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struggling with severe economic dislocations, mainly attributable to the
economic crumbling of the USSR, by far Mongolia's leading trade and
development partner. Moscow almost certainly cut aid in 1991, and the
dissolution of the USSR at yearend 1991 makes prospects for aid quite bleak
for 1992. Industry in 1991-92 has been hit hard by energy shortages, mainly
due to disruptions in coal production and shortfalls in petroleum imports.
The government is moving away from the Soviet-style centrally planned
economy through privatization and price reform.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $2.1 billion, per capita $900; real growth rate
-3% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
100% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1991 est.)
Budget:
deficit of $67 million (1991)
Exports:
$279 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other
nonferrous metals
partners:
USSR 75%, China 10%, Japan 4%
Imports:
$360 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods,
chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
partners:
USSR 75%, Austria 5%, China 5%
External debt:
$16.8 billion (yearend 1990); 98.6% with USSR
Industrial production:
growth rate -12% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
1,238,000 kW capacity; 3,700 million kWh produced, 1,692 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
copper, processing of animal products, building materials, food and
beverage, mining (particularly coal)
Agriculture:
accounts for about 20% of GDP and provides livelihood for about 50% of the
population; livestock raising predominates (primarily sheep and goats, but
also cattle, camels, and horses); crops - wheat, barley, potatoes, forage

:Mongolia Economy

Economic aid:
about $300 million in trade credits and $34 million in grant aid from USSR
and other CEMA countries, plus $7.4 million from UNDP (1990); in 1991, $170
million in grants and technical assistance from Western donor countries,
including $30 million from World Bank and $30 million from the IMF; over
$200 million from donor countries projected in 1992
Currency:
tughrik (plural - tughriks); 1 tughrik (Tug) = 100 mongos
Exchange rates:
tughriks (Tug) per US$1 - 7.1 (1991), 5.63 (1990), 3.00 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Mongolia Communications

Railroads:
1,750 km 1.524-meter broad gauge (1988)
Highways:
46,700 km total; 1,000 km hard surface; 45,700 km other surfaces (1988)
Inland waterways:
397 km of principal routes (1988)
Civil air:
25 major transport aircraft
Airports:
81 total, 31 usable; 11 with permanent-surface runways; fewer than 5 with
runways over 3,659 m; fewer than 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
63,000 telephones (1989); broadcast stations - 12 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (with 18
provincial repeaters); repeat of Russian TV; 120,000 TVs; 220,000 radios; at
least 1 earth station

:Mongolia Defense Forces

Branches:
Mongolian People's Army (includes Border Guards), Air Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 551,548; 359,904 fit for military service; 25,275 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $22.8 million of GDP (1992 budget)

:Montserrat Geography

Total area:
100 km2
Land area:
100 km2
Comparative area:
about 0.6 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
40 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
volcanic islands, mostly mountainous, with small coastal lowland
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land 20%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 10%; forest and
woodland 40%; other 30%
Environment:
subject to severe hurricanes from June to November
Note:
located 400 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

:Montserrat People

Population:
12,617 (July 1992), growth rate 0.4 (1992)
Birth rate:
17 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
11 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
74 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Montserratian(s); adjective - Montserratian
Ethnic divisions:
mostly black with a few Europeans
Religions:
Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Seventh-Day Adventist,
other Christian denominations
Languages:
English
Literacy:
97% (male 97%, female 97%) age 15 and over having ever attended school
(1970)
Labor force:
5,100; community, social, and personal services 40.5%, construction 13.5%,
trade, restaurants, and hotels 12.3%, manufacturing 10.5%, agriculture,
forestry, and fishing 8.8%, other 14.4% (1983 est.)
Organized labor:
30% of labor force, three trade unions with 1,500 members (1984 est.)

:Montserrat Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Plymouth
Administrative divisions:
3 parishes; Saint Anthony, Saint Georges, Saint Peter
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
1 January 1960
Legal system:
English common law and statute law
National holiday:
Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second Saturday of June)
Executive branch:
monarch, governor, Executive Council (cabinet), chief minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor David
TAYLOR (since NA 1990)
Head of Government:
Chief Minister Reuben T. MEADE (since October 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
National Progressive Party (NPP) Reuben T. MEADE; People's Liberation
Movement (PLM), Noel TUITT; National Development Party (NDP), Bertrand
OSBORNE; Independent (IND), Ruby BRAMBLE
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Legislative Council:
last held on 8 October 1991; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(11 total, 7 elected) NPP 4, NDP 1, PLM 1, independent 1
Member of:
CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC (associate), ICFTU, OECS, WCL
Diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Montserratian coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat
of arms features a woman standing beside a yellow harp with her arm around a
black cross

:Montserrat Economy

Overview:
The economy is small and open with economic activity centered on tourism and
construction. Tourism is the most important sector and accounted for 20% of
GDP in 1986. Agriculture accounted for about 4% of GDP and industry 10%. The
economy is heavily dependent on imports, making it vulnerable to
fluctuations in world prices. Exports consist mainly of electronic parts
sold to the US.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $54.2 million, per capita $4,500 (1988); real
growth rate 10% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.8% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
3.0% (1987)
Budget:
revenues $12.1 million; expenditures $14.3 million, including capital
expenditures of $3.2 million (1988)
Exports:
$2.3 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.)
commodities:
electronic parts, plastic bags, apparel, hot peppers, live plants, cattle
partners:
NA
Imports:
$30 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, foodstuffs, manufactured goods,
fuels, lubricants, and related materials
partners:
NA
External debt:
$2.05 million (1987)
Industrial production:
growth rate 8.1% (1986); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
5,271 kW capacity; 12 million kWh produced, 960 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
tourism; light manufacturing - rum, textiles, electronic appliances
Agriculture:
accounts for 4% of GDP; small-scale farming; food crops - tomatoes, onions,
peppers; not self-sufficient in food, especially livestock products
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $90
million
Currency:
East Caribbean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Montserrat Communications

Highways:
280 km total; about 200 km paved, 80 km gravel and earth
Ports:
Plymouth
Airports:
1 with permanent-surface runways 1,036 m
Telecommunications:
3,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 8 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV

:Montserrat Defense Forces

Branches:
Police Force
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Morocco Geography

