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partners:
US 40%, Italy 6%, The Bahamas 5%
Imports:
$1.4 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
crude petroleum 64%, food, manufactures
partners:
Venezuela 42%, US 18%, Netherlands 6%
External debt:
$701.2 million (December 1987)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
125,000 kW capacity; 365 million kWh produced, 1,985 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
tourism (Curacao and Sint Maarten), petroleum refining (Curacao), petroleum
transshipment facilities (Curacao and Bonaire), light manufacturing
(Curacao)
Agriculture:
hampered by poor soils and scarcity of water; chief products - aloes,
sorghum, peanuts, fresh vegetables, tropical fruit; not self-sufficient in
food
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$513 million
Currency:
Netherlands Antillean guilder, gulden, or florin (plural - guilders, gulden,
or florins); 1 Netherlands Antillean guilder, gulden, or florin (NAf.) = 100
cents
Exchange rates:
Netherlands Antillean guilders, gulden, or florins (NAf.) per US$1 - 1.79
(fixed rate since 1989; 1.80 fixed rate 1971-88)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Netherlands Antilles Communications

Highways:
950 km total; 300 km paved, 650 km gravel and earth
Ports:
Willemstad, Philipsburg, Kralendijk
Merchant marine:
80 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 607,010 GRT/695,864 DWT; includes 4
passenger, 27 cargo, 13 refrigerated cargo, 7 container, 9 roll-on/roll-off,
11 multifunction large-load carrier, 4 chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 1
bulk, 1 oil tanker; note - all but a few are foreign owned, mostly in the
Netherlands
Civil air:
8 major transport aircraft
Airports:
7 total, 6 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
generally adequate facilities; extensive interisland radio relay links;
broadcast stations - 9 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; 2 submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations

:Netherlands Antilles Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Netherlands Navy, Marine Corps, Royal Netherlands Air Force, National
Guard, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49 49,082; 27,656 fit for military service; 1,673 reach military
age (20) annually
Note:
defense is responsibility of the Netherlands

:New Caledonia Geography

Total area:
19,060 km2
Land area:
18,760 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
2,254 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid
Terrain:
coastal plains with interior mountains
Natural resources:
nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver, gold, lead, copper
Land use:
arable land NEGL%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 14%; forest
and woodland 51%; other 35%
Environment:
typhoons most frequent from November to March
Note:
located 1,750 km east of Australia in the South Pacific Ocean

:New Caledonia People

Population:
174,805 (July 1992), growth rate 1.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
23 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
17 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
70 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - New Caledonian(s); adjective - New Caledonian
Ethnic divisions:
Melanesian 42.5%, European 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%, Polynesian 3.8%,
Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6%, other 3.0%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 60%, Protestant 30%, other 10%
Languages:
French; 28 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects
Literacy:
91% (male 91%, female 90%) age 15 and over can read and write (1976)
Labor force:
50,469; foreign workers for plantations and mines from Wallis and Futuna,
Vanuatu, and French Polynesia (1980 est.)
Organized labor:
NA

:New Caledonia Government

Long-form name:
Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies
Type:
overseas territory of France since 1956
Capital:
Noumea
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative
divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 3 provinces named
Iles Loyaute, Nord, and Sud
Independence:
none (overseas territory of France); note - a referendum on independence
will be held in 1998, with a review of the issue in 1992
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
the 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy to the islands;
formerly under French law
National holiday:
Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Executive branch:
French President, high commissioner, Consultative Committee (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Territorial Assembly
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
Head of Government:
High Commissioner and President of the Council of Government Alain
CHRISTNACHT (since 15 January 1991)
Suffrage:
universal adult at age 18
Elections:
Territorial Assembly:
last held 11 June 1989 (next to be held 1993); results - RPCR 44.5%, FLNKS
28.5%, FN 7%, CD 5%, UO 4%, other 11%; seats - (54 total) RPCR 27, FLNKS 19,
FN 3, other 5; note - election boycotted by FULK
French Senate:
last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) RPCR 1
French National Assembly:
last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1993); results - RPR
83.5%, FN 13.5%, other 3%; seats - (2 total) RPCR 2
Member of:
FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
as an overseas territory of France, New Caledonian interests are represented
in the US by France
Flag:
the flag of France is used

:New Caledonia Economy

Overview:
New Caledonia has more than 25% of the world's known nickel resources. In
recent years the economy has suffered because of depressed international
demand for nickel, the principal source of export earnings. Only a
negligible amount of the land is suitable for cultivation, and food accounts
for about 25% of imports.
GNP:
exchange rate conversion - $1.0 billion, per capita $6,000 (1991 est.); real
growth rate 2.4% (1988)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.1% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
16.0% (1989)
Budget:
revenues $224.0 million; expenditures $211.0 million, including capital
expenditures of NA (1985)
Exports:
$671 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
nickel metal 87%, nickel ore
partners:
France 52.3%, Japan 15.8%, US 6.4%
Imports:
$764 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities:
foods, fuels, minerals, machines, electrical equipment
partners:
France 44.0%, US 10%, Australia 9%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
400,000 kW capacity; 2,200 million kWh produced, 12,790 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
nickel mining
Agriculture:
large areas devoted to cattle grazing; coffee, corn, wheat, vegetables; 60%
self-sufficient in beef
Illicit drugs:
illicit cannabis cultivation is becoming a principal source of income for
some families
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$4,185 million
Currency:
Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural - francs); 1 CFP franc (CFPF)
= 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Comptoirs Francais duPacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 97.81 (January
1992), 102.57 (1991), 99.00 (1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30 (1988), 109.27
(1987); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French franc
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:New Caledonia Communications

Highways:
6,340 km total; only about 10% paved (1987)
Ports:
Noumea, Nepoui, Poro, Thio
Civil air:
1 major transport aircraft
Airports:
29 total, 27 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
32,578 telephones (1987); broadcast stations - 5 AM, 3 FM, 7 TV; 1 Pacific
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:New Caledonia Defense Forces

Branches:
Gendarmerie, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 46,388; NA fit for military service
Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

