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Elections:
General Council:
last held in October 1988 (next to be held by March 1991); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (44 total) number of seats by party NA
Regional Assembly:
last held on 16 March 1986 (next to be held by March 1992); results -
UDF/RPR coalition 49.8%, PPM/FSM/PCM coalition 41.3%, other 8.9%; seats -
(41 total) PPM/FSM/PCM coalition 21, UDF/RPR coalition 20
French Senate:
last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) UDF 1, PPM 1
French National Assembly:
last held on 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (4 total) PPM 1, FSM 1, RPR 1, UDF 1
Communists:
1,000 (est.)
Other political or pressure groups:
Proletarian Action Group (GAP); Alhed Marie-Jeanne Socialist Revolution
Group (GRS); Martinique Independence Movement (MIM); Caribbean Revolutionary
Alliance (ARC); Central Union for Martinique Workers (CSTM), Marc Pulvar;
Frantz Fanon Circle; League of Workers and Peasants
Member of:
FZ, WCL
Diplomatic representation:
as an overseas department of France, Martiniquais interests are represented
in the US by France

:Martinique Government

US:
Consul General Raymond G. ROBINSON; Consulate General at 14 Rue Blenac,
Fort-de-France (mailing address is B. P. 561, Fort-de-France 97206);
telephone [596] 63-13-03
Flag:
the flag of France is used

:Martinique Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on sugarcane, bananas, tourism, and light industry.
Agriculture accounts for about 12% of GDP and the small industrial sector
for 10%. Sugar production has declined, with most of the sugarcane now used
for the production of rum. Banana exports are increasing, going mostly to
France. The bulk of meat, vegetable, and grain requirements must be
imported, contributing to a chronic trade deficit that requires large annual
transfers of aid from France. Tourism has become more important than
agricultural exports as a source of foreign exchange. The majority of the
work force is employed in the service sector and in administration. In 1986
per capita GDP was relatively high at $6,000. During 1986 the unemployment
rate was 30% and was particularly severe among younger workers.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $2.0 billion, per capita $6,000; real growth rate
NA% (1986)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.9% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
30% (1986)
Budget:
revenues $268 million; expenditures $268 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)
Exports:
$196 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
refined petroleum products, bananas, rum, pineapples
partners:
France 65%, Guadeloupe 24%, Germany (1987)
Imports:
$1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, vehicles, clothing
and other consumer goods
partners:
France 65%, UK, Italy, Germany, Japan, US (1987)
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
113,100 kW capacity; 588 million kWh produced, 1,703 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
construction, rum, cement, oil refining, sugar, tourism
Agriculture:
including fishing and forestry, accounts for about 12% of GDP; principal
crops - pineapples, avocados, bananas, flowers, vegetables, and sugarcane
for rum; dependent on imported food, particularly meat and vegetables
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$10.1 billion
Currency:
French franc (plural - francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.3801 (January 1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
(1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Martinique Communications

Highways:
1,680 km total; 1,300 km paved, 380 km gravel and earth
Ports:
Fort-de-France
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
2 total; 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway
2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways less than 2,439 m
Telecommunications:
domestic facilities are adequate; 68,900 telephones; interisland radio relay
links to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and Saint Lucia; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 6
FM, 10 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

:Martinique Defense Forces

Branches:
French Forces, Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 95,235; NA fit for military service
Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

:Mauritania Geography

Total area:
1,030,700 km2
Land area:
1,030,400 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundaries:
5,074 km; Algeria 463 km, Mali 2,237 km, Senegal 813 km, Western Sahara
1,561 km
Coastline:
754 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
boundary with Senegal
Climate:
desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty
Terrain:
mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills
Natural resources:
iron ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate
Land use:
arable land 1%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 38%; forest and
woodland 5%; other 56%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows primarily in March and April;
desertification; only perennial river is the Senegal

:Mauritania People

Population:
2,059,187 (July 1992), growth rate 3.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
48 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
17 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
89 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
44 years male, 50 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
7.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Mauritanian(s); adjective - Mauritanian
Ethnic divisions:
mixed Maur/black 40%, Maur 30%, black 30%
Religions:
Muslim, nearly 100%
Languages:
Hasaniya Arabic (official); Hasaniya Arabic, Pular, Soninke, Wolof
(official)
Literacy:
34% (male 47%, female 21%) age 10 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
465,000 (1981 est.); 45,000 wage earners (1980); agriculture 47%, services
29%, industry and commerce 14%, government 10%; 53% of population of working
age (1985)
Organized labor:
30,000 members claimed by single union, Mauritanian Workers' Union

:Mauritania Government

Long-form name:
Islamic Republic of Mauritania
Type:
republic; military first seized power in bloodless coup 10 July 1978; a
palace coup that took place on 12 December 1984 brought President Taya to
power; he was elected in 1992
Capital:
Nouakchott
Administrative divisions:
12 regions(regions, singular - region); Adrar, Assaba, Brakna, Dakhlet
Nouadhibou, Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh ech Chargui, Hodh el Gharbi, Inchiri,
Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza; note - there may be a new capital district of
Nouakchott
Independence:
28 November 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
currently 12 July 1991; 20 May 1961 Constitution abrogated after coup of 10
July 1978; provisional constitution published 17 December 1980 but abandoned
in 1981; constitutional charter published 27 February 1985 after Taya came
to power; latest constitution approved after general referendum 12 July 1991
Legal system:
based on Islamic law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 28 November (1960)
Executive branch:
president
Legislative branch:
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) and Senate
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid`Ahmed TAYA (since 12 December 1984)
Political parties and leaders:
legalized by constitution passed 12 July 1991; emerging parties include
Democratic and Social Republican Party (PRDS), led by President Col. Maaouya
Ould Sid`Ahmed TAYA; Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), coalition of seven
opposition factions, three leaders: Mohameden Ould BABAH, Diop Mamadou
AMADOU, and Messoud Ould BOULKHEIR; Assembly for Democracy (RDU), Mohamed
Ould SIDI BABA; Rally for Democracy and Unity (RDUN), Mohamed Ould Sidi
BABA; Popular Social and Democratic Union (UPSD), Mohamed Mahmoud Ould MAH;
Progressive Popular Alliance (APP), Taleb Ould Jiddou Ould Mohamed LAGHDAF;
Mauritanian Party for Renewal (PMR), Moulaye El Hassan Ould JEYID; National
Avant-Garde Party (PAN or PAGN), Khattry Ould Taleb JIDDOU; Mauritanian
Party of the Democratic Center (PCDM), Bamba Ould SIDI BADI; Union for
Planning and Construction (UPC), Mohamed Ould EYAHA; Democratic Justice
Party (PJD), Mohamed Abdallahi Ould EL BANE; Party for Liberty, Equality,
and Justice (PLEJ), Ba Mamadou ALASSANE; Labor and National Unity Party
(PTUN), Ali Bouna Ould OUENINA
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held January 1992 (next to be held NA)
results:
President Col. Maabuya Ould Sid`Ahmed TAYA elected
Senate:
last held 3 and 10 April 1992 (next to be held April 1998)