Total area:
446,550 km2
Land area:
446,300 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
2,002 km; Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443 km
Coastline:
1,835 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claims and administers Western Sahara, but sovereignty is unresolved; the UN
is attempting to hold a referendum; the UN-administered cease-fire has been
currently in effect since September 1991 Spain controls five places of
sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - the
coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla which Morocco contests as well as the
islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas
Chafarinas
Climate:
Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
Terrain:
mostly mountains with rich coastal plains
Natural resources:
phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt
Land use:
arable land 18%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 28%; forest and
woodland 12%; other 41%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes;
desertification
Note:
strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar

:Morocco People

Population:
26,708,587 (July 1992), growth rate 2.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
29 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
- 1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
56 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
63 years male, 67 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Moroccan(s); adjective - Moroccan
Ethnic divisions:
Arab-Berber 99.1%, non-Moroccan 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%
Religions:
Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%
Languages:
Arabic (official); several Berber dialects; French is often the language of
business, government, and diplomacy
Literacy:
50% (male 61%, female 38%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
7,400,000; agriculture 50%, services 26%, industry 15%, other 9% (1985)
Organized labor:
about 5% of the labor force, mainly in the Union of Moroccan Workers (UMT)
and the Democratic Confederation of Labor (CDT)

:Morocco Government

Long-form name:
Kingdom of Morocco
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Rabat
Administrative divisions:
37 provinces and 5 municipalities* (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Agadir, Al
Hoceima, Azilal, Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane, Casablanca*, Chaouen,
El Jadida, El Kelaa des Srarhna, Er Rachidia, Essaouira, Fes, Fes*, Figuig,
Guelmim, Ifrane, Kenitra, Khemisset, Khenifra, Khouribga, Laayoune, Larache,
Marrakech, Marrakech*, Meknes, Meknes*, Nador, Ouarzazate, Oujda,
Rabat-Sale*, Safi, Settat, Sidi Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan, Taounate,
Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan, Tiznit
Independence:
2 March 1956 (from France)
Constitution:
10 March 1972
Legal system:
based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law system; judicial
review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme Court
National holiday:
National Day (anniversary of King Hassan II's accession to the throne), 3
March (1961)
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Chamber of Representatives (Majlis Nawab)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King HASSAN II (since 3 March 1961)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Dr. Azzedine LARAKI (since 30 September 1986)
Political parties and leaders:
Morocco has 15 political parties; the major ones are Istiqlal, M'Hamed
BOUCETTA; Socialist Union of Popular Forces (USFP); Popular Movement (MP),
Secretariat General; National Assembly of Independents (RNI), Ahmed OSMAN;
National Democratic Party (PND), Mohamed Arsalane EL-JADIDI; Party for
Progress and Socialism (PPS); Constitutional Union (UC), Maati BOUABID
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
Chamber of Representatives:
last held on 14 September 1984 (were scheduled for September 1990, but
postponed until NA 1992); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(306 total, 206 elected) CU 83, RNI 61, MP 47, Istiqlal 41, USFP 36, PND 24,
other 14
Communists:
about 2,000
Member of:
ABEDA, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, FAO,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IIB, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, OAS (observer), NAM,
OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

:Morocco Government

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Mohamed BELKHAYAT; Chancery at 1601 21st Street NW, Washington,
DC 20009; telephone (202) 462-7979; there is a Moroccan Consulate General in
New York
US:
Ambassador Frederick VREELAND; Embassy at 2 Avenue de Marrakech, Rabat
(mailing address is P. O. Box 120, Rabat, or PSC 74, APO AE 09718; telephone
[212] (7) 76-22-65; FAX [212] (7) 76-56-61; there is a US Consulate General
in Casablanca
Flag:
red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Solomon's
seal in the center of the flag; green is the traditional color of Islam

:Morocco Economy

Overview:
The economy had recovered moderately in 1990 because of: the resolution of a
trade dispute with India over phosphoric acid sales, a rebound in textile
sales to the EC, lower prices for food imports, a sharp increase in worker
remittances, increased Arab donor aid, and generous debt rescheduling
agreements. Economic performance in 1991 was mixed. A record harvest helped
real GDP advance by 4.2%, although nonagricultural output grew by less than
1%. Inflation accelerated slightly as easier financial policies triggered
rapid credit and monetary growth. Despite recovery of domestic demand,
import volume growth slowed while export volume was adversely affected by
phosphate marketing difficulties. In January 1992, Morocco reached a new
12-month standby arrangement for $129 million with the IMF. In February
1992, the Paris Club rescheduled $1.4 billion of Morocco's commercial debt.
This is thought to be Morocco's last rescheduling. By 1993 the Moroccan
authorities hope to be in a position to meet all debt service obligations
without additional rescheduling. Servicing this large debt, high
unemployment, and Morocco's vulnerability to external economic forces remain
severe long-term problems.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $27.3 billion, per capita $1,060; real growth
rate 4.2% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.1% (1991 )
Unemployment rate:
16% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $7.5 billion; expenditures $7.7 billion, including capital
expenditures of $1.9 billion (1992)
Exports:
$4.1 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
food and beverages 30%, semiprocessed goods 23%, consumer goods 21%,
phosphates 17%
partners:
EC 58%, India 7%, Japan 5%, USSR 3%, US 2%
Imports:
$6.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
capital goods 24%, semiprocessed goods 22%, raw materials 16%, fuel and
lubricants 16%, food and beverages 13%, consumer goods 9%
partners:
EC 53%, US 11%, Canada 4%, Iraq 3%, USSR 3%, Japan 2%
External debt:
$20 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4% (1989 est.); accounts for an estimated 20% of GDP
Electricity:
2,270,000 kW capacity; 8,170 million kWh produced, 310 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods,
textiles, construction, tourism
Agriculture:
50% of employment and 30% of export value; not self-sufficient in food;
cereal farming and livestock raising predominate; barley, wheat, citrus
fruit, wine, vegetables, olives; fishing catch of 491,000 metric tons in
1987

:Morocco Economy

Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of hashish; trafficking on the increase for both domestic
and international drug markets; shipments of hashish mostly directed to
Western Europe; occasional transit point for cocaine from South America
destined for Western Europe.
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.3 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $7.5 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $4.8 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.5
billion; $2.8 billion debt canceled by Saudi Arabia (1991); IMF standby
agreement worth $13 million; World Bank, $450 million (1991)
Currency:
Moroccan dirham (plural - dirhams); 1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1 - 8.889 (March 1992), 8.707 (1991), 8.242
(1990), 8.488 (1989), 8.209 (1988), 8.359 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Morocco Communications

