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Exchange rates:
Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1 - 28.466 (January 1992), 27.508 (1991),
22.915 (1990), 20.572 (1989), 17.747 (1988), 16.454 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Kenya Communications

Railroads:
2,040 km 1.000-meter gauge
Highways:
64,590 km total; 7,000 km paved, 4,150 km gravel, remainder improved earth
Inland waterways:
part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of Kenya; principal inland
port is at Kisumu
Pipelines:
petroleum products 483 km
Ports:
Mombasa, Lamu
Merchant marine:
1 petroleum tanker ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,727 GRT/5,558 DWT
Civil air:
19 major transport aircraft
Airports:
249 total, 214 usable; 21 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways
over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 46 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
in top group of African systems; consists primarily of radio relay links;
over 260,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 16 AM; 4 FM, 6 TV; satellite
earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

:Kenya Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary General Service Unit of the Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 5,688,543; 3,513,611 fit for military service; no conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $100 million, 1% of GDP (1989 est.)

:Kingman Reef Geography

Total area:
1 km2
Land area:
1 km2
Comparative area:
about 1.7 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
3 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds
Terrain:
low and nearly level with a maximum elevation of about 1 meter
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; wet or awash most of the time
Note:
located 1,600 km south-southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific Ocean,
about halfway between Hawaii and American Samoa; maximum elevation of about
1 meter makes this a navigational hazard; closed to the public

:Kingman Reef People

Population:
uninhabited

:Kingman Reef Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Navy
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

:Kingman Reef Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

:Kingman Reef Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and American Samoa by
Pan American Airways for flying boats in 1937 and 1938

:Kingman Reef Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

:Kiribati Geography

Total area:
717 km2
Land area:
717 km2; includes three island groups - Gilbert Islands, Line Islands,
Phoenix Islands
Comparative area:
slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
1,143 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs
Natural resources:
phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)
Land use:
arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 51%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 3%; other 46%
Environment:
typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to March; 20 of the 33
islands are inhabited
Note:
Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock
islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Makatea in French Polynesia
and Nauru

:Kiribati People

Population:
74,788 (July 1992), growth rate 2.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
33 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
99 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
52 years male, 56 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - I-Kiribati (singular and plural); adjective - I-Kiribati
Ethnic divisions:
Micronesian
Religions:
Roman Catholic 52.6%, Protestant (Congregational) 40.9%, Seventh-Day
Adventist, Baha'i, Church of God, Mormon 6% (1985)
Languages:
English (official), Gilbertese
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
7,870 economically active, not including subsistence farmers (1985 est.)
Organized labor:
Kiribati Trades Union Congress - 2,500 members

:Kiribati Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Kiribati; note - pronounced Kiribas
Type:
republic
Capital:
Tarawa
Administrative divisions:
3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands; note - a new
administrative structure of 6 districts (Banaba, Central Gilberts, Line
Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa) may have been changed
to 21 island councils (one for each of the inhabited islands) named Abaiang,
Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Canton, Kiritimati,
Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei, Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa, Tabiteuea,
Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa, Teraina
Independence:
12 July 1979 (from UK; formerly Gilbert Islands)
Constitution:
12 July 1979
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 July (1979)
Executive branch:
president (Beretitenti), vice president (Kauoman-ni-Beretitenti), Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Assembly (Maneaba Ni Maungatabu)
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Teatao TEANNAKI (since 8 July 1991); Vice President Taomati IUTA
(since 8 July 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
National Progressive Party, Teatao TEANNAKI; Christian Democratic Party,
Teburoro TITO; New Movement Party, leader NA; Liberal Party, Tewareka
TENTOA; note - there is no tradition of formally organized political parties
in Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups because
they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held on 8 July 1991 (next to be held May 1995); results - Teatao
TEANNAKI 52%, Roniti TEIWAKI 28%
House of Assembly:
last held on 8 May 1991 (next to be held May 1995); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (40 total; 39 elected) percent of seats by party
NA
Member of:
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP (associate), IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, IMF, INTERPOL,
ITU, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador (vacant) lives in Tarawa (Kiribati)
US:
the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Kiribati
Flag:
the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird flying over a yellow rising
sun, and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy white stripes to
represent the ocean

:Kiribati Economy

Overview:
The country has few national resources. Commercially viable phosphate
deposits were exhausted at the time of independence in 1979. Copra and fish
now represent the bulk of production and exports. The economy has fluctuated
widely in recent years. Real GDP declined about 8% in 1987, as the fish
catch fell sharply to only one-fourth the level of 1986 and copra production
was hampered by repeated rains. Output rebounded strongly in 1988, with real
GDP growing by 17%. The upturn in economic growth came from an increase in
copra production and a good fish catch. Following the strong surge in output
in 1988, GNP increased 1% in both 1989 and 1990.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $36.8 million, per capita $525; real growth rate
1.0% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.0% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2% (1985); considerable underemployment
Budget:
revenues $29.9 million; expenditures $16.3 million, including capital
expenditures of $14.0 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$5.8 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
fish 55%, copra 42%
partners:
EC 20%, Marshall Islands 12%, US 8%, American Samoa 4% (1985)
Imports:
$26.7 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, fuel, transportation equipment
partners:
Australia 39%, Japan 21%, NZ 6%, UK 6%, US 3% (1985)
External debt:
$2.0 million (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0% (1988 est.); accounts for less than 4% of GDP
Electricity:
5,000 kW capacity; 13 million kWh produced, 190 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
fishing, handicrafts
Agriculture:
accounts for 30% of GDP (including fishing); copra and fish contribute about
95% to exports; subsistence farming predominates; food crops - taro,
breadfruit, sweet potatoes, vegetables; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$273 million
Currency:
Australian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3177 (March 1992), 1.2835 (1991),
1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986)
Fiscal year:
NA

:Kiribati Communications

Highways:
640 km of motorable roads
Inland waterways:
small network of canals, totaling 5 km, in Line Islands
Ports:
Banaba and Betio (Tarawa)
Civil air:
2 Trislanders; no major transport aircraft
Airports:
21 total; 20 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 2,439 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
1,400 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

:Kiribati Defense Forces

Branches:
no military force maintained; the Police Force carries out law enforcement
functions and paramilitary duties; there are small police posts on all
islands
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:Korea, North Geography

Total area:
120,540 km2
Land area:
120,410 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Mississippi
Land boundaries:
1,673 km; China 1,416 km, South Korea 238 km, Russia 19 km
Coastline:
2,495 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Military boundary line:
50 nm in the Sea of Japan and the exclusive economic zone limit in the
Yellow Sea (all foreign vessels and aircraft without permission are banned)
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
short section of boundary with China is indefinite; Demarcation Line with
South Korea
Climate:
temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer
Terrain:
mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys; coastal plains
wide in west, discontinuous in east
Natural resources:
coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite, iron ore, copper, gold,
pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower
Land use:
arable land 18%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures NEGL%; forest and
woodland 74%; other 7%; includes irrigated 9%
Environment:
mountainous interior is isolated, nearly inaccessible, and sparsely
populated; late spring droughts often followed by severe flooding
Note:
strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and Russia