:New Zealand Geography

Total area:
268,680 km2
Land area:
268,670 km2; includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands,
Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands
Comparative area:
about the size of Colorado
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
15,134 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)
Climate:
temperate with sharp regional contrasts
Terrain:
predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains
Natural resources:
natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone
Land use:
arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 53%; forest and
woodland 38%; other 7%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
earthquakes are common, though usually not severe

:New Zealand People

Population:
3,347,369 (July 1992), growth rate 0.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
16 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
9 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
72 years male, 80 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - New Zealander(s); adjective - New Zealand
Ethnic divisions:
European 88%, Maori 8.9%, Pacific Islander 2.9%, other 0.2%
Religions:
Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%, Methodist 5%, Baptist
2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none 9% (1986)
Languages:
English (official), Maori
Literacy:
99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
Labor force:
1,603,500 (June 1991); services 67.4%, manufacturing 19.8%, primary
production 9.3% (1987)
Organized labor:
681,000 members; 43% of labor force (1986)

:New Zealand Government

Long-form name:
none; abbreviated NZ
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Wellington
Administrative divisions:
93 counties, 9 districts*, and 3 town districts**; Akaroa, Amuri, Ashburton,
Bay of Islands, Bruce, Buller, Chatham Islands, Cheviot, Clifton, Clutha,
Cook, Dannevirke, Egmont, Eketahuna, Ellesmere, Eltham, Eyre, Featherston,
Franklin, Golden Bay, Great Barrier Island, Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*,
Hawke's Bay, Heathcote, Hikurangi**, Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui,
Hutt, Inangahua, Inglewood, Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie,
Malvern, Manaia**, Manawatu, Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough, Masterton,
Matamata, Mount Herbert, Ohinemuri, Opotiki, Oroua, Otamatea, Otorohanga*,
Oxford, Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako, Pohangina, Raglan, Rangiora*,
Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga, Saint Kilda, Silverpeaks, Southland,
Stewart Island, Stratford, Strathallan, Taranaki, Taumarunui, Taupo,
Tauranga, Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent, Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo,
Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino, Waimate, Waimate West, Waimea, Waipa,
Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa South, Wairewa, Wairoa, Waitaki, Waitomo*,
Waitotara, Wallace, Wanganui, Waverley**, Westland, Whakatane*, Whangarei,
Whangaroa, Woodville
Independence:
26 September 1907 (from UK)
Constitution:
no formal, written constitution; consists of various documents, including
certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments; Constitution Act 1986
was to have come into force 1 January 1987, but has not been enacted
Dependent areas:
Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
Legal system:
based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for
Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty), 6
February (1840)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives (commonly called Parliament)
Judicial branch:
High Court, Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Dame Catherine TIZARD (since 12 December 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister James BOLGER (since 29 October 1990); Deputy Prime Minister
Donald McKINNON (since 2 November 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
National Party (NP; government), James BOLGER; New Zealand Labor Party
(NZLP; opposition), Michael MOORE; NewLabor Party (NLP), Jim ANDERTON;
Democratic Party, Dick RYAN; New Zealand Liberal Party, Hanmish MACINTYRE
and Gilbert MYLES; Green Party, no official leader; Mana Motuhake, Martin
RATA; Socialist Unity Party (SUP; pro-Soviet), Kenneth DOUGLAS; note - the
New Labor, Democratic, and Mana Motuhake parties formed a coalition in
September 1991; the Green Party joined the coalition in May 1992

:New Zealand Government

Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held on 27 October 1990 (next to be held October 1993); results - NP
49%, NZLP 35%, Green Party 7%, NLP 5%; seats - (97 total) NP 67, NZLP 29,
NLP 1
Member of:
ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC,
AsDB, Australia Group, C, CCC, CP, COCOM, (cooperating country), EBRD,
ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS,
MTCR, OECD, PCA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador - Denis Bazely Gordon McLEAN; Chancery at 37 Observatory Circle
NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 328-4800; there are New Zealand
Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York
US:
Ambassador Della M. NEWMAN; Embassy at 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon,
Wellington (mailing address is P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1,
FPO AP 96531-1001); telephone [64] (4) 722-068; FAX [64] (4) 723-537; there
is a US Consulate General in Auckland
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red
five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag;
the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation

:New Zealand Economy

Overview:
Since 1984 the government has been reorienting an agrarian economy dependent
on a guaranteed British market to an open free market economy that can
compete on the global scene. The government has hoped that dynamic growth
would boost real incomes, reduce inflationary pressures, and permit the
expansion of welfare benefits. The results have been mixed: inflation is
down from double-digit levels, but growth has been sluggish and
unemployment, always a highly sensitive issue, has exceeded 10% since May
1991. In 1988, GDP fell by 1%, in 1989 grew by a moderate 2.4%, and was flat
in 1990-91.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $46.2 billion, per capita $14,000; real growth
rate - 0.4% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.0% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
10.7% (September 1991)
Budget:
revenues $17.6 billion; expenditures $18.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$9.4 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
commodities:
wool, lamb, mutton, beef, fruit, fish, cheese, manufactures, chemicals,
forestry products
partners:
EC 18.3%, Japan 17.9%, Australia 17.5%, US 13.5%, China 3.6%, South Korea
3.1%
Imports:
$8.4 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
commodities:
petroleum, consumer goods, motor vehicles, industrial equipment
partners:
Australia 19.7%, Japan 16.9%, EC 16.9%, US 15.3%, Taiwan 3.0%
External debt:
$17.4 billion (1989)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.9% (1990); accounts for about 20% of GDP
Electricity:
7,800,000 kW capacity; 28,000 million kWh produced, 8,500 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery,
transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining
Agriculture:
accounts for about 9% of GDP and 10% of the work force; livestock
predominates - wool, meat, dairy products all export earners; crops - wheat,
barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, and vegetables; surplus producer of farm
products; fish catch reached a record 503,000 metric tons in 1988
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $526 million
Currency:
New Zealand dollar (plural - dollars); 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100
cents
Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.8245 (March 1992), 1.7265 (1991),
1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:New Zealand Communications