Railroads:
1,893 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (246 km double track, 974 km
electrified)
Highways:
59,198 km total; 27,740 km paved, 31,458 km gravel, crushed stone, improved
earth, and unimproved earth
Pipelines:
crude oil 362 km; petroleum products (abandoned) 491 km; natural gas 241 km
Ports:
Agadir, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar, Kenitra, Mohammedia, Nador, Safi,
Tangier; also Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla
Merchant marine:
51 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 315,249 GRT/487,479 DWT; includes 10
cargo, 2 container, 12 refrigerated cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off, 3 petroleum
tanker, 11 chemical tanker, 4 bulk, 3 short-sea passenger
Civil air:
28 major transport aircraft
Airports:
75 total, 67 usable; 26 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over
3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 27 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
good system composed of wire lines, cables, and radio relay links; principal
centers are Casablanca and Rabat; secondary centers are Fes, Marrakech,
Oujda, Tangier, and Tetouan; 280,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 20 AM,
7 FM, 26 TV and 26 additional rebroadcast sites; 5 submarine cables;
satellite earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT; radio
relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave
to Algeria; microwave network linking Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia,
Algeria, and Morocco

:Morocco Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Moroccan Army, Royal Moroccan Navy, Royal Moroccan Air Force, Royal
Gendarmerie, Auxiliary Forces
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 6,604,712; 4,196,449 fit for military service; 293,204 reach
military age (18) annually; limited conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, 4.2% of GDP (1992 budget)

:Mozambique Geography

Total area:
801,590 km2
Land area:
784,090 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
4,571 km total; Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km,
Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
Coastline:
2,470 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical to subtropical
Terrain:
mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest,
mountains in west
Natural resources:
coal, titanium
Land use:
arable land 4%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 56%; forest and
woodland 20%; other 20%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
severe drought and floods occur in south; desertification

:Mozambique People

Population:
15,469,150 (July 1992), growth rate 4.1% (1992); note - 1.5 million
Mozambican refugees; 900,000 in Malawi (1991 est.)
Birth rate:
46 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
17 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
12 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
134 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
46 years male, 49 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Mozambican(s); adjective - Mozambican
Ethnic divisions:
majority from indigenous tribal groups; Europeans about 10,000,
Euro-Africans 35,000, Indians 15,000
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 60%, Christian 30%, Muslim 10%
Languages:
Portuguese (official); many indigenous dialects
Literacy:
33% (male 45%, female 21%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
NA, but 90% engaged in agriculture
Organized labor:
225,000 workers belong to a single union, the Mozambique Workers'
Organization (OTM)

:Mozambique Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Mozambique
Type:
republic
Capital:
Maputo
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Cabo Delgado, Gaza,
Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Independence:
25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
Constitution:
30 November 1990
Legal system:
based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia da Republica)
Judicial branch:
People's Courts at all levels
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November 1986)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Mario da Graca MACHUNGO (since 17 July 1986)
Political parties and leaders:
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) - formerly a Marxist
organization with close ties to the USSR - was the only legal party before
30 November 1990 when the new Constitution went into effect establishing a
multiparty system; note - the government plans multiparty elections as early
as 1993; 14 parties, including the Liberal Democratic Party of Mozambique
(PALMO), the Mozambique National Union (UNAMO), and the Mozambique National
Movement (MONAMO) have already emerged
Suffrage:
universal adult at age 18
Elections:
draft electoral law provides for periodic, direct presidential and Assembly
elections
Communists:
about 200,000 FRELIMO members; note - FRELIMO no longer considers itself a
Communist party
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
INMARSAT, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Hipolito PATRICIO; Chancery at Suite 570, 1990 M Street NW,
Washington, DC 20036; telephone (202) 293-7146
US:
Ambassador Townsend B. FRIEDMAN, Jr.; Embassy at Avenida Kenneth Kuanda, 193
Maputo (mailing address is P. O. Box 783, Maputo); telephone [258] (1)
49-27-97, 49-01-67, 49-03-50; FAX [258] (1) 49-01-14

:Mozambique Government

Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red
isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in
white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a
crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book

:Mozambique Economy

Overview:
One of Africa's poorest countries, Mozambique has failed to exploit the
economic potential of its sizable agricultural, hydropower, and
transportation resources. Indeed, national output, consumption, and
investment declined throughout the first half of the 1980s because of
internal disorders, lack of government administrative control, and a growing
foreign debt. A sharp increase in foreign aid, attracted by an economic
reform policy, has resulted in successive years of economic growth since
1985. Agricultural output, nevertheless, is at about only 75% of its 1981
level, and grain has to be imported. Industry operates at only 20-40% of
capacity. The economy depends heavily on foreign assistance to keep afloat.
The continuation of civil strife through 1991 has dimmed chances of foreign
investment, and growth was a mere 1%. Living standards, already abysmally
low, dropped by 3-4% in both 1990 and 1991.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $1.7 billion, per capita $120; real growth rate
1.0% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
40.5% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
50% (1989 est.)
Budget:
revenues $369 million; expenditures $860 million, including capital
expenditures of $432 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
$117 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
shrimp 48%, cashews 21%, sugar 10%, copra 3%, citrus 3%
partners:
US, Western Europe, GDR, Japan
Imports:
$870 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.), including aid
commodities:
food, clothing, farm equipment, petroleum
partners:
US, Western Europe, USSR
External debt:
$4.9 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5% (1989 est.)
Electricity:
2,270,000 kW capacity; 1,745 million kWh produced, 115 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), petroleum products,
textiles, nonmetallic mineral products (cement, glass, asbestos), tobacco
Agriculture:
accounts for 80% of the labor force, 50% of GDP, and about 90% of exports;
cash crops - cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, shrimp; other crops -
cassava, corn, rice, tropical fruits; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $350 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.4 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $37 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $890
million
Currency:
metical (plural - meticais); 1 metical (Mt) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
meticais (Mt) per US$1 - 2,358 (1 May 1992), 1,811.18 (1991), 929.00 (1990),
800.00 (1989), 528.60 (1988), 289.44 (1987)

:Mozambique Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Mozambique Communications

