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being appointed acting Prime Minister by outgoing President Gemayel in 1988.
Awn and his supporters feared Ta'if would diminish Christian power in
Lebanon and increase the influence of Syria. Awn was granted amnesty and
allowed to travel in France in August 199l. Since the removal of Awn, the
Lebanese Government has made substantial progress in strengthening the
central government, rebuilding government institutions, and extending its
authority throughout the nation. The LAF has deployed from Beirut north
along the coast road to Tripoli, southeast into the Shuf mountains, and
south to Sidon and Tyre. Many militiamen from Christian and Muslim groups
have evacuated Beirut for their strongholds in the north, south, and east of
the country. Some heavy weapons possessed by the militias have been turned
over to the government, or sold outside the country, which has begun a plan
to integrate some militiamen into the military and the internal security
forces. Lebanon and Syria signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation in
May 1991. Lebanon continues to be partially occupied by Syrian troops, which
are deployed in Beirut, its southern suburbs, the Bekaa Valley, and northern
Lebanon. Iran also maintains a small contingent of revolutionary guards in
the Bekaa Valley to support Lebanese Islamic fundamentalist groups. Israel
withdrew the bulk of its forces from the south in 1985, although it still
retains troops in a 10-km-deep security zone north of its border with
Lebanon. Israel arms and trains the Army of South Lebanon (ASL), which also
occupies the security zone and is Israel's first line of defense against
attacks on its northern border. The following description is based on the
present constitutional and customary practices of the Lebanese system.

:Lebanon Economy

Overview:
Since 1975 civil war has seriously damaged Lebanon's economic
infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended Lebanon's
position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. Following October
1990, however, a tentative peace has enabled the central government to begin
restoring control in Beirut, collect taxes, and regain access to key port
and government facilities. The battered economy has also been propped up by
a financially sound banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale
manufacturers. Family remittances, banking transactions, manufactured and
farm exports, the narcotics trade, and international emergency aid are main
sources of foreign exchange. In the relatively settled year of 1991,
industrial production, agricultural output, and exports showed substantial
gains. The further rebuilding of the war-ravaged country could provide a
major stimulus to the economy in 1992, provided that the political and
military situation remains reasonably calm.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $4.8 billion, per capita $1,400; real growth rate
NA (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
30% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
35% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $533 million; expenditures $1.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports:
$700 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
agricultural products, chemicals, textiles, precious and semiprecious metals
and jewelry, metals and metal products
partners:
Saudi Arabia 16%, Switzerland 8%, Jordan 6%, Kuwait 6%, US 5%
Imports:
$1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
NA
partners:
Italy 14%, France 12%, US 6%, Turkey 5%, Saudi Arabia 3%
External debt:
$900 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
1,381,000 kW capacity; 3,870 million kWh produced, 1,170 kWh per capita
(1989)
Industries:
banking, food processing, textiles, cement, oil refining, chemicals,
jewelry, some metal fabricating
Agriculture:
accounts for about one-third of GDP; principal products - citrus fruits,
vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco, hemp (hashish), sheep, and goats; not
self-sufficient in grain
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of opium and hashish for the international drug trade;
opium poppy production in Al Biqa` is increasing; hashish production is
shipped to Western Europe, Israel, US, and the Middle East

:Lebanon Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $356 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $664 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $962 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $9
million
Currency:
Lebanese pound (plural - pounds); 1 Lebanese pound (#L) = 100 piasters
Exchange rates:
Lebanese pounds (#L) per US$1 - 879.00 (January 1992), 928.23 (1991), 695.09
(1990), 496.69 (1989), 409.23 (1988), 224.60 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Lebanon Communications

Railroads:
system in disrepair, considered inoperable
Highways:
7,300 km total; 6,200 km paved, 450 km gravel and crushed stone, 650 km
improved earth
Pipelines:
crude oil 72 km (none in operation)
Ports:
Beirut, Tripoli, Ra'Sil`ata, Juniyah, Sidon, Az Zahrani, Tyre
Merchant marine:
56 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 236,196 GRT/346,760 DWT; includes 36
cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 2 vehicle carrier, 2 roll-on/roll-off, 1
container, 8 livestock carrier, 1 chemical tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 3
bulk, 1 combination bulk
Civil air:
19 major transport aircraft
Airports:
9 total, 8 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m; none
under the direct control of the Lebanese Government
Telecommunications:
rebuilding program disrupted; had fair system of microwave relay, cable;
325,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 3 FM (numerous AM and FM
radio stations are operated inconsistently by various factions), 13 TV; 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT satellite earth station,
erratic operations; 3 submarine coaxial cables; radio relay to Jordan
inoperable, but operational to Syria, coaxial cable to Syria

:Lebanon Defense Forces

Branches:
Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) (including Army, Navy, and Air Force)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 750,319; 465,938 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $271 million, 8.2% of GDP (1992 budget)

:Lesotho Geography

Total area:
30,350 km2
Land area:
30,350 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
909 km; South Africa 909 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terrain:
mostly highland with some plateaus, hills, and mountains
Natural resources:
some diamonds and other minerals, water, agricultural and grazing land
Land use:
arable land 10%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 66%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 24%
Environment:
population pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas results in
overgrazing, severe soil erosion, soil exhaustion; desertification
Note:
landlocked; surrounded by South Africa; Highlands Water Project will
control, store, and redirect water to South Africa

:Lesotho People

Population:
1,848,925 (July 1992), growth rate 2.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
35 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
74 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
60 years male, 63 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Mosotho (singular), Basotho (plural); adjective - Basotho
Ethnic divisions:
Sotho 99.7%; Europeans 1,600, Asians 800
Religions:
Christian 80%, rest indigenous beliefs
Languages:
Sesotho (southern Sotho) and English (official); also Zulu and Xhosa
Literacy:
59% (male 44%, female 68%) age 15 and over can read and write (1966)
Labor force:
689,000 economically active; 86.2% of resident population engaged in
subsistence agriculture; roughly 60% of active male labor force works in
South Africa
Organized labor:
there are two trade union federations; the government favors formation of a
single, umbrella trade union confederation

