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:Italy Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Carabinieri
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 14,864,191; 12,980,362 fit for military service; 441,768 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $22.7 billion, 2.2% of GDP (1991)

:Ivory Coast Geography

Total area:
322,460 km2
Land area:
318,000 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
3,110 km; Burkina 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km, Liberia 716 km, Mali
532 km
Coastline:
515 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry
(November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to
October)
Terrain:
mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
Natural resources:
crude oil, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper
Land use:
arable land 9%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 9%; forest and
woodland 26%; other 52%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; severe deforestation

:Ivory Coast People

Population:
13,497,153 (July 1992), growth rate 3.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
47 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
94 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
53 years male, 57 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Ivorian(s); adjective - Ivorian
Ethnic divisions:
over 60 ethnic groups; most important are the Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou
15%, Malinke 11%, and Agni; foreign Africans, mostly Burkinabe about 2
million; non-Africans about 130,000 to 330,000 (French 30,000 and Lebanese
100,000 to 300,000)
Religions:
indigenous 63%, Muslim 25%, Christian 12%,
Languages:
French (official), over 60 native dialects; Dioula most widely spoken
Literacy:
54% (male 67%, female 40%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
5,718,000; over 85% of population engaged in agriculture, forestry,
livestock raising; about 11% of labor force are wage earners, nearly half in
agriculture and the remainder in government, industry, commerce, and
professions; 54% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
20% of wage labor force

:Ivory Coast Government

Long-form name:
Republic of the Ivory Coast; note - the local official name is Republique de
Cote d'Ivoire
Type:
republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960
Capital:
Yamoussoukro (although Yamoussoukro has been the capital since 1983, Adibjan
remains the administrative center; foreign governments, including the United
States, maintain presence in Abidjan)
Administrative divisions:
49 departments (departements, singular - (departement); Abengourou, Abidjan,
Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou,
Bongouanou, Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa, Danane,
Daoukro, Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou,
Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota, Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne,
Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro, Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou, Tanda,
Tingrela, Tiassale, Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula
Independence:
7 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
3 November 1960
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review in the
Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 7 December
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Dr. Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY (since 27 November 1960); Prime
Minister Alassane OUATTARA (since 7 November 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party of the Ivory Coast (PDCI), Dr. Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY;
Ivorian Popular Front (FPI), Laurent GBAGBO; Ivorian Worker's Party (PIT),
Francis WODIE; Ivorian Socialist Party (PSI), Morifere BAMBA; over 20
smaller parties
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
President:
last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held October 1995); results -
President Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY received 81% of the vote in his first
contested election; he is currently serving his seventh consecutive
five-year term
National Assembly:
last held 25 November 1990 (next to be held November 1995); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (175 total) PDCI 163, FPI 9, PIT 1,
independents 2
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

:Ivory Coast Government

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Charles GOMIS; Chancery at 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 797-0300
US:
Ambassador Kenneth L. BROWN; Embassy at 5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan (mailing
address is 01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan); telephone [225] 21-09-79 or 21-46-72,
FAX [225] 22-32-59
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; similar
to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green
(hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is
green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France

:Ivory Coast Economy

Overview:
Ivory Coast is among the world's largest producers and exporters of coffee,
cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil. Consequently, the economy is highly
sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for coffee and cocoa and
to weather conditions. Despite attempts by the government to diversify, the
economy is still largely dependent on agriculture and related industries.
The agricultural sector accounts for over one-third of GDP and about 80% of
export earnings and employs about 85% of the labor force. A collapse of
world cocoa and coffee prices in 1986 threw the economy into a recession,
from which the country had not recovered by 1990. Continuing poor prices for
commodity exports, an overvalued exchange rate, a bloated public-sector wage
bill, and a large foreign debt hindered economic recovery in 1991.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $10 billion, per capita $800; real growth rate
-2.9% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-0.8% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
14% (1985)
Budget:
revenues $2.8 billion (1989 est.); expenditures $4.1 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)
Exports:
$2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
cocoa 30%, coffee 20%, tropical woods 11%, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm
oil, cotton
partners:
France, FRG, Netherlands, US, Belgium, Spain (1985)
Imports:
$1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
manufactured goods and semifinished products 50%, consumer goods 40%, raw
materials and fuels 10%
partners:
France, other EC, Nigeria, US, Japan (1985)
External debt:
$15.0 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate - 6% (1989); accounts for 17% of GDP
Electricity:
1,210,000 kW capacity; 2,680 million kWh produced, 210 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
foodstuffs, wood processing, oil refinery, automobile assembly, textiles,
fertilizer, beverage
Agriculture:
most important sector, contributing one-third to GDP and 80% to exports;
cash crops include coffee, cocoa beans, timber, bananas, palm kernels,
rubber; food crops - corn, rice, manioc, sweet potatoes; not self-sufficient
in bread grain and dairy products
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis on a small scale for the international drug
trade
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $356 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $5.2 billion
Currency:
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
= 100 centimes

:Ivory Coast Economy

Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
(1987), 346.30 (1986)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Ivory Coast Communications

Railroads:
660 km (Burkina border to Abidjan, 1.00-meter gauge, single track, except 25
km Abidjan-Anyama section is double track)
Highways:
46,600 km total; 3,600 km paved; 32,000 km gravel, crushed stone, laterite,
and improved earth; 11,000 km unimproved
Inland waterways:
980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons
Ports:
Abidjan, San-Pedro
Merchant marine:
7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 70,957 GRT/ 91,782 DWT; includes 5
cargo, 1 petroleum tanker, 1 chemical tanker
Civil air:
14 major transport aircraft, including multinationally owned Air Afrique
fleet
Airports:
45 total, 39 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
well-developed by African standards but operating well below capacity;
consists of open-wire lines and radio relay links; 87,700 telephones;
broadcast stations - 3 AM, 17 FM, 13 TV, 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT earth station; 2 coaxial submarine cables