:Mauritania Government

National Assembly:
last held 6 and 13 March 1992 (next to be held NA 1997)
Member of:
ABEDA, ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, CEAO,
ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Mohamed Fall OULD AININA; Chancery at 2129 Leroy Place NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-5700
US:
Ambassador Gordon S. BROWN; Embassy at address NA, Nouakchott (mailing
address is B. P. 222, Nouakchott); telephone [222] (2) 526-60 or 526-63; FAX
[222] (2) 515-92
Flag:
green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow, horizontal crescent;
the closed side of the crescent is down; the crescent, star, and color green
are traditional symbols of Islam

:Mauritania Economy

Overview:
A majority of the population still depends on agriculture and livestock for
a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and many subsistence farmers
were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in the 1970s and 1980s.
Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore, which account for almost 50%
of total exports. The decline in world demand for this ore, however, has led
to cutbacks in production. The nation's coastal waters are among the richest
fishing areas in the world, but overexploitation by foreigners threatens
this key source of revenue. The country's first deepwater port opened near
Nouakchott in 1986. In recent years, the droughts, the endemic conflict with
Senegal, rising energy costs, and economic mismanagement have resulted in a
substantial buildup of foreign debt. The government has begun the second
stage of an economic reform program in consultation with the World Bank, the
IMF, and major donor countries. But the reform process suffered a major
setback following the Gulf war of early 1991. Because of Mauritania's
support of Saddam Husayn, bilateral aid from its two top donors, Saudi
Arabia and Kuwait, was suspended, and multilateral aid was reduced.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, per capita $535; real growth rate
3% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.5% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
20% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $280 million; expenditures $346 million, including capital
expenditures of $61 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
$436 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
iron ore, processed fish, small amounts of gum arabic and gypsum; unrecorded
but numerically significant cattle exports to Senegal
partners:
EC 43%, Japan 27%, USSR 11%, Ivory Coast 3%
Imports:
$389 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
foodstuffs, consumer goods, petroleum products, capital goods
partners:
EC 60%, Algeria 15%, China 6%, US 3%
External debt:
$1.9 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.4% (1988 est.); accounts for almost 20% of GDP
Electricity:
190,000 kW capacity; 135 million kWh produced, 70 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
fishing, fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum
Agriculture:
accounts for 29% of GDP (including fishing); largely subsistence farming and
nomadic cattle and sheep herding except in Senegal river valley; crops -
dates, millet, sorghum, root crops; fish products number-one export; large
food deficit in years of drought
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $168 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.3 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $490 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $277
million; Arab Development Bank (1991), $20 million

:Mauritania Economy

Currency:
ouguiya (plural - ouguiya); 1 ouguiya (UM) = 5 khoums
Exchange rates:
ouguiya (UM) per US$1 - 79.300 (January 1992), 81.946 (1991), 80.609 (1990),
83.051 (1989), 75.261 (1988), 73.878 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Mauritania Communications

Railroads:
690 km 1.435-meter (standard) gauge, single track, owned and operated by
government mining company
Highways:
7,525 km total; 1,685 km paved; 1,040 km gravel, crushed stone, or otherwise
improved; 4,800 km unimproved roads, trails, tracks
Inland waterways:
mostly ferry traffic on the Senegal River
Ports:
Nouadhibou, Nouakchott
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,290 GRT/1,840 DWT
Civil air:
3 major transport aircraft
Airports:
28 total, 28 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 16 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
poor system of cable and open-wire lines, minor radio relay links, and radio
communications stations (improvements being made); broadcast stations - 2
AM, no FM, 1 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 2
ARABSAT, with six planned

:Mauritania Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Guard, National
Police, Presidential Guard
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 436,897; 213,307 fit for military service; conscription law not
implemented
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $40 million, 4.2% of GDP (1989)

:Mauritius Geography

Total area:
1,860 km2
Land area:
1,850 km2; includes Agalega Islands, Cargados Carajos Shoals (Saint
Brandon), and Rodrigues
Comparative area:
slightly less than 10.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
177 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claims UK-administered Chagos Archipelago, which includes the island of
Diego Garcia in UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory; claims
French-administered Tromelin Island
Climate:
tropical modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter (May to
November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)
Terrain:
small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains encircling central
plateau
Natural resources:
arable land, fish
Land use:
arable land 54%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 4%; forest and
woodland 31%; other 7%; includes irrigated 9%
Environment:
subject to cyclones (November to April); almost completely surrounded by
reefs
Note:
located 900 km east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean

:Mauritius People

Population:
1,092,130 (July 1992), growth rate 0.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
19 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-4 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
22 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
66 years male, 73 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Mauritian(s); adjective - Mauritian
Ethnic divisions:
Indo-Mauritian 68%, Creole 27%, Sino-Mauritian 3%, Franco-Mauritian 2%
Religions:
Hindu 52%, Christian (Roman Catholic 26%, Protestant 2.3%) 28.3%, Muslim
16.6%, other 3.1%
Languages:
English (official), Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka, Bojpoori
Literacy:
82.8 % (male 88.7%, female 77.1%) age 13 and over can read and write (1985
UNESCO estimate)
Labor force:
335,000; government services 29%, agriculture and fishing 27%, manufacturing
22%, other 22%; 43% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
35% of labor force in more than 270 unions