:Lesotho Government

Long-form name:
Kingdom of Lesotho
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Maseru
Administrative divisions:
10 districts; Berea, Butha-Buthe, Leribe, Mafeteng, Maseru, Mohale's Hoek,
Mokhotlong, Qacha's Nek, Quthing, Thaba-Tseka
Independence:
4 October 1966 (from UK; formerly Basutoland)
Constitution:
4 October 1966, suspended January 1970
Legal system:
based on English common law and Roman-Dutch law; judicial review of
legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 October (1966)
Executive branch:
monarch, chairman of the Military Council, Military Council, Council of
Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
none - the bicameral Parliament was dissolved following the military coup in
January 1986; note - a National Constituent Assembly convened in June 1990
to rewrite the constitution and debate issues of national importance, but it
has no legislative authority
Judicial branch:
High Court, Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King LETSIE III (since 12 November 1990 following dismissal of his father,
exiled King MOSHOESHOE II, by Maj. Gen. LEKHANYA)
Head of Government:
Chairman of the Military Council Col. Elias Phisoana RAMAEMA (since 30 April
1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Basotho National Party (BNP), Evaristus SEKHONYANA; Basutoland Congress
Party (BCP), Ntsu MOKHEHLE; National Independent Party (NIP), A. C. MANYELI;
Marematlou Freedom Party (MFP), Bernard M. KHAKETLA; United Democratic
Party, Charles MOFELI; Communist Party of Lesotho (CPL), J. M. KENA
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
National Assembly:
dissolved following the military coup in January 1986; military has pledged
elections will take place in June 1992
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Tseliso THAMAE; Chancery at 2511 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 797-5534
US:
Ambassador Leonard H.O. SPEARMAN, Sr.; Embassy at address NA, Maseru
(mailing address is P. O. Box 333, Maseru 100 Lesotho); telephone [266]
312-666; FAX (266) 310-116

:Lesotho Government

Flag:
divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper half is white
bearing the brown silhouette of a large shield with crossed spear and club;
the lower half is a diagonal blue band with a green triangle in the corner

:Lesotho Economy

Overview:
Small, landlocked, and mountainous, Lesotho has no important natural
resources other than water. Its economy is based on agriculture, light
manufacturing, and remittances from laborers employed in South Africa ($153
million in 1989). The great majority of households gain their livelihoods
from subsistence farming and migrant labor. Manufacturing depends largely on
farm products to support the milling, canning, leather, and jute industries;
other industries include textile, clothing, and light engineering.
Industry's share of GDP rose from 6% in 1982 to 15% in 1989. Political and
economic instability in South Africa raises uncertainty for Lesotho's
economy, especially with respect to migrant worker remittances - typically
about 40% of GDP.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $420 million, per capita $240; real growth rate
4.0% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
15% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
at least 55% among adult males (1991 est.)
Budget:
expenditures $399 million, including capital expenditures of $132 million
(FY92-93)
Exports:
$59 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
wool, mohair, wheat, cattle, peas, beans, corn, hides, skins, baskets
partners:
South Africa 53%, EC 30%, North and South America 13% (1989)
Imports:
$604 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
mainly corn, building materials, clothing, vehicles, machinery, medicines,
petroleum
partners:
South Africa 95%, EC 2% (1989)
External debt:
$370 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.8% (1989 est.); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
power supplied by South Africa
Industries:
food, beverages, textiles, handicrafts, tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 18% of GDP and employs 60-70% of all households; exceedingly
primitive, mostly subsistence farming and livestock; principal crops are
corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $268 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $819 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $14
million
Currency:
loti (plural - maloti); 1 loti (L) = 100 lisente
Exchange rates:
maloti (M) per US$1 - 2.8809 (March 1992), 2.7563 (1991), 2.5863 (1990),
2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987); note - the Basotho loti is at
par with the South African rand

:Lesotho Economy

Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Lesotho Communications

Railroads:
2.6 km; owned, operated by, and included in the statistics of South Africa
Highways:
7,215 km total; 572 km paved; 2,337 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized
soil; 1,806 km improved earth, 2,500 km unimproved earth (1988)
Civil air:
1 major transport aircraft
Airports:
28 total, 28 usable; 3 with permanent surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
rudimentary system consisting of a few landlines, a small microwave system,
and minor radio communications stations; 5,920 telephones; broadcast
stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Lesotho Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Lesotho Defense Force (RLDF; including Army, Air Wing), Royal Lesotho
Mounted Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 408,003; 220,129 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $55 million, 13.1% of GDP (1990 est.)

:Liberia Geography

Total area:
111,370 km2
Land area:
96,320 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
1,585 km; Guinea 563 km, Ivory Coast 716 km, Sierra Leone 306 km
Coastline:
579 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Territorial sea:
200 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to cold nights;
wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling coastal plains rising to rolling plateau and low
mountains in northeast
Natural resources:
iron ore, timber, diamonds, gold
Land use:
arable land 1%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures 2%; forest and
woodland 39%; other 55%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
West Africa's largest tropical rain forest, subject to deforestation

:Liberia People

Population:
2,462,276 (July 1992), growth rate 29.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
44 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
13 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
265 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
119 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
54 years male, 59 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Liberian(s); adjective - Liberian
Ethnic divisions:
indigenous African tribes, including Kpelle, Bassa, Gio, Kru, Grebo, Mano,
Krahn, Gola, Gbandi, Loma, Kissi, Vai, and Bella 95%; descendants of
repatriated slaves known as Americo-Liberians 5%
Religions:
traditional 70%, Muslim 20%, Christian 10%
Languages:
English (official); more than 20 local languages of the Niger-Congo language
group; English used by about 20%
Literacy:
40% (male 50%, female 29%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
510,000, including 220,000 in the monetary economy; agriculture 70.5%,
services 10.8%, industry and commerce 4.5%, other 14.2%; non-African
foreigners hold about 95% of the top-level management and engineering jobs;
52% of population of working age
Organized labor:
2% of labor force

:Liberia Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Liberia
Type:
republic
Capital:
Monrovia
Administrative divisions:
13 counties; Bomi, Bong, Grand Bassa, Cape Mount, Grand Gedeh, Grand Kru,
Lofa, Margibi, Maryland, Montserrado, Nimba, River Cess, Sinoe
Independence:
26 July 1847
Constitution:
6 January 1986
Legal system:
dual system of statutory law based on Anglo-American common law for the
modern sector and customary law based on unwritten tribal practices for
indigenous sector
National holiday:
Independence Day, 26 July (1847)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower
house or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
People's Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
interim President Dr. Amos SAWYER (since 15 November 1990); Vice President,
vacant (since August 1991); note - this is an interim government appointed
by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) that will be
replaced after elections are held under a West African - brokered peace
plan; rival rebel factions led by Prince Y. JOHNSON and Charles TAYLOR are
challenging the SAWYER government's legitimacy while observing a tenuous
cease-fire; the former president, Gen. Dr. Samuel Kanyon DOE, was killed on
9 September 1990 by Prince Y. JOHNSON
Political parties and leaders:
National Democratic Party of Liberia (NDPL), Augustus CAINE, chairman;
Liberian Action Party (LAP), Emmanuel KOROMAH, chairman; Unity Party (UP),
Carlos SMITH, chairman; United People's Party (UPP), Gabriel Baccus
MATTHEWS, chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held NA); results - Gen. Dr. Samuel
Kanyon DOE (NDPL) 50.9%, Jackson DOE (LAP) 26.4%, other 22.7%; note -
President Doe was killed by rebel forces on 9 September 1990
Senate:
last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (26 total) NDPL 21, LAP 3, UP 1, UPP 1
House of Representatives:
last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (64 total) NDPL 51, LAP 8, UP 3, UPP 2
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO

:Liberia Government

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Eugenia A. WORDSWORTH-STEVENSON; Chancery at 5201 16th Street NW,
Washington, DC 20011; telephone (202) 723-0437 through 0440; there is a
Liberian Consulate General in New York
US:
Ambassador Peter J. de VOS; Embassy at 111 United Nations Drive, Monrovia
(mailing address is P. O. Box 98, Monrovia, or APO AE 09813; telephone [231]
222991 through 222994; FAX (231) 223-710
Flag:
11 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white;
there is a white five-pointed star on a blue square in the upper hoist-side
corner; the design was based on the US flag

:Liberia Economy

Overview:
Civil war during 1990 destroyed much of Liberia's economy, especially the
infrastructure in and around Monrovia. Expatriate businessmen fled the
country, taking capital and expertise with them. Many will not return.
Richly endowed with water, mineral resources, forests, and a climate
favorable to agriculture, Liberia had been a producer and exporter of basic
products, while local manufacturing, mainly foreign owned, had been small in
scope. Political instability threatens prospects for economic reconstruction
and repatriation of some 750,000 Liberian refugees who fled to neighboring
countries. In 1991, the political impasse between the interim government and
the rebel leader Charles Taylor prevented restoration of normal economic
life.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $988 million, per capita $400; real growth rate
1.5% (1988)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
43% urban (1988)
Budget:
revenues $242.1 million; expenditures $435.4 million, including capital
expenditures of $29.5 million (1989)
Exports:
$505 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
commodities:
iron ore 61%, rubber 20%, timber 11%, coffee
partners:
US, EC, Netherlands
Imports:
$394 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.)
commodities:
rice, mineral fuels, chemicals, machinery, transportation equipment, other
foodstuffs
partners:
US, EC, Japan, China, Netherlands, ECOWAS
External debt:
$1.6 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.5% in manufacturing (1987); accounts for 22% of GDP
Electricity:
410,000 kW capacity; 750 million kWh produced, 275 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
rubber processing, food processing, construction materials, furniture, palm
oil processing, mining (iron ore, diamonds)
Agriculture:
accounts for about 40% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); principal
products - rubber, timber, coffee, cocoa, rice, cassava, palm oil,
sugarcane, bananas, sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient in food, imports
25% of rice consumption
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $665 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $870 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $25 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $77
million
Currency:
Liberian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Liberian dollar (L$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Liberian dollars (L$) per US$1 - 1.00 (fixed rate since 1940); unofficial
parallel exchange rate of L$7 = US$1, January 1992

:Liberia Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Liberia Communications

Railroads:
480 km total; 328 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 152 km 1.067-meter narrow
gauge; all lines single track; rail systems owned and operated by foreign
steel and financial interests in conjunction with Liberian Government
Highways:
10,087 km total; 603 km bituminous treated, 2,848 km all weather, 4,313 km
dry weather; there are also 2,323 km of private, laterite-surfaced roads
open to public use, owned by rubber and timber companies
Ports:
Monrovia, Buchanan, Greenville, Harper (or Cape Palmas)
Merchant marine:
1,564 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 54,049,124 DWT/ 95,338,925 DWT;
includes 19 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 145 cargo, 51 refrigerated
cargo, 22 roll-on/roll-off, 62 vehicle carrier, 89 container, 4 barge
carrier, 460 petroleum tanker, 105 chemical, 57 combination ore/oil, 50
liquefied gas, 6 specialized tanker, 465 bulk, 1 multifunction large-load
carrier, 27 combination bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry; all
ships are foreign owned; the top 4 owning flags are US 18%, Japan 16%, Hong
Kong 10%, and Norway 9%
Civil air:
1 major transport aircraft
Airports:
66 total, 49 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
telephone and telegraph service via radio relay network; main center is
Monrovia; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations; most telecommunications services inoperable due to
insurgency movement

:Liberia Defense Forces

Branches:
Monrovia-based Armed Forces of Liberia (Army only) along with a police
force; rest of country controlled by the army of the National Patriotic
Front of Liberia (NPFL) insurgent group
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 585,224; 312,420 fit for military service; no conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Libya Geography

Total area:
1,759,540 km2
Land area:
1,759,540 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundaries:
4,383 km; Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,150 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan
383 km, Tunisia 459 km
Coastline:
1,770 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Gulf of Sidra closing line:
32 degrees 30 minutes N
Disputes:
claims and occupies the 100,000 km2 Aozou Strip in northern Chad; maritime
boundary dispute with Tunisia; Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in northern
Niger; Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in southeastern Algeria
Climate:
Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
Terrain:
mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
Natural resources:
crude oil, natural gas, gypsum
Land use:
arable land 1%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 8%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 91%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in
spring and fall; desertification; sparse natural surface-water resources
Note:
the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the
world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to
coastal cities

:Libya People

Population:
4,484,795 (July 1992), growth rate 3.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
36 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
60 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
66 years male, 71 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Libyan(s); adjective - Libyan
Ethnic divisions:
Berber and Arab 97%; some Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis,
Turks, Indians, and Tunisians
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 97%
Languages:
Arabic; Italian and English widely understood in major cities
Literacy:
64% (male 75%, female 50%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
1,000,000, includes about 280,000 resident foreigners; industry 31%,
services 27%, government 24%, agriculture 18%
Organized labor:
National Trade Unions' Federation, 275,000 members; General Union for Oil
and Petrochemicals; Pan-Africa Federation of Petroleum Energy and Allied
Workers

:Libya Government

Long-form name:
Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Digraph:
Tripoli Administration divisions *** 25 municipalities (baladiyah, singular
- baladiyat; Ajdabiya, Al `Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al
Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az
Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha,
Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan
Type:
Jamahiriya (a state of the masses); in theory, governed by the populace
through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship
Capital:
Tripoli Administration divisions
Administrative divisions:
25 municipalities (baladiyah, singular - baladiyat; Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah,
Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al
Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan,
Misratah, Murzuq Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq,
Yafran, Zlitan
Independence:
24 December 1951 (from Italy)
Constitution:
11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977
Legal system:
based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate religious
courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)
Executive branch:
revolutionary leader, chairman of the General People's Committee (premier),
General People's Committee (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral General People's Congress
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Revolutionary Leader Col. Mu`ammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September
1969)
Head of Government:
Chairman of the General People's Committee (Premier) Abu Zayd `umar DURDA
(since 7 October 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
none
Suffrage:
universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of peoples' committees
Other political or pressure groups:
various Arab nationalist movements and the Arab Socialist Resurrection
(Ba'th) party with almost negligible memberships may be functioning
clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements
Member of:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