:Ivory Coast Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, Military
Fire Group
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 3,083,765; 1,597,108 fit for military service; 141,259 males
reach military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $200 million, 2.3% of GDP (1988)

:Jamaica Geography

Total area:
10,990 km2
Land area:
10,830 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
1,022 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior
Terrain:
mostly mountains with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Natural resources:
bauxite, gypsum, limestone
Land use:
arable land 19%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and pastures 18%; forest and
woodland 28%; other 29%; includes irrigated 3%
Environment:
subject to hurricanes (especially July to November); deforestation; water
pollution
Note:
strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main sea
lanes for Panama Canal

:Jamaica People

Population:
2,506,701 (July 1992), growth rate 0.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
23 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-8 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
18 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
72 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Jamaican(s); adjective - Jamaican
Ethnic divisions:
African 76.3%, Afro-European 15.1%, East Indian and Afro-East Indian 3.0%,
white 3.2%, Chinese and Afro-Chinese 1.2%, other 1.2%
Religions:
predominantly Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%, Baptist 10%, Anglican
7.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%, Methodist 3.1%, United
Church 2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%, other 39.1%, including some
spiritualist cults (1982)
Languages:
English, Creole
Literacy:
98% (male 98%, female 99%) age 15 and over having ever attended school (1990
est.)
Labor force:
1,062,100; services 41%, agriculture 22.5%, industry 19%; unemployed 17.5%
(1989)
Organized labor:
24% of labor force (1989)

:Jamaica Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Kingston
Administrative divisions:
14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint
Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint
Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland
Independence:
6 August 1962 (from UK)
Constitution:
6 August 1962
Legal system:
based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day (first Monday in August)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Howard COOKE (since 1 August 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister P. J. Patterson (since 30 March 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
People's National Party (PNP) P. J. Patterson; Jamaica Labor Party (JLP),
Edward SEAGA
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held 9 February 1989 (next to be held by February 1994); results - PNP
57%, JLP 43%; seats - (60 total) PNP 45, JLP 15
Other political or pressure groups:
Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, GATT, G-15, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Richard BERNAL; Chancery at Suite 355, 1850 K Street NW,
Washington, DC 20006; telephone (202) 452-0660; there are Jamaican
Consulates General in Miami and New York
US:
Ambassador Glen A. HOLDEN; Embassy at 3rd Floor, Jamaica Mutual Life Center,
2 Oxford Road, Kingston; telephone (809) 929-4850 through 4859, FAX (809)
926-6743
Flag:
diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and
bottom) and black (hoist side and fly side)

:Jamaica Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on sugar, bauxite, and tourism. In 1985 it suffered a
setback with the closure of some facilities in the bauxite and alumina
industry, a major source of hard currency earnings. Since 1986 an economic
recovery has been under way. In 1987 conditions began to improve for the
bauxite and alumina industry because of increases in world metal prices. The
recovery has also been supported by growth in the manufacturing and tourism
sectors. In September 1988, Hurricane Gilbert inflicted severe damage on
crops and the electric power system, a sharp but temporary setback to the
economy. By October 1989 the economic recovery from the hurricane was
largely complete, and real growth was up about 3% for 1989. In 1991,
however, growth dropped to 1.0% as a result of the US recession, lower world
bauxite prices, and monetary instability.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $3.6 billion, per capita $1,400; real growth rate
1.0% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
80% (1991 projected)
Unemployment rate:
15.1% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $600 million; expenditures $736 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991, projected)
commodities:
bauxite, alumina, sugar, bananas
partners:
US 36%, UK, Canada, Norway, Trinidad and Tobago
Imports:
$1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1991 projected)
commodities:
petroleum, machinery, food, consumer goods, construction goods
partners:
US 48%, UK, Venezuela, Canada, Japan, Trinidad and Tobago
External debt:
$3.8 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate - 2.0% (1990); accounts for almost 25% of GDP
Electricity:
1,122,000 kW capacity; 2,520 million kWh produced, 1,012 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
tourism, bauxite mining, textiles, food processing, light manufactures
Agriculture:
accounts for about 9% of GDP, 22% of work force, and 17% of exports;
commercial crops - sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, potatoes, and
vegetables; live-stock and livestock products include poultry, goats, milk;
not self-sufficient in grain, meat, and dairy products
Illicit drugs:
illicit cultivation of cannabis; transshipment point for cocaine from
Central and South America to North America; government has an active
cannabis eradication program
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.2 billion; other countries,
ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.6 billion
Currency:
Jamaican dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Jamaican dollar (J$) = 100 cents

:Jamaica Economy

Exchange rates:
Jamaican dollars (J$) per US$1 - 21.946 (January 1992), 12.116 (1991), 7.184
(1990), 5.7446 (1989), 5.4886 (1988), 5.4867 (1987), 5.4778 (1986)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Jamaica Communications

Railroads:
294 km, all 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track
Highways:
18,200 km total; 12,600 km paved, 3,200 km gravel, 2,400 km improved earth
Pipelines:
petroleum products 10 km
Ports:
Kingston, Montego Bay
Merchant marine:
4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,619 GRT/16,302 DWT; includes 1
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum tanker, 2 bulk
Civil air:
8 major transport aircraft
Airports:
36 total, 23 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fully automatic domestic telephone network; 127,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 10 AM, 17 FM, 8 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; 3
coaxial submarine cables