Railroads:
4,716 km total; all 1.067-meter gauge; 274 km double track; 113 km
electrified; over 99% government owned
Highways:
92,648 km total; 49,547 km paved, 43,101 km gravel or crushed stone
Inland waterways:
1,609 km; of little importance to transportation
Pipelines:
natural gas 1,000 km; petroleum products 160 km; condensate 150 km
Ports:
Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Wellington, Tauranga
Merchant marine:
18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 182,206 GRT/246,446 DWT; includes 2
cargo, 5 roll-on/roll-off, 1 railcar carrier, 4 oil tanker, 1 liquefied gas,
5 bulk
Civil air:
about 40 major transport aircraft
Airports:
118 total, 118 usable; 34 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 43 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
excellent international and domestic systems; 2,110,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 64 AM, 2 FM, 14 TV; submarine cables extend to
Australia and Fiji; 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

:New Zealand Defense Forces

Branches:
New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 874,703; 739,923 fit for military service; 30,297 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $792 million, 2% of GDP (FY92)

:Nicaragua Geography

Total area:
129,494 km2
Land area:
120,254 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than New York State
Land boundaries:
1,231 km total; Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km
Coastline:
910 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
25 nm security zone (status of claim uncertain)
Continental shelf:
not specified
Territorial sea:
200 nm
Disputes:
territorial disputes with Colombia over the Archipelago de San Andres y
Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; unresolved maritime boundary in Golfo de
Fonseca
Climate:
tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands
Terrain:
extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains;
narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes
Natural resources:
gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish
Land use:
arable land 9%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 43%; forest and
woodland 35%; other 12%; including irrigated 1%
Environment:
subject to destructive earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and occasional
severe hurricanes; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution

:Nicaragua People

Population:
3,878,150 (July 1992), growth rate 2.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
37 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
57 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
60 years male, 66 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Nicaraguan(s); adjective - Nicaraguan
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Indian 5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant 5%
Languages:
Spanish (official); English- and Indian-speaking minorities on Atlantic
coast
Literacy:
57% (male 57%, female 57%) age 15 and over can read and write (1971)
Labor force:
1,086,000; service 43%, agriculture 44%, industry 13% (1986)
Organized labor:
35% of labor force

:Nicaragua Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Nicaragua
Type:
republic
Capital:
Managua
Administrative divisions:
9 administrative regions encompassing 17 departments (departamentos,
singular - departamento); Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli,
Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, North Atlantic
Coast Autonomous Zone (RAAN), Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas, South
Atlantic Coast Autonomous Zone (RAAS)
Independence:
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
January 1987
Legal system:
civil law system; Supreme Court may review administrative acts
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) and municipal courts
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Violeta Barrios de CHAMORRO (since 25 April 1990); Vice President
Virgilio GODOY (since 25 April 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling coalition:
National Opposition Union (UNO) is a 14-party alliance - National
Conservative Party (PNC), Silviano MATAMOROS; Conservative Popular Alliance
Party (PAPC), Myriam ARGUELLO; National Conservative Action Party (PANC),
Hernaldo ZUNIGA; National Democratic Confidence Party (PDCN), Augustin
JARQUIN; Independent Liberal Party (PLI), Wilfredo NAVARRO; Neo-Liberal
Party (PALI), Andres ZUNIGA; Liberal Constitutionalist Party (PLC), Jose
Ernesto SOMARRIBA; National Action Party (PAN), Eduardo RIVAS; Nicaraguan
Socialist Party (PSN), Gustavo TABLADA; Communist Party of Nicaragua
(PCdeN), Eli ALTIMIRANO; Popular Social Christian Party (PPSC), Luis
Humberto GUZMAN; Nicaraguan Democratic Movement (MDN), Roberto URROZ; Social
Democratic Party (PSD), Guillermo POTOY; Central American Integrationist
Party (PIAC), Alejandro PEREZ
opposition parties:
Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), Daniel ORTEGA; Central American
Unionist Party (PUCA), Blanca ROJAS; Democratic Conservative Party of
Nicaragua (PCDN), Jose BRENES; Liberal Party of National Unity (PLUIN),
Eduardo CORONADO; Movement of Revolutionary Unity (MUR), Francisco SAMPER;
Social Christian Party (PSC), Erick RAMIREZ; Revolutionary Workers' Party
(PRT), Bonifacio MIRANDA; Social Conservative Party (PSOC), Fernando
AGUERRO; Popular Action Movement - Marxist-Leninist (MAP-ML), Isidro TELLEZ;
Popular Social Christian Party (PPSC), Mauricio DIAZ
Suffrage:
universal at age 16

:Nicaragua Government

Elections:
President:
last held on 25 February 1990 (next to be held February 1996); results -
Violeta Barrios de CHAMORRO (UNO) 54.7%, Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN)
40.8%, other 4.5%
National Assembly:
last held on 25 February 1990 (next to be held February 1996); results - UNO
53.9%, FSLN 40.8%, PSC 1.6%, MUR 1.0%; seats - (92 total) UNO 51, FSLN 39,
PSC 1, MUR 1
Communists:
15,000-20,000
Other political or pressure groups:
National Workers Front (FNT) is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor
unions: Sandinista Workers' Central (CST), Farm Workers Association (ATC),
Health Workers Federation (FETASALUD), National Union of Employees (UNE),
National Association of Educators of Nicaragua (ANDEN), Union of Journalists
of Nicaragua (UPN), Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional
Associations (CONAPRO), and the National Union of Farmers and Ranchers
(UNAG); Permanent Congress of Workers (CPT) is an umbrella group of four
non-Sandinista labor unions: Confederation of Labor Unification (CUS),
Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN-A), Independent General
Confederation of Labor (CGT-I), and Labor Action and Unity Central (CAUS);
Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN) is an independent labor union; Superior
Council of Private Enterprise (COSEP) is a confederation of business groups
Member of:
BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LORCS,
NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Ernesto PALAZIO; Chancery at 1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20009; telephone (202) 939-6570
US:
Ambassador Harry W. SHLAUDEMAN; Embassy at Kilometer 4.5 Carretera Sur.,
Managua (mailing address is APO AA 34021); telephone [505] (2) 666010 or
666013, 666015 through 18, 666026, 666027, 666032 through 34; FAX [505] (2)
666046
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the
national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features
a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the top and
AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to the flag of El Salvador, which
features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN
LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of
Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the
white band