:Libya Government

Diplomatic representation:
none
Flag:
plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion)

:Libya Economy

Overview:
The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil
sector, which contributes practically all export earnings and about
one-third of GDP. Since 1980, however, the sharp drop in oil prices and the
resulting decline in export revenues have adversely affected economic
development. In 1988 per capita GDP was the highest in Africa at $5,410, but
GDP growth rates have slowed and fluctuate sharply in response to changes in
the world oil market. Import restrictions and inefficient resource
allocations have led to shortages of basic goods and foodstuffs, although
the reopening of the Libyan-Tunisian border in April 1988 and the
Libyan-Egyptian border in December 1989 have somewhat eased shortages.
Austerity budgets and a lack of trained technicians have undermined the
government's ability to implement a number of planned infrastructure
development projects. Windfall revenues from the hike in world oil prices in
late 1990 improved the foreign payments position and resulted in a current
account surplus for the first time in five years. The nonoil manufacturing
and construction sectors, which account for about 22% of GDP, have expanded
from processing mostly agricultural products to include petrochemicals,
iron, steel, and aluminum. Although agriculture accounts for about 5% of
GDP, it employs about 20% of the labor force. Climatic conditions and poor
soils severely limit farm output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food
requirements.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $28.9 billion, per capita $6,800; real growth
rate 9% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2% (1988 est.)
Budget:
revenues $8.1 billion; expenditures $9.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $3.1 billion (1989 est.)
Exports:
$11 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
petroleum, peanuts, hides
partners:
Italy, USSR, Germany, Spain, France, Belgium/Luxembourg, Turkey
Imports:
$7.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods
partners:
Italy, USSR, Germany, UK, Japan
External debt:
$3.5 billion, excluding military debt (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate - 4%; accounts for 22% of GDP (not including oil) (1989)
Electricity:
4,700,000 kW capacity; 13,700 million kWh produced, 3,100 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
Agriculture:
5% of GNP; cash crops - wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus fruits,
peanuts; 75% of food is imported
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
$242 million; no longer a recipient

:Libya Economy

Currency:
Libyan dinar (plural - dinars); 1 Libyan dinar (LD) = 1,000 dirhams
Exchange rates:
Libyan dinars (LD) per US$1 - 0.2743 (March 1992), 0.2669 (1991), 0.2699
(1990), 0.2922 (1989), 0.2853 (1988), 0.2706 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Libya Communications

Pipelines:
crude oil 4,383 km; natural gas 1,947 km; petroleum products 443 km
(includes liquid petroleum gas 256 km)
Ports:
Tobruk, Tripoli, Banghazi, Misratah, Marsa al Burayqah, Ra's Lanuf
Merchant marine:
30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 684,969 GRT/1,209,084 DWT; includes 3
short-sea passenger, 11 cargo, 4 roll-on/roll-off, 10 petroleum tanker, 1
chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas
Civil air:
59 major transport aircraft
Airports:
133 total, 120 usable; 53 with permanent-surface runways; 9 with runways
over 3,659 m; 28 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 46 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
modern telecommunications system using radio relay, coaxial cable,
tropospheric scatter, and domestic satellite stations; 370,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 17 AM, 3 FM, 12 TV; satellite earth stations - 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 14 domestic; submarine
cables to France and Italy; radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric
scatter to Greece; planned ARABSAT and Intersputnik satellite stations

:Libya Defense Forces

Branches:
Armed Peoples of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (including Army, Navy, Air and
Air Defense Command), National Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,056,686; 624,027 fit for military service; 50,916 reach
military age (17) annually; conscription now being implemented
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, 11.1% of GDP (1987)

:Liechtenstein Geography

Total area:
160 km2
Land area:
160 km2
Comparative area:
about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
78 km; Austria 37 km, Switzerland 41 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to
moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers
Terrain:
mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third
Natural resources:
hydroelectric potential
Land use:
arable land 25%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 38%; forest and
woodland 19%; other 18%
Environment:
variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation
Note:
landlocked

:Liechtenstein People

Population:
28,642 (July 1992), growth rate 0.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
13 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
5 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
74 years male, 81 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Liechtensteiner(s); adjective - Liechtenstein
Ethnic divisions:
Alemannic 95%, Italian and other 5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 87.3%, Protestant 8.3%, unknown 1.6%, other 2.8% (1988)
Languages:
German (official), Alemannic dialect
Literacy:
100% (male 100%, female 100%) age 10 and over can read and write (1981)
Labor force:
19,905, of which 11,933 are foreigners; 6,885 commute from Austria and
Switzerland to work each day; industry, trade, and building 53.2%, services
45%, agriculture, fishing, forestry, and horticulture 1.8% (1990)
Organized labor:
NA

:Liechtenstein Government

Long-form name:
Principality of Liechtenstein
Type:
hereditary constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Vaduz
Administrative divisions:
11 communes (gemeinden, singular - gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin,
Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz
Independence:
23 January 1719, Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein established
Constitution:
5 October 1921
Legal system:
local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
Assumption Day, 15 August
Executive branch:
reigning prince, hereditary prince, head of government, deputy head of
government
Legislative branch:
unicameral Diet (Landtag)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for criminal cases and Superior Court
(Obergericht) for civil cases
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Prince Hans ADAM II (since 13 November 1989; assumed executive powers 26
August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS von und zu Liechtenstein (born 11
June 1968)
Head of Government:
Hans BRUNHART (since 26 April 1978); Deputy Head of Government Dr. Herbert
WILLE (since 2 February 1986)
Political parties and leaders:
Fatherland Union (VU), Dr. Otto HASLER; Progressive Citizens' Party (FBP),
Emanuel VOGT; Free Electoral List (FW)
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Diet:
last held on 5 March 1989 (next to be held by March 1993); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (25 total) VU 13, FBP 12
Member of:
CE, CSCE, EBRD, IAEA, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, UN, UNCTAD, UPU,
WIPO
Diplomatic representation:
in routine diplomatic matters, Liechtenstein is represented in the US by the
Swiss Embassy
US:
the US has no diplomatic or consular mission in Liechtenstein, but the US
Consul General at Zurich (Switzerland) has consular accreditation at Vaduz
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the
hoist side of the blue band