:Jamaica Defense Forces

Branches:
Jamaica Defense Force (including Coast Guard and Air Wing), Jamaica
Constabulary Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 640,058; 454,131 fit for military service; no conscription;
26,785 reach minimum volunteer age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $20 million, less than 1% of GDP (FY91)

:Jan Mayen Geography

Total area:
373 km2
Land area:
373 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
124.1 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
10 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
4 nm
Disputes:
Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims beween Greenland and Jan
Mayen
Climate:
arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog
Terrain:
volcanic island, partly covered by glaciers; Beerenberg is the highest peak,
with an elevation of 2,277 meters
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
barren volcanic island with some moss and grass; volcanic activity resumed
in 1970
Note:
located north of the Arctic Circle about 590 km north-northeast of Iceland
between the Greenland Sea and the Norwegian Sea

:Jan Mayen People

Population:
no permanent inhabitants

:Jan Mayen Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
territory of Norway
Capital:
none; administered from Oslo, Norway, through a governor (sysselmann)
resident in Longyearbyen (Svalbard)

:Jan Mayen Economy

Overview:
Jan Mayen is a volcanic island with no exploitable natural resources.
Economic activity is limited to providing services for employees of Norway's
radio and meteorological stations located on the island.
Electricity:
15,000 kW capacity; 40 million kWh produced, NA kWh per capita (1989)

:Jan Mayen Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
1 with runways 1,220 to 2,439 m
Telecommunications:
radio and meteorological station

:Jan Mayen Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Norway

:Japan Geography

Total area:
377,835 km2
Land area:
374,744 km2; includes Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto,
Minami-jima, Okinotori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano
Islands (Kazan-retto)
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than California
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
29,751 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm (3 nm in international straits - La Perouse or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi,
and Eastern and Western channels of the Korea or Tsushima Strait)
Disputes:
Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan Islands and the Habomai island group
occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, claimed by
Japan; Liancourt Rocks disputed with South Korea; Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku
Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan
Climate:
varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north
Terrain:
mostly rugged and mountainous
Natural resources:
negligible mineral resources, fish
Land use:
arable land 13%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and
woodland 67%; other 18%; includes irrigated 9%
Environment:
many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences
(mostly tremors) every year; subject to tsunamis
Note:
strategic location in northeast Asia

:Japan People

Population:
124,460,481 (July 1992), growth rate 0.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
10 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
4 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
77 years male, 82 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Japanese (singular and plural); adjective - Japanese
Ethnic divisions:
Japanese 99.4%, other (mostly Korean) 0.6%
Religions:
most Japanese observe both Shinto and Buddhist rites so the percentages add
to more than 100% - Shinto 95.8%, Buddhist 76.3%, Christian 1.4%, other 12%
(1985)
Languages:
Japanese
Literacy:
99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
Labor force:
63,330,000; trade and services 54%; manufacturing, mining, and construction
33%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing 7%; government 3% (1988)
Organized labor:
about 29% of employed workers; public service 76.4%, transportation and
telecommunications 57.9%, mining 48.7%, manufacturing 33.7%, services 18.2%,
wholesale, retail, and restaurant 9.3%

:Japan Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Tokyo
Administrative divisions:
47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka,
Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa,
Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi,
Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka,
Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori,
Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi
Independence:
660 BC, traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu
Constitution:
3 May 1947
Legal system:
civil law system with English-American influence; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations
National holiday:
Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)
Executive branch:
Emperor, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Diet (Kokkai) consists of an upper house or House of Councillors
(Sangi-in) and a lower house or House of Representatives (Shugi-in)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Kiichi MIYAZAWA (since 5 November 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Kiichi MIYAZAWA, president; Tamisuke
WATANUKI, secretary general; Social Democratic Party of Japan (SDPJ), Makoto
TANABE, Chairman; Democratic Socialist Party (DSP), Keizo OUCHI, chairman;
Japan Communist Party (JCP), Tetsuzo FUWA, Presidium chairman; Komeito
(Clean Government Party, CGP), Koshiro ISHIDA, chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 20
Elections:
House of Councillors:
last held on 23 July 1989 (next to be held 26 July 1992); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (263 total) LDP 114, SDPJ 71, CGP 20, JCP 14,
other 33
House of Representatives:
last held on 18 February 1990 (next to be held by February 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (512 total) LDP 278, SDPJ 137, CGP 46,
JCP 16, DSP 13, others 5, independents 6, vacant 11
Communists:
about 490,000 registered Communist party members

:Japan Government

Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), Australia Group, APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC, COCOM, CP, EBRD,
ESCAP, FAO, G-2, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Takakazu KURIYAMA; Chancery at 2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-6700; there are Japanese
Consulates General in Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago,
Honolulu, Houston, Kansas City (Missouri), Los Angeles, New Orleans, New
York, San Francisco, Seattle, and Portland (Oregon), and a Consulate in
Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands)
US:
Ambassador Michael H. ARMACOST; Embassy at 10-5, Akasaka 1-chome, Minato-ku
(107), Tokyo (mailing address is APO AP 96337-0001); telephone [81] (3)
3224-5000; FAX [81] (3) 3505-1862; there are US Consulates General in Naha
(Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, and Sapporo and a Consulate in Fukuoka
Flag:
white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the
center