Railroads:
3,288 km total; 3,140 km 1.067-meter gauge; 148 km 0.762-meter narrow gauge;
Malawi-Nacala, Malawi-Beira, and Zimbabwe-Maputo lines are subject to
closure because of insurgency
Highways:
26,498 km total; 4,593 km paved; 829 km gravel, crushed stone, stabilized
soil; 21,076 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
about 3,750 km of navigable routes
Pipelines:
crude oil (not operating) 306 km; petroleum products 289 km
Ports:
Maputo, Beira, Nacala
Merchant marine:
5 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,806 GRT/12,873 DWT
Civil air:
7 major transport aircraft
Airports:
195 total, 137 usable; 27 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways
over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 26 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fair system of troposcatter, open-wire lines, and radio relay; broadcast
stations - 29 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and
3 domestic Indian Ocean INTELSAT

:Mozambique Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Naval Command, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guards, Militia
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 3,490,554; 2,004,913 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $107 million, 6-7% of GDP (1989)

:Namibia Geography

Total area:
824,290 km2
Land area:
823,290 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than half the size of Alaska
Land boundaries:
3,935 km total; Angola 1,376 km, Botswana 1,360 km, South Africa 966 km,
Zambia 233 km
Coastline:
1,489 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
short section of boundary with Botswana is indefinite; disputed island with
Botswana in the Chobe River; quadripoint with Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe
is in disagreement; claim by Namibia to Walvis Bay and 12 offshore islands
administered by South Africa; Namibia and South Africa have agreed to
jointly administer the area for an interim period; the terms and dates to be
covered by joint administration arrangements have not been established at
this time, and Namibia will continue to maintain a claim to sovereignty over
the entire area; recent dispute with Botswana over uninhabited Sidudu Island
in the Linyanti River
Climate:
desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic
Terrain:
mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east
Natural resources:
diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, zinc, salt,
vanadium, natural gas, fish; suspected deposits of oil, natural gas, coal,
and iron ore
Land use:
arable land 1%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 64%; forest and
woodland 22%; other 13%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
inhospitable with very limited natural water resources; desertification
Note:
Walvis Bay area is an exclave of South Africa in Namibia

:Namibia People

Population:
1,574,927 (July 1992), growth rate 3.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
45 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
66 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
58 years male, 63 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Namibian(s); adjective - Namibian
Ethnic divisions:
black 86%, white 6.6%, mixed 7.4%; about 50% of the population belong to the
Ovambo tribe and 9% from the Kavangos tribe
Religions:
predominantly Christian
Languages:
English is official language; Afrikaans is common language of most of
population and about 60% of white population, German 32%, English 7%;
several indigenous languages
Literacy:
38% (male 45%, female 31%) age 15 and over can read and write (1960)
Labor force:
500,000; agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 19%, services 8%, government
7%, mining 6% (1981 est.)
Organized labor:
20 trade unions representing about 90,000 workers

:Namibia Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Namibia
Type:
republic
Capital:
Windhoek
Administrative divisions:
the former administrative structure of 26 districts has been abolished and
14 temporary regions are still being determined; note - the 26 districts
were Bethanien, Boesmanland, Caprivi Oos, Damaraland, Gobabis, Grootfontein,
Hereroland Oos, Hereroland Wes, Kaokoland, Karasburg, Karibib, Kavango,
Keetmanshoop, Luderitz, Maltahohe, Mariental, Namaland, Okahandja, Omaruru,
Otjiwarongo, Outjo, Owambo, Rehoboth, Swakopmund, Tsumeb, Windhoek
Independence:
21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)
Constitution:
ratified 9 February 1990
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law and 1990 constitution
National holiday:
Independence Day, 21 March (1990)
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral; House of Review (upper house, to be established with elections in
late 1992 by planned new regional authorities); National Assembly (lower
house elected by universal suffrage)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Sam NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO), Sam NUJOMA; Democratic
Turnhalle Alliance (DTA), Dirk MUDGE; United Democratic Front (UDF), Justus
GAROEB; Action Christian National (ACN), Kosie PRETORIUS; National Patriotic
Front (NPF), Moses KATJIUONGUA; Federal Convention of Namibia (FCN), Hans
DIERGAARDT; Namibia National Front (NNF), Vekuii RUKORO
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 16 February 1990 (next to be held March 1995); results - Sam
NUJOMA was elected president by the Constituent Assembly (now the National
Assembly)
National Assembly:
last held on 7-11 November 1989 (next to be held by November 1994); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (72 total) SWAPO 41, DTA 21, UDF 4,
ACN 3, NNF 1, FCN 1, NPF 1
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, CECA (associate), ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ILO,
IMF, ITU, NAM, SACU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, WCL, WFTU, WHO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Tuliameni KALOMOH; Chancery at 1605 New Hampshire Ave. NW,
Washington, DC 20009 (mailing address is PO Box 34738, Washington, DC
20043); telephone (202) 986-0540

:Namibia Government

US:
Ambassador Genta Hawkins HOLMES; Embassy at Ausplan Building, 14 Lossen St.,
Windhoek (mailing address is P. O. Box 9890, Windhoek 9000, Namibia);
telephone [264] (61) 221-601, 222-675, 222-680; FAX [264] (61) 229-792
Flag:
a large blue triangle with a yellow sunburst fills the upper left section,
and an equal green triangle (solid) fills the lower right section; the
triangles are separated by a red stripe that is contrasted by two narrow
white-edge borders

:Namibia Economy

Overview:
The economy is heavily dependent on the mining industry to extract and
process minerals for export. Mining accounts for almost 25% of GDP. Namibia
is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in Africa and the world's
fifth-largest producer of uranium. Alluvial diamond deposits are among the
richest in the world, making Namibia a primary source for gem-quality
diamonds. Namibia also produces large quantities of lead, zinc, tin, silver,
and tungsten, and it has substantial resources of coal. More than half the
population depends on agriculture (largely subsistence agriculture) for its
livelihood.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $2 billion, per capita $1,400; real growth rate
5.1% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
17% (1991 - Windhoek)
Unemployment rate:
over 25% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $864 million; expenditures $1,112 million, including capital
expenditures of $144 million (FY 92)
Exports:
$1,021 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
uranium, diamonds, zinc, copper, cattle, processed fish, karakul skins
partners:
Switzerland, South Africa, FRG, Japan
Imports:
$894 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
foodstuffs, petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment
partners:
South Africa, FRG, US, Switzerland
External debt:
about $250 million; under a 1971 International Court of Justice (ICJ)
ruling, Namibia may not be liable for debt incurred during its colonial
period
Industrial production:
growth rate - 6% (1990 est.); accounts for 35% of GDP, including mining
Electricity:
490,000 kW capacity; 1,290 million kWh produced, 850 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, mining (copper, lead, zinc,
diamond, uranium)
Agriculture:
mostly subsistence farming; livestock raising major source of cash income;
crops - millet, sorghum, peanuts; fish catch potential of over 1 million
metric tons not being fulfilled, 1988 catch reaching only 384,000 metric
tons; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
$47.2 million
Currency:
South African rand (plural - rand); 1 South African rand (R) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
South African rand (R) per US$1 - 2.8809 (March 1992), 2.7653 (1991), 2.5863
(1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685 (1986)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Namibia Communications