:Liechtenstein Economy

Overview:
The prosperous economy is based primarily on small-scale light industry and
tourism. Industry accounts for 53% of total employment, the service sector
45% (mostly based on tourism), and agriculture and forestry 2%. The sale of
postage stamps to collectors is estimated at $10 million annually. Low
business taxes (the maximum tax rate is 20%) and easy incorporation rules
have induced about 25,000 holding or so-called letter box companies to
establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein. Such companies, incorporated
solely for tax purposes, provide 30% of state revenues. The economy is tied
closely to that of Switzerland in a customs union, and incomes and living
standards parallel those of the more prosperous Swiss groups.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $630 million, per capita $22,300; real growth
rate NA% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
1.5% (1990)
Budget:
revenues $259 million; expenditures $292 million, including capital
expenditures of NA (1990)
Exports:
$1.6 billion
commodities:
small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps, hardware, pottery
partners:
EFTA countries 20.9% (Switzerland 15.4%), EC countries 42.7%, other 36.4%
(1990)
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles
partners:
NA
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
23,000 kW capacity; 150 million kWh produced, 5,340 kWh per capita (1989)
Industries:
electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food
products, precision instruments, tourism
Agriculture:
livestock, vegetables, corn, wheat, potatoes, grapes
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
Swiss franc, franken, or franco (plural - francs, franken, or franchi); 1
Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen, or centesimi
Exchange rates:
Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1 - 1.5079 (March 1992),
1.4340 (1991), 1.3892 (1990), 1.6359 (1989), 1.4633 (1988), 1.4912 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Liechtenstein Communications

Railroads:
18.5 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, electrified; owned, operated, and
included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways
Highways:
130.66 km main roads, 192.27 km byroads
Civil air:
no transport aircraft
Airports:
none
Telecommunications:
limited, but sufficient automatic telephone system; 25,400 telephones;
linked to Swiss networks by cable and radio relay for international
telephone, radio, and TV services

:Liechtenstein Defense Forces

Branches:
Police Department
Note:
defense is responsibility of Switzerland

:Lithuania Geography

Total area:
65,200 km2
Land area:
65,200 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
1,273 km; Belarus 502 km, Latvia 453 km, Poland 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad)
227 km
Coastline:
108 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
NA nm
Continental shelf:
NA meter depth
Exclusive fishing zone:
NA nm
Exclusive economic zone:
NA nm
Territorial sea:
NA nm
Disputes:
dispute with Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) over the position of the Neman
River border presently located on the Lithuanian bank and not in midriver as
by international standards
Climate:
maritime; wet, moderate winters
Terrain:
lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
Natural resources:
peat
Land use:
49.1% arable land; NA% permanent crops; 22.2% meadows and pastures; 16.3%
forest and woodland; 12.4% other; includes NA% irrigated
Environment:
NA

:Lithuania People

Population:
3,788,542 (July 1992), growth rate 0.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
15 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
4 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
18 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
66 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Lithuanian(s); adjective - Lithuanian
Ethnic divisions:
Lithuanian 80.1%, Russian 8.6%, Poles 7.7%, Byelorussian 1.5%, other 2.1%
Religions:
Catholic NA%, Lutheran NA%, unknown NA%, none NA%, other NA%
Languages:
Lithuanian (official), Polish NA%, Russian NA%
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write
Labor force:
1,836,000; industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 18%,
other 40% (1990)
Organized labor:
Lithuanian Trade Union Association; Labor Federation of Lithuania; Union of
Workers

:Lithuania Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Lithuania
Type:
republic
Capital:
Vilnius
Administrative divisions:
none - all rayons are under direct republic jurisdiction
Independence:
1918; annexed by the Soviet Union 3 August 1940; restored independence 11
March 1990; and regained indpendence from the USSR 6 September 1991
Constitution:
NA; Constitutional Commission has drafted a new constitution that will be
sent to Parliament for ratification
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 February; Defenders of Freedom Day, 13 January
Executive branch:
prime minister, Council of Ministers, Government,
Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme Council, Parliament
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; Court of Appeals; district and city courts; Procurator
General of Lithuania
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Chairman, Supreme Council Vytautas LANDSBERGIS (since March 1990), Deputy
Chairmen Bronius KUZMICKAS (since March 1990), Ceslovas STANKEVICIUS (since
March 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Gediminas VAGNORIUS (since January 1991); Deputy Prime
Ministers Algis DOBROVOLSKAS (since January 1991), Vytantas PAKALNISKIS
(since January 1991), Zigmas VAISVILA (since January 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Party, FNU KATILIUS, chairman; Democratic Labor Party
of Lithuania, Algirdas Mykolas BRAZAUSKAS, chairman; Lithuanian Democratic
Party, Sauluis PECELIUNAS, chairman; Lithuanian Green Party, Irena
IGNATAVICIENE, chairwoman; Lithuanian Humanism Party, Vytautas KAZLAUSKAS,
chairman; Lithuanian Independence Party, Virgilijus CEPAITIS, chairman;
Lithuanian Liberty League, Antanas TERLECKAS; Lithuanian Liberals Union,
Vytautus RADZVILAS, chairman; Lithuanian Nationalist Union, Rimantas
SMETONA, chairman; Lithuanian Social Democratic Party, Aloizas SAKALAS,
chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held March 1990 (elected by Parliament); results - LANDSBERGIS,
BRAZAUSKAS
Supreme Council:
last held 24 February 1990; results - Sajudis (nationalist movement won a
large majority) (90) 63%; seats - (141 total)
Other political or pressure groups:
Sajudis; Lithuanian Future Forum; Farmers Union
Member of:
CSCE, IAEA, ILO, NACC, UN, UNCTAD

:Lithuania Government

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Stasys LOZORAITIS, Jr.; Embassy at 2622 16th St. NW, Washington,
DC 20009; telephone (202) 234-5860, 2639
US:
Ambassador Darryl JOHNSON; Embassy at Mykolaicio putino 4, Vilnius; (mailing
address is APO AE 09862); telephone [7] (01-22) 628-049
Flag:
yellow, green, and red horizontal stripes