:Japan Economy

Overview:
Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, and a comparatively
small defense allocation have helped Japan advance with extraordinary
rapidity, notably in high-technology fields. Industry, the most important
sector of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and
fuels. Self-sufficent in rice, Japan must import 50% of its requirements for
other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the world's largest
fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch. Overall
economic growth has been spectacular: a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5%
average in the 1970s and 1980s. A major contributor to overall growth of
4.5% in 1991 was net exports, which cushioned the effect of slower growth in
domestic demand. Inflation remains low at 3.3% and is easing due to lower
oil prices and a stronger yen. Japan continues to run a huge trade surplus,
$80 billion in 1991, which supports extensive investment in foreign assets.
The increased crowding of its habitable land area and the aging of its
population are two major long-run problems.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $2,360.7 billion, per capita $19,000; real
growth rate 4.5% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.3% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
2.1% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $481 billion; expenditures $531 billion, including capital
expenditures (public works only) of about $60 billion (FY91)
Exports:
$314.3 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
manufactures 97% (including machinery 40%, motor vehicles 18%, consumer
electronics 10%)
partners:
Southeast Asia 31%, US 29%, Western Europe 23%, Communist countries 4%,
Middle East 3%
Imports:
$236.6 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
manufactures 50%, fossil fuels 21%, foodstuffs and raw materials 25%
partners:
Southeast Asia 25%, US 22%, Western Europe 17%, Middle East 12%, Communist
countries 8%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.1% (1991); accounts for 30% of GDP (mining and manufacturing)
Electricity:
196,000,000 kW capacity; 823,000 million kWh produced, 6,640 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
metallurgy, engineering, electrical and electronic, textiles, chemicals,
automobiles, fishing, telecommunications, machine tools, construction
equipment
Agriculture:
accounts for only 2% of GDP; highly subsidized and protected sector, with
crop yields among highest in world; principal crops - rice, sugar beets,
vegetables, fruit; animal products include pork, poultry, dairy and eggs;
about 50% self-sufficient in food production; shortages of wheat, corn,
soybeans; world's largest fish catch of 11.9 million metric tons in 1988

:Japan Economy

Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $83.2 billion; ODA outlay of $9.1
billion in 1990 (est.)
Currency:
yen (plural - yen); 1 yen (Y) = 100 sen
Exchange rates:
yen (Y) per US$1 - 132.70 (March 1992), 134.71 (1991), 144.79 (1990), 137.96
(1989), 128.15 (1988), 144.64 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Japan Communications

Railroads:
27,327 km total; 2,012 km 1.435-meter standard gauge and 25,315 km
predominantly 1.067-meter narrow gauge; 5,724 km doubletrack and multitrack
sections, 9,038 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge electrified, 2,012 km
1.435-meter standard-gauge electrified (1987)
Highways:
1,111,974 km total; 754,102 km paved, 357,872 km gravel, crushed stone, or
unpaved; 4,400 km national expressways; 46,805 km national highways; 128,539
km prefectural roads; and 930,230 km city, town, and village roads
Inland waterways:
about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas
Pipelines:
crude oil 84 km; petroleum products 322 km; natural gas 1,800 km
Ports:
Chiba, Muroran, Kitakyushu, Kobe, Tomakomai, Nagoya, Osaka, Tokyo,
Yokkaichi, Yokohama, Kawasaki, Niigata, Fushiki-Toyama, Shimizu, Himeji,
Wakayama-Shimozu, Shimonoseki, Tokuyama-Shimomatsu
Merchant marine:
976 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,684,459 GRT/34,683,035 DWT;
includes 10 passenger, 40 short-sea passenger, 3 passenger cargo, 89 cargo,
44 container, 36 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 111 refrigerated cargo, 93 vehicle
carrier, 227 petroleum tanker, 11 chemical tanker, 40 liquefied gas, 9
combination ore/oil, 3 specialized tanker, 260 bulk; note - Japan also owns
a large flag of convenience fleet, including up to 55% of the total number
of ships under the Panamanian flag
Civil air:
360 major transport aircraft
Airports:
163 total, 158 usable; 131 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways
over 3,659 m; 31 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 51 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
excellent domestic and international service; 64,000,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 318 AM, 58 FM, 12,350 TV (196 major - 1 kw or greater);
satellite earth stations - 4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT; submarine cables to US (via Guam), Philippines, China, and Russia

:Japan Defense Forces

Branches:
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Army), Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
(Navy), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (Air Force), Maritime Safety Agency
(Coast Guard)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 32,219,754; 27,767,280 fit for military service; 1,042,493
reach military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $36.7 billion, 0.94% of GDP (FY92 est.)

:Jarvis Island Geography

Total area:
4.5 km2
Land area:
4.5 km2
Comparative area:
about 7.5 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
8 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Terrain:
sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef
Natural resources:
guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; lacks fresh
water; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds,
shorebirds, and marine wildlife; feral cats
Note:
2,090 km south of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean, just south of the
Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and the Cook Islands

:Jarvis Island People

Population:
uninhabited
Population:
note:
Millersville settlement on western side of island occasionally used as a
weather station from 1935 until World War II, when it was abandoned;
reoccupied in 1957 during the International Geophysical Year by scientists
who left in 1958; public entry is by special-use permit only and generally
restricted to scientists and educators

:Jarvis Island Government

Long-form name:
none (territory of the US)
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and Wildlife
Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National
Wildlife Refuge System
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

:Jarvis Island Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

:Jarvis Island Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only - one boat landing area in the middle of the
west coast and another near the southwest corner of the island
Note:
there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

:Jarvis Island Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast
Guard

:Jersey Geography

Total area:
117 km2
Land area:
117 km2
Comparative area:
about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
70 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; mild winters and cool summers
Terrain:
gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast
Natural resources:
agricultural land
Land use:
arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and pastures NA%; forest and
woodland NA%; other NA%; about 58% of land under cultivation
Environment:
about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier
Note:
largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; 27 km from France