Railroads:
2,341 km 1.067-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
54,500 km; 4,079 km paved, 2,540 km gravel, 47,881 km earth roads and tracks
Ports:
Luderitz; primary maritime outlet is Walvis Bay (South Africa)
Civil air:
NA major transport aircraft
Airports:
137 total, 112 usable; 21 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways
over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 63 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
good urban, fair rural services; radio relay connects major towns, wires
extend to other population centers; 62,800 telephones; broadcast stations -
4 AM, 40 FM, 3 TV

:Namibia Defense Forces

Branches:
National Defense Force (Army), Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 320,277; 189,997 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $66 million, 3.4% of GDP (FY 92)

:Nauru Geography

Total area:
21 km2
Land area:
21 km2
Comparative area:
about one-tenth the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
30 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)
Terrain:
sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs with phosphate
plateau in center
Natural resources:
phosphates
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
only 53 km south of Equator
Note:
located 500 km north-northeast of Papua New Guinea, Nauru is one of the
three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are
Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia

:Nauru People

Population:
9,460 (July 1992), growth rate 1.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
18 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
41 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
64 years male, 69 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Nauruan(s); adjective - Nauruan
Ethnic divisions:
Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%, European 8%
Religions:
Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic)
Languages:
Nauruan, a distinct Pacific Island language (official); English widely
understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
NA
Organized labor:
NA

:Nauru Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Nauru
Type:
republic
Capital:
no capital city as such; government offices in Yaren District
Administrative divisions:
14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare, Baiti, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu,
Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren
Independence:
31 January 1968 (from UN trusteeship under Australia, New Zealand, and UK);
formerly Pleasant Island
Constitution:
29 January 1968
Legal system:
own Acts of Parliament and British common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 31 January (1968)
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Bernard DOWIYOGO (since 12 December 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
none
Suffrage:
universal and compulsory at age 20
Elections:
President:
last held 9 December 1989 (next to be held December 1992); results - Bernard
DOWIYOGO elected by Parliament
Parliament:
last held on 9 December 1989 (next to be held December 1992); results -
percent of vote NA; seats - (18 total) independents 18
Member of:
C (special), ESCAP, ICAO, INTERPOL, ITU, SPC, SPF, UPU
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador-designate Theodore Conrad MOSES resident in Melbourne
(Australia); there is a Nauruan Consulate in Agana (Guam)
US:
the US Ambassador to Australia is accredited to Nauru
Flag:
blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across the center and a large
white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist side; the star indicates
the country's location in relation to the Equator (the yellow stripe) and
the 12 points symbolize the 12 original tribes of Nauru

:Nauru Economy

Overview:
Revenues come from the export of phosphates, the reserves of which are
expected to be exhausted by the year 2000. Phosphates have given Nauruans
one of the highest per capita incomes in the Third World - $10,000 annually.
Few other resources exist, so most necessities must be imported, including
fresh water from Australia. The rehabilitation of mined land and the
replacement of income from phosphates are serious long-term problems.
Substantial amounts of phosphate income are invested in trust funds to help
cushion the transition.
GNP:
exchange rate conversion - over $90 million, per capita $10,000; real growth
rate NA% (1989)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
0%
Budget:
revenues $69.7 million; expenditures $51.5 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY86 est.)
Exports:
$93 million (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities:
phosphates
partners:
Australia, NZ
Imports:
$73 million (c.i.f., 1984)
commodities:
food, fuel, manufactures, building materials, machinery
partners:
Australia, UK, NZ, Japan
External debt:
$33.3 million
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
14,000 kW capacity; 50 million kWh produced, 5,430 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
phosphate mining, financial services, coconuts
Agriculture:
negligible; almost completely dependent on imports for food and water
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries (1970-89), $2 million
Currency:
Australian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3177 (March 1992), 1.2834 (1991),
1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Nauru Communications

Railroads:
3.9 km; used to haul phosphates from the center of the island to processing
facilities on the southwest coast
Highways:
about 27 km total; 21 km paved, 6 km improved earth
Ports:
Nauru
Merchant marine:
1 bulk ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,426 GRT/5,750 DWT
Civil air:
3 major transport aircraft, one on order
Airports:
1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
adequate local and international radio communications provided via
Australian facilities; 1,600 telephones; 4,000 radios; broadcast stations -
1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Nauru Defense Forces

Branches:
no regular armed forces; Directorate of the Nauru Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
$NA - no formal defense structure

:Navassa Island Geography

Total area:
5.2 km2
Land area:
5.2 km2
Comparative area:
about nine times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
8 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claimed by Haiti
Climate:
marine, tropical
Terrain:
raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating; ringed by vertical
white cliffs (9 to 15 meters high)
Natural resources:
guano
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 10%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 90%
Environment:
mostly exposed rock, but enough grassland to support goat herds; dense
stands of fig-like trees, scattered cactus
Note:
strategic location between Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica in the Caribbean Sea;
160 km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo, Cuba

:Navassa Island People

Population:
uninhabited; transient Haitian fishermen and others camp on the island

:Navassa Island Government

Long-form name:
none (territory of the US)
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Coast Guard
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

:Navassa Island Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

:Navassa Island Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only

:Navassa Island Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

:Nepal Geography

Total area:
140,800 km2
Land area:
136,800 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Arkansas
Land boundaries:
2,926 km total; China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers
and mild winters in south
Terrain:
Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region,
rugged Himalayas in north
Natural resources:
quartz, water, timber, hydroelectric potential, scenic beauty; small
deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
Land use:
arable land 17%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 13%; forest and
woodland 33%; other 37%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks; deforestation; soil erosion;
water pollution
Note:
landlocked; strategic location between China and India