:Lithuania Economy

Overview:
Lithuania is striving to become a small, independent, largely privatized
economy rather than a segment of a huge, centrally planned economy. Although
substantially above average in living standards and technology in the old
USSR, Lithuania historically lagged behind Latvia and Estonia in economic
development. It is ahead of its Baltic neighbors, however, in implementing
market reform. The country has no important natural resources aside from its
arable land and strategic location. Industry depends entirely on imported
materials that have come from the republics of the former USSR. Lithuania
benefits from its ice-free port at Klaipeda on the Baltic Sea and its rail
and highway hub at Vilnius, which provides land communication between
Eastern Europe and Russia, Latvia, Estonia, and Belarus. Industry produces a
small assortment of high-quality products, ranging from complex machine
tools to sophisticated consumer electronics. Thanks to nuclear power,
Lithuania is presently self-sufficient in electricity, exporting its surplus
to Latvia and Belarus; the nuclear facilities inherited from the USSR,
however, have come under world scrutiny as seriously deficient in safety
standards. Agriculture is efficient compared with most of the former Soviet
Union. Lithuania holds first place in per capita consumption of meat, second
place for eggs and potatoes, and fourth place for milk and dairy products.
Grain must be imported to support the meat and dairy industries. As to
economic reforms, Lithuania is pressing ahead with plans to privatize at
least 60% of state-owned property (industry, agriculture, and housing)
having already sold many small enterprises using a voucher system. Other
government priorities include stimulating foreign investment by protecting
the property rights of foreign firms and redirecting foreign trade away from
Eastern markets to the more competitive Western markets. For the moment,
Lithuania will remain highly dependent on Russia for energy, raw materials,
grains, and markets for its products.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $NA; per capita NA; real growth rate -13%
(1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
200% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues 4.8 billion rubles; expenditures 4.7 billion rubles (1989 economic
survey); note - budget revenues and expenditures are not given for other
former Soviet republics; implied deficit from these figures does not have a
clear interpretation
Exports:
700 million rubles (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
electronics 18%, petroleum products 16%, food 10%, chemicals 6% (1989)
partners:
Russia 60%, Ukraine 15%, other former Soviet republics 20%, West 5%
Imports:
2.2 billion rubles (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
oil 24%, machinery 14%, chemicals 8%, grain NA%
partners:
NA
External debt:
$650 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1.3% (1991)
Electricity:
5,875,000 kW capacity; 25,500 million kWh produced, NA kWh per capita (1991)

:Lithuania Economy

Industries:
employs 25% of the labor force; its shares in the total production of the
former USSR are metal-cutting machine tools 6.6%; electric motors 4.6%;
television sets 6.2%; refrigerators and freezers 5.4%; other production
includes petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making,
textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical
equipment, electronic components, computers, and amber
Agriculture:
employs 29% of labor force; sugar, grain, potatoes, sugarbeets, vegetables,
meat, milk, dairy products, eggs, and fish; most developed are the livestock
and dairy branches - these depend on imported grain; Lithuania is a net
exporter of meat, milk, and eggs
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia to
Western Europe
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $10 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-86), $NA million;
Communist countries (1971-86), $NA million
Currency:
as of May 1992, retaining ruble as currency but planning early introduction
of ``litas''
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Lithuania Communications

Railroads:
2,010 km (includes NA km electrified); does not include industrial lines
(1990)
Highways:
44,200 km total (1990); 35,500 km hard surfaced, 8,700 km earth
Inland waterways:
600 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
NA
Ports:
maritime - Klaipeda; inland - Kaunas
Merchant marine:
66 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 268,854 GRT/315,690 DWT; includes 27
cargo, 24 timber carrier, 1 container, 3 railcar carrier, 11 combination
bulk
Civil air:
NA
Airports:
NA
Telecommunications:
better developed than in most other former USSR republics; 22.4 telephones
per 100 persons; broadcast stations - 13 AM, 26 FM, 1 SW, 1 LW, 3 TV;
landlines or microwave to former USSR republics; leased connection to the
Moscow international switch for traffic with other countries; satellite
earth stations - (8 channels to Norway)

:Lithuania Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops),
National Guard/Volunteers; Russian Forces (Ground, Navy, Air, and Air
Defense)
Manpower availability:
NA

:Luxembourg Geography

Total area:
2,586 km
Land area:
2,586 km
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
359 km; Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Terrain:
mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to
slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle floodplain in
the southeast
Natural resources:
iron ore (no longer exploited)
Land use:
arable land 24%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 20%; forest and
woodland 21%; other 34%
Environment:
deforestation
Note:
landlocked

:Luxembourg People

Population:
392,405 (July 1992), growth rate 1.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
12 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
7 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
73 years male, 80 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Luxembourger(s); adjective - Luxembourg
Ethnic divisions:
Celtic base, with French and German blend; also guest and worker residents
from Portugal, Italy, and European countries
Religions:
Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant and Jewish 3%
Languages:
Luxembourgisch, German, French; many also speak English
Literacy:
100% (male 100%, female 100%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
Labor force:
177,300; one-third of labor force is foreign workers, mostly from Portugal,
Italy, France, Belgium, and FRG; services 65%, industry 31.6%, agriculture
3.4% (1988)
Organized labor:
100,000 (est.) members of four confederated trade unions

:Luxembourg Government

Long-form name:
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Luxembourg
Administrative divisions:
3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg
Independence:
1839
Constitution:
17 October 1868, occasional revisions
Legal system:
based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day (public celebration of the Grand Duke's birthday), 23 June
(1921)
Executive branch:
grand duke, prime minister, vice prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Deputes); note - the Council of
State (Conseil d'Etat) is an advisory body whose views are considered by the
Chamber of Deputies
Judicial branch:
Superior Court of Justice (Cour Superieure de Justice)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Grand Duke JEAN (since 12 November 1964); Heir Apparent Prince HENRI (son of
Grand Duke Jean, born 16 April 1955)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Jacques SANTER (since 21 July 1984); Vice Prime Minister
Jacques F. POOS (since 21 July 1984)
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Social Party (CSV), Jacques SANTER; Socialist Workers Party
(LSAP), Jacques POOS; Liberal (DP), Colette FLESCH; Communist (KPL), Andre
HOFFMANN; Green Alternative (GAP), Jean HUSS
Suffrage:
universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
Chamber of Deputies:
last held on 18 June 1989 (next to be held by June 1994); results - CSV
31.7%, LSAP 27.2%, DP 16.2%, Greens 8.4%, PAC 7.3%, KPL 5.1%, other 4.1%;
seats - (60 total) CSV 22, LSAP 18, DP 11, Greens 4, PAC 4, KPL 1
Other political or pressure groups:
group of steel industries representing iron and steel industry, Centrale
Paysanne representing agricultural producers; Christian and Socialist labor
unions; Federation of Industrialists; Artisans and Shopkeepers Federation
Member of:
ACCT, Australia Group, Benelux, CCC, CE, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB,
EMS, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG,
OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Alphonse BERNS; Chancery at 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-4171; there are Luxembourg
Consulates General in New York and San Francisco