:Jersey People

Population:
85,026 (July 1992), growth rate 0.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
12 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
6 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
6 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
72 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Channel Islander(s); adjective - Channel Islander
Ethnic divisions:
UK and Norman-French descent
Religions:
Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New Church, Methodist,
Presbyterian
Languages:
English and French (official), with the Norman-French dialect spoken in
country districts
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%) but compulsory education age 5 to 16
Labor force:
NA
Organized labor:
none

:Jersey Government

Long-form name:
Bailiwick of Jersey
Type:
British crown dependency
Capital:
Saint Helier
Administrative divisions:
none (British crown dependency)
Independence:
none (British crown dependency)
Constitution:
unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Legal system:
English law and local statute
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)
Executive branch:
British monarch, lieutenant governor, bailiff
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly of the States
Judicial branch:
Royal Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief Air Marshal Sir John SUTTON
(since NA 1990); Bailiff Peter CRILL (since NA)
Political parties and leaders:
none; all independents
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Elections:
Assembly of the States:
last held NA (next to be held NA); results - no percent of vote by party
since all are independents; seats - (56 total, 52 elected) 52 independents
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation:
none (British crown dependency)
Flag:
white with the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland)
extending to the corners of the flag

:Jersey Economy

Overview:
The economy is based largely on financial services, agriculture, and
tourism. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and especially flowers are
important export crops, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy
cattle is known worldwide and represents an important export earner. Milk
products go to the UK and other EC countries. In 1986 the finance sector
overtook tourism as the main contributor to GDP, accounting for 40% of the
island's output. In recent years the government has encouraged light
industry to locate in Jersey, with the result that an electronics industry
has developed alongside the traditional manufacturing of knitwear. All raw
material and energy requirements are imported, as well as a large share of
Jersey's food needs.
GDP:
$NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate 8% (1987 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8% (1988 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $308.0 million; expenditures $284.4 million, including capital
expenditures of NA (1985)
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
light industrial and electrical goods, foodstuffs, textiles
partners:
UK
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, mineral
fuels, chemicals
partners:
UK
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
50,000 kW standby capacity (1990); power supplied by France
Industries:
tourism, banking and finance, dairy
Agriculture:
potatoes, cauliflowers, tomatoes; dairy and cattle farming
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
Jersey pound (plural - pounds); 1 Jersey pound (#J) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
Jersey pounds (#J) per US$1 - 0.5799 (March 1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603
(1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986); the
Jersey pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Jersey Communications

Ports:
Saint Helier, Gorey, Saint Aubin
Airports:
1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m (Saint Peter)
Telecommunications:
63,700 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 3 submarine
cables

:Jersey Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Johnston Atoll Geography

Total area:
2.8 km2
Land area:
2.8 km2
Comparative area:
about 4.7 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
10 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little
seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly flat with a maximum elevation of 4 meters
Natural resources:
guano (deposits worked until about 1890)
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
some low-growing vegetation
Note:
strategic location 717 nautical miles west-southwest of Honolulu in the
North Pacific Ocean, about one-third of the way between Hawaii and the
Marshall Islands; Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands; North
Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral
dredging; closed to the public; former nuclear weapons test site; site of
Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS)

:Johnston Atoll People

Population:
1,375 (December 1991); all US government personnel and contractors

:Johnston Atoll Government

Long-form name:
none (territory of the US)
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Defense Nuclear
Agency (DNA) and managed cooperatively by DNA and the Fish and Wildlife
Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National
Wildlife Refuge system
Capital:

none; administered from Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation:
none (territory of the US)
Flag:
the flag of the US is used

:Johnston Atoll Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is limited to providing services to US military personnel
and contractors located on the island. All food and manufactured goods must
be imported.
Electricity:
supplied by the management and operations contractor

:Johnston Atoll Communications

Ports:
Johnston Island
Airports:
1 with permanent-surface runways 2,743 m
Telecommunications:
excellent system including 60-channel submarine cable, Autodin/SRT terminal,
digital telephone switch, Military Affiliated Radio System (MARS station),
commercial satellite television system, and UHF/VHF air-ground radio, marine
VHF/FM Channel 16
Note:
US Coast Guard operates a LORAN transmitting station (estimated closing date
for LORAN is December 1992)

:Johnston Atoll Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

:Jordan Geography

Total area:
91,880 km2
Land area:
91,540 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
1,586 km; Iraq 134 km, Israel 238 km, Saudi Arabia 742 km, Syria 375 km,
West Bank 97 km
Coastline:
26 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
differences with Israel over the location of the 1949 Armistice Line that
separates the two countries
Climate:
mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)
Terrain:
mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift Valley
separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River
Natural resources:
phosphates, potash, shale oil
Land use:
arable land 4%; permanent crops 0.5%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and
woodland 0.5%; other 94%; includes irrigated 0.5%
Environment:
lack of natural water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
desertification
Note:
The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended with Israel in
control of the West Bank. As stated in the 1978 Camp David accords and
reaffirmed by President Bush's post - Gulf crisis peace initiative, the
final status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, their relationship with their
neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated
among the concerned parties. The Camp David accords also specify that these
negotiations will resolve the location of the respective boundaries. Pending
the completion of this process, it is US policy that the final status of the
West Bank and Gaza Strip has yet to be determined.