:Mauritius Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Port Louis
Administrative divisions:
9 districts and 3 dependencies*; Agalega Islands*, Black River, Cargados
Carajos*, Flacq, Grand Port, Moka, Pamplemousses, Plaines Wilhems, Port
Louis, Riviere du Rempart, Rodrigues*, Savanne
Independence:
12 March 1968 (from UK)
Constitution:
12 March 1968
Legal system:
based on French civil law system with elements of English common law in
certain areas
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 March (1968)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Sir Veerasamy RINGADOO (since 17 January 1986)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH (since 12 June 1982); Deputy Prime
Minister Prem NABABSING (since 26 September 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
government coalition:
Militant Socialist Movement (MSM), A. JUGNAUTH; Mauritian Militant Movement
(MMM), Paul BERENGER; Organization of the People of Rodrigues (OPR), Louis
Serge CLAIR; Democratic Labor Movement (MTD), Anil BAICHOO
opposition:
Mauritian Labor Party (MLP), Navin RAMGOOLMAN; Socialist Workers Front,
Sylvio MICHEL; Mauritian Social Democratic Party (PMSD), G. DUVAL
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held on 15 September 1991 (next to be held by 15 September 1996);
results - MSM/MMM 53%, MLP/PMSD 38%; seats - (70 total, 62 elected) MSM/MMM
alliance 59 (MSM 29, MMM 26, OPR 2, MTD 2); MLP/PMSD 3
Communists:
may be 2,000 sympathizers
Other political or pressure groups:
various labor unions
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Chitmansing JESSERAMSING; Chancery at Suite 134, 4301 Connecticut
Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 244-1491 or 1492

:Mauritius Government

US:
Ambassador Penne Percy KORTH; Embassy at 4th Floor, Rogers House, John
Kennedy Street, Port Louis; telephone [230] 208-9763 through 208-9767; FAX
[230] 208-9534
Flag:
four equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, yellow, and green

:Mauritius Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on sugar, manufacturing (mainly textiles), and tourism.
Sugarcane is grown on about 90% of the cultivated land area and accounts for
40% of export earnings. The government's development strategy is centered on
industrialization (with a view to exports), agricultural diversification,
and tourism. Economic performance in FY91 was impressive, with 6% real
growth and low unemployment.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion, per capita $2,300; real growth rate
6.1% (FY91 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
13.2% (FY91 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2.4% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $557 million; expenditures $607 million, including capital
expenditures of $111 million (FY90)
Exports:
$1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
textiles 44%, sugar 40%, light manufactures 10%
partners:
EC and US have preferential treatment, EC 77%, US 15%
Imports:
$1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
manufactured goods 50%, capital equipment 17%, foodstuffs 13%, petroleum
products 8%, chemicals 7%
partners:
EC, US, South Africa, Japan
External debt:
$869 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 12.9% (FY87); accounts for 25% of GDP
Electricity:
235,000 kW capacity; 425 million kWh produced, 395 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
food processing (largely sugar milling), textiles, wearing apparel,
chemicals, metal products, transport equipment, nonelectrical machinery,
tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 10% of GDP; about 90% of cultivated land in sugarcane; other
products - tea, corn, potatoes, bananas, pulses, cattle, goats, fish; net
food importer, especially rice and fish
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $76 million; Western (non-US)
countries (1970-89), $709 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $54
million
Currency:
Mauritian rupee (plural - rupees); 1 Mauritian rupee (MauR) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Mauritian rupees (MauRs) per US$1 - 15.198 (January 1992), 15.652 (1991),
14.839 (1990), 15.250 (1989), 13.438 (1988), 12.878 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Mauritius Communications

Highways:
1,800 km total; 1,640 km paved, 160 km earth
Ports:
Port Louis
Merchant marine:
9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 94,710 GRT/150,345 DWT; includes 1
passenger-cargo, 3 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 1 liquefied gas, 3 bulk
Civil air:
7 major transport aircraft
Airports:
5 total, 4 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
small system with good service utilizing primarily radio relay; new
microwave link to Reunion; high-frequency radio links to several countries;
over 48,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 4 TV; 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Mauritius Defense Forces

Branches:
paramilitary Special Mobile Force, Special Support Unit, National Police
Force, National Coast Guard
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 307,237; 157,246 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $5 million, 0.2% of GDP (FY89)

:Mayotte Geography

Total area:
375 km2
Land area:
375 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
185.2 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claimed by Comoros
Climate:
tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon
(November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November)
Terrain:
generally undulating with ancient volcanic peaks, deep ravines
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and pastures NA%; forest and
woodland NA%; other NA%
Environment:
subject to cyclones during rainy season
Note:
part of Comoro Archipelago; located in the Mozambique Channel about halfway
between Africa and Madagascar

:Mayotte People

Population:
86,628 (July 1992), growth rate 3.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
50 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
84 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
55 years male, 59 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Mahorais (singular and plural); adjective - Mahoran
Religions:
Muslim 99%; remainder Christian, mostly Roman Catholic
Languages:
Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
NA
Organized labor:
NA

:Mayotte Government

Long-form name:
Territorial Collectivity of Mayotte
Type:
territorial collectivity of France
Capital:
Mamoutzou
Administrative divisions:
none (territorial collectivity of France)
Independence:
none (territorial collectivity of France)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French law
National holiday:
Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Executive branch:
government commissioner
Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council (Conseil General)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Tribunal Superieur d'Appel)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
Head of Government:
Commissioner, Representative of the French Government Jean-Paul COSTE (since
NA 1991); President of the General Council Youssouf BAMANA (since NA 1976)
Political parties and leaders:
Mahoran Popular Movement (MPM), Younoussa BAMANA; Party for the Mahoran
Democratic Rally (PRDM), Daroueche MAOULIDA; Mahoran Rally for the Republic
(RMPR), Mansour KAMARDINE; Union of the Center (UDC)
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
General Council:
last held June 1988 (next to be held June 1993); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (17 total) MPM 9, RPR 6, other 2
French Senate:
last held on 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) MPM 1
French National Assembly:
last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1993); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) UDC 1
Member of:
FZ
Diplomatic representation:
as a territorial collectivity of France, Mahoran interests are represented
in the US by France
Flag:
the flag of France is used