:Luxembourg Government

US:
Ambassador Edward M. ROWELL; Embassy at 22 Boulevard Emmanuel-Servais, 2535
Luxembourg City; PSC 11 (mailing address is APO AE 09132-5380); telephone
[352] 460123; FAX [352] 461401
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to
the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design
was based on the flag of France

:Luxembourg Economy

Overview:
The stable economy features moderate growth, low inflation, and negligible
unemployment. Agriculture is based on small but highly productive
family-owned farms. The industrial sector, until recently dominated by
steel, has become increasingly more diversified, particularly toward
high-technology firms. During the past decade, growth in the financial
sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Services,
especially banking, account for a growing proportion of the economy.
Luxembourg participates in an economic union with Belgium on trade and most
financial matters and is also closely connected economically to the
Netherlands.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $7.83 billion, per capita $20,200; real growth
rate 2.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.7% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
1.3% (1990)
Budget:
revenues $2.5 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of NA (1988)
Exports:
$6.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
finished steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass, aluminum, other
industrial products
partners:
EC 75%, US 5%
Imports:
$7.5 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
partners:
Belgium 37%, FRG 31%, France 12%, US 2%
External debt:
$131.6 million (1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate - 0.5% (1990); accounts for 25% of GDP
Electricity:
1,500,000 kW capacity; 1,163 million kWh produced, 3,170 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal products,
engineering, tires, glass, aluminum
Agriculture:
accounts for less than 3% of GDP (including forestry); principal products -
barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes; cattle raising
widespread
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
Luxembourg franc (plural - francs); 1 Luxembourg franc (LuxF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Luxembourg francs (LuxF) per US$1 - 32.462 (January 1992), 34.148 (1991),
33.418 (1990), 39.404 (1989), 36.768 (1988), 37.334 (1987); note - the
Luxembourg franc is at par with the Belgian franc, which circulates freely
in Luxembourg
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Luxembourg Communications

Railroads:
Luxembourg National Railways (CFL) operates 270 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge; 162 km double track; 162 km electrified
Highways:
5,108 km total; 4,995 km paved, 57 km gravel, 56 km earth; about 80 km
limited access divided highway
Inland waterways:
37 km; Moselle River
Pipelines:
petroleum products 48 km
Ports:
Mertert (river port)
Merchant marine:
49 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,592,985 GRT/2,642,249 DWT; includes
3 cargo, 5 container, 5 roll-on/roll-off, 6 petroleum tanker, 4 chemical
tanker, 3 combination ore/oil, 8 liquefied gas, 1 passenger, 8 bulk, 6
combination bulk
Civil air:
13 major transport aircraft
Airports:
2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runways less than 1,220 m
Telecommunications:
highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried
cables; 230,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 3 TV; 3
channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable; 1 direct-broadcast
satellite earth station; nationwide mobile phone system

:Luxembourg Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 100,994; 83,957 fit for military service; 2,320 reach military
age (19) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $100 million, 1.4% of GDP (1991)

:Macau Geography

Total area:
16 km2
Land area:
16 km2
Comparative area:
about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0.34 km; China 0.34 km
Coastline:
40 km
Maritime claims:
not known
Disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers
Terrain:
generally flat
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
essentially urban; one causeway and one bridge connect the two islands to
the peninsula on mainland
Note:
27 km west-southwest of Hong Kong on the southeast coast of China

:Macau People

Population:
473,333 (July 1992), growth rate 1.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
17 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
4 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
4 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
78 years male, 84 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Macanese (singular and plural); adjective - Macau
Ethnic divisions:
Chinese 95%, Portuguese 3%, other 2%
Religions:
Buddhist 45%, Roman Catholic 7%, Protestant 1%, none 45.8%, other 1.2%
(1981)
Languages:
Portuguese (official); Cantonese is the language of commerce
Literacy:
90% (male 93%, female 86%) age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
Labor force:
180,000 (1986)
Organized labor:
none

:Macau Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
overseas territory of Portugal; scheduled to revert to China in 1999
Capital:
Macau
Administrative divisions:
2 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Ilhas, Macau
Independence:
none (territory of Portugal); Portugal signed an agreement with China on 13
April 1987 to return Macau to China on 20 December 1999; in the joint
declaration, China promises to respect Macau's existing social and economic
systems and lifestyle for 50 years after transition
Constitution:
17 February 1976, Organic Law of Macau; basic law drafted primarily by
Beijing awaiting final approval
Legal system:
Portuguese civil law system
National holiday:
Day of Portugal, 10 June
Executive branch:
President of Portugal, governor, Consultative Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
Legislative Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President (of Portugal) Mario Alberto SOARES (since 9 March 1986)
Head of Government:
Governor Gen. Vasco Joachim Rocha VIEIRA (since 20 March 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Association to Defend the Interests of Macau; Macau Democratic Center; Group
to Study the Development of Macau; Macau Independent Group
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held on 10 March 1991; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(23 total; 8 elected by universal suffrage, 8 by indirect suffrage, and 7
appointed by the governor) number of seats by party NA
Other political or pressure groups:
wealthy Macanese and Chinese representing local interests, wealthy
pro-Communist merchants representing China's interests; in January 1967 the
Macau Government acceded to Chinese demands that gave China veto power over
administration
Member of:
IMO (associate), WTO (associate)
Diplomatic representation:
as Chinese territory under Portuguese administration, Macanese interests in
the US are represented by Portugal
US:
the US has no offices in Macau, and US interests are monitored by the US
Consulate General in Hong Kong
Flag:
the flag of Portugal is used

:Macau Economy

Overview:
The economy is based largely on tourism (including gambling) and textile and
fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to diversify have spawned other small
industries - toys, artificial flowers, and electronics. The tourist sector
has accounted for roughly 25% of GDP, and the clothing industry has provided
about two-thirds of export earnings; the gambling industry represented 36%
of GDP in 1991. Macau depends on China for most of its food, fresh water,
and energy imports. Japan and Hong Kong are the main suppliers of raw
materials and capital goods.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $3.1 billion, per capita $6,900; real growth rate
6% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.8% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2% (1989 est.)
Budget:
revenues $305 million; expenditures $298 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports:
$1.5 billion (1990 est.)
commodities:
textiles, clothing, toys
partners:
US 33%, Hong Kong 15%, FRG 12%, France 10% (1987)
Imports:
$1.8 billion (1990 est.)
commodities:
raw materials, foodstuffs, capital goods
partners:
Hong Kong 39%, China 21%, Japan 10% (1987)
External debt:
$91 million (1985)
Industrial production:
NA
Electricity:
220,000 kW capacity; 520 million kWh produced, 1,165 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
clothing, textiles, toys, plastic products, furniture, tourism
Agriculture:
rice, vegetables; food shortages - rice, vegetables, meat; depends mostly on
imports for food requirements
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
pataca (plural - patacas); 1 pataca (P) = 100 avos
Exchange rates:
patacas (P) per US$1 - 8.034 (1991), 8.024 (1990), 8.030 (1989), 8.044
(1988), 7.993 (1987); note - linked to the Hong Kong dollar at the rate of
1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Macau Communications

Highways:
42 km paved
Ports:
Macau
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
none useable, 1 under construction; 1 seaplane station
Telecommunications:
fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and
international services; 52,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 3 FM,
no TV; 75,000 radio receivers (est.); international high-frequency radio
communication facility; access to international communications carriers
provided via Hong Kong and China; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Macau Defense Forces

Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 135,923; 76,414 fit for military service
Note:
defense is responsibility of Portugal

:Macedonia Header

Note:
Macedonia has proclaimed independent statehood but has not been formally
recognized as a state by the United States.