:Korea, North People

Population:
22,227,303 (July 1992), growth rate 1.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
24 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
30 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
66 years male, 72 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Korean(s);adjective - Korean
Ethnic divisions:
racially homogeneous
Religions:
Buddhism and Confucianism; some Christianity and syncretic Chondogyo;
autonomous religious activities now almost nonexistent; government-sponsored
religious groups exist to provide illusion of religious freedom
Languages:
Korean
Literacy:
99%, (male 99%, female 99%); note - presumed to be virtually universal among
population under age 60
Labor force:
9,615,000; agricultural 36%, nonagricultural 64%; shortage of skilled and
unskilled labor (mid-1987 est.)
Organized labor:
1,600,000 members; single-trade union system coordinated by the General
Federation of Trade Unions of Korea under the Central Committee

:Korea, North Government

Long-form name:
Democratic People's Republic of Korea; abbreviated DPRK
Type:
Communist state; Stalinist dictatorship
Capital:
P'yongyang
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 3 special cities* (jikhalsi,
singular and plural); Chagang-do, Hamgyong-namdo, Hamgyong-bukto,
Hwanghae-namdo, Hwanghae-bukto, Kaesong-si*, Kangwon-do, Namp'o-si*,
P'yongan-bukto, P'yongan-namdo,P'yongyang-si*, Yanggang-do
Independence:
9 September 1948
Constitution:
adopted 1948, revised 27 December 1972
Legal system:
based on German civil law system with Japanese influences and Communist
legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 9 September (1948)
Executive branch:
president, two vice presidents, premier, eleven vice premiers, State
Administration Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme People's Assembly (Ch'oego Inmin Hoeui)
Judicial branch:
Central Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President KIM Il-song (national leader since 1945, formally President since
28 December 1972); designated Successor KIM Chong-il (son of President, born
16 February 1942)
Head of Government:
Premier YON Hyong-muk (since December 1988)
Political parties and leaders:
major party - Korean Workers' Party (KWP), KIM Il-song, general secretary,
and his son, KIM Chong-il, secretary, Central Committee; Korean Social
Democratic Party, YI Kye-paek, chairman; Chondoist Chongu Party, CHONG
Sin-hyok, chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 17
Elections:
President:
last held 24 May 1990 (next to be held NA 1994); results - President KIM
Il-song was reelected without opposition
Supreme People's Assembly:
last held on 24 May 1990 (next to be held NA 1994); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (687 total) the KWP approves a single list of
candidates who are elected without opposition; minor parties hold a few
seats
Communists:
KWP claims membership of about 3 million
Member of:
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, IFAD, IMF (observer), IMO, IOC, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
none

:Korea, North Government

Flag:
three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red
band is edged in white; on the hoist side of the red band is a white disk
with a red five-pointed star

:Korea, North Economy

Overview:
More than 90% of this command economy is socialized; agricultural land is
collectivized; and state-owned industry produces 95% of manufactured goods.
State control of economic affairs is unusually tight even for a Communist
country because of the small size and homogeneity of the society and the
strict rule of KIM Il-song and his son, KIM Chong-il. Economic growth during
the period 1984-89 averaged 2-3%, but output declined by 2-4% annually
during 1990-91, largely because of disruptions in economic relations with
the USSR. Abundant natural resources and hydropower form the basis of
industrial development. Output of the extractive industries includes coal,
iron ore, magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc, lead, and precious metals.
Manufacturing is centered on heavy industry, with light industry lagging far
behind. Despite the use of improved seed varieties, expansion of irrigation,
and the heavy use of fertilizers, North Korea has not yet become
self-sufficient in food production. Four consecutive years of poor harvests,
coupled with distribution problems, have led to chronic food shortages.
North Korea remains far behind South Korea in economic development and
living standards.
GNP:
purchasing power equivalent - $23.3 billion, per capita $1,100; real growth
rate -2% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
officially none
Budget:
revenues $17.3 billion; expenditures $17.7 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1990)
Exports:
$2.02 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
minerals, metallurgical products, agricultural products, manufactures
partners:
USSR, China, Japan, Hong Kong, Germany, Singapore
Imports:
$2.62 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
petroleum, machinery and equipment, coking coal, grain
partners:
USSR, Japan, China, Hong Kong, FRG, Singapore
External debt:
$7 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
7,140,000 kW capacity; 36,000 million kWh produced, 1,650 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
machine building, military products, electric power, chemicals, mining,
metallurgy, textiles, food processing
Agriculture:
accounts for about 25% of GNP and 36% of work force; principal crops - rice,
corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; livestock and livestock products - cattle,
hogs, pork, eggs; not self-sufficient in grain; fish catch estimated at 1.7
million metric tons in 1987
Economic aid:
Communist countries, $1.4 billion a year in the 1980s
Currency:
North Korean won (plural - won); 1 North Korean won (Wn) = 100 chon

:Korea, North Economy

Exchange rates:
North Korean won (Wn) per US$1 - 2.13 (May 1992), 2.14 (September 1991), 2.1
(January 1990), 2.3 (December 1989), 2.13 (December 1988), 0.94 (March 1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Korea, North Communications

Railroads:
4,915 km total; 4,250 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 665 km 0.762-meter
narrow gauge; 159 km double track; 3,084 km electrified; government owned
(1989)
Highways:
about 30,000 km (1989); 98.5% gravel, crushed stone, or earth surface; 1.5%
paved
Inland waterways:
2,253 km; mostly navigable by small craft only
Pipelines:
crude oil 37 km
Ports:
Ch'ongjin, Haeju, Hungnam, Namp'o, Wonsan, Songnim, Najin, Sonbong (formerly
Unggi), Kim Chaek
Merchant marine:
78 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 543,033 GRT/804,507 DWT; includes 1
passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 67 cargo, 2 petroleum
tanker, 4 bulk, 1 combination bulk, 1 container
Airports:
55 total, 55 usable (est.); about 30 with permanent-surface runways; fewer
than 5 with runways over 3,659 m; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 30 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 18 AM, no FM, 11 TV; 200,000 TV sets; 3,500,000 radio
receivers; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Korea, North Defense Forces

Branches:
Korean People's Army (including the Army, Navy, Air Force), Civil Security
Forces
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 6,476,839; 3,949,568 fit for military service; 227,154 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - about $5 billion, 20-25% of GNP (1991 est.); note
- the officially announced but suspect figure is $1.9 billion (1991) 8% of
GNP (1991 est.)

