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57 years male, 58 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Indian(s); adjective - Indian
Ethnic divisions:
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3%
Religions:
Hindu 82.6%, Muslim 11.4%, Christian 2.4%, Sikh 2.0%, Buddhist 0.7%, Jains
0.5%, other 0.4%
Languages:
Hindi, English, and 14 other official languages - Bengali, Telugu, Marathi,
Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese,
Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; 24 languages spoken by a million or more
persons each; numerous other languages and dialects, for the most part
mutually unintelligible; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue
of 30% of the people; English enjoys associate status but is the most
important language for national, political, and commercial communication;
Hindustani, a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu, is spoken widely throughout
northern India
Literacy:
48% (male 62%, female 34%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
284,400,000; 67% agriculture (FY85)
Organized labor:
less than 5% of the labor force

:India Government

Long-form name:
Republic of India
Type:
federal republic
Capital:
New Delhi
Administrative divisions:
25 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra
Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Dadra and Nagar
Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh,
Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*,
Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Independence:
15 August 1947 (from UK)
Constitution:
26 January 1950
Legal system:
based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative acts;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 26 January (1950)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Sansad) consists of an upper house or Council of
States (Rajya Sabha) and a lower house or People's Assembly (Lok Sabha)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Ramaswamy Iyer VENKATARAMAN (since 25 July 1987); Vice President
Dr. Shankar Dayal SHARMA (since 3 September 1987)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha RAO (since 21 June 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Congress (I) Party, P. V. Narasimha RAO, president; Bharatiya Janata Party,
L. K. ADVANI; Janata Dal Party, V. P. SINGH; Communist Party of
India/Marxist (CPI/M), Harkishan Singh SURJEET; Communist Party of India
(CPI), C. Rajeswara RAO; Telugu Desam (a regional party in Andhra Pradesh),
N. T. Rama RAO; All-India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (AIADMK; a regional
party in Tamil Nadu), JAYALALITHA; Samajwadi Janata Party, CHANDRA SHEKHAR;
Shiv Sena, Bal THACKERAY; Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP), Tridip
CHOWDHURY; Bahujana Samaj Party (BSP), Kanshi RAM; Congress (S) Party,
leader NA; Communist Party of India/Marxist-Leninist (CPI/ML), Satyanarayan
SINGH; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (a regional party in Tamil Nadu), M.
KARUNANIDHI; Akali Dal factions representing Sikh religious community in the
Punjab; National Conference (NC; a regional party in Jammu and Kashmir),
Farooq ABDULLAH; Asom Gana Parishad (a regional party in Assam), Prafulla
MAHANTA
Suffrage:
universal at age 18

:India Government

Elections:
People's Assembly:
last held 21 May, 12 and 15 June 1991 (next to be held by November 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (545 total), 520 elected -
Congress (I) Party 231, Bharatiya Janata Party 119, Janata Dal Party 59,
CPI/M 35, CPI 14, Telugu Desam 13, AIADMK 11, Samajwadi Janata Party 5, Shiv
Sena 4, RSP 4, BSP 1, Congress (S) Party 1, other 23; note - second and
third rounds of voting were delayed because of the assassination of Congress
President Rajiv GANDHI on 21 May 1991
Communists:
466,000 members claimed by CPI, 361,000 members claimed by CPI/M; Communist
extremist groups, about 15,000 members
Other political or pressure groups:
various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy;
numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Adam
Sena, Ananda Marg, Vishwa Hindu Parishad, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-6, G-15, G-19, G-24,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, PCA, SAARC, UN,
UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Abid HUSSEIN; Chancery at 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-7000; there are Indian Consulates
General in Chicago, New York, and San Francisco
US:
Ambassador William CLARK, Jr.; Embassy at Shanti Path, Chanakyapuri 110021,
New Delhi; telephone [91] (11) 600651; FAX [91] (11) 687-2028, 687-2391;
there are US Consulates General in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a blue
chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of
Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band