:Nicaragua Economy

Overview:
Government control of the economy historically has been extensive, although
the CHAMORRO government has pledged to greatly reduce intervention. Four
private banks have been licensed, and the government has liberalized foreign
trade and abolished price controls on most goods. Over 50% of the
agricultural and industrial firms remain state owned. Sandinista economic
policies and the war had produced a severe economic crisis. The foundation
of the economy continues to be the export of agricultural commodities,
largely coffee and cotton. Farm production fell by roughly 7% in 1989 and 4%
in 1990, and remained about even in 1991. The agricultural sector employs
44% of the work force and accounts for 15% of GDP and 80% of export
earnings. Industry, which employs 13% of the work force and contributes
about 25% to GDP, showed a drop of 7% in 1989, fell slightly in 1990, and
remained flat in 1991; output still is below pre-1979 levels. External debt
is one of the highest in the world on a per capita basis. In 1991 the
inflation rate was 766%, down sharply from the 13,490% of 1990.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $1.6 billion, per capita $425; real growth rate
-1.0% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
766% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
13%; underemployment 50% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $347 million; expenditures $499 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA million (1991)
Exports:
$342 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
coffee, cotton, sugar, bananas, seafood, meat, chemicals
partners:
OECD 75%, USSR and Eastern Europe 15%, other 10%
Imports:
$738 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
petroleum, food, chemicals, machinery, clothing
partners:
Latin America 30%, US 25%, EC 20%, USSR and Eastern Europe 10%, other 15%
(1990 est.)
External debt:
$10 billion (December 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA; accounts for about 25% of GDP
Electricity:
423,000 kW capacity; 1,409 million kWh produced, 376 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
food processing, chemicals, metal products, textiles, clothing, petroleum
refining and distribution, beverages, footwear
Agriculture:
accounts for 15% of GDP and 44% of work force; cash crops - coffee, bananas,
sugarcane, cotton; food crops - rice, corn, cassava, citrus fruit, beans;
variety of animal products - beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy; normally
self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $294 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,381 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $3.5 billion
Currency:
cordoba (plural - cordobas); 1 cordoba (C$) = 100 centavos

:Nicaragua Economy

Exchange rates:
cordobas (C$) per US$1 - 25,000,000 (March 1992), 21,354,000 (1991), 15,655
(1989), 270 (1988), 102.60 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Nicaragua Communications

Railroads:
373 km 1.067-meter narrow gauge, government owned; majority of system not
operating; 3 km 1.435-meter gauge line at Puerto Cabezas (does not connect
with mainline)
Highways:
25,930 km total; 4,000 km paved, 2,170 km gravel or crushed stone, 5,425 km
earth or graded earth, 14,335 km unimproved; Pan-American highway 368.5 km
Inland waterways:
2,220 km, including 2 large lakes
Pipelines:
crude oil 56 km
Ports:
Corinto, El Bluff, Puerto Cabezas, Puerto Sandino, Rama
Merchant marine:
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,161 GRT/2,500 DWT
Civil air:
9 major transport aircraft
Airports:
228 total, 155 usable; 11 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
low-capacity radio relay and wire system being expanded; connection into
Central American Microwave System; 60,000 telephones; broadcast stations -
45 AM, no FM, 7 TV, 3 shortwave; earth stations - 1 Intersputnik and 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

:Nicaragua Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 878,066; 541,090 fit for military service; 42,997 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $70 million, 3.8% of GDP (1991 budget)

:Niger Geography

Total area:
1,267,000 km2
Land area:
1,266,700 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
5,697 km total; Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km, Burkina 628 km, Chad 1,175 km,
Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in northern Niger; demarcation of
international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has led to border
incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification by Cameroon,
Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary
demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger
Climate:
desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Terrain:
predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south;
hills in north
Natural resources:
uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates
Land use:
arable land 3%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 7%; forest and
woodland 2%; other 88%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
recurrent drought and desertification severely affecting marginal
agricultural activities; overgrazing; soil erosion
Note:
landlocked

:Niger People

Population:
8,052,945 (July 1992), growth rate 3.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
58 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
23 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
115 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
42 years male, 45 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
7.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Nigerien(s); adjective - Nigerien
Ethnic divisions:
Hausa 56%; Djerma 22%; Fula 8.5%; Tuareg 8%; Beri Beri (Kanouri) 4.3%; Arab,
Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%; about 4,000 French expatriates
Religions:
Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christians
Languages:
French (official); Hausa, Djerma
Literacy:
28% (male 40%, female 17%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
2,500,000 wage earners (1982); agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 6%,
government 4%; 51% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
negligible