:Jordan People

Population:
3,557,304 (July 1992), growth rate 4.1% (1992); Palestinians now constitute
roughly two-thirds of the population; most are Jordanian citizens
Birth rate:
45 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
38 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
70 years male, 73 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
7.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Jordanian(s); adjective - Jordanian
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 8%
Languages:
Arabic (official); English widely understood among upper and middle classes
Literacy:
80% (male 89%, female 70%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
572,000 (1988); agriculture 20%, manufacturing and mining 20% (1987 est.)
Organized labor:
about 10% of labor force

:Jordan Government

Long-form name:
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Amman
Administrative divisions:
8 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al
Mafraq, `Amman, At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Ma`an
Independence:
25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration;
formerly Transjordan)
Constitution:
8 January 1952
Legal system:
based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts
in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 May (1946)
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly (Majlis al-`Umma) consists of an upper house or
House of Notables (Majlis al-A`ayan) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Majlis al-Nuwaab); note - the House of Representatives has
been convened and dissolved by the King several times since 1974 and in
November 1989 the first parliamentary elections in 22 years were held
Judicial branch:
Court of Cassation
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King HUSSEIN Ibn Talal Al Hashemi (since 11 August 1952)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Zayd bin SHAKIR (since 21 November 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
approximately 24 parties have been formed since the National Charter, but
the number fluctuates; after the 1989 parliamentary elections, King Hussein
promised to allow the formation of political parties; a national charter
that sets forth the ground rules for democracy in Jordan - including the
creation of political parties - was approved in principle by the special
National Conference on 9 June 1991, but its specific provisions have yet to
be passed by National Assembly
Suffrage:
universal at age 20
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held 8 November 1989 (next to be held November 1993); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (80 total) Muslim Brotherhood (fundamentalist)
22, Independent Islamic bloc (generally traditionalist) 6, Democratic bloc
(mostly leftist) 9, Constitutionalist bloc (traditionalist) 17, Nationalist
bloc (traditionalist) 16, independent 10
Member of:
ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

:Jordan Government

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Hussein A. HAMMAMI; Chancery at 3504 International Drive NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 966-2664
US:
Ambassador Roger Gram HARRISON; Embassy on Jebel Amman, Amman (mailing
address is P. O. Box 354, Amman, or APO AE 09892); telephone [962] (6)
644-371
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), white, and green with a red
isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a small white
seven-pointed star; the seven points on the star represent the seven
fundamental laws of the Koran

:Jordan Economy

Overview:
Jordan benefited from increased Arab aid during the oil boom of the late
1970s and early 1980s, when its annual GNP growth averaged more than 10%. In
the remainder of the 1980s, however, reductions in both Arab aid and worker
remittances slowed economic growth to an average of roughly 2% per year.
Imports - mainly oil, capital goods, consumer durables, and food - have been
outstripping exports, with the difference covered by aid, remittances, and
borrowing. In mid-1989, the Jordanian Government began debt-rescheduling
negotiations and agreed to implement an IMF program designed to gradually
reduce the budget deficit and implement badly needed structural reforms. The
Persian Gulf crisis that began in August 1990, however, aggravated Jordan's
already serious economic problems, forcing the government to shelve the IMF
program, stop most debt payments, and suspend rescheduling negotiations. Aid
from Gulf Arab states and worker remittances have plunged, and refugees have
flooded the country, straining government resources. Economic recovery is
unlikely without substantial foreign aid, debt relief, and economic reform.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $3.6 billion, per capita $1,100; real growth rate
3% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
40% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
phosphates, fertilizers, potash, agricultural products, manufactures
partners:
India, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, Ethiopia, UAE, China
Imports:
$2.3 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, food, live animals, manufactured
goods
partners:
EC, US, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Turkey
External debt:
$9 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1% (1991 est.); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
1,025,000 kW capacity; 3,900 million kWh produced, 1,150 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
phosphate mining, petroleum refining, cement, potash, light manufacturing
Agriculture:
accounts for about 7% of GDP; principal products are wheat, barley, citrus
fruit, tomatoes, melons, olives; livestock - sheep, goats, poultry; large
net importer of food
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.7 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.5 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.5 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $44
million
Currency:
Jordanian dinar (plural - dinars); 1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

:Jordan Economy

Exchange rates:
Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1 - 0.6861 (March 1992), 0.6807 1991), 0.6636
(1990), 0.5704 (1989), 0.3709 (1988), 0.3387 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Jordan Communications

Railroads:
619 km 1.050-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
7,500 km; 5,500 km asphalt, 2,000 km gravel and crushed stone
Pipelines:
crude oil 209 km
Ports:
Al `Aqabah
Merchant marine:
2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 60,378 GRT/113,557 DWT; includes 1
cargo and 1 petroleum tanker
Civil air:
23 major transport aircraft
Airports:
19 total, 15 usable; 14 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over
3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
adequate telephone system of microwave, cable, and radio links; 81,500
telephones; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 7 FM, 8 TV; satellite earth stations
- 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT, 1 domestic
TV receive-only; coaxial cable and microwave to Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and
Syria; microwave link to Lebanon is inactive; participates in a microwave
network linking Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco

:Jordan Defense Forces

Branches:
Jordan Arab Army, Royal Jordanian Air Force, Royal Jordanian Navy, Public
Security Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 808,725; 576,934 fit for military service; 39,310 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $404 million, 9.5% of GDP (1990)

:Juan de Nova Island Geography

Total area:
4.4 km2
Land area:
4.4 km2
Comparative area:
about 7.5 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
24.1 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claimed by Madagascar
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
undetermined
Natural resources:
guano deposits and other fertilizers
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 90%; other 10%
Environment:
subject to periodic cyclones; wildlife sanctuary
Note:
located in the central Mozambique Channel about halfway between Africa and
Madagascar

:Juan de Nova Island People

Population:
uninhabited

:Juan de Nova Island Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic Jacques
DEWATRE, resident in Reunion
Capital:
none; administered by France from Reunion

:Juan de Nova Island Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

:Juan de Nova Island Communications

Railroads:
short line going to a jetty
Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
1 with non-permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m