:Korea, South Geography

Total area:
98,480 km2
Land area:
98,190 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Indiana
Land boundaries:
238 km; North Korea 238 km
Coastline:
2,413 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
not specific
Territorial sea:
12 nm (3 nm in the Korea Strait)
Disputes:
Demarcation Line with North Korea; Liancourt Rocks claimed by Japan
Climate:
temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter
Terrain:
mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west and south
Natural resources:
coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead, hydropower
Land use:
arable land 21%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and
woodland 67%; other 10%; includes irrigated 12%
Environment:
occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods; earthquakes in southwest;
air pollution in large cities

:Korea, South People

Population:
44,149,199 (July 1992), growth rate 1.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
16 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
23 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
67 years male, 73 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Korean(s);adjective - Korean
Ethnic divisions:
homogeneous; small Chinese minority (about 20,000)
Religions:
strong Confucian tradition; vigorous Christian minority (24.3% of the total
population); Buddhism; pervasive folk religion (Shamanism); Chondogyo
(religion of the heavenly way), eclectic religion with nationalist overtones
founded in 19th century, about 0.1% of population
Languages:
Korean; English widely taught in high school
Literacy:
96% (male 99%, female 94%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
16,900,000; 52% services and other; 27% mining and manufacturing; 21%
agriculture, fishing, forestry (1987)
Organized labor:
23.4% (1989) of labor force in government-sanctioned unions

:Korea, South Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Korea; abbreviated ROK
Type:
republic
Capital:
Seoul
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 6 special cities* (jikhalsi,
singular and plural); Cheju-do, Cholla-bukto, Cholla-namdo,
Ch'ungch'ong-bukto, Ch'ungch'ong-namdo, Inch'on-jikhalsi*, Kangwon-do,
Kwangju-jikhalsi*, Kyonggi-do, Kyongsang-bukto, Kyongsang-namdo,
Pusan-jikhalsi*, Soul-t'ukpyolsi*, Taegu-jikhalsi*, Taejon-jikhalsi*
Independence:
15 August 1948
Constitution:
25 February 1988
Legal system:
combines elements of continental European civil law systems, Anglo-American
law, and Chinese classical thought
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 August (1948)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, two deputy prime ministers, State Council
(cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Kuk Hoe)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President ROH Tae Woo (since 25 February 1988)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister CHUNG Won Shik (since 24 May 1991); Deputy Prime Minister
CHOI Gak Kyu (since 19 February 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party:
Democratic Liberal Party (DLP), ROH Tae Woo, president, KIM Young Sam,
chairman; KIM Chong Pil and PAK Tae Chun, co-chairmen; note - the DLP
resulted from a merger of the Democratic Justice Party (DJP), Reunification
Democratic Party (RDP), and New Democratic Republican Party (NDRP) on 9
February 1990
opposition:
Democratic Party (DP), result of a merger of the New Democratic Party and
the Democratic Party formalized 16 September 1991; KIM Dae Jung, executive
chairman; LEE Ki Taek, executive chairman; several smaller parties
Suffrage:
universal at age 20
Elections:
President:
last held on 16 December 1987 (next to be held December 1992); results - ROH
Tae Woo (DJP) 35.9%, KIM Young Sam (RDP) 27.5%, KIM Dae Jung (PPD) 26.5%,
other 10.1%
National Assembly:
last held on 26 April 1988 (next to be held around March 1992); results -
DJP 34%, RDP 24%, PPD 19%, NDRP 15%, other 8%; seats - (296 total) DJP 125,
PPD 70, RDP 59, NDRP 35, other 10; note - on 9 February 1990 the DJP, RDP,
and NDRP merged to form the DLP; also the PPD, later renamed the NDP, merged
with another party to form the DP in September 1991. The distribution of
seats as of December 1991 was DLP 214, DP 72, independent 9, vacant 1

:Korea, South Government

Other political or pressure groups:
Korean National Council of Churches; National Democratic Alliance of Korea;
National Council of College Student Representatives; National Federation of
Farmers' Associations; National Council of Labor Unions; Federation of
Korean Trade Unions; Korean Veterans' Association; Federation of Korean
Industries; Korean Traders Association
Member of:
AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC, COCOM, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, ILO, IMF, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, OAS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador HYUN Hong Joo; Chancery at 2370 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-5600; there are Korean Consulates
General in Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los
Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle
US:
Ambassador Donald P. GREGG; Embassy at 82 Sejong-Ro, Chongro-ku, Seoul,
AMEMB, Unit 15550 (mailing address is APO AP 96205-0001); telephone [82] (2)
732-2601 through 2618; FAX [82] (2) 738-8845; there is a US Consulate in
Pusan
Flag:
white with a red (top) and blue yin-yang symbol in the center; there is a
different black trigram from the ancient I Ching (Book of Changes) in each
corner of the white field

:Korea, South Economy

Overview:
The driving force behind the economy's dynamic growth has been the planned
development of an export-oriented economy in a vigorously entrepreneurial
society. Real GNP has increased more than 10% annually over the past six
years. This growth has led to an overheated situation characterized by a
tight labor market, strong inflationary pressures, and a rapidly rising
current account deficit. Policymakers have stated they will focus attention
on slowing inflation. In any event, the economy will remain the envy of the
great majority of the world's peoples.
GNP:
purchasing power equivalent - $273 billion, per capita $6,300; real growth
rate 8.7% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.7% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
2.4% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $44 billion; expenditures $44 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$71.9 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
textiles, clothing, electronic and electrical equipment, footwear,
machinery, steel, automobiles, ships, fish
partners:
US 26%, Japan 18% (1991)
Imports:
$81.6 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
machinery, electronics and electronic equipment, oil, steel, transport
equipment, textiles, organic chemicals, grains
partners:
Japan 26%, US 23% (1991)
External debt:
$38.2 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.5% (1991 est.); accounts for about 45% of GNP
Electricity:
24,000,000 kW capacity; 106,000 million kWh produced, 2,460 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
textiles, clothing, footwear, food processing, chemicals, steel,
electronics, automobile production, shipbuilding
Agriculture:
accounts for 8% of GNP and employs 21% of work force (including fishing and
forestry); principal crops - rice, root crops, barley, vegetables, fruit;
livestock and livestock products - cattle, hogs, chickens, milk, eggs;
self-sufficient in food, except for wheat; fish catch of 2.9 million metric
tons, seventh-largest in world
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.9 billion; non-US countries
(1970-89), $3.0 billion
Currency:
South Korean won (plural - won); 1 South Korean won (W) = 100 chon
(theoretical)
Exchange rates:
South Korean won (W) per US$1 - 766.66 (January 1992), 733.35 (1991), 707.76
(1990), 671.46 (1989), 731.47 (1988), 822.57 (1987)

:Korea, South Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Korea, South Communications