:Nepal People

Population:
20,086,455 (July 1992), growth rate 2.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
38 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
14 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
90 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
51 years male, 51 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
5.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Nepalese (singular and plural); adjective - Nepalese
Ethnic divisions:
Newars, Indians, Tibetans, Gurungs, Magars, Tamangs, Bhotias, Rais, Limbus,
Sherpas, as well as many smaller groups
Religions:
only official Hindu state in world, although no sharp distinction between
many Hindu (about 90% of population) and Buddhist groups (about 5% of
population); Muslims 3%, other 2% (1981)
Languages:
Nepali (official); 20 languages divided into numerous dialects
Literacy:
26% (male 38%, female 13%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
8,500,000 (1991 est.); agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry 2%; severe
lack of skilled labor
Organized labor:
Teachers' Union and many other nonofficially recognized unions

:Nepal Government

Long-form name:
Kingdom of Nepal
Type:
parliamentary democracy as of 12 May 1991
Capital:
Kathmandu
Administrative divisions:
14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri,
Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti,
Sagarmatha, Seti
Independence:
1768, unified by Prithyi Narayan Shah
Constitution:
9 November 1990
Legal system:
based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Birthday of His Majesty the King, 28 December (1945)
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or National Council and a
lower house or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Sarbochha Adalat)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev (since 31 January 1972, crowned King 24
February 1985); Heir Apparent Crown Prince DIPENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev, son
of the King (born 21 June 1971)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Girija Prasad KOIRALA (since 29 May 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party:
Nepali Congress Party (NCP), Girija Prasad KOIRALA, Ganesh Man SINGH,
Krishna Prasad BHATTARAI
center:
the NDP has two factions: National Democratic Party/Chand (NDP/Chand),
Lokinra Bahadur CHAND, and National Democratic Party/Thapa (NDP/Thapa),
Surya Bahadur THAPA - the two factions announced a merger in late 1991;
Terai Rights Sadbhavana (Goodwill) Party, G. N. Naryan SINGH
Communist:
Communist Party of Nepal/United Marxist and Leninist (CPN/UML), Man Mohan
ADIKHARY; United People's Front (UPF), N. K. PRASAI, Lila Mani POKHAREL;
Nepal Workers and Peasants Party, leader NA; Rohit Party, N. M. BIJUKCHHE;
Democratic Party, leader NA
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held on 12 May 1991 (next to be held May 1996); results - NCP 38%,
CPN/UML 28%, NDP/Chand 6%, UPF 5%, NDP/Thapa 5%, Terai Rights Sadbhavana
Party 4%, Rohit 2%, CPN (Democratic) 1%, independents 4%, other 7%; seats -
(205 total) NCP 110, CPN/UML 69, UPF 9, Terai Rights Sadbhavana Party 6,
NDP/Chand 3, Rohit 2, CPN (Democratic) 2, NDP/Thapa 1, independents 3; note
- the new Constitution of 9 November 1990 gives Nepal a multiparty democracy
system for the first time in 32 years

:Nepal Government

Communists:
Communist Party of Nepal (CPN)
Other political or pressure groups:
numerous small, left-leaning student groups in the capital; several small,
radical Nepalese antimonarchist groups
Member of:
AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNIFIL, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Yog Prasad UPADHYAYA; Chancery at 2131 Leroy Place NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 667-4550; there is a Nepalese
Consulate General in New York
US:
Ambassador Julia Chang BLOCH; Embassy at Pani Pokhari, Kathmandu; telephone
[977] (1) 411179 or 412718, 411604, 411613, 413890; FAX [977] (1) 419963
Flag:
red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right
triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the
larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed sun

:Nepal Economy

Overview:
Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world.
Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for over
90% of the population and accounting for 60% of GDP. Industrial activity is
limited, mainly involving the processing of agricultural produce (jute,
sugarcane, tobacco, and grain). Production of textiles and carpets has
expanded recently and accounted for 87% of foreign exchange earnings in
FY89. Apart from agricultural land and forests, the only other exploitable
natural resources are mica, hydropower, and tourism. Agricultural production
in the late 1980s grew by about 5%, as compared with annual population
growth of 2.6%. Forty percent or more of the population is undernourished
partly because of poor distribution. Since May 1991, the government has been
encouraging privatization and foreign investment. It has introduced policies
to eliminate many business licenses and registration requirements in order
to simplify domestic and foreign investment procedures. Economic prospects
for the 1990s remain poor because the economy starts from such a low base.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $3.2 billion, per capita $165; real growth rate
3.5% (FY91)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
15.0% (December 1991)
Unemployment rate:
5%; underemployment estimated at 25-40% (1987)
Budget:
revenues $294.0 million; expenditures $624.0 million, including capital
expenditures of $396 (FY92 est.)
Exports:
$180 million (f.o.b., FY91) but does not include unrecorded border trade
with India
commodities:
clothing, carpets, leather goods, grain
partners:
US, India, Germany, UK
Imports:
$545 million (c.i.f., FY91 est.)
commodities:
petroleum products 20%, fertilizer 11%, machinery 10%
partners:
India, Singapore, Japan, Germany
External debt:
$2.5 billion (April 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6% (FY91 est.); accounts for 7% of GDP
Electricity:
280,000 kW capacity; 540 million kWh produced, 30 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette, textile, carpet,
cement, and brick production; tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 60% of GDP and 90% of work force; farm products - rice, corn,
wheat, sugarcane, root crops, milk, buffalo meat; not self-sufficient in
food, particularly in drought years
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic and international drug markets
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $304 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $2,230 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $30 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $286
million

:Nepal Economy

Currency:
Nepalese rupee (plural - rupees); 1 Nepalese rupee (NR) = 100 paisa
Exchange rates:
Nepalese rupees (NRs) per US$1 - 42.7 (January 1992), 37.255 (1991), 29.370
(1990), 27.189 (1989), 23.289 (1988), 21.819 (1987)
Fiscal year:
16 July - 15 July

:Nepal Communications

Railroads:
52 km (1990), all 0.762-meter narrow gauge; all in Terai close to Indian
border; 10 km from Raxaul to Birganj is government owned
Highways:
7,080 km total (1990); 2,898 km paved, 1,660 km gravel or crushed stone;
also 2,522 km of seasonally motorable tracks
Civil air:
5 major and 11 minor transport aircraft
Airports:
37 total, 37 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 8 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radio communication and broadcast
service; international radio communication service is poor; 50,000
telephones (1990); broadcast stations - 88 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

:Nepal Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Nepalese Army, Royal Nepalese Army Air Service, Nepalese Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 4,798,984; 2,488,749 fit for military service; 225,873 reach
military age (17) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $34 million, 2% of GDP (FY92)