:Niger Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Niger
Type:
as of November 1991, transition government appointed by national reform
conference; scheduled to turn over power to democratically elected
government in January 1993
Capital:
Niamey
Administrative divisions:
7 departments (departements, singular - departement); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso,
Maradi, Niamey, Tahoua, Zinder
Independence:
3 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
December 1989 constitution revised November 1991 by National Democratic
Reform Conference
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Republic Day, 18 December (1958)
Executive branch:
president (ceremonial), prime minister (interim), Cabinet
Legislative branch:
National Assembly
Judicial branch:
State Court (Cour d'Etat), Court of Appeal (Cour d'Apel)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Brig. Gen. Ali SAIBOU (since 14 November 1987); ceremonial post
since national conference (1991)
Head of Government:
Interim Prime Minister Amadou CHEIFFOU (since November 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
National Movement of the Development Society (MNSD-NASSARA), Tanda MAMADOU;
Niger Progressive Party - African Democratic Rally (PPN-RDA), Harou KOUKA;
Union of Popular Forces for Democracy and Progress (UDFP-SAWABA), Djibo
BAKARY; Niger Democratic Union (UDN-SAWABA), Mamoudou PASCAL; Union of
Patriots, Democrats, and Progressives (UPDP), Andre SALIFOU; Niger Social
Democrat Party (PSDN-ALHERI), Mallam Adji WAZIRI; Niger Party for Democracy
and Socialism (PNDS-TARAYA), Issoufou MAHAMADOU; Democratic and Social
Convention (CDS-RAHAMA), Mahamane OUSMANE; Union for Democracy and Progress
(UDP), Bello TCHIOUSSO; Union for Democracy and Social Progress
(UDPS-AMANA), Akoli DAOUEL; Masses Union for Democratic Action (UMAD-AIKI),
Belko GARBA; Worker's Liberation Party (PLT), Idi Ango OUMAROU; Convention
for Social Rehabilitation (CRS), Abdoul Karim SEYNI; Popular Movement for
Democracy in Niger (MPDN), Abdou SANDA; Popular Front for National
Liberation (FPLN), Diallo SABO; Republican Party for Freedom and Progress in
Niger (PRLPN), Alka ALMOU; other parties forming
Suffrage:
universal adult at age 18
Elections:
President:
President Ali SAIBOU has been in office since December 1989, but the
presidency is now a largely ceremonial position

:Niger Government

National Assembly:
last held 10 December 1989 (next to be held NA); results - MNSD was the only
party; seats - (150 total) MNSD 150 (indirectly elected); note - Niger held
a national conference from July to November 1991 to decide upon a
transitional government and an agenda for multiparty elections
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Moumouni Adamou DJERMAKOYE; Chancery at 2204 R Street NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-4224 through 4227
US:
Ambassador Jennifer C. WARD; Embassy at Avenue des Ambassades, Niamey
(mailing address is B. P. 11201, Niamey); telephone [227] 72-26-61 through
64
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small
orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white band; similar to
the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band

:Niger Economy

Overview:
About 90% of the population is engaged in farming and stock raising,
activities that generate almost half the national income. The economy also
depends heavily on exploitation of large uranium deposits. Uranium
production grew rapidly in the mid-1970s, but tapered off in the early 1980s
when world prices declined. France is a major customer, while Germany,
Japan, and Spain also make regular purchases. The depressed demand for
uranium has contributed to an overall sluggishness in the economy, a severe
trade imbalance, and a mounting external debt.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $2.4 billion, per capita $300; real growth rate
-3.4% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $220 million; expenditures $446 million, including capital
expenditures of $190 million (FY89 est.)
Exports:
$320 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
uranium 75%, livestock products, cowpeas, onions
partners:
France 65%, Nigeria 11%, Ivory Coast, Italy
Imports:
$439 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
petroleum products, primary materials, machinery, vehicles and parts,
electronic equipment, pharmaceuticals, chemical products, cereals,
foodstuffs
partners:
France 32%, Ivory Coast 11%, Germany 5%, Italy 4%, Nigeria 4%
External debt:
$1.8 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0% (1989); accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity:
105,000 kW capacity; 230 million kWh produced, 30 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses, and a
few other small light industries; uranium production began in 1971
Agriculture:
accounts for roughly 40% of GDP and 90% of labor force; cash crops -
cowpeas, cotton, peanuts; food crops - millet, sorghum, cassava, rice;
livestock - cattle, sheep, goats; self-sufficient in food except in drought
years
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $380 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3,165 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $504 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $61
million
Currency:
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
= 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
(1987)

:Niger Economy

Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

:Niger Communications

Highways:
39,970 km total; 3,170 km bituminous, 10,330 km gravel and laterite, 3,470
km earthen, 23,000 km tracks
Inland waterways:
Niger River is navigable 300 km from Niamey to Gaya on the Benin frontier
from mid-December through March
Civil air:
2 major transport aircraft
Airports:
29 total, 27 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 13 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
small system of wire, radiocommunications, and radio relay links
concentrated in southwestern area; 14,260 telephones; broadcast stations -
15 AM, 5 FM, 18 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 3 domestic, with 1 planned

:Niger Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican National Guard, National police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,724,293; 928,177 fit for military service; 83,528 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $27 million, 1.3% of GDP (1989)

:Nigeria Geography

Total area:
923,770 km2
Land area:
910,770 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
4,047 km total; Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km
Coastline:
853 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
30 nm
Disputes:
demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has
led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification
by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; boundary commission created with
Cameroon to discuss unresolved land and maritime boundaries - has not yet
convened
Climate:
varies - equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Terrain:
southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in
southeast, plains in north
Natural resources:
crude oil, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, natural
gas
Land use:
arable land 31%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures 23%; forest and
woodland 15%; other 28%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
recent droughts in north severely affecting marginal agricultural
activities; desertification; soil degradation, rapid deforestation

:Nigeria People

Population:
126,274,589 (July 1992), growth rate 3.0% (1992); note - a new population
figure of 88.5 million is in the process of being incorporated into revised
Census Bureau figures (April 1992)
Birth rate:
46 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
16 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
110 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
48 years male, 50 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Nigerian(s); adjective - Nigerian
Ethnic divisions:
more than 250 tribal groups; Hausa and Fulani of the north, Yoruba of the
southwest, and Ibos of the southeast make up 65% of the population; about
27,000 non-Africans
Religions:
Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Languages:
English (official); Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, Fulani, and several other languages
also widely used
Literacy:
51% (male 62%, female 40%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
42,844,000; agriculture 54%, industry, commerce, and services 19%,
government 15%; 49% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
3,520,000 wage earners belong to 42 recognized trade unions, which come
under a single national labor federation - the Nigerian Labor Congress (NLC)