Railroads:
3,106 km operating in 1983; 3,059 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 47 km
0.610-meter narrow gauge, 712 km double track, 418 km electrified;
government owned
Highways:
62,936 km total (1982); 13,476 km national highway, 49,460 km provincial and
local roads
Inland waterways:
1,609 km; use restricted to small native craft
Pipelines:
petroleum products 455 km
Ports:
Pusan, Inchon, Kunsan, Mokpo, Ulsan
Merchant marine:
435 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,924,818 GRT/11,389,397 DWT;
includes 2 short-sea passenger, 140 cargo, 53 container, 11 refrigerated
cargo, 9 vehicle carrier, 42 petroleum tanker, 10 chemical tanker, 14
liquefied gas, 5 combination ore/oil, 145 bulk, 3 combination bulk, 1
multifunction large-load carrier
Civil air:
93 major transport aircraft
Airports:
105 total, 97 usable; 60 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 23 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 16 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
adequate domestic and international services; 4,800,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 79 AM, 46 FM, 256 TV (57 of 1 kW or greater); satellite
earth stations - 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

:Korea, South Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Marines Corps, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 13,131,113; 8,456,428 fit for military service; 448,450 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $12.6 billion, 4.5% of GNP (1992 budget)

:Kuwait Geography

Total area:
17,820 km2
Land area:
17,820 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
462 km; Iraq 240 km, Saudi Arabia 222 km
Coastline:
499 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
not specific
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
in April 1991 official Iraqi acceptance of UN Security Council Resolution
687, which demands that Iraq accept the inviolability of the boundary set
forth in its 1963 agreement with Kuwait, ending earlier claims to Bubiyan
and Warbah Islands or to all of Kuwait; a UN Boundary Demarcation Commission
is demarcating the Iraq-Kuwait boundary persuant to Resolution 687, and, on
17 June 1992, the UN Security Council reaffirmed the finality of the
Boundary Demarcation Commission's decisions; ownership of Qaruh and Umm al
Maradim Islands disputed by Saudi Arabia
Climate:
dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters
Terrain:
flat to slightly undulating desert plain
Natural resources:
petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas
Land use:
arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 8%; forest and
woodland NEGL%; other 92%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
some of world's largest and most sophisticated desalination facilities
provide most of water; air and water pollution; desertification
Note:
strategic location at head of Persian Gulf

:Kuwait People

Population:
1,378,613 (July 1992), growth rate NA (1992)
Birth rate:
32 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
2 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NA migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
14 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
72 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Kuwaiti(s); adjective - Kuwaiti
Ethnic divisions:
Kuwaiti 50%, other Arab 35%, South Asian 9%, Iranian 4%, other 2%
Religions:
Muslim 85% (Shi`a 30%, Sunni 45%, other 10%), Christian, Hindu, Parsi, and
other 15%
Languages:
Arabic (official); English widely spoken
Literacy:
74% (male 78%, female 69%) age 15 and over can read and write (1985)
Labor force:
566,000 (1986); services 45.0%, construction 20.0%, trade 12.0%,
manufacturing 8.6%, finance and real estate 2.6%, agriculture 1.9%, power
and water 1.7%, mining and quarrying 1.4%; 70% of labor force was
non-Kuwaiti
Organized labor:
labor unions exist in oil industry and among government personnel

:Kuwait Government

Long-form name:
State of Kuwait
Type:
nominal constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Kuwait
Administrative divisions:
5 governorates (mu'hafaz'at, singular - muh'afaz'ah); Al Ah'madi, Al Jahrah,
Al Kuwayt, 'Hawalli; Farwaniyah
Independence:
19 June 1961 (from UK)
Constitution:
16 November 1962 (some provisions suspended since 29 August 1962)
Legal system:
civil law system with Islamic law significant in personal matters; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 25 February
Executive branch:
amir, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
National Assembly (Majlis al `umma) dissolved 3 July 1986; elections for new
Assembly scheduled for October 1992
Judicial branch:
High Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Amir Shaykh JABIR al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah (since 31 December 1977)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister and Crown Prince SA`UD al-`Abdallah al-Salim al-Sabah (since
8 February 1978); Deputy Prime Minister SALIM al-Sabah al-Salim al-Sabah
Political parties and leaders:
none
Suffrage:
adult males who resided in Kuwait before 1920 and their male descendants at
age 21; note - out of all citizens, only 10% are eligible to vote and only
5% actually vote
Elections:
National Assembly:
dissolved 3 July 1986; new elections are scheduled for October 1992
Other political or pressure groups:
40,000 Palestinian community; small, clandestine leftist and Shi`a
fundamentalist groups are active; several groups critical of government
policies are active
Member of:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BDEAC, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GATT, GCC, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Shaykh Sa`ud Nasir al-SABAH; Chancery at 2940 Tilden Street NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 966-0702
US:
Ambassador Edward (Skip) GNEHM, Jr.; Embassy at Bneid al-Gar (opposite the
Kuwait International Hotel), Kuwait City (mailing address is P.O. Box 77
SAFAT, 13001 SAFAT, Kuwait; APO AE 09880); telephone [965] 242-4151 through
4159; FAX [956] 244-2855

:Kuwait Government

Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a black
trapezoid based on the hoist side

:Kuwait Economy

Overview:
Up to the invasion by Iraq in August 1990, the oil sector had dominated the
economy. Kuwait has the third-largest oil reserves in the world after Saudi
Arabia and Iraq. Earnings from hydrocarbons have generated over 90% of both
export and government revenues and contributed about 40% to GDP. Most of the
nonoil sector has traditionally been dependent upon oil-derived government
revenues. Iraq's destruction of Kuwait's oil industry during the Gulf war
has devastated the economy. Iraq destroyed or damaged more than 80% of
Kuwait's 950 operating oil wells, as well as sabotaged key surface
facilities. Firefighters brought all of the roughly 750 oil well fires and
blowouts under control by November 1991. By yearend, production had been
brought back to 400,000 barrels per day; it could take two to three years to
restore Kuwait's oil production to its prewar level of about 2.0 million
barrels per day. Meanwhile, population had been greatly reduced because of
the war, from 2.1 million to 1.4 million.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $8.75 billion, per capita $6,200; real growth
rate -50% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA
Unemployment rate:
NA
Budget:
revenues $7.1 billion; expenditures $10.5 billion, including capital
expenditures of $3.1 billion (FY88)
Exports:
$11.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
oil 90%
partners:
Japan 19%, Netherlands 9%, US 8%, Pakistan 6%
Imports:
$6.6 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
food, construction materials, vehicles and parts, clothing
partners:
US 15%, Japan 12%, FRG 8%, UK 7%
External debt:
$7.2 billion (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3% (1988); accounts for 52% of GDP
Electricity:
3,100,000 kW available out of 8,290,000 kW capacity due to Persian Gulf war;
7,300 million kWh produced, 3,311 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
petroleum, petrochemicals, desalination, food processing, building
materials, salt, construction
Agriculture:
virtually none; dependent on imports for food; about 75% of potable water
must be distilled or imported
Economic aid:
donor - pledged $18.3 billion in bilateral aid to less developed countries
(1979-89)
Currency:
Kuwaiti dinar (plural - dinars); 1 Kuwaiti dinar (KD) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates:
Kuwaiti dinars (KD) per US$1 - 0.2950 (March 1992), 0.2843 (1991), 0.2915
(1990), 0.2937 (1989), 0.2790 (1988), 0.2786 (1987)