:Netherlands Geography

Total area:
37,330 km2
Land area:
33,920 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey
Land boundaries:
1,027 km total; Belgium 450 km, Germany 577 km
Coastline:
451 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
not specific
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters
Terrain:
mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeast
Natural resources:
natural gas, crude oil, fertile soil
Land use:
arable land 26%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 32%; forest and
woodland 9%; other 32%; includes irrigated 16%
Environment:
27% of the land area is below sea level and protected from the North Sea by
dikes
Note:
located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or Meuse,
Schelde)

:Netherlands People

Population:
15,112,064 (July 1992), growth rate 0.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
13 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
75 years male, 81 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women); adjective - Dutch
Ethnic divisions:
Dutch 96%, Moroccans, Turks, and other 4% (1988)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 36%, Protestant 27%, other 6%, unaffiliated 31% (1988)
Languages:
Dutch
Literacy:
99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1979 est.)
Labor force:
5,300,000; services 50.1%, manufacturing and construction 28.2%, government
15.9%, agriculture 5.8% (1986)
Organized labor:
29% of labor force

:Netherlands Government

Long-form name:
Kingdom of the Netherlands
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Amsterdam; The Hague is the seat of government
Administrative divisions:
12 provinces (provincien, singular - provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland,
Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant, Noord-Holland,
Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland, Zuid-Holland
Independence:
1579 (from Spain)
Constitution:
17 February 1983
Dependent areas:
Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
Legal system:
civil law system incorporating French penal theory; judicial review in the
Supreme Court of legislation of lower order rather than Acts of the States
General; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, vice prime minister, Cabinet, Cabinet of Ministers
Legislative branch:
bicameral legislature (Staten Generaal) consists of an upper chamber or
First Chamber (Eerste Kamer) and a lower chamber or Second Chamber (Tweede
Kamer)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (De Hoge Raad)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980); Heir Apparent
WILLEM-ALEXANDER, Prince of Orange, son of Queen Beatrix (born 27 April
1967)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Ruud (Rudolph) F. M. LUBBERS (since 4 November 1982); Vice
Prime Minister Wim KOK (since 2 November 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Willem van VELZEN; Labor (PvdA), Wim KOK;
Liberal (VVD), Joris VOORHOEVE; Democrats '66 (D'66), Hans van MIERIO; a
host of minor parties
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
First Chamber:
last held on 9 June l991 (next to be held 9 June 1995); results - elected by
the country's 12 provincial councils; seats - (75 total) percent of seats by
party NA
Second Chamber:
last held on 6 September 1989 (next to be held by September 1993); results -
CDA 35.3%, PvdA 31. 9%, VVD 14.6%, D'66 7.9%, other 10.3%; seats - (150
total) CDA 54, PvdA 49, VVD 22, D'66 12, other 13
Communists:
about 6,000

:Netherlands Government

Other political or pressure groups:
large multinational firms; Federation of Netherlands Trade Union Movement
(comprising Socialist and Catholic trade unions) and a Protestant trade
union; Federation of Catholic and Protestant Employers Associations; the
nondenominational Federation of Netherlands Enterprises; and IKV -
Interchurch Peace Council
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN,
COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMS, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, G-10, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO,
NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Johan Hendrick MEESMAN; Chancery at 4200 Linnean Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 244-5300; there are Dutch Consulates
General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
US:
Ambassador C. Howard WILKINS, Jr.; Embassy at Lange Voorhout 102, The Hague
(mailing address PSC 71, Box 1000, APO AE 09715); telephone [31] (70)
310-9209; FAX [31] (70) 361-4688; there is a US Consulate General in
Amsterdam
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue; similar to the
flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue and is longer

:Netherlands Economy

Overview:
This highly developed and affluent economy is based on private enterprise.
The government makes its presence felt, however, through many regulations,
permit requirements, and welfare programs affecting most aspects of economic
activity. The trade and financial services sector contributes over 50% of
GDP. Industrial activity provides about 25% of GDP and is led by the
food-processing, oil-refining, and metalworking industries. The highly
mechanized agricultural sector employs only 5% of the labor force, but
provides large surpluses for export and the domestic food-processing
industry. An unemployment rate of 6.2% and a sizable budget deficit are
currently the most serious economic problems.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $249.6 billion, per capita $16,600; real
growth rate 2.2% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.6% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
6.2% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $98.7 billion; expenditures $110.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1991)
Exports:
$131.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
agricultural products, processed foods and tobacco, natural gas, chemicals,
metal products, textiles, clothing
partners:
EC 74.9% (FRG 28.3%, Belgium-Luxembourg 14.2%, France 10.7%, UK 10.2%), US
4.7% (1988)
Imports:
$125.9 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
raw materials and semifinished products, consumer goods, transportation
equipment, crude oil, food products
partners:
EC 63.8% (FRG 26.5%, Belgium-Luxembourg 23.1%, UK 8.1%), US 7.9% (1988)
External debt:
none
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.7% (1991 est.); accounts for 25% of GDP
Electricity:
22,216,000 kW capacity; 63,570 million kWh produced, 4,300 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and
equipment, chemicals, petroleum, fishing, construction, microelectronics
Agriculture:
accounts for 4% of GDP; animal production predominates; crops - grains,
potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables; shortages of grain, fats, and
oils
Illicit drugs:
European producer of illicit amphetamines and other synethic drugs
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $19.4 billion
Currency:
Netherlands guilder, gulden, or florin (plural - guilders, gulden, or
florins); 1 Netherlands guilder, gulden, or florin (f.) = 100 cents

:Netherlands Economy

Exchange rates:
Netherlands guilders, gulden, or florins (f.) per US$1 - 1.7753 (January
1992), 1.8697 (1991), 1.8209 (1990), 2.1207 (1989), 1.9766 (1988), 2.0257
(1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Netherlands Communications