:Juan de Nova Island Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

:Kazakhstan Geography

Total area:
2,717,300 km2
Land area:
2,669,800 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than four times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
12,012 km; China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846 km,
Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km
Coastline:
0 km
note:
Kazakhstan does border the Aral Sea (1,015 km) and the Caspian Sea (1,894
km)
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
dry continental, about half is desert
Terrain:
extends from the Volga to the Altai mountains and from the plains in western
Siberia to oasis and desert in Central Asia
Natural resources:
petroleum, coal, iron, manganese, chrome, nickel, cobalt, copper,
molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium, iron
Land use:
NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest
and woodland; NA% other; includes NA% irrigated
Environment:
drying up of Aral Sea is causing increased concentrations of chemical
pesticides and natural salts; industrial pollution

:Kazakhstan People

Population:
17,103,927 (July 1992), growth rate 1.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
23 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-6.1 migrants/1,000 population (1991)
Infant mortality rate:
25.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
63 years male, 72 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Kazakh(s); adjective - Kazakhstani
Ethnic divisions:
Kazakh (Qazaq) 40%, Russian 38%, other Slavs 7%, Germans 6%, other 9%
Religions:
Muslim 47% Russian Orthodox NA%, Lutheran NA%
Languages:
Kazakh (Qazaq; official language), Russian
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write
Labor force:
8,267,000 (1989)
Organized labor:
official trade unions, independent coal miners' union

:Kazakhstan Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Kazakhstan
Type:
republic
Capital:
Alma-Ata (Almaty)
Administrative divisions:
19 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast'); Aktyubinsk, Alma-Ata, Atyrau,
Chimkent, Dzhambul, Dzhezkazgan, Karaganda, Kokchetav, Kustanay, Kzyl-Orda,
Mangistauz (Aqtau), Pavlodar, Semipalatinsk, Severo-Kazakhstan
(Petropavlovsk), Taldy-Kurgan, Tselinograd, Turgay (Arkalyk), Ural'sk,
Vostochno-Kazakhstan (Ust'-Kamenogorsk); note - an oblast has the same name
as its administrative center (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)
Independence:
16 December 1991; from the Soviet Union (formerly the Kazakh Soviet
Socialist Republic)
Constitution:
new postindependence constitution under preparation
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
NA
Executive branch:
president with presidential appointed cabinet of ministers
Legislative branch:
Supreme Soviet
Judicial branch:
NA
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (since April 1990), Vice President Yerik
ASANBAYEV (since 1 December 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Sergey TERESHCHENKO (since 14 October 1991), Deputy Prime
Minister Davlat SEMBAYEV (since November 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
Peoples Forum Party, Olzhas SULEIMENOV and Mukhtar SHAKHANOV, co-chairmen;
Socialist Party (former Communist Party), Anuar ALIJANOV, chairman;
ZHOLTOKSAN, Hasan KOJAKHETOV, chairmen; AZAT Party, Sabitkazi AKETAEV,
chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (NA total) percent of seats by party NA
Communists:
party disbanded 6 September 1992
Member of:
CIS, CSCE, IMF, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador NA; Chancery at NA NW, Washington, DC 200__; telephone NA; there
are NA Consulates General
US:
Ambassador-designate William Courtney; Embassy at Hotel Kazakhstan,
Alma-Ata, (mailing address is APO AE 09862); telephone 8-011-7-3272-61-90-56
Flag:
no national flag yet adopted

:Kazakhstan Economy

Overview:
The second-largest in area of the 15 former Soviet republics, Kazakhstan has
vast oil, coal, and agricultural resources. Kazakhstan is highly dependent
on trade with Russia, exchanging its natural resources for finished consumer
and industrial goods. Kazakhstan now finds itself with serious pollution
problems, backward technology, and little experience in foreign markets. The
government in 1991 pushed privatization of the economy at a faster pace than
Russia's program. The ongoing transitional period - marked by sharp
inflation in wages and prices, lower output, lost jobs, and disruption of
time-honored channels of supply - has brought considerable social unrest.
Kazakhstan lacks the funds, technology, and managerial skills for a quick
recovery of output. US firms have been enlisted to increase oil output but
face formidable obstacles; for example, oil can now reach Western markets
only through pipelines that run across independent (and sometimes
unfriendly) former Soviet republics. Finally, the end of monolithic
Communist control has brought ethnic grievances into the open. The 6 million
Russians in the republic, formerly the favored class, now face the hostility
of a society dominated by Muslims. Ethnic rivalry will be just one of the
formidable obstacles to the creation of a productive, technologically
advancing society.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $NA; per capita NA; real growth rate - 7%
(1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
83% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA million; expenditures $NA million, including capital
expenditures of $1.76 billion (1991)
Exports:
$4.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
oil, ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, grain, wool, meat (1991)
partners:
Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
Imports:
$NA million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and parts, industrial materials
partners:
Russia and other former Soviet republics
External debt:
$2.6 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0.7% (1991)
Electricity:
17,900,000 kW capacity; 79,100 million kWh produced, 4,735 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
extractive industries (oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc,
copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur) iron and steel,
nonferrous metal, tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric
motors, construction materials
Agriculture:
employs 30% of the labor force; grain, mostly spring wheat; meat, cotton,
wool

:Kazakhstan Economy

Illicit drugs:
illicit producers of cannabis and opium; mostly for domestic consumption;
status of government eradication programs unknown; used as transshipment
points for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $NA billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-86), $NA million;
Communist countries (1971-86), $NA million
Currency:
as of May 1992, retaining ruble as currency
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Kazakhstan Communications