:Kuwait Economy

Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Kuwait Communications

Railroads:
6,456 km total track length (1990); over 700 km double track; government
owned
Highways:
3,900 km total; 3,000 km bituminous; 900 km earth, sand, light gravel
Pipelines:
crude oil 877 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 165 km
Ports:
Ash Shu`aybah, Ash Shuwaykh, Mina' al 'Ahmadi
Merchant marine:
29 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 1,196,435 GRT/1,957,216 DWT; includes
2 cargo, 4 livestock carrier, 18 oil tanker, 4 liquefied gas; note - all
Kuwaiti ships greater than 1,000 GRT were outside Kuwaiti waters at the time
of the Iraqi invasion; many of these ships transferred to the Liberian flag
or to the flags of other Persian Gulf states; only 1 has returned to Kuwaiti
flag since the liberation of Kuwait
Civil air:
9 major transport aircraft
Airports:
7 total, 4 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
civil network suffered extensive damage as a result of Desert Storm;
reconstruction is under way with some restored international and domestic
capabilities; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 0 FM, 3 TV; satellite earth
stations - destroyed during Persian Gulf war; temporary mobile satellite
ground stations provide international telecommunications; coaxial cable and
radio relay to Saudi Arabia; service to Iraq is nonoperational

:Kuwait Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force, National Guard
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 389,770; 234,609 fit for military service; 12,773 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $9.17 billion, 20.4% of GDP (1992 budget)

:Kyrgyzstan Geography

Total area:
198,500 km2
Land area:
191,300 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries:
3,878 km; China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan
1,099 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
territorial dispute with Tajikistan on southern boundary in Isfara Valley
area
Climate:
dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in south (Fergana
Valley)
Terrain:
peaks of Tien Shan rise to 7,000 meters, and associated valleys and basins
encompass entire nation
Natural resources:
small amounts of coal, natural gas, oil; also nepheline, rare earth metals,
mercury, bismuth, gold, uranium, lead, zinc, hydroelectric power
Land use:
NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest
and woodland; NA% other; includes NA% irrigated
Environment:
NA

:Kyrgyzstan People

Population:
4,567,875 (July 1992), growth rate 1.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
31 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
- 8.5 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
56 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)
Life expectancy at birth:
62 years male, 71 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Kirghiz(s); adjective - Kirghiz
Ethnic divisions:
Kirghiz 52%, Russian 21%, Uzbek 13%, other 14%
Religions:
Muslim 70%, Russian Orthodox NA%
Languages:
Kirghiz (Kyrgyz)
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write
Labor force:
1,894,000 (1989); agriculture 33%, other 49%, industry 18%, other NA% (1988)
Organized labor:
NA

:Kyrgyzstan Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Kyrgyzstan
Type:
republic
Capital:
Bishkek (formerly Frunze)
Administrative divisions:
6 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast'); Chu, Dzhalal-Abad, Issyk-Kul',
Naryn, Osh, Talas; note - an oblast has the same name as its administrative
center
Independence:
31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union; formerly Kirghiz Soviet Socialist
Republic)
Constitution:
adopted NA, effective 20 April 1978, amended 23 September 1989; note - new
constitution is being drafted
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
NA
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral body or bicameral
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
President Askar AKAYEV; Vice President Felix KULOV; Chairman, Supreme
Soviet, Medetkav SHERIMKULOV; Spiritual leader of Kyrgyz Muslims, Sadykzhav
KAMALOV
Chief of State:
President Askar AKAYEV (since 28 October 1990), Vice President Felix KULOV
(since 2 March 1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Tursenbek CHYNGYSHEV (since 2 March 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
Kyrgyzstan Democratic Movement, Zhypur ZHEKSHEYEV, Kazat AKMAKOV, and
Toshubek TURGANALIEV, co-chairmen of popular front coalition of 40 informal
groups for Democratic Renewal and Civic Accord, 117-man pro-Akayev
parliamentary faction; Civic Accord, Coalition representing nonnative
minority groups; National Revived Asaba (Banner) Party, Asan ORMUSHEV,
chairman; Communist Party now banned
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 12 October 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - AKAYEV won in
uncontested election with 95% of vote with 90% of electorate voting; note -
Republic Supreme Soviet elections held 25 February 1990; presidential
elections held first by Supreme Soviet 28 October 1990, then by popular vote
12 October 1991
Supreme Soviet:
note - last held 25 February 1990 (next to be held no later than November
1994); results - Commnunists (310) 90%, seats - (350 total)
Other political or pressure groups:
National Unity Democratic Movement; Peasant Party; Council of Free Trade
Union; Union of Entrepreneurs
Member of:
CIS, CSCE, IMF, UN, UNCTAD

:Kyrgyzstan Government

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador NA; Chancery at NW, Washington, DC 200__; telephone (202) NA;
there are Consulates General in NA;
US:
Charge Ralph Bresler; Interim Chancery at #66 Derzhinskiy Prospekt;
Residence: Hotel Pishpek (mailing address is APO AE 09862); telephone
8-011-7-3312-22-22-70
Flag:
red-orange field with yellow sun in center with folk motif medallion
inscribed

:Kyrgyzstan Economy

Overview:
Kyrgyzstan's small economy (less than 1% of the total for the former Soviet
Union) is oriented toward agriculture, producing mainly livestock such as
goats and sheep, as well as cotton, grain, and tobacco. Industry,
concentrated around Bishkek, produces small quantities of electric motors,
livestock feeding equipment, washing machines, furniture, cement, paper, and
bricks. Mineral extraction is small, the most important minerals being rare
earth metals and gold. Kyrgyzstan is a net importer of most types of food
and fuel but is a net exporter of electricity. By early 1991, the Kirghiz
leadership had accelerated reform, primarily by privatizing business and
granting life-long tenure to farmers. In 1991 overall industrial and
livestock output declined substantially.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $NA billion, per capita $NA; real growth rate
-5% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
88% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA million; expenditures $NA million
Exports:
$115 million (1990)
commodities:
wool, chemicals, cotton, ferrous and nonferrous metals, shoes, machinery,
tobacco
partners:
Russia 70%, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and others
Imports:
$1.5 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
lumber, industrial products, ferrous metals, fuel, machinery, textiles,
footwear
External debt:
$650 million (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0.1% (1991)
Electricity:
NA kW capacity; 13,900 million kWh produced, 3,232 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
small machinery, textiles, food-processing industries, cement, shoes, sawn
logs, steel, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, and rare earth
metals
Agriculture:
wool, tobacco, cotton, livestock (sheep and goats) and cattle, vegetables,
meat, grapes, fruits and berries, eggs, milk, potatoes
Illicit drugs:
poppy cultivation legal
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $NA billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-86), $NA million;
Communist countries (1971-86), $NA million
Currency:
as of May 1992, retaining ruble as currency
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Kyrgyzstan Communications