:Mayotte Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is based primarily on the agricultural sector, including
fishing and livestock raising. Mayotte is not self-sufficient and must
import a large portion of its food requirements, mainly from France. The
economy and future development of the island is heavily dependent on French
financial assistance.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $37.3 million, including capital expenditures of
$NA (1985)
Exports:
$4.0 million (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities:
ylang-ylang, vanilla
partners:
France 79%, Comoros 10%, Reunion 9%
Imports:
$21.8 million (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities:
building materials, transportation equipment, rice, clothing, flour
partners:
France 57%, Kenya 16%, South Africa 11%, Pakistan 8%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
NA kW capacity; NA million kWh produced, NA kWh per capita
Industries:
newly created lobster and shrimp industry
Agriculture:
most important sector; provides all export earnings; crops - vanilla,
ylang-ylang, coffee, copra; imports major share of food needs
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$402 million
Currency:
French franc (plural - francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.3801 (January 1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
(1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Mayotte Communications

Highways:
42 km total; 18 km bituminous
Ports:
Dzaoudzi
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
1 with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
small system administered by French Department of Posts and
Telecommunications; includes radio relay and high-frequency radio
communications for links to Comoros and international communications; 450
telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV

:Mayotte Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

:Mexico Geography

Total area:
1,972,550 km2
Land area:
1,923,040 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
4,538 km; Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,326 km
Coastline:
9,330 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Continental shelf:
natural prolongation of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claims Clipperton Island (French possession)
Climate:
varies from tropical to desert
Terrain:
high, rugged mountains, low coastal plains, high plateaus, and desert
Natural resources:
crude oil, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber
Land use:
arable land 12%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 39%; forest and
woodland 24%; other 24%; includes irrigated 3%
Environment:
subject to tsunamis along the Pacific coast and destructive earthquakes in
the center and south; natural water resources scarce and polluted in north,
inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast;
deforestation; erosion widespread; desertification; serious air pollution in
Mexico City and urban centers along US-Mexico border
Note:
strategic location on southern border of US

:Mexico People

Population:
92,380,721 (July 1992), growth rate 2.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
29 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
30 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
69 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Mexican(s); adjective - Mexican
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo (Indian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%,
Caucasian or predominantly Caucasian 9%, other 1%
Religions:
nominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%
Languages:
Spanish; various Mayan dialects
Literacy:
87% (male 90%, female 85%) age 15 and over can read and write (1985 est.)
Labor force:
26,100,000 (1988); services 31.4%, agriculture, forestry, hunting, and
fishing 26%, commerce 13.9%, manufacturing 12.8%, construction 9.5%,
transportation 4.8%, mining and quarrying 1.3%, electricity 0.3% (1986)
Organized labor:
35% of labor force

:Mexico Government

Long-form name:
United Mexican States
Type:
federal republic operating under a centralized government
Capital:
Mexico
Administrative divisions:
31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito
federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche,
Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango,
Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit,
Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi,
Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas
Independence:
16 September 1810 (from Spain)
Constitution:
5 February 1917
Legal system:
mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 September (1810)
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congreso de la Union) consists of an upper
chamber or Senate (Camara de Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber of
Deputies (Camara de Diputados)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Carlos SALINAS de Gortari (since 1 December 1988)
Political parties and leaders:
(recognized parties) Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), Genaro BORREGO
Estrada; National Action Party (PAN), Luis ALVAREZ; Popular Socialist Party
(PPS), Indalecio SAYAGO Herrera; Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD),
Cuauhtemoc CARDENAS Solorzano; Cardenist Front for the National
Reconstruction Party (PFCRN), Rafael AGUILAR Talamantes; Authentic Party of
the Mexican Revolution (PARM), Carlos Enrique CANTU Rosas
Suffrage:
universal and compulsory (but not enforced) at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held on 6 July 1988 (next to be held September 1994); results - Carlos
SALINAS de Gortari (PRI) 50.74%, Cuauhtemoc CARDENAS Solorzano (FDN) 31.06%,
Manuel CLOUTHIER (PAN) 16.81%; other 1.39%; note - several of the smaller
parties ran a common candidate under a coalition called the National
Democratic Front (FDN)
Senate:
last held on 18 August 1988 (next to be held midyear 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats in full Senate - (64 total) number of
seats by party; PRI 61, PRD 2, PAN 1
Chamber of Deputies:
last held on 18 August 1991 (next to be held midyear 1994); results - PRI
53%, PAN 20%, PFCRN 10%, PPS 6%, PARM 7%, PMS (now part of PRD) 4%; seats -
(500 total) PRI 320, PAN 89, PRD 41, PFCRN 23, PARM 15, PPS 12

:Mexico Government

Other political or pressure groups:
Roman Catholic Church, Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM), Confederation
of Industrial Chambers (CONCAMIN), Confederation of National Chambers of
Commerce (CONCANACO), National Peasant Confederation (CNC), UNE (no
expansion), Revolutionary Workers Party (PRT), Mexican Democratic Party
(PDM), Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants (CROC), Regional
Confederation of Mexican Workers (CROM), Confederation of Employers of the
Mexican Republic (COPARMEX), National Chamber of Transformation Industries
(CANACINTRA), Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations (COECE)
Member of:
AG (observer), CARICOM (observer) CCC, CDB, CG, EBRD, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-6,
G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Gustavo PETRICIOLI Iturbide; Chancery at 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue
NW, Washington, DC 20006; telephone (202) 728-1600; there are Mexican
Consulates General in Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso, Houston, Los
Angeles, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Antonio, San Diego, and
Consulates in Albuquerque, Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Brownsville (Texas),
Calexico (California), Corpus Christi, Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Douglas
(Arizona), Eagle Pass (Texas), Fresno (California), Kansas City (Missouri),
Laredo, McAllen (Texas), Miami, Nogales (Arizona), Oxnard (California),
Philadelphia, Phoenix, Presidio (Texas), Sacramento, St. Louis, St. Paul
(Minneapolis), Salt Lake City, San Bernardino, San Jose, San Juan (Puerto
Rico), and Seattle
US:
Ambassador John D. NEGROPONTE, Jr.; Embassy at Paseo de la Reforma 305,
06500 Mexico, D.F. (mailing address is P. O. Box 3087, Laredo, TX
78044-3087); telephone [52] (5) 211-0042; FAX [52] (5) 511-9980, 208-3373;
there are US Consulates General in Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey,
and Tijuana, and Consulates in Hermosillo, Matamoros, Mazatlan, Merida, and
Nuevo Laredo
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; the coat
of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak) is centered
in the white band