:Nigeria Government

Long-form name:
Federal Republic of Nigeria
Type:
military government since 31 December 1983
Capital:
Abuja; note - on 12 December 1991 the capital was officially moved from
Lagos to Abuja; many government offices remain in Lagos pending completion
of facilities in Abuja
Administrative divisions:
30 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Abuja Capital Territory*, Adamawa, Akwa
Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Enugu, Imo,
Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Niger, Ogun, Ondo,
Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe
Independence:
1 October 1960 (from UK)
Constitution:
1 October 1979, amended 9 February 1984, revised 1989
Legal system:
based on English common law, Islamic law, and tribal law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 October (1960)
Executive branch:
president of the Armed Forces Ruling Council, Armed Forces Ruling Council,
National Council of State, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
National Assembly was dissolved after the military coup of 31 December 1983
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Federal Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President and Commander in Chief of Armed Forces Gen. Ibrahim BABANGIDA
(since 27 August 1985)
Political parties and leaders:
two political parties established by the government in 1989 - Social
Democratic Party (SDP) and National Republican Convention (NRC)
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
President:
first presidential elections since the 31 December 1983 coup scheduled for
late 1992
National Assembly:
first elections since it was dissolved after the 31 December 1983 coup
scheduled for 4 July 1992
Communists:
the pro-Communist underground consists of a small fraction of the Nigerian
left; leftist leaders are prominent in the country's central labor
organization but have little influence on the government
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMO, IMF, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Zubair Mahmud KAZAURE; Chancery at 2201 M Street NW, Washington,
DC 20037; telephone (202) 822-1500; there is a Nigerian Consulate General in
New York

:Nigeria Government

US:
Ambassador Lannon WALKER; Embassy at 2 Eleke Crescent, Lagos (mailing
address is P. O. Box 554, Lagos); telephone [234] (1) 610097; FAX [234] (1)
610257; there is a US Consulate General in Kaduna; note - the US Government
has requested Nigerian Government permission to open an Embassy Branch
Office in Abuja; the US Embassy will remain in Lagos until a later date,
when the Branch Office in Abuja will become the Embassy and the Embassy in
Lagos will become a Consulate General
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green

:Nigeria Economy

Overview:
Although Nigeria is Africa's leading oil-producing country, it remains poor
with a $250 per capita GDP. In 1991 massive government spending, much of it
to help ensure a smooth transition to civilian rule, ballooned the budget
deficit and caused inflation and interest rates to rise. The lack of fiscal
discipline forced the IMF to declare Nigeria not in compliance with an
18-month standby facility started in January 1991. Lagos has set ambitious
targets for expanding oil production capacity and is offering foreign
companies more attractive investment incentives. Government efforts to
reduce Nigeria's dependence on oil exports and to sustain noninflationary
growth, however, have fallen short because of inadequate new investment
funds and endemic corruption. Living standards continue to deteriorate from
the higher level of the early 1980s oil boom.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $30 billion, per capita $250; real growth rate
5.2% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
40% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $10 billion; expenditures $10 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$13.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
oil 95%, cocoa, rubber
partners:
EC 51%, US 32%
Imports:
$6.9 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
consumer goods, capital equipment, chemicals, raw materials
partners:
EC, US
External debt:
$32 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.2% (1990); accounts for 8.5% of GDP
Electricity:
4,740,000 kW capacity; 11,280 million kWh produced, 90 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
crude oil and mining - coal, tin, columbite; primary processing industries -
palm oil, peanut, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins; manufacturing
industries - textiles, cement, building materials, food products, footwear,
chemical, printing, ceramics, steel
Agriculture:
accounts for 32% of GDP and half of labor force; inefficient small-scale
farming dominates; once a large net exporter of food and now an importer;
cash crops - cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, rubber; food crops - corn, rice,
sorghum, millet, cassava, yams; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, pigs;
fishing and forestry resources extensively exploited
Illicit drugs:
illicit heroin and some cocaine trafficking; marijuana cultivation for
domestic consumption and export; major transit country for heroin en route
from southeast and southwest Asia via Africa to Western Europe and the US;
growing transit route for cocaine from South America via West Africa to
Western Europe and the US

:Nigeria Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $705 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.0 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $2.2 billion
Currency:
naira (plural - naira); 1 naira (N) = 100 kobo
Exchange rates:
naira (N) per US$1 - 10.226 (February 1992), 9.909 (1991), 8.038 (1990),
7.3647 (1989), 4.5370 (1988), 4.0160 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Nigeria Communications

Railroads:
3,505 km 1.067-meter gauge
Highways:
107,990 km total 30,019 km paved (mostly bituminous-surface treatment);
25,411 km laterite, gravel, crushed stone, improved earth; 52,560 km
unimproved
Inland waterways:
8,575 km consisting of Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and creeks
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,042 km; natural gas 500 km; petroleum products 3,000 km
Ports:
Lagos, Port Harcourt, Calabar, Warri, Onne, Sapele
Merchant marine:
28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 418,046 GRT/664,949 DWT; includes 17
cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 7 petroleum tanker, 1
chemical tanker, 1 bulk
Civil air:
57 major transport aircraft
Airports:
76 total, 64 usable; 33 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over
3,659 m; 15 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
above-average system limited by poor maintenance; major expansion in
progress; radio relay and cable routes; broadcast stations - 35 AM, 17 FM,
28 TV; satellite earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, 20 domestic stations; 1 coaxial submarine cable

:Nigeria Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 28,778,532; 16,451,582 fit for military service; 1,256,440
reach military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $300 million, 1% of GDP (1990 est.)
\

:Niue Geography

Total area:
260 km2
Land area:
260 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
64 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; modified by southeast trade winds
Terrain:
steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau
Natural resources:
fish, arable land
Land use:
arable land 61%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 4%; forest and
woodland 19%; other 12%
Environment:
subject to typhoons
Note:
one of world's largest coral islands; located about 460 km east of Tonga

:Niue People

Population:
1,751 (July 1992), growth rate - 6.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NA migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
NA years male, NA years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Niuean(s); adjective - Niuean
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian, with some 200 Europeans, Samoans, and Tongans
Religions:
Ekalesia Nieue (Niuean Church) - a Protestant church closely related to the
London Missionary Society 75%, Mormon 10%, Roman Catholic, Jehovah's
Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%
Languages:
Polynesian tongue closely related to Tongan and Samoan; English
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%) but compulsory education age 5 to 14
Labor force:
1,000 (1981 est.); most work on family plantations; paid work exists only in
government service, small industry, and the Niue Development Board
Organized labor:
NA