Railroads:
370 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
30,300 km total; 22,600 km paved or graveled, 7,700 km earth(1990)
Inland waterways:
NA km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
NA
Ports:
none - landlocked
Civil air:
NA
Airports:
NA
Telecommunications:
poorly developed; connections with other CIS countries by landline or
microwave and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow
international gateway switch; satellite earth stations - Orbita and INTELSAT
(TV receive only)

:Kyrgyzstan Defense Forces

Branches:
Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops); National Guard, Civil
Defense; CIS Forces (Ground, Air, and Air Defense)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, NA fit for military service; NA reach military age (18)
annually
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:Laos Geography

Total area:
236,800 km2
Land area:
230,800 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Utah
Land boundaries:
5,083 km; Burma 235 km, Cambodia 541 km, China 423 km, Thailand 1,754 km,
Vietnam 2,130 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
boundary dispute with Thailand
Climate:
tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season (December to
April)
Terrain:
mostly rugged mountains; some plains and plateaus
Natural resources:
timber, hydropower, gypsum, tin, gold, gemstones
Land use:
arable land 4%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 3%; forest and
woodland 58%; other 35%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
deforestation; soil erosion; subject to floods
Note:
landlocked

:Laos People

Population:
4,440,213 (July 1992), growth rate 2.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
44 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
16 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
107 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
49 years male, 52 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Lao(s) or Laotian(s); adjective - Lao or Laotian
Ethnic divisions:
Lao 50%, Phoutheung (Kha) 15%, tribal Thai 20%, Meo, Hmong, Yao, and other
15%
Religions:
Buddhist 85%, animist and other 15%
Languages:
Lao (official), French, and English
Literacy:
84% (male 92%, female 76%) age 15 to 45 can read and write (1985 est.)
Labor force:
1-1.5 million; 85-90% in agriculture (est.)
Organized labor:
Lao Federation of Trade Unions is subordinate to the Communist party

:Laos Government

Long-form name:
Lao People's Democratic Republic
Type:
Communist state
Capital:
Vientiane
Administrative divisions:
16 provinces (khoueng, singular and plural) and 1 municipality* (kampheng
nakhon, singular and plural); Attapu, Bokeo, Bolikhamsai, Champasak,
Houaphan, Khammouan, Louang Namtha, Louangphrabang, Oudomxai, Phongsali,
Saravan, Savannakhet, Sekong, Vientiane, Vientiane*, Xaignabouri,
Xiangkhoang
Independence:
19 July 1949 (from France)
Constitution:
promulgated August 1991
Legal system:
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day (proclamation of the Lao People's Democratic Republic), 2
December (1975)
Executive branch:
president, chairman and two vice chairmen of the Council of Ministers,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
Supreme People's Assembly
Judicial branch:
People's Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President KAYSONE PHOMVIHAN (since 15 August 1991)
Head of Government:
Chairman of the Council of Ministers Gen. KHAMTAI SIPHANDON (since 15 August
1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP), KAYSONE PHOMVIHAN, party chairman;
includes Lao Patriotic Front and Alliance Committee of Patriotic Neutralist
Forces; other parties moribund
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Supreme People's Assembly:
last held on 26 March 1989 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (79 total) number of seats by party NA
Other political or pressure groups:
non-Communist political groups moribund; most leaders have fled the country
Member of:
ACCT (associate), AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO,
IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Charge d'Affaires LINTHONG PHETSAVAN; Chancery at 2222 S Street NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-6416 or 6417
US:
Charge d'Affaires Charles B. SALMON, Jr.; Embassy at Rue Bartholonie,
Vientiane (mailing address is B. P. 114, Vientiane, or AMEMB, Box V, APO AP
96546); telephone (856) 2220, 2357, 2384; FAX (856) 4675

:Laos Government

Flag:
three horizontal bands of red (top), blue (double width), and red with a
large white disk centered in the blue band

:Laos Economy

Overview:
One of the world's poorest nations, Laos has had a Communist centrally
planned economy with government ownership and control of productive
enterprises of any size. In recent years, however, the government has been
decentralizing control and encouraging private enterprise. Laos is a
landlocked country with a primitive infrastructure; that is, it has no
railroads, a rudimentary road system, limited external and internal
telecommunications, and electricity available in only a limited area.
Subsistence agriculture is the main occupation, accounting for over 60% of
GDP and providing about 85-90% of total employment. The predominant crop is
rice. For the foreseeable future the economy will continue to depend for its
survival on foreign aid from the IMF and other international sources; aid
from the former USSR and Eastern Europe has been cut sharply.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $800 million, per capita $200; real growth rate
4% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10.4% (December 1991)
Unemployment rate:
21% (1989 est.)
Budget:
revenues $83 million; expenditures $188.5 million, including capital
expenditures of $94 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$72 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
electricity, wood products, coffee, tin
partners:
Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, USSR, US, China
Imports:
$238 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
food, fuel oil, consumer goods, manufactures
partners:
Thailand, USSR, Japan, France, Vietnam, China
External debt:
$1.1 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 12% (1991 est.); accounts for about 18% of GDP (1991 est.)
Electricity:
226,000 kW capacity; 1,100 million kWh produced, 270 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
tin and gypsum mining, timber, electric power, agricultural processing,
construction
Agriculture:
accounts for 60% of GDP and employs most of the work force; subsistence
farming predominates; normally self-sufficient in nondrought years;
principal crops - rice (80% of cultivated land), sweet potatoes, vegetables,
corn, coffee, sugarcane, cotton; livestock - buffaloes, hogs, cattle,
chicken
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis, opium poppy for the international drug trade,
third-largest opium producer
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $276 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $605 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $995 million
Currency:
new kip (plural - kips); 1 new kip (NK) = 100 at

:Laos Economy

Exchange rates:
new kips (NK) per US$1 - 710 (May 1992), 710 (December 1991), 700 (September
1990), 576 (1989), 385 (1988), 200 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Laos Communications