:Macedonia Geography

Total area:
25,333 km2
Land area:
24,856 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Vermont
Land boundaries:
748 km; Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 228 km, Serbia and
Montenegro 221 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
Greece claims republic's name implies territorial claims against Aegean
Macedonia
Climate:
hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Terrain:
territory covered with deep basins and valleys; there are three large lakes,
each divided by a frontier line
Natural resources:
chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore,
asbestos, sulphur, timber
Land use:
arable land 5%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures 20%; forest and
woodland 30%; other 40%; includes irrigated NA%
Environment:
Macedonia suffers from high seismic hazard; air pollution from metallurgical
plants
Note:
major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea

:Macedonia People

Population:
2,174,000 (July 1992), growth rate NA% (1992)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NA migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
71 years male, 75 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman (1992)
Ethnic divisions:
Macedonian 67%, Albanian 20%, Turkish 4%, Serb 2%, other 7%
Religions:
Eastern Orthodox 59%, Muslim 26%, Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, unknown 10%
Languages:
Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3%
Literacy:
89.1% (male 94.2%, female 83.8%) age 10 and over can read and write (1992
est.)
Labor force:
507,324; agriculture 8%, manufacturing and mining 40% (1990)
Organized labor:
NA

:Macedonia Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Macedonia
Type:
emerging democracy
Capital:
Skopje
Administrative divisions:
NA
Independence:
20 November 1991 from Yugoslavia
Constitution:
adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991
Legal system:
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
National holiday:
NA
Executive branch:
presidency, Council of Ministers, prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court, Judicial Court of the Republic
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Kiro GLIGOROV (since 27 January 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Nikola KLJUSEV (since March 1991), Deputy Prime Ministers
Jovan ANDONOV (since March 1991), Blaze RISTOVSKI (since March 1991), and
Bezir ZUTA (since March 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Social Democratic Alliance (SDA; former Communist Party), Branko
CRVENKOVSKI, chairman; Party of Democratic Prosperity, (PDP), Nevzat HALILI,
chairman; National Democratic Party, Iliaz HALIMI, chairman; Alliance of
Reform Forces of Macedonia (MARF), Sojan ANDOV, chairman; Socialist Party,
chairman NA; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic
Party for Macedonian National Unity (IMRO-DPMNU), Ljupco GEORGIEVSKI,
chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 27 January 1991 (next to be held NA); results - Kiro GLIGOREV won
Assembly:
last held 11 November 1990 (next to be held NA);results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (120 total) IMRO-DPMNU 37, SDA 31, PDP 25, MARF 17, Party
of Yugoslavs 1, Socialists 5, others 4
Communists:
NA
Other political or pressure groups:
Movement for All Macedonian Action (MAAK), IMRU-Democratic Party, League for
Democracy, Albanian Democratic Union-Liberal Party
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation:
has not been formerly recognized by the US
Flag:
NA

:Macedonia Economy

Overview:
Macedonia, although the poorest among the six republics of a disintegrated
Yugoslav federation, can meet basic food and energy needs through its own
agricultural and coal resources. As a breakaway republic, however, it will
move down toward a bare subsistence level of life unless economic ties are
reforged or enlarged with its neighbors Serbia, Albania, Greece, and
Bulgaria. The economy depends on outside sources for all of its oil and gas
and its modern machinery and parts. Continued political turmoil, both
internally and in the region as a whole, prevents any swift readjustments of
trade patterns and economic rules of the game. Inflation in early 1992 was
out of control, the result of fracturing trade links, the decline in
economic activity, and general uncertainties about the future status of the
country; prices rose 38% in March 1992 alone. Macedonia's geographical
isolation, technological backwardness, and political instability place it
far down the list of countries of interest to Western investors. Recognition
of Macedonia by the EC and an internal commitment to economic reform would
help to encourage foreign investment over the long run.
GDP:
$7.1 billion, per capita $3,110; real growth rate -18% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
20% (1991 est.)
Exports:
$578 million (1990)
commodities:
manufactured goods 40%, machinery and transport equipment 14%, miscellaneous
manufactured articles 23%, raw materials 7.6%, food (rice) and live animals
5.7%, beverages and tobacco 4.5%, chemicals 4.7%
partners:
principally Serbia and the other former Yugoslav republics, Germany, Greece,
Albania
Imports:
$1,112 million (1990)
commodities:
fuels and lubricants 19%, manufactured goods 18%, machinery and transport
equipment 15%, food and live animals 14%, chemicals 11.4%, raw materials
10%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 8.0%, beverages and tobacco 3.5%
partners:
other former Yugoslav republics, Greece, Albania, Germany, Bulgaria
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate -18% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
1,600,000 kw capacity; 6,300 million kWh produced, 3,103 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
low levels of technology predominate, such as, oil refining by distillation
only; produces basic fuels; mining and manufacturing processes result in the
extraction and production of coal as well as metallic chromium, lead, zinc,
and ferronickel; light industry produces basic textiles, wood products, and
tobacco
Agriculture:
provides 12% of Macedonia's GDP and meets the basic need for food; principal
crops are rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, and millet; also grown are cotton,
sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus fruit, and vegetables; Macedonia is one of
the seven legal cultivators of the opium poppy for the world pharmaceutical
industry, including some exports to the US; agricultural production is
highly labor intensive

:Macedonia Economy

Illicit drugs:
NA
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
denar (plural - denars); 1 denar (NA) = 100 NA
Exchange rates:
denar (NA) per US$1 - 240 (January 1991)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Macedonia Communications

Railroads:
NA
Highways:
10,591 km total (1991); 5,091 km paved, 1,404 km gravel, 4,096 km earth
Inland waterways:
NA km
Pipelines:
none
Ports:
none - landlocked

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