:Niue Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand; Niue fully
responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for
external affairs
Capital:
Alofi
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
became a self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand on 19
October 1974
Constitution:
19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act)
Legal system:
English common law
National holiday:
Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty), 6
February (1840)
Executive branch:
British monarch, premier, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
Legislative Assembly
Judicial branch:
Appeal Court of New Zealand, High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by New Zealand
Representative John SPRINGFORD (since 1974)
Head of Government:
Premier Sir Robert R. REX (since October 1974)
Political parties and leaders:
Niue Island Party (NIP), Young VIVIAN
Suffrage:
universal adult at age 18
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held on 8 April 1990 (next to be held March 1993); results - percent of
vote NA; seats - (20 total, 6 elected) NIP 1, independents 5
Member of:
ESCAP (associate), SPC, SPF
Diplomatic representation:
none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)
Flag:
yellow with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the flag of
the UK bears five yellow five-pointed stars - a large one on a blue disk in
the center and a smaller one on each arm of the bold red cross

:Niue Economy

Overview:
The economy is heavily dependent on aid from New Zealand. Government
expenditures regularly exceed revenues, with the shortfall made up by grants
from New Zealand - the grants are used to pay wages to public employees. The
agricultural sector consists mainly of subsistence gardening, although some
cash crops are grown for export. Industry consists primarily of small
factories to process passion fruit, lime oil, honey, and coconut cream. The
sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors is an important source of
revenue. The island in recent years has suffered a serious loss of
population because of migration of Niueans to New Zealand.
GNP:
exchange rate conversion - $2.1 million, per capita $1,000; real growth rate
NA% (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.6% (1984)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $5.5 million; expenditures $6.3 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY85 est.)
Exports:
$175,274 (f.o.b., 1985)
commodities:
canned coconut cream, copra, honey, passion fruit products, pawpaw, root
crops, limes, footballs, stamps, handicrafts
partners:
NZ 89%, Fiji, Cook Islands, Australia
Imports:
$3.8 million (c.i.f., 1985)
commodities:
food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, lubricants,
chemicals, drugs
partners:
NZ 59%, Fiji 20%, Japan 13%, Western Samoa, Australia, US
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
1,500 kW capacity; 3 million kWh produced, 1,490 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tourist, handicrafts
Agriculture:
copra, coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes; subsistence crops - taro,
yams, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef cattle
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $62
million
Currency:
New Zealand dollar (plural - dollars); 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100
cents
Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.8245 (March 1992), 1.7265 (1991),
1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Niue Communications

Highways:
123 km all-weather roads, 106 km access and plantation roads
Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
1 with permanent-surface runway of 1,650 m
Telecommunications:
single-line telephone system connects all villages on island; 383
telephones; 1,000 radio receivers (1987 est.); broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1
FM, no TV

:Niue Defense Forces

Branches:
Police Force
Note:
defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

:Norfolk Island Geography

Total area:
34.6 km2
Land area:
34.6 km2
Comparative area:
about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
32 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 25%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 75%
Environment:
subject to typhoons (especially May to July)
Note:
located 1,575 km east of Australia in the South Pacific Ocean

:Norfolk Island People

Population:
2,620 (July 1992), growth rate 1.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NA migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
NA years male, NA years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Norfolk Islander(s); adjective - Norfolk Islander(s)
Ethnic divisions:
descendants of the Bounty mutiny; more recently, Australian and New Zealand
settlers
Religions:
Anglican 39%, Roman Catholic 11.7%, Uniting Church in Australia 16.4%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 4.4%, none 9.2%, unknown 16.9%, other 2.4% (1986)
Languages:
English (official) and Norfolk - a mixture of 18th century English and
ancient Tahitian
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
NA
Organized labor:
NA

:Norfolk Island Government

Long-form name:
Territory of Norfolk Island
Type:
territory of Australia
Capital:
Kingston (administrative center), Burnt Pine (commercial center)
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
none (territory of Australia)
Constitution:
Norfolk Island Act of 1957
Legal system:
wide legislative and executive responsibility under the Norfolk Island Act
of 1979; Supreme Court
National holiday:
Pitcairners Arrival Day Anniversary, 8 June (1856)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general of Australia, administrator, Executive
Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Administrator H.
B. MACDONALD (since NA 1989), who is appointed by the Governor General of
Australia
Head of Government:
Assembly President and Chief Minister John Terence BROWN (since NA)
Political parties and leaders:
NA
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held 1989 (held every three years); results - percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (9 total) percent of seats by party NA
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation:
none (territory of Australia)
Flag:
three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green with a large
green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the slightly wider white band

:Norfolk Island Economy

Overview:
The primary economic activity is tourism, which has brought a level of
prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the Pacific Islands. The number of
visitors has increased steadily over the years and reached 29,000 in FY89.
Revenues from tourism have given the island a favorable balance of trade and
helped the agricultural sector to become self-sufficient in the production
of beef, poultry, and eggs.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $4.2 million, including capital expenditures of
$400,000 (FY89)
Exports:
$1.7 million (f.o.b., FY86)
commodities:
postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia Palm, small
quantities of avocados
partners:
Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe
Imports:
$15.6 million (c.i.f., FY86)
commodities:
NA
partners:
Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe
External debt:
NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
7,000 kW capacity; 8 million kWh produced, 3,160 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tourism
Agriculture:
Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals, vegetables, fruit,
cattle, poultry
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
Australian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3177 (March 1992), 1.2835 (1991),
1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Norfolk Island Communications

Highways:
80 km of roads, including 53 km paved; remainder are earth formed or coral
surfaced
Ports:
none; loading jetties at Kingston and Cascade
Airports:
1 with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m (Australian owned)
Telecommunications:
1,500 radio receivers (1982); radio link service with Sydney; 987 telephones
(1983); broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV

:Norfolk Island Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia

:Northern Mariana Islands Geography

Total area:
477 km2
Land area:
477 km2; comprises 16 islands including Saipan, Rota, and Tinian
Comparative area:
slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
1,482 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little seasonal
temperature variation; dry season December to July, rainy season July to
October
Terrain:
southern islands are limestone with level terraces and fringing coral reefs;
northern islands are volcanic; highest elevation is 471 meters (Mt. Tagpochu
on Saipan)
Natural resources:
arable land, fish
Land use:
arable land 1%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and pastures 19%; forest and
woodland NA%; other NA%
Environment:
active volcanos on Pagan and Agrihan; subject to typhoons during the rainy
season
Note:
strategic location 5,635 km west-southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific
Ocean, about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and the Philippines

:Northern Mariana Islands People

Population:
47,168 (July 1992), growth rate 3.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
35 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
38 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
66 years male, 69 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
undetermined
Ethnic divisions:
Chamorro majority; Carolinians and other Micronesians; Spanish, German,
Japanese admixtures
Religions:
Christian with a Roman Catholic majority, although traditional beliefs and
taboos may still be found
Languages:
English, but Chamorro and Carolinian are also spoken in the home and taught
in school
Literacy:
96% (male 97%, female 96%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Labor force:
12,788 local; 18,799 foreign workers (1990 est.)
Organized labor:
NA

:Northern Mariana Islands Government

Long-form name:
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
Type:
commonwealth in political union with the US and administered by the Office
of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the Interior
Capital:
Saipan
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
none (commonwealth in political union with the US)
Constitution:
Covenant Agreement effective 3 November 1986
Legal system:
based on US system except for customs, wages, immigration laws, and taxation
National holiday:
Commonwealth Day, 8 January (1978)
Executive branch:
US President; governor, lieutenant governor
Legislative branch:
bicameral Legislature consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Commonwealth Court and the Federal District Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE
(since 20 January 1989)
Head of Government:
Governor Lorenzo I. DeLeon GUERRERO (since 9 January 1990); Lieutenant
Governor Benjamin T. MANGLONA (since 9 January 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
Republican Party, Alonzo IGISOMAR; Democratic Party, Felicidad OGUMORO
Suffrage:
universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but do not vote
in US presidential elections
Elections:
Governor:
last held in November 1989 (next to be held November 1993); results -
Lorenzo I. DeLeon GUERRERO, Republican Party, was elected governor
Senate:
last held on November 1991 (next to be held November 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (9 total) Republications 6, Democrats 3
House of Representatives:
last held in November 1991 (next to be held November 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total) Republicans 5, Democrats 10
US House of Representatives:
the Commonwealth does not have a nonvoting delegate in Congress; instead, it
has an elected official ``resident representative'' located in Washington,
DC; seats - (1 total) Republican (Juan N. BABAUTA)
Member of:
ESCAP (associate), SPC
Diplomatic representation:
none
Flag:
blue with a white five-pointed star superimposed on the gray silhouette of a
latte stone (a traditional foundation stone used in building) in the center

:Northern Mariana Islands Economy

Overview:
The economy benefits substantially from financial assistance from the US. An
agreement for the years 1986 to 1992 entitles the islands to $228 million
for capital development, government operations, and special programs.
Another major source of income is the tourist industry, which employs about
10% of the work force. Japanese tourists predominate. The agricultural
sector is made up of cattle ranches and small farms producing coconuts,
breadfruit, tomatoes, and melons. Industry is small scale in nature - mostly
handicrafts and fish processing.
GNP:
purchasing power equivalent - $165 million, per capita $3,498; real growth
rate NA% (1982); note - GNP numbers reflect US spending
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $112.2 million, including capital expenditures of
$NA (February 1990)
Exports:
$153.9 million (1989)
commodities:
manufactured goods, garments, vegetables, beef, pork
partners:
NA
Imports:
$313.7 million, a 43% increase over previous year (1989)
commodities:
NA
partners:
NA
External debt:
none
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
25,000 kW capacity; 35 million kWh produced, 740 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tourism, construction, light industry, handicrafts
Agriculture:
coffee, coconuts, fruits, tobacco, cattle
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
US currency is used
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

:Northern Mariana Islands Communications

Highways:
381.5 km total (134.5 km first-grade primary, 55 km secondary, 192 km local)
(1991)
Ports:
Saipan, Rota, Tinian
Airports:
6 total, 4 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM (1984), 1 TV; 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations

:Northern Mariana Islands Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

:Norway Geography

Total area:
324,220 km2
Land area:
307,860 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
2,515 km total; Finland 729 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 167 km
Coastline:
21,925 km; includes mainland 3,419 km, large islands 2,413 km, long fjords,
numerous small islands, and minor indentations 16,093 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
10 nm
Continental shelf:
to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
4 nm
Disputes:
territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land); Denmark has challenged
Norway's maritime claims between Greenland and Jan Mayen; maritime boundary
dispute with Russia over portion of Barents Sea
Climate:
temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior;
rainy year-round on west coast
Terrain:
glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile
valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords;
arctic tundra in north
Natural resources:
crude oil, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead, fish,
timber, hydropower
Land use:
arable land 3%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures NEGL%; forest and
woodland 27%; other 70%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
air and water pollution; acid rain; note - strategic location adjacent to
sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest
coastlines in world; Norway and Turkey only NATO members having a land
boundary with Russia

:Norway People

Population:
4,294,876 (July 1992), growth rate 0.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
14 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
74 years male, 81 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Norwegian(s); adjective - Norwegian
Ethnic divisions:
Germanic (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic) and racial-cultural minority of 20,000
Lapps
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran (state church) 87.8%, other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 3.8%, none 3.2%, unknown 5.2% (1980)
Languages:
Norwegian (official); small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Literacy:
99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1976 est.)
Labor force:
2,167,000 (September 1990); services 34.7%, commerce 18%, mining and
manufacturing 16.6%, banking and financial services 7.5%, transportation and
communications 7.2%, construction 7.2%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing
6.4% (1989)
Organized labor:
66% of labor force (1985)

:Norway Government

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