Railroads:
none
Highways:
about 27,527 km total; 1,856 km bituminous or bituminous treated; 7,451 km
gravel, crushed stone, or improved earth; 18,220 km unimproved earth and
often impassable during rainy season mid-May to mid-September
Inland waterways:
about 4,587 km, primarily Mekong and tributaries; 2,897 additional
kilometers are sectionally navigable by craft drawing less than 0.5 m
Pipelines:
petroleum products 136 km
Ports:
none
Airports:
57 total, 47 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 14 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
service to general public considered poor; radio communications network
provides generally erratic service to government users; 7,390 telephones
(1986); broadcast stations - 10 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station

:Laos Defense Forces

Branches:
Lao People's Army (LPA; including naval, aviation, and militia elements),
Air Force, National Police Department
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 946,289; 509,931 fit for military service; 45,232 reach
military age (18) annually; conscription age NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Latvia Geography

Total area:
64,100 km2
Land area:
64,100 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
1,078 km; Belarus 141 km, Estonia 267 km, Lithuania 453 km, Russia 217 km
Coastline:
531 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
NA nm
Continental shelf:
NA meter depth
Exclusive fishing zone:
NA nm
Exclusive economic zone:
NA nm
Territorial sea:
NA nm
Disputes:
the Abrene section of border ceded by the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic
to Russia in 1944
Climate:
maritime; wet, moderate winters
Terrain:
low plain
Natural resources:
minimal; amber, peat, limestone, dolomite
Land use:
27% arable land; NA% permanent crops; 13% meadows and pastures; 39% forest
and woodland; 21% other; includes NA% irrigated
Environment:
heightened levels of air and water pollution because of a lack of waste
conversion equipment; Gulf of Riga heavily polluted

:Latvia People

Population:
2,728,937 (July 1992), growth rate 0.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
15 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
4 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
19 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
65 years male, 75 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Latvian(s);adjective - Latvian
Ethnic divisions:
Latvian 51.8%, Russian 33.8%, Byelorussian 4.5%, Ukrainian 3.4%, Polish
2.3%, other 4.2%
Religions:
Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Russian Orthodox
Languages:
Latvian NA% (official), Lithuanian NA%, Russian NA%, other NA%
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write
Labor force:
1,407,000; industry and construction 41%, agriculture and forestry 16%,
other 43% (1990)
Organized labor:
NA

:Latvia Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Latvia
Type:
republic
Capital:
Riga
Administrative divisions:
none - all districts are under direct republic jurisdiction
Independence:
18 November 1918; annexed by the USSR 21 July 1940, the Latvian Soviet
Socialist Republic declared independence 6 September 1991 from USSR
Constitution:
April 1978, currently rewriting constitution, but readopted the 1922
Constitution
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
Independence Day, 18 November (1918)
Executive branch:
Prime Minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Chairman, Supreme Council, Anatolijs GORBUNOVS (since October 1988);
Chairmen, Andrejs KRASTINS, Valdis BIRKAVS (since NA 1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Ivars GODMANIS (since May 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Labor Party of Latvia, Juris BOJARS, chairman; Inter-Front of the
Working People of Latvia, Igor LOPATIN, chairman; note - Inter-Front was
banned after the coup; Latvian National Movement for Independence, Eduards
BERKLAVS, chairman; Latvian Social Democratic Party, Janis DINEVICS,
chairman; Social Democratic Party of Latvia, Uldis BERZINS, chairman;
Latvian People's Front, Romualdas RAZUKAS, chairman; Latvian Liberal Party,
Georg LANSMANIS, chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held October 1988 (next to be held NA; note - elected by Parliament;
new elections have not been scheduled; results - percent of vote by party NA
Supreme Council:
last held 18 March 1990 (next to be held NA); results - undetermined; seats
- (234 total) Latvian Communist Party 59, Latvian Democratic Workers Party
31, Social Democratic Party of Latvia 4, Green Party of Latvia 7, Latvian
Farmers Union 7, 126 supported by the Latvia Popular Front
Congress of Latvia:
last held April 1990 (next to be held NA); note - the Congress of Latvia is
a quasi-governmental structure; results - percent of vote by party NA%;
seats - (231 total) number of seats by party NA
Member of:
CSCE, IAEA, UN
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Dr. Anatol DINBERGS; Chancery at 4325 17th St. NW, Washington, DC
20011; telephone (202) 726-8213 and 8214

:Latvia Government

US:
Ambassador Ints SILINS; (mailing address is APO AE 09862); telephone [358]
(49) 306-067 (cellular), (7) (01-32) 325-968/185; FAX [358] (49) 308-326
(cellular), (7) (01-32) 220-502
Flag:
two horizontal bands of maroon (top), white (middle, narrower than other two
bands) and maroon (bottom)

:Latvia Economy

Overview:
Latvia is in the process of reforming the centrally planned economy
inherited from the former USSR into a market economy. Prices have been
freed, and privatization of shops and farms has begun. Latvia lacks natural
resources, aside from its arable land and small forests. Its most valuable
economic asset is its work force, which is better educated and disciplined
than in most of the former Soviet republics. Industrial production is highly
diversified, with products ranging from agricultural machinery to consumer
electronics. One conspicuous vulnerability: Latvia produces only 10% of its
electric power needs. Latvia in the near term must retain key commercial
ties to Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine while moving in the long run toward
joint ventures, technological support, and trade ties to the West. Because
of the efficiency of its mostly individual farms, Latvians enjoy a diet that
is higher in meat, vegetables, and dairy products and lower in grain and
potatoes than diets in the 12 non-Baltic republics of the USSR. Good
relations with Russia are threatened by animosity between ethnic Russians
(34% of the population) and native Latvians.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $NA; per capital NA; real growth rate - 8%
(1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
approximately 200% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991)
Exports:
$239 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
food 14%, railroad cars 13%, chemicals 12%
partners:
Russia 50%, Ukraine 15%, other former Soviet republics 30%, West 5%
Imports:
$9.0 billion (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities:
machinery 35%, petroleum products 13%, chemicals 9%
partners:
NA
External debt:
$650 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0% (1991)
Electricity:
1,975,000 kW capacity; 6,500 million kWh produced, 2,381 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
employs 33.2% of labor force; highly diversified; dependent on imports for
energy, raw materials, and intermediate products; produces buses, vans,
street and railroad cars, synthetic fibers, agricultural machinery,
fertilizers, washing machines, radios, electronics, pharmaceuticals,
processed foods, textiles
Agriculture:
employs 23% of labor force; principally dairy farming and livestock feeding;
products - meat, milk, eggs, grain, sugar beets, potatoes, and vegetables;
fishing and fish packing
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia to
Western Europe

:Latvia Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $NA billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-86), $NA million;
Communist countries (1971-86), $NA million
Currency:
as of May 1992, retaining ruble as currency but planning early introduction
of ``lat''
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Latvia Communications