Railroads:
14,460 km (all 1.520-meter gauge); does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
189,000 km total (1990); 188,900 km hard surfaced (paved or gravel), 80,900
km earth
Inland waterways:
NA km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil NA km, refined products NA km, natural gas NA
Ports:
none - landlocked; inland - Guryev
Civil air:
NA major transport aircraft
Airports:
NA
Telecommunications:
telephone service is poor, with only about 6 telephones for each 100
persons; of the approximately 1 million telephones, Alma-Ata has 184,000;
international traffic with other former USSR republics and China carried by
landline and microwave, and with other countries by satellite and through
the Moscow international gateway switch; satellite earth stations - INTELSAT
and Orbita

:Kazakhstan Defense Forces

Branches:
Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard; CIS
Forces (Ground, Air, Air Defense, and Strategic Rocket)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, NA fit for military service; NA reach military age (18)
annually
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:Kenya Geography

Total area:
582,650 km2
Land area:
569,250 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
Land boundaries:
3,477 km; Ethiopia 861 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km,
Uganda 933 km
Coastline:
536 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with international
boundary; possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic Somalis
Climate:
varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
Terrain:
low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile
plateau in west
Natural resources:
gold, limestone, soda ash, salt barytes, rubies, fluorspar, garnets,
wildlife
Land use:
arable land 3%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 7%; forest and
woodland 4%; other 85%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and
economic value; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; glaciers on
Mt. Kenya
Note:
the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural
production regions in Africa

:Kenya People

Population:
26,164,473 (July 1992), growth rate 3.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
44 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
68 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
60 years male, 64 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Kenyan(s); adjective - Kenyan
Ethnic divisions:
Kikuyu 21%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 11%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%,
Asian, European, and Arab 1%
Religions:
Protestant 38%, Roman Catholic 28%, indigenous beliefs 26%, Muslim 6%
Languages:
English and Swahili (official); numerous indigenous languages
Literacy:
69% (male 80%, female 58%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
9.2 million (includes unemployed); the total employed is 1.37 million (14.8%
of the labor force); services 54.8%, industry 26.2%, agriculture 19.0%
(1989)
Organized labor:
390,000 (est.)

:Kenya Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Kenya
Type:
republic
Capital:
Nairobi
Administrative divisions:
7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North
Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western
Independence:
12 December 1963 (from UK; formerly British East Africa)
Constitution:
12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979,
1983, 1986, 1988, and 1991
Legal system:
based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial review in
High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations;
constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure one-party state
repealed in 1991
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 December (1963)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Bunge)
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Daniel Teroitich arap MOI (since 14 October 1978); Vice President
George SAITOTI (since 10 May 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party is Kenya African National Union (KANU), Daniel T. arap MOI,
president; opposition parties include Forum for the Restoration of Democracy
(FORD), Oginga ODINJA; Democratic Party of Kenya (DP), KIBAKI; note - some
dozen other opposition parties
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held on 21 March 1988 (next to be held before March 1993); results -
President Daniel T. arap MOI was reelected
National Assembly:
last held on 21 March 1988 (next to be held before March 1993); will be
first multiparty election since repeal of one-party state law
Other political or pressure groups:
labor unions; exile opposition - Mwakenya and other groups
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Denis Daudi AFANDE; Chancery at 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC
20008; telephone (202) 387-6101; there are Kenyan Consulates General in Los
Angeles and New York

:Kenya Government

US:
Ambassador Smith HEMPSTONE, Jr.; Embassy at the corner of Moi Avenue and
Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi (mailing address is P. O. Box 30137, Nairobi
or APO AE 09831); telephone [254] (2) 334141; FAX [254] (2) 340838; there is
a US Consulate in Mombasa
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is
edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is
superimposed at the center

:Kenya Economy

Overview:
Kenya's 3.6% annual population growth rate - one of the highest in the world
- presents a serious problem for the country's economy. In the meantime, GDP
growth in the near term has kept slightly ahead of population - annually
averaging 4.9% in the 1986-90 period. Undependable weather conditions and a
shortage of arable land hamper long-term growth in agriculture, the leading
economic sector. In 1991, deficient rainfall, stagnant export volume, and
sagging export prices held economic growth below the all-important
population growth figure.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $9.7 billion, per capita $385 (1989 est.); real
growth rate 2.3% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
14.3% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%, but there is a high level of unemployment and underemployment
Budget:
revenues $2.4 billion; expenditures $2.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $0.74 billion (FY90)
Exports:
$1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
tea 25%, coffee 21%, petroleum products 7% (1989)
partners:
EC 44%, Africa 25%, Asia 5%, US 5%, Middle East 4% (1988)
Imports:
$1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment 29%, petroleum and petroleum products
15%, iron and steel 7%, raw materials, food and consumer goods (1989)
partners:
EC 45%, Asia 11%, Middle East 12%, US 5% (1988)
External debt:
$6.0 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.4% (1989 est.); accounts for 17% of GDP
Electricity:
730,000 kW capacity; 2,700 million kWh produced, 110 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, soap,
cigarettes, flour), agricultural processing, oil refining, cement, tourism
Agriculture:
most important sector, accounting for 29% of GDP, about 19% of the work
force, and over 50% of exports; cash crops - coffee, tea, sisal, pineapple;
food products - corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables, dairy products;
food output not keeping pace with population growth
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis used mostly for domestic consumption;
widespread cultivation of cannabis and qat on small plots; transit country
for heroin and methaqualone en route from Southwest Asia to West Africa,
Western Europe, and the US
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $839 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $7,490 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $74 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $83
million
Currency:
Kenyan shilling (plural - shillings); 1 Kenyan shilling (KSh) = 100 cents

:Kenya Economy

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