:India Economy

Overview:
India's economy is a mixture of traditional village farming and handicrafts,
modern agriculture, old and new branches of industry, and a multitude of
support services. It presents both the entrepreneurial skills and drives of
the capitalist system and widespread government intervention of the
socialist mold. Growth of 4-5% annually in the 1980s has softened the impact
of population growth on unemployment, social tranquility, and the
environment. Agricultural output has continued to expand, reflecting the
greater use of modern farming techniques and improved seed that have helped
to make India self-sufficient in food grains and a net agricultural
exporter. However, tens of millions of villagers, particularly in the south,
have not benefited from the green revolution and live in abject poverty, and
great numbers of urban residents lack the basic essentials of life. Industry
has benefited from a partial liberalization of controls. The growth rate of
the service sector has also been strong. India, however, has been challenged
more recently by much lower foreign exchange reserves, higher inflation, and
a large debt service burden.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $328 billion, per capita $380; real growth rate
2.5% (FY92 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12.0% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
20% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $38.5 billion; expenditures $53.4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $11.1 billion (FY92)
Exports:
$20.2 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
commodities:
gems and jewelry, engineering goods, clothing, textiles, chemicals, tea,
coffee, fish products
partners:
EC 25%, US 16%, USSR and Eastern Europe 19%, Japan 10% (1989)
Imports:
$25.2 billion (c.i.f., FY91)
commodities:
petroleum products, capital goods, uncut gems, gems, jewelry, chemicals,
iron and steel, edible oils
partners:
EC 33%, Middle East 19%, US 12%, Japan 8%, USSR and Eastern Europe 8% (1989)
External debt:
$72.0 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 8.4% (1990); accounts for about 25% of GDP
Electricity:
80,000,000 kW capacity; 290,000 million kWh produced, 330 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, steel, machinery, transportation equipment,
cement, jute manufactures, mining, petroleum, power, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals, electronics
Agriculture:
accounts for about 30% of GDP and employs 67% of labor force;
self-sufficient in food grains; principal crops - rice, wheat, oilseeds,
cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; livestock - cattle, buffaloes,
sheep, goats and poultry; fish catch of about 3 million metric tons ranks
India among the world's top 10 fishing nations

:India Economy

Illicit drugs:
licit producer of opium poppy for the pharmaceutical trade, but some opium
is diverted to illicit international drug markets; major transit country for
illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries; illicit producer of
hashish
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $31.7 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $315 million; USSR (1970-89), $11.6 billion;
Eastern Europe (1970-89), $105 million
Currency:
Indian rupee (plural - rupees); 1 Indian rupee (Re) = 100 paise
Exchange rates:
Indian rupees (Rs) per US$1 - 25.917 (January 1992), 22.742 (1991), 17.504
(1990), 16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988), 12.962 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:India Communications

Railroads:
61,850 km total (1986); 33,553 km 1.676-meter broad gauge, 24,051 km
1.000-meter gauge, 4,246 km narrow gauge (0.762 meter and 0.610 meter);
12,617 km is double track; 6,500 km is electrified
Highways:
1,970,000 km total (1989); 960,000 km surfaced and 1,010,000 km gravel,
crushed stone, or earth
Inland waterways:
16,180 km; 3,631 km navigable by large vessels
Pipelines:
crude oil 3,497 km; petroleum products 1,703 km; natural gas 902 km (1989)
Ports:
Bombay, Calcutta, Cochin, Kandla, Madras, New Mangalore, Port Blair (Andaman
Islands)
Merchant marine:
299 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,991,278 GRT/9,935,463 DWT; includes
1 short-sea passenger, 7 passenger-cargo, 91 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 8
container, 54 oil tanker, 10 chemical tanker, 8 combination ore/oil, 111
bulk, 2 combination bulk, 6 liquefied gas
Civil air:
93 major transport aircraft
Airports:
341 total, 288 usable; 203 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways
over 3,659 m; 59 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 87 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
poor domestic telephone service, international radio communications
adequate; 4,700,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 96 AM, 4 FM, 274 TV
(government controlled); domestic satellite system for communications and
TV; 3 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; submarine cables to Malaysia and
United Arab Emirates

:India Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Security or Paramilitary Forces, Border Security
Force, Coast Guard, Assam Rifles
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 237,803,153; 140,140,736 fit for military service; about
9,474,290 reach military age (17) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GNP (FY91)

:Indian Ocean Geography

Total area:
73,600,000 km2
Land area:
73,600,000 km2; Arabian Sea, Bass Strait, Bay of Bengal, Java Sea, Persian
Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of Malacca, Timor Sea, and other tributary water
bodies
Comparative area:
slightly less than eight times the size of the US; third-largest ocean
(after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but larger than the Arctic
Ocean)
Coastline:
66,526 km
Disputes:
some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate:
northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June to October);
tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November in the north
Indian Ocean and January/February in the south Indian Ocean
Terrain:
surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular system of
currents) in the south Indian Ocean; unique reversal of surface currents in
the north Indian Ocean - low pressure over southwest Asia from hot, rising,
summer air results in the southwest monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds
and currents, while high pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling,
winter air results in the northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds
and currents; ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and
subdivided by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean
Ridge, and Ninety East Ridge; maximum depth is 7,258 meters in the Java
Trench
Natural resources:
oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and gravel aggregates, placer
deposits, polymetallic nodules
Environment:
endangered marine species include the dugong, seals, turtles, and whales;
oil pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea
Note:
major chokepoints include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of
Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok Strait; ships
subject to superstructure icing in extreme south near Antarctica from May to
October