Railroads:
3,037 km track (includes 1,871 km electrified and 1,800 km double track);
2,871 km 1.435-meter standard gauge operated by Netherlands Railways (NS);
166 km privately owned
Highways:
108,360 km total; 92,525 km paved (including 2,185 km of limited access,
divided highways); 15,835 km gravel, crushed stone
Inland waterways:
6,340 km, of which 35% is usable by craft of 1,000 metric ton capacity or
larger
Pipelines:
crude oil 418 km; petroleum products 965 km; natural gas 10,230 km
Ports:
maritime - Amsterdam, Delfzijl, Den Helder, Dordrecht, Eemshaven, Ijmuiden,
Rotterdam, Scheveningen, Terneuzen, Vlissingen; inland - 29 ports
Merchant marine:
345 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,630,962 GRT/3,687,598 DWT; includes
3 short-sea passenger, 191 cargo, 30 refrigerated cargo, 24 container, 12
roll-on/roll-off, 2 livestock carrier, 10 multifunction large-load carrier,
22 oil tanker, 27 chemical tanker, 10 liquefied gas, 2 specialized tanker, 9
bulk, 3 combination bulk; note - many Dutch-owned ships are also registered
on the captive Netherlands Antilles register
Civil air:
98 major transport aircraft
Airports:
28 total, 28 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 11 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
highly developed, well maintained, and integrated; extensive redundant
system of multiconductor cables, supplemented by radio relay links;
9,418,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 (3 relays) AM, 12 (39
repeaters) FM, 8 (7 repeaters) TV; 5 submarine cables; 1 communication
satellite earth station operating in INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic
Ocean antenna) and EUTELSAT systems; nationwide mobile phone system

:Netherlands Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy (including Naval Air Service
and Marine Corps), Royal Netherlands Air Force, Royal Constabulary
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 4,144,477; 3,649,746 fit for military service; 111,952 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $7.2 billion, 2.9% of GDP (1991)

:Netherlands Antilles Geography

Total area:
960 km2
Land area:
960 km2; includes Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten
(Dutch part of the island of Saint Martin)
Comparative area:
slightly less than 5.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
364 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds
Terrain:
generally hilly, volcanic interiors
Natural resources:
phosphates (Curacao only), salt (Bonaire only)
Land use:
arable land 8%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 92%
Environment:
Curacao and Bonaire are south of Caribbean hurricane belt, so rarely
threatened; Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are subject to hurricanes
from July to October
Note:
consists of two island groups - Curacao and Bonaire are located off the
coast of Venezuela, and Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius lie 800 km to
the north

:Netherlands Antilles People

Population:
184,325 (July 1992), growth rate 0.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
18 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-9 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
11 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
73 years male, 77 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Netherlands Antillean(s); adjective - Netherlands Antillean
Ethnic divisions:
mixed African 85%; remainder Carib Indian, European, Latin, and Oriental
Religions:
predominantly Roman Catholic; Protestant, Jewish, Seventh-Day Adventist
Languages:
Dutch (official); Papiamento, a Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect
predominates; English widely spoken; Spanish
Literacy:
94% (male 94%, female 93%) age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
Labor force:
89,000; government 65%, industry and commerce 28% (1983)
Organized labor:
60-70% of labor force

:Netherlands Antilles Government

Long-form name:
none
Digraph:
political parties are indigenous to each island ***
Type:
part of the Dutch realm - full autonomy in internal affairs granted in 1954
Capital:
Willemstad
Administrative divisions:
none (part of the Dutch realm)
Independence:
none (part of the Dutch realm)
Constitution:
29 December 1954, Statute of the Realm of the Netherlands, as amended
Legal system:
based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence
National holiday:
Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)
Executive branch:
Dutch monarch, governor, prime minister, vice prime minister, Council of
Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
legislature (Staten)
Judicial branch:
Joint High Court of Justice
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980), represented by
Governor General Jaime SALEH (since October 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Maria LIBERIA-PETERS (since 17 May 1988, previously served
from September 1984 to November 1985)
Political parties and leaders:
political parties are indigenous to each island
Bonaire:
Patriotic Union of Bonaire (UPB), Rudy ELLIS; Democratic Party of Bonaire
(PDB), Franklin CRESTIAN
Curacao:
National People's Party (PNP), Maria LIBERIA-PETERS; New Antilles Movement
(MAN), Domenico Felip Don MARTINA; Workers' Liberation Front (FOL), Wilson
(Papa) GODETT; Socialist Independent (SI), George HUECK and Nelson MONTE;
Democratic Party of Curacao (DP), Augustin DIAZ; Nos Patria, Chin BEHILIA
Saba:
Windward Islands People's Movement (WIPM Saba), Will JOHNSON; Saba
Democratic Labor Movement, Vernon HASSELL; Saba Unity Party, Carmen SIMMONDS
Sint Eustatius:
Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius (DP-St.E), K. Van PUTTEN; Windward
Islands People's Movement (WIPM); St. Eustatius Alliance (SEA), Ralph BERKEL
Sint Maarten:
Democratic Party of Sint Maarten (DP-St.M), Claude WATHEY; Patriotic
Movement of Sint Maarten (SPA), Vance JAMES
Suffrage:
universal at age 18

:Netherlands Antilles Government

Elections:
Staten:
last held on 16 March 1990 (next to be held March 1994); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (22 total) PNP 7, FOL-SI 3, UPB 3, MAN 2,
DP-St. M 2, DP 1, SPM 1, WIPM 1, DP-St. E 1, Nos Patria 1; note - the
government of Prime Minister Maria LIBERIA-PETERS is a coalition of several
parties
Member of:
CARICOM (observer), ECLAC (associate), ICFTU, INTERPOL, IOC, UNESCO
(associate), UPU, WCL, WMO, WTO (associate)
Diplomatic representation:
as an autonomous part of the Netherlands, Netherlands Antillean interests in
the US are represented by the Netherlands
US:
Consul General Sharon P. WILKINSON; Consulate General at Sint Anna Boulevard
19, Willemstad, Curacao (mailing address P. O. Box 158, Willemstad,
Curacao); telephone [599] (9) 613066; FAX [599] (9) 616489
Flag:
white with a horizontal blue stripe in the center superimposed on a vertical
red band also centered; five white five-pointed stars are arranged in an
oval pattern in the center of the blue band; the five stars represent the
five main islands of Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint
Maarten

:Netherlands Antilles Economy

Overview:
Tourism, petroleum refining, and offshore finance are the mainstays of the
economy. The islands enjoy a high per capita income and a well-developed
infrastructure as compared with other countries in the region. Unlike many
Latin American countries, the Netherlands Antilles has avoided large
international debt. Almost all consumer and capital goods are imported, with
the US being the major supplier.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $1.4 billion, per capita $7,600; real growth rate
1.5% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
21% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $454 million; expenditures $525 million, including capital
expenditures of $42 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
$1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
petroleum products 98%

Book of the day: