party (PRF), Victor
BAREIRO; Popular Democratic Party (PDP), Hugo RICHER
Suffrage:
universal and compulsory at age 18 and up to age 60
Elections:
President:
last held 1 May 1989 (next to be held NA February 1993); results - Gen.
RODRIGUEZ 75.8%, Domingo LAINO 19.4%
Chamber of Senators:
last held 1 May 1989 (next to be held by NA May 1993); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (36 total) Colorado Party 24, PLRA 10, PLR 1, PRF
1
Chamber of Deputies:
last held on 1 May 1989 (next to be held by NA May 1994); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (72 total) Colorado Party 48, PLRA 19, PRF 2,
PDC 1, other 2
Communists:
Oscar CREYDT faction and Miguel Angel SOLER faction (both illegal); 3,000 to
4,000 (est.) party members and sympathizers in Paraguay, very few are hard
core; party beginning to return from exile is small and deeply divided
Other political or pressure groups:
Confederation of Workers (CUT); Roman Catholic Church

:Paraguay Government

Member of:
AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, OAS,
OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Juan Esteban Aguirre MARTINEZ; Chancery at 2400 Massachusetts
Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-6960 through 6962;
there are Paraguayan Consulates General in New Orleans and New York, and a
Consulate in Houston
US:
Ambassador Jon D. GLASSMAN; Embassy at 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Asuncion
(mailing address is C. P. 402, Asuncion, or APO AA 34036-0001); telephone
[595] (21) 213-715; FAX [595] (21) 213-728
Flag:
three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem
centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different on
each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of
arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words
REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at
the right) bears the seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of
Liberty and the words Paz y Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words
REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles)

:Paraguay Economy

Overview:
Agriculture, including forestry, accounts for about 25% of GDP, employs
about 45% of the labor force, and provides the bulk of exports. Paraguay has
no known significant mineral or petroleum resources but does have a large
hydropower potential. Since 1981 economic performance has declined compared
with the boom period of 1976-81, when real GDP grew at an average annual
rate of nearly 11%. During the period 1982-86 real GDP fell in three of five
years, inflation jumped to an annual rate of 32%, and foreign debt rose.
Factors responsible for the erratic behavior of the economy were the
completion of the Itaipu hydroelectric dam, bad weather for crops, and weak
international commodity prices for agricultural exports. In 1987 the economy
experienced a minor recovery because of improved weather conditions and
stronger international prices for key agricultural exports. The recovery
continued through 1990, on the strength of bumper crops in 1988-89. In a
major step to increase its economic activity in the region, Paraguay in
March 1991 joined the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), which includes
Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. During 1991 the government began to more
seriously address its arrearages with international creditors and its
domestic fiscal problems. Inflation was cut in third, but the foreign trade
deficit widened to more than $1 billion. For the long run, the government
must press forward with general market-oriented economic reforms.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $7.0 billion, per capita $1,460; real growth rate
3.0% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
15% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
14% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.2 billion, including capital
expenditures of $487 million (1991)
Exports:
$642 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
cotton, soybean, timber, vegetable oils, coffee, tung oil, meat products
partners:
EC 37%, Brazil 25%, Argentina 10%, Chile 6%, US 6%
Imports:
$1.85 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
capital goods 35%, consumer goods 20%, fuels and lubricants 19%, raw
materials 16%, foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco 10%
partners:
Brazil 30%, EC 20%, US 18%, Argentina 8%, Japan 7%
External debt:
$1.7 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.9% (1989 est.); accounts for 16% of GDP
Electricity:
5,578,000 kW capacity; 15,447 million kWh produced, 3,219 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
meat packing, oilseed crushing, milling, brewing, textiles, other light
consumer goods, cement, construction
Agriculture:
accounts for 25% of GDP and 44% of labor force; cash crops - cotton,
sugarcane; other crops - corn, wheat, tobacco, soybeans, cassava, fruits,
and vegetables; animal products - beef, pork, eggs, milk; surplus producer
of timber; self-sufficient in most foods

:Paraguay Economy

Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; important
transshipment point for Bolivian cocaine headed for the US and Europe
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $172 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.1 billion
Currency:
guarani (plural - guaranies); 1 guarani (G) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates:
guaranies (G) per US$ - 1,447.5 (March 1992), 1,325.2 (1991), 1,229.8
(1990), 1,056.2 (1989), 550.00 (fixed rate 1986-February 1989),
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Paraguay Communications

Railroads:
970 km total; 440 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 60 km 1.000-meter gauge,
470 km various narrow gauge (privately owned)
Highways:
21,960 km total; 1,788 km paved, 474 km gravel, and 19,698 km earth
Inland waterways:
3,100 km
Ports:
Asuncion
Merchant marine:
13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,747 GRT/19,865 DWT; includes 11
cargo, 2 petroleum tanker; note - 1 naval cargo ship is sometimes used
commercially
Civil air:
9 major transport aircraft
Airports:
845 total, 716 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways; 0 with runways over
3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 66 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
principal center in Asuncion; fair intercity microwave net; 78,300
telephones; broadcast stations - 40 AM, no FM, 5 TV, 7 shortwave; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Paraguay Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Naval Air and Marines), Air Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,172,813; 853,129 fit for military service; 49,917 reach
military age (17) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $84 million, 1.4% of GDP (1988 est.)

:Peru Geography

Total area:
1,285,220 km2
Land area:
1,280,000 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries:
6,940 km total; Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia
2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km
Coastline:
2,414 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
200 nm
Disputes:
three sections of the boundary with Ecuador are in dispute
Climate:
varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west
Terrain:
western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra),
eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Natural resources:
copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate,
potash
Land use:
arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 21%; forest and
woodland 55%; other 21%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
subject to earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, mild volcanic activity;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in
Lima
Note:
shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with
Bolivia

:Peru People

Population:
22,767,543 (July 1992), growth rate 2.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
27 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
59 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
63 years male, 67 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Peruvian(s); adjective - Peruvian
Ethnic divisions:
Indian 45%; mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 37%; white 15%;
black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Religions:
predominantly Roman Catholic
Languages:
Spanish and Quechua (both official), Aymara
Literacy:
85% (male 92%, female 29%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
6,800,000 (1986); government and other services 44%, agriculture 37%,
industry 19% (1988 est.)
Organized labor:
about 40% of salaried workers (1983 est.)

:Peru Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Peru

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