:Mexico Economy

Overview:
Mexico's economy is a mixture of state-owned industrial plants (notably
oil), private manufacturing and services, and both large-scale and
traditional agriculture. In the 1980s, Mexico experienced severe economic
difficulties: the nation accumulated large external debts as world petroleum
prices fell; rapid population growth outstripped the domestic food supply;
and inflation, unemployment, and pressures to emigrate became more acute.
Growth in national output, however, is recovering, rising from 1.4% in 1988
to 4% in 1990 and again in 1991. The US is Mexico's major trading partner,
accounting for two-thirds of its exports and imports. After petroleum,
border assembly plants and tourism are the largest earners of foreign
exchange. The government, in consultation with international economic
agencies, is implementing programs to stabilize the economy and foster
growth. In 1991 the government began negotiations with the US and Canada on
a free trade agreement.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $289 billion, per capita $3,200; real growth rate
4% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
18.8% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
14-17% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $41.0 billion; expenditures $47.9 billion, including capital
expenditures of $6.3 billion (1990)
Exports:
$27.4 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
crude oil, oil products, coffee, shrimp, engines, motor vehicles, cotton,
consumer electronics
partners:
US 68%, EC 14%, Japan 6% (1990 est.)
Imports:
$36.7 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
grain, metal manufactures, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment
partners:
US 69%, EC 13%, Japan 6% (1990)
External debt:
$98.4 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.5% (1991 est.); accounts for 28% of GDP
Electricity:
26,150,000 kW capacity; 114,277 million kWh produced, 1,270 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining,
textiles, clothing, transportation equipment, tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 9% of GDP and over 25% of work force; large number of small
farms at subsistence level; major food crops - corn, wheat, rice, beans;
cash crops - cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; fish catch of 1.4 million
metric tons among top 20 nations (1987)
Illicit drugs:
illicit cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis continues in spite of active
government eradication program; major supplier to the US market; continues
as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America

:Mexico Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.1 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $7.7 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $110 million
Currency:
Mexican peso (plural - pesos); 1 Mexican peso (Mex$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
market rate of Mexican pesos (Mex$) per US$1 - 3,068.5 (January 1992),
3,018.4 (1991) 2,940.9 (January 1991), 2,812.6 (1990), 2,461.3 (1989),
2,273.1 (1988), 1,378.2 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Mexico Communications

Railroads:
24,500 km total; breakdown NA
Highways:
212,000 km total; 65,000 km paved, 30,000 km semipaved or cobblestone,
62,000 km rural roads (improved earth) or roads under construction, 55,000
km unimproved earth roads
Inland waterways:
2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals
Pipelines:
crude oil 28,200 km; petroleum products 10,150 km; natural gas 13,254 km;
petrochemical 1,400 km
Ports:
Acapulco, Coatzacoalcos, Ensenada, Guaymas, Manzanillo, Mazatlan, Progreso,
Puerto Vallarta, Salina Cruz, Tampico, Veracruz
Merchant marine:
58 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 875,239 GRT/1,301,355 DWT; includes 4
short-sea passenger, 3 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off, 30
petroleum tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 7 liquefied gas, 1 bulk, 1 combination
bulk, 4 container
Civil air:
186 major transport aircraft
Airports:
1,815 total, 1,505 usable; 200 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with
runways over 3,659 m; 33 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 284 with runways
1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
highly developed system with extensive radio relay links; privatized in
December 1990; connected into Central America Microwave System; 6,410,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 679 AM, no FM, 238 TV, 22 shortwave; 120
domestic satellite terminals; earth stations - 4 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

:Mexico Defense Forces

Branches:
National Defense (including Army and Air Force), Navy (including Marines)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 23,023,871; 16,852,513 fit for military service; 1,138,455
reach military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.6 billion, less than 1% of GDP (1982 budget)

:Micronesia, Federated States of Geography

Total area:
702 km2
Land area:
702 km2; includes Pohnpei, Truk, Yap, and Kosrae
Comparative area:
slightly less than four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
6,112 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands;
located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasional severe damage
Terrain:
islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low, coral
atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Truk
Natural resources:
forests, marine products, deep-seabed minerals
Land use:
arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and pastures NA%; forest and
woodland NA%; other NA%
Environment:
subject to typhoons from June to December; four major island groups totaling
607 islands
Note:
located 5,150 km west-southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific Ocean,
about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and Indonesia

:Micronesia, Federated States of People

Population:
114,694 (July 1992), growth rate 3.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
29 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
12 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
39 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
65 years male, 69 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Micronesian(s); adjective - Micronesian; Kosrae(s), Pohnpeian(s),
Trukese (singular and plural), Yapese (singular and plural)
Ethnic divisions:
nine ethnic Micronesian and Polynesian groups
Religions:
predominantly Christian, divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant;
other churches include Assembly of God, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day
Adventist, Latter-Day Saints, and the Baha'i Faith
Languages:
English is the official and common language; most indigenous languages fall
within the Austronesian language family, the exceptions are the Polynesian
languages; major indigenous languages are Trukese, Pohnpeian, Yapese, and
Kosrean
Literacy:
90% (male 90%, female 85%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Labor force:
NA; two-thirds are government employees; 45,000 people are between the ages
of 15 and 65
Organized labor:
NA