:Indian Ocean Economy

Overview:
The Indian Ocean provides a major highway for the movement of petroleum
products from the Middle East to Europe and North and South American
countries. Fish from the ocean are of growing economic importance to many of
the bordering countries as a source of both food and exports. Fishing fleets
from Russia, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also exploit the Indian Ocean, mainly
for shrimp and tuna. Large reserves of hydrocarbons are being tapped in the
offshore areas of Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and Western Australia. An
estimated 40% of the world's offshore oil production comes from the Indian
Ocean. Beach sands rich in heavy minerals and offshore placer deposits are
actively exploited by bordering countries, particularly India, South Africa,
Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.
Industries:
based on exploitation of natural resources, particularly marine life,
minerals, oil and gas production, fishing, sand and gravel aggregates,
placer deposits

:Indian Ocean Communications

Ports:
Bombay (India), Calcutta (India), Madras (India), Colombo (Sri Lanka),
Durban (South Africa), Fremantle (Australia), Jakarta (Indonesia), Melbourne
(Australia), Richard's Bay (South Africa)
Telecommunications:
submarine cables from India to United Arab Emirates and Malaysia

:Indonesia Geography

Total area:
1,919,440 km2
Land area:
1,826,440 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
2,602 km; Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
Coastline:
54,716 km
Maritime claims:
(measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with Portugal
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain:
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Natural resources:
crude oil, tin, natural gas liquids, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper,
fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use:
arable land 8%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures 7%; forest and
woodland 67%; other 15%; includes irrigated 3%
Environment:
archipelago of 13,500 islands (6,000 inhabited); occasional floods, severe
droughts, and tsunamis; deforestation
Note:
straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from
Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

:Indonesia People

Population:
195,683,531 (July 1992), growth rate 1.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
25 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
70 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
59 years male, 64 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Indonesian(s); adjective - Indonesian
Ethnic divisions:
majority of Malay stock comprising Javanese 45.0%, Sundanese 14.0%, Madurese
7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26.0%
Religions:
Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other
1% (1985)
Languages:
Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official); English and Dutch
leading foreign languages; local dialects, the most widely spoken of which
is Javanese
Literacy:
77% (male 84%, female 68%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
67,000,000; agriculture 55%, manufacturing 10%, construction 4%, transport
and communications 3% (1985 est.)
Organized labor:
3,000,000 members (claimed); about 5% of labor force

:Indonesia Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Indonesia
Type:
republic
Capital:
Jakarta
Administrative divisions:
24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions*
(daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital
city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya,
Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan
Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung,
Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan,
Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera
Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*
Independence:
17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia
became legally independent from the Netherlands)
Constitution:
August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional
Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and
by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR); note -
the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR)
includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly elected members who meet every five
years to elect the president and vice president and, theoretically, to
determine national policy
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968); Vice President Lt.
Gen. (Ret.) SUDHARMONO (since 11 March 1988)
Political parties and leaders:
GOLKAR (quasi-official party based on functional groups), Lt. Gen. (Ret.)
WAHONO, general chairman; Indonesia Democracy Party (PDI - federation of
former Nationalist and Christian Parties), SOERYADI, chairman; Development
Unity Party (PPP, federation of former Islamic parties), Ismail Hasan
METAREUM, chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 17 and married persons regardless of age
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held on 23 April 1987 (next to be held 8 June 1992); results - Golkar
73%, UDP 16%, PDI 11%; seats - (500 total - 400 elected, 100 appointed)
Golkar 299, UDP 61, PDI 40
Communists:
Communist Party (PKI) was officially banned in March 1966; current strength
about 1,000-3,000, with less than 10% engaged in organized activity;
pre-October 1965 hardcore membership about 1.5 million

:Indonesia Government

Member of:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Abdul Rachman RAMLY; Chancery at 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20036; telephone (202) 775-5200; there are Indonesian
Consulates General in Houston, New York, and Los Angeles, and Consulates in
Chicago and San Francisco
US:
Ambassador John C. MONJO; Embassy at Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Jakarta
(mailing address is APO AP 96520); telephone [62] (21) 360-360; FAX [62]
(21) 360-644; there are US Consulates in Medan and Surabaya
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of
Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white
(top) and red