Railroads:
2,400 km (includes NA km electrified) does not include industrial lines
(1990)
Highways:
59,500 km total (1990); 33,000 km hard surfaced 26,500 km earth
Inland waterways:
300 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil NA km, refined products NA km, natural gas NA km
Ports:
maritime - Riga, Ventspils, Liepaja; inland - Daugavpils
Merchant marine:
96 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 917,979 GRT/1,194,666 DWT; includes 14
cargo, 29 refrigerated cargo, 2 container, 9 roll-on/roll-off, 42 petroleum
tanker
Civil air:
NA major transport aircraft
Airports:
NA total, NA usable; NA with permanent-surface runways; NA with runways over
3,659 m; NA with runways 2,440-3,659 m; NA with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - NA; international traffic carried by leased connection
to the Moscow international gateway switch and the Finnish cellular net

:Latvia Defense Forces

Branches:
Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard,
Russian Forces (Ground, Navy, Air, Air Defense, Border Guard
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service; NA reach military age (18)
annually
Defense expenditures:
NA% of GDP; 3-5% of Latvia's budget (1992)

:Lebanon Geography

Total area:
10,400 km2
Land area:
10,230 km2
Comparative area:
about 0.8 times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
454 km; Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km
Coastline:
225 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line; Israeli troops in southern
Lebanon since June 1982; Syrian troops in northern Lebanon since October
1976
Climate:
Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa` (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and
Anti-Lebanon Mountains
Natural resources:
limestone, iron ore, salt; water-surplus state in a water-deficit region
Land use:
arable land 21%; permanent crops 9%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and
woodland 8%; other 61%; includes irrigated 7%
Environment:
rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous
factional groups based on religion, clan, ethnicity; deforestation; soil
erosion; air and water pollution; desertification
Note:
Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East not crossing an international
boundary

:Lebanon People

Population:
3,439,115 (July 1992), growth rate 1.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
28 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-5 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
43 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
66 years male, 71 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Lebanese (singular and plural); adjective - Lebanese
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%
Religions:
Islam 75%, Christian 25%, Judaism NEGL%; 17 legally recognized groups - 5
Islam (Alawite or Nusayri, Druze, Isma`ilite, Shi`a, Sunni); 11 Christian,
consisting of 4 Orthodox Christian (Armenian Orthodox, Greek Orthodox,
Nestorean, Syriac Orthodox), 6 Catholic (Armenian Catholic, Caldean, Greek
Catholic, Maronite, Roman Catholic, and Syrian Catholic) and the
Protestants; 1 Jewish
Languages:
Arabic and French (both official); Armenian, English
Literacy:
80% (male 88%, female 73%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
650,000; industry, commerce, and services 79%, agriculture 11%, government
10% (1985)
Organized labor:
250,000 members (est.)

:Lebanon Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Lebanon; note - may be changed to Lebanese Republic
Type:
republic
Capital:
Beirut
Administrative divisions:
5 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Biqa, `Al Janub, Ash
Shamal, Bayrut, Jabal Lubnan
Independence:
22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French
administration)
Constitution:
26 May 1926 (amended)
Legal system:
mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and civil law; no
judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 22 November (1943)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet; note - by custom, the president is a
Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of
the legislature is a Shi`a Muslim
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Arabic - Majlis Alnuwab, French - Assemblee
Nationale)
Judicial branch:
four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and commercial cases and
one court for criminal cases)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Ilyas HARAWI (since 24 November 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Rashid SULH (since 13 May 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
political party activity is organized along largely sectarian lines;
numerous political groupings exist, consisting of individual political
figures and followers motivated by religious, clan, and economic
considerations; most parties have well-armed militias, which are still
involved in occasional clashes
Suffrage:
compulsory for all males at age 21; authorized for women at age 21 with
elementary education
Elections:
National Assembly:
elections should be held every four years, but security conditions have
prevented elections since May 1972; in June 1991, the Cabinet appointed 40
new deputies to fill vacancies and balance Christian and Muslim
representation; the legislature's mandate expires in 1994
Communists:
the Lebanese Communist Party was legalized in 1970; members and sympathizers
estimated at 2,000-3,000
Member of:
ABEDA, ACCT, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

:Lebanon Government

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador - no ambassador at present; Mission is headed by Charge; Chancery
at 2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-6300;
there are Lebanese Consulates General in Detroit, New York, and Los Angeles
US:
Ambassador Ryan C. CROCKER; Embassy at Antelias, Beirut (mailing address is
P. O. Box 70-840, Beirut, or Box B, FPO AE 09836); telephone [961] 417774 or
415802, 415803, 402200, 403300
Flag:
three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double width), and red with a
green and brown cedar tree centered in the white band

:Lebanon Government

Note:
Between early 1975 and late 1976 Lebanon was torn by civil war between its
Christians - then aided by Syrian troops - and its Muslims and their
Palestinian allies. The cease-fire established in October 1976 between the
domestic political groups generally held for about six years, despite
occasional fighting. Syrian troops constituted as the Arab Deterrent Force
by the Arab League have remained in Lebanon. Syria's move toward supporting
the Lebanese Muslims, and the Palestinians and Israel's growing support for
Lebanese Christians, brought the two sides into rough equilibrium, but no
progress was made toward national reconciliation or political reforms - the
original cause of the war. Continuing Israeli concern about the Palestinian
presence in Lebanon led to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in June 1982.
Israeli forces occupied all of the southern portion of the country and
mounted a summer-long siege of Beirut, which resulted in the evacuation of
the PLO from Beirut in September under the supervision of a multinational
force (MNF) made up of US, French, and Italian troops. Within days of the
departure of the MNF, Lebanon's newly elected president, Bashir Gemayel, was
assassinated; his elder brother Amin was elected to succeed him. In the
immediate wake of Bashir's death, however, Christian militiamen massacred
hundreds of Palestinian refugees in two Beirut camps. This prompted the
return of the MNF to ease the security burden on Lebanon's weak Army and
security forces. In late March 1984 the last MNF units withdrew. In 1988,
President Gemayel completed his term of office. Because parliamentarians
failed to elect a presidential successor, Gemayel appointed then Lebanese
Armed Forces (LAF) Commander Gen. Michel Awn acting president. Lebanese
parliamentarians met in Ta'if, Saudi Arabia, in late 1989 and concluded a
national reconciliation pact that codified a new power-sharing formula,
specifying reduced powers for the Christian president and giving Muslims
more authority. Rene MUAWAD was subsequently elected president on 4 November
1989, ending a 13-month period during which Lebanon had no president and
rival Muslim and Christian governments. MUAWAD was assassinated 17 days
later, on 22 November; on 24 November, Ilyas Harawi was elected to succeed
MUAWAD. In October 1990, the civil war was apparently brought to a
conclusion when Syrian and Lebanese forces ousted renegade Christian General
Awn from his stronghold in East Beirut. Awn had defied the legitimate
government and established a separate ministate within East Beirut after

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