:Micronesia, Federated States of Government

Long-form name:
Federated States of Micronesia (no short-form name)
Type:
constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of
Free Association entered into force 3 November 1986
Capital:
Kolonia (on the island of Pohnpei); note - a new capital is being built
about 10 km southwest in the Palikir valley
Administrative divisions:
4 states; Kosrae, Pohnpei, Chuuk, Yap
Independence:
3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN Trusteeship; formerly the
Kosrae, Pohnpei, Truk, and Yap districts of the Trust Territory of the
Pacific Islands)
Constitution:
10 May 1979
Legal system:
based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal,
common, and customary laws
National holiday:
Proclamation of the Federated States of Micronesia, 10 May (1979)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Congress
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Bailey OLTER (since 21 May 1991); Vice President Jacob NENA (since
21 May 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
no formal parties
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held ll May 1991 (next to be held March 1995); results - President
Bailey OLTER elected president; Vice-President Jacob NENA
Congress:
last held on 5 March 1991 (next to be held March 1993); results - percent of
vote NA; seats - (14 total)
Member of:
ESCAP (associate), ICAO, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Jesse B. MAREHALAU; Embassy at 1725 N St., NW, Washington, DC
20036; telephone (202) 223-4383
US:
Ambassador Aurelia BRAZEAL; Embassy at address NA, Kolonia (mailing address
is P. O. Box 1286, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia 96941); telephone
691-320-2187; FAX 691-320-2186
Flag:
light blue with four white five-pointed stars centered; the stars are
arranged in a diamond pattern

:Micronesia, Federated States of Economy

Overview:
Economic activity consists primarily of subsistence farming and fishing. The
islands have few mineral deposits worth exploiting, except for high-grade
phosphate. The potential for a tourist industry exists, but the remoteness
of the location and a lack of adequate facilities hinder development.
Financial assistance from the US is the primary source of revenue, with the
US pledged to spend $1 billion in the islands in the l990s. Geographical
isolation and a poorly developed infrastructure are major impediments to
long-term growth.
GNP:
purchasing power equivalent - $150 million, per capita $1,500; real growth
rate NA% (1989 est.); note - GNP numbers reflect US spending
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA
Budget:
revenues $165 million; expenditures $115 million, including capital
expenditures of $20 million (1988)
Exports:
$2.3 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
copra
partners:
NA
Imports:
$67.7 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
NA
partners:
NA
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
18,000 kW capacity; 40 million kWh produced, 380 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tourism, construction, fish processing, craft items from shell, wood, and
pearls
Agriculture:
mainly a subsistence economy; copra, black pepper; tropical fruits and
vegetables, coconuts, cassava, sweet potatoes, pigs, chickens
Economic aid:
under terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US will provide $1.3
billion in grant aid during the period 1986-2001
Currency:
US currency is used
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

:Micronesia, Federated States of Communications

Highways:
39 km of paved roads on major islands; also 187 km stone-, coral-, or
laterite-surfaced roads
Ports:
Colonia (Yap), Truk (Kosrae), Okat (Kosrae)
Airports:
6 total, 5 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439
Telecommunications:
telephone network - 960 telephone lines total at Kolonia and Truk; islands
interconnected by shortwave radio (used mostly for government purposes);
16,000 radio receivers, 1,125 TV sets (est. 1987); broadcast stations - 5
AM, 1 FM, 6 TV, 1 shortwave; 4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

:Micronesia, Federated States of Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

:Midway Islands Geography

Total area:
5.2 km2
Land area:
5.2 km2; includes Eastern Island and Sand Island
Comparative area:
about nine times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
15 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds
Terrain:
low, nearly level
Natural resources:
fish and wildlife
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
coral atoll
Note:
located 2,350 km west-northwest of Honolulu at the western end of Hawaiian
Islands group, about one-third of the way between Honolulu and Tokyo; closed
to the public

:Midway Islands People

Population:
453 US military personnel (1992)

:Midway Islands Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Navy, under
command of the Barbers Point Naval Air Station in Hawaii and managed
cooperatively by the US Navy and the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US
Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge System;
legislation before Congress in 1990 proposed inclusion of territory within
the State of Hawaii
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation:
none (territory of the US)
Flag:
the US flag is used

:Midway Islands Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on providing support services for US naval operations
located on the islands. All food and manufactured goods must be imported.
Electricity:
supplied by US Military

:Midway Islands Communications

Highways:
32 km total
Pipelines:
7.8 km
Ports:
Sand Island
Airports:
3 total; 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

:Midway Islands Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

:Moldova Geography

Total area:
33,700 km2
Land area:
33,700 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Hawaii
Land boundaries:
1,389 km; Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
potential dispute with Ukraine over former southern Bessarabian areas;
northern Bukovina ceded to Ukraine upon Moldova's incorporation into USSR;
internal with ethnic Russians in the Trans-Dnestr and Gagauz Muslims in the
South
Climate:
mild winters, warm summers
Terrain:
rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Natural resources:
lignite, phosphorites, gypsum
Land use:
NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest
and woodland; NA% other; includes NA% irrigated
Environment:
NA

:Moldova People

Population:
4,458,435 (July 1992), growth rate 0.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
19 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
35 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
64 years male, 71 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Moldovan(s); adjective - Moldovan
Ethnic divisions:
Moldavian (Moldovan) 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13.0%, Gagauz 3.5%,
Jews 1.5%, Bulgarian 2.0%, other 1.0% (1989 figures)
Religions:
Eastern Orthodox 98.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist only about 1,000 members, other
1.0%; note - almost all churchgoers are ethnic Moldovan; the Slavic
population are not churchgoers (1991 figures)
Languages:
Romanian; (Moldovan official), Russian
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write
Labor force:
2,095,000; agriculture 34.4%, industry 20.1%, other 45.5% (1985 figures)
Organized labor:
NA

:Moldova Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Moldova
Type:
republic
Capital:
Chisinau (Kishinev)
Administrative divisions:
previously divided into 40 rayons; now to be divided into 7-9 larger
districts at some future point
Independence:
27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union; formerly Soviet Socialist Republic of
Moldova)
Constitution:
formulating a new constitution; old constitution is still in effect but has
been heavily amended during the past few years
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; does not
accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and CSCE documents
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 August 1991
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet of Ministers
Legislative branch:
Moldovan Supreme Soviet
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (highest civil court in Moldova)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
Prime Minister Valeriy MURAVSKY (since 28 May 1991), 1st Deputy Prime
Minister Constantin OBOROC (since June 1990); 1st Deputy Prime Minister
Constantin TAMPIZA (since June 1990); 1st Deputy Prime Minister Andrei
SANGHELI (since June 1990)
Chief of State:
President Mircea SNEGUR (since 3 September 1990)
Head of Legislature:
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet (Premier) Valeriy MURAVSKIY (since May 1991);
1st Deputy Prime Minister Ian HADIRCA (since 11 May 1990); Deputy Prime
Minister Victor PUSCASU, 21 November 1989; Deputy Prime Minister Mihial
PLASICHUK, NA
Political parties and leaders:
Moldovan Popular Front, Yuriy ROSHKA, chairman (since summer 1990);
Unitatea-Yedinstvo Intermovement, V. YAKOVLEV, chairman; Bulgarian Rebirth
Society, Ivan ZABUNOV, chairman; Democratic Group, five cochairmen
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 8 December 1991; results - Mircea SNEGUR won 98.17% of vote
Moldovan Supreme Soviet:
last held 25 February 1990; results - Moldovan Popular Front 33%,
Intermovement 34%, Communist Party 32%; seats - (366 total) Popular Front
Club 35; Sovereignty Club 35; Club of Independent Deputies 25; Agrarian Club
110; Club Bujak 15; Reality Club 25; Soviet Moldova 80; remaining 41 seats
probably belong to Onestr region deputies who usually boycott Moldovan
legislative proceedings

:Moldova Government

Other political or pressure groups:
United Council of Labor Collectives (UCLC), Igor SMIRNOV, chairman; Social
Democratic Party of Moldova (SDPM), V. CHIOBATARU, leader; The Ecology
Movement of Moldova (EMM), G. MALARCHUK, chairman; The Christian Democratic
League of Women of Moldova (CDLWM), L. LARI, chairman; National Christian
Party of Moldova (NCPM), D. TODIKE, M. BARAGA, V. NIKU, leaders; The Peoples
Movement Gagauz Khalky (GKh), S. GULGAR, leader; The Democratic Party of
Gagauzia (DPG), G. SAVOSTIN, chairman; The Alliance of Working People of
Moldova (AWPM), G. POLOGOV, president
Member of:
CSCE, UN
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador vacant
US:
Charge Howard Steers; Interim Chancery at #103 Strada Alexei Mateevich,
Kishinev (mailing address is APO AE 09862); telephone 8-011-7-0422-23-28-94
at Hotel Seabeco in Kishinev
Flag:
same color scheme as Romania - 3 equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle carrying a
cross in its beak and an olive branch in its claws

:Moldova Economy

Overview:
Moldova, the next-to-smallest of the former Soviet republics in area, is the
most densely inhabited. Moldova has a little more than 1% of the population,
labor force, capital stock, and output of the former Soviet Union. Living
standards have been below average for the European USSR. The country enjoys
a favorable climate, and economic development has been primarily based on
agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Industry
accounts for 20% of the labor force, whereas agriculture employs more than
one-third. Moldova has no major mineral resources and has depended on the
former Soviet republics for coal, oil, gas, steel, most electronic
equipment, machine tools, and major consumer durables such as automobiles.
Its industrial and agricultural products, in turn, have been exported to the
other former Soviet republics. Moldova has freed prices on most goods and
has legalized private ownership of property, including agricultural land.
Moldova's economic prospects are dimmed by the difficulties of moving toward
a market economy and the political problems of redefining ties to the other
former Soviet republics and Romania.
GDP:
NA; per capita NA; real growth rate -12% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
97% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA million; expenditures $NA million, including capital
expenditures of $NA million (1992)
Exports:
$400 million rubles (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
foodstuffs, wine, tobacco, textiles and footwear, machinery, chemicals
(1991)
partners:
NA
Imports:
$1.9 billion rubles (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
oil, gas, coal, steel machinery, foodstuffs, automobiles, and other consumer
durables
partners:
NA
External debt:
$650 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -7% (1991)
Electricity:
3,000,000 kW capacity; 13,000 million kWh produced, 2,806 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
key products (with share of total former Soviet output in parentheses where
known): agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and
freezers (2.7%), washing machines (5.0%), hosiery (2.0%), refined sugar
(3.1%), vegetable oil (3.7%), canned food (8.6%), shoes, textiles
Agriculture:
Moldova's principal economic activity; products (shown in share of total
output of the former Soviet republics): Grain (1.6%), sugar beets (2.6%),
sunflower seed (4.4%), vegetables (4.4%), fruits and berries (9.7%), grapes
(20.1%), meat (1.7%), milk (1.4%), and eggs (1.4%)
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe

:Moldova Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1991), $NA, Western (non-US) countries, ODA
and OOF bilateral commitments (1991), $NA million
Currency:
as of May 1992, retaining ruble as currency
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Moldova Communications

Railroads:
1,150 km (includes NA km electrified) (1990); does not include industrial
lines
Highways:
20,000 km total (1990); 13,900 km hard-surfaced, 6,100 km earth
Inland waterways:
NA km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
NA
Ports:
none - landlocked
Merchant marine:
NA
Civil air:
NA major transport aircraft
Airports:
NA
Telecommunications:
poorly supplied with telephones; 215,000 unsatisfied applications for
telephone installations (31 January 1990); connected to Ukraine by landline
and countries beyond the former USSR through the switching center in Moscow

:Moldova Defense Forces

Branches:
Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops); Russian Forces
(Ground, Navy, Air, and Air Defense)
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:Monaco Geography

Total area:
1.9 km2
Land area:
1.9 km2
Comparative area:
about three times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
4.4 km; France 4.4 km
Coastline:
4.1 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers
Terrain:
hilly, rugged, rocky
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
almost entirely urban
Note:
second-smallest independent state in world (after Vatican City)

:Monaco People

Population:
29,965 (July 1992), growth rate 0.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
7 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
9 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
72 years male, 80 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Monacan(s) or Monegasque(s); adjective - Monacan or Monegasque
Ethnic divisions:
French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
NA
Organized labor:
4,000 members in 35 unions

:Monaco Government

Long-form name:
Principality of Monaco
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Monaco
Administrative divisions:
4 quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine,
Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo
Independence:
1419, rule by the House of Grimaldi
Constitution:
17 December 1962
Legal system:
based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 19 November
Executive branch:
prince, minister of state, Council of Government (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
National Council (Conseil National)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Tribunal (Tribunal Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Prince RAINIER III (since November 1949); Heir Apparent Prince ALBERT
Alexandre Louis Pierre (born 14 March 1958)
Head of Government:
Minister of State Jean AUSSEIL (since 16 September 1985)
Political parties and leaders:
National and Democratic Union (UND), Democratic Union Movement (MUD), Monaco
Action, Monegasque Socialist Party (PSM)
Suffrage:
universal adult at age 25
Elections:
National Council:
last held on 24 January 1988 (next to be held 24 January 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (18 total) UND 18
Member of:
ACCT, CSCE, IAEA, ICAO, IMF (observer), IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ITU, LORCS, UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO
Diplomatic representation:
Monaco maintains honorary consulates general in Boston, Chicago, Los
Angeles, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco, and honorary consulates
in Dallas, Honolulu, Palm Beach, Philadelphia, and Washington
US:
no mission in Monaco, but the US Consul General in Marseille, France, is
accredited to Monaco; Consul General R. Susan WOOD; Consulate General at 12
Boulevard Paul Peytral, 13286 Marseille Cedex (mailing address APO AE
09777); telephone [33] (91) 549-200
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of
Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and
red

:Monaco Economy

Overview:
Monaco, situated on the French Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort,
attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The Principality has
successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added,
nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes
and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established
residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices.
About 50% of Monaco's annual revenue comes from value-added taxes on hotels,
banks, and the industrial sector; about 25% of revenue comes from tourism.
Living standards are high, that is, roughly comparable to those in
prosperous French metropolitan suburbs.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $475 million, per capita $16,000; real growth
rate NA% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
full employment (1989)
Budget:
revenues $424 million; expenditures $376 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1991)
Exports:
$NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates
Monacan trade duties; also participates in EC market system through customs
union with France
Imports:
$NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates
Monacan trade duties; also participates in EC market system through customs
union with France
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
10,000 kW standby capacity (1991); power supplied by France Indus
Agriculture:
NA
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
French franc (plural - francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.3801 (January 1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
(1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Monaco Communications

Railroads:
1.6 km 1.435-meter gauge
Highways:
none; city streets
Ports:
Monaco
Merchant marine:
1 petroleum tanker (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,268 GRT/4,959 DWT
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
1 usable airfield with permanent-surface runways
Telecommunications:
served by cable into the French communications system; automatic telephone
system; 38,200 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; no
communication satellite earth stations

:Monaco Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

:Mongolia Geography

Total area:
1,565,000 km2
Land area:
1,565,000 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundaries:
8,114 km; China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Terrain:
vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest; Gobi
Desert in southeast
Natural resources:
oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc,
wolfram, fluorspar, gold
Land use:
arable land 1%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 79%; forest and
woodland 10%; other 10%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
harsh and rugged
Note:
landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

:Mongolia People

Population:
2,305,516 (July 1992), growth rate 2.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
34 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
47 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
63 years male, 68 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Mongolian(s); adjective - Mongolian
Ethnic divisions:
Mongol 90%, Kazakh 4%, Chinese 2%, Russian 2%, other 2%
Religions:
predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, Muslim (about 4%); previously limited
religious activity because of Communist regime
Languages:
Khalkha Mongol used by over 90% of population; minor languages include
Turkic, Russian, and Chinese
Literacy:
90% (male NA%, female NA%) (1989 est.)
Labor force:
NA, but primarily herding/agricultural; over half the adult population is in
the labor force, including a large percentage of women; shortage of skilled
labor
Organized labor:
425,000 members of the Central Council of Mongolian Trade Unions (CCMTU)
controlled by the government (1984); independent labor organizations now
being formed

:Mongolia Government

Long-form name:
Mongolia
Type:
in transition from Communist state to republic
Capital:
Ulaanbaatar
Administrative divisions:
18 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 3 municipalities* (hotuud,
singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*,
Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd,
Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Independence:
13 March 1921 (from China; formerly Outer Mongolia)
Constitution:
12 February 1992
Legal system:
blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law; no constitutional
provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Mongolian People's Revolution (NAADAM) 11-13 July; observed 13 July
Executive branch:
premier, deputy premiers, Cabinet, president, vice president
Legislative branch:
State Great Hural
Judicial branch:
High Court; serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts, but
to date rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (since 3 September 1990); Vice President
Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ (since 7 September 1990)
Head of Government:
Premier Dashiyn BYAMBASUREN (since 11 September 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party:
Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), Budragchagiin DASH-YONDON,
general secretary
opposition:
Social Democratic Party (SDP), BATBAYAR; Mongolian Democratic Association,
Ts. ELBEGDORJ, chief coordinator; Mongolian Party of National Progress,
GANBOLD
other:
Mongolian Democratic Party (MDP), BATUUL; Free Labor Party, C. DUL; note -
opposition parties were legalized in May 1990; additional parties exist: The
Green Party, The Buddhist Party, The Republican Party, Mongolian People's
Party, and Mongolian Revival Party; these were formed but may not be
officially registered because of low rates of membership
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 3 September 1990 (next to be held NA July 1994); results -
Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT elected by the People's Great Hural
State Great Hural:
first time held June 1992; note - according to the new present Constitution,
the two parliamentary bodies are to be combined into a single popularly
elected house consisting of 76 members; results - NA

:Mongolia Government

People's Small Hural:
last held on 29 July 1990 (next to be held June 1992); results - MPRP 62.3%,
MDP 24.5%, SDP 7. 5%, PNP 5.7%; seats - (50 total) MPRP 33, other 17; note -
People's Small Hural will not exist after State Great Hural is assembled
Communists:
MPRP membership 90,000 (1990 est.)
Member of:
AsDB, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, G-77, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMF, IOC, ISO,
ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Luvsandorj DAWAGIV; Chancery, (202) 983-1962
US:
Ambassador Joseph E. LAKE; Deputy Chief of Mission Thomas E. DOWLING;
Embassy at Ulaanbaatar, c/o American Embassy Beijing; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO
AP 06521-0002; telephone (800) 29095 and 29639
Flag:
a new flag of unknown description reportedly has been adopted

:Mongolia Economy

Overview:
Mongolia's severe climate, scattered population, and wide expanses of
unproductive land have constrained economic development. Economic activity
traditionally has been based on agriculture and the breeding of livestock -
Mongolia has the highest number of livestock per person in the world. In
recent years extensive mineral resources have been developed with Soviet
support. The mining and processing of coal, copper, molybdenum, tin,
tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Timber
and fishing are also important sectors. In 1991-92 Mongolian leadership is

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