:Indonesia Economy

Overview:
Indonesia is a mixed economy with many socialist institutions and central
planning but with a recent emphasis on deregulation and private enterprise.
Indonesia has extensive natural wealth, yet, with a large and rapidly
increasing population, it remains a poor country. GDP growth in 1985-91
averaged about 6%, quite impressive, but not sufficient to both slash
underemployment and absorb the 2.3 million workers annually entering the
labor force. Agriculture, including forestry and fishing, is an important
sector, accounting for 23% of GDP and over 50% of the labor force. The
staple crop is rice. Once the world's largest rice importer, Indonesia is
now nearly self-sufficient. Plantation crops - rubber and palm oil - and
textiles and plywood are being encouraged for both export and job
generation. Industrial output now accounts for 30% of GDP and is based on a
supply of diverse natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas,
timber, metals, and coal. Of these, the oil sector dominates the external
economy, generating more than 20% of the government's revenues and 40% of
export earnings in 1989. However, the economy's growth is highly dependent
on the continuing expansion of nonoil exports. Japan is Indonesia's most
important customer and supplier of aid. In 1991, rapid growth in the money
supply prompted Jakarta to implement a tight monetary policy, forcing the
private sector to go to foreign banks for investment financing. Real
interest rates remained above 10%, off-shore commercial debt grew, and real
GDP growth dropped slightly from the 7% of 1990.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $122 billion, per capita $630; real growth rate
6.0% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
3%; underemployment 45% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $17.2 billion; expenditures $23.4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $8.9 billion (FY91)
Exports:
$25.7 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
petroleum and liquefied natural gas 40%, timber 15%, textiles 7%, rubber 5%,
coffee 3%
partners:
Japan 40%, US 14%, Singapore 7%, Europe 16% (1990)
Imports:
$21.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
machinery 39%, chemical products 19%, manufactured goods 16%
partners:
Japan 23%, US 13%, EC, Singapore
External debt:
$58.5 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 11.6% (1989 est.); accounts for 30% of GDP
Electricity:
11,600,000 kW capacity; 38,000 million kWh produced, 200 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
petroleum, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, food,
rubber

:Indonesia Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for 23% of GDP; subsistence food production; small-holder and
plantation production for export; main products are rice, cassava, peanuts,
rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, other tropical products, poultry,
beef, pork, eggs
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade, but not a
major player; government actively eradicating plantings and prosecuting
traffickers
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $25.9 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $213 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $175
million
Currency:
Indonesian rupiah (plural - rupiahs); 1 Indonesian rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen
(sen no longer used)
Exchange rates:
Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1 - 1,998.2 (January 1992), 1,950.3 (1991),
1,842.8 (1990), 1,770.1 (1989), 1,685.7 (1988), 1,643.8 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Indonesia Communications

Railroads:
6,964 km total; 6,389 km 1.067-meter gauge, 497 km 0.750-meter gauge, 78 km
0.600-meter gauge; 211 km double track; 101 km electrified; all government
owned
Highways:
119,500 km total; 11,812 km state, 34,180 km provincial, and 73,508 km
district roads
Inland waterways:
21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460
km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)
Ports:
Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Ujungpandang, Semarang,
Surabaya
Merchant marine:
387 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,698,946 GRT/2,560,414 DWT; includes
5 short-sea passenger, 13 passenger-cargo, 231 cargo, 8 container, 3
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 vehicle carrier, 79 petroleum tanker, 5 chemical
tanker, 6 liquefied gas, 7 specialized tanker, 1 livestock carrier, 25 bulk,
1 passenger
Civil air:
about 216 commercial transport aircraft
Airports:
437 total, 410 usable; 114 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways
over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 64 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
interisland microwave system and HF police net; domestic service fair,
international service good; radiobroadcast coverage good; 763,000 telephones
(1986); broadcast stations - 618 AM, 38 FM, 9 TV; satellite earth stations -
1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
station; and 1 domestic satellite communications system

:Indonesia Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 51,906,415; 30,668,815 fit for military service; 2,095,698
reach military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.7 billion, 2% of GNP (FY91)

:Iran Geography

Total area:
1,648,000 km2
Land area:
1,636,000 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundaries:
5,440 km; Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan (north) 432 km,
Azerbaijan (northwest) 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499
km, Turkmenistan 992 km
Coastline:
2,440 km
note:
Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
not specific
Exclusive fishing zone:
50 nm in the Sea of Oman; continental shelf limit, continental shelf
boundaries, or median lines in the Persian Gulf
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still trying to
work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes from their
eight-year war concerning border demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom
of navigation and sovereignty over the Shatt-al-Arab waterway; Iran occupies
two islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE: Tunb as Sughra (Arabic),
Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek (Persian) or Lesser Tunb, and Tunb al Kubra
(Arabic), Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg (Persian) or Greater Tunb; it jointly
administers with the UAE an island in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE,
Abu Musa (Arabic) or Jazireh-ye Abu Musa (Persian)
Climate:
mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast
Terrain:
rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small,
discontinuous plains along both coasts
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese,
zinc, sulfur
Land use:
arable land 8%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 27%; forest and
woodland 11%; other 54%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
deforestation; overgrazing; desertification

:Iran People

Population:
61,183,138 (July 1992), growth rate 3.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
44 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
64 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
64 years male, 66 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Iranian(s); adjective - Iranian
Ethnic divisions:
Persian 51%, Azerbaijani 25%, Kurd 9%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Lur 2%,
Baloch 1%, Arab 1%, other 3%
Religions:
Shi`a Muslim 95%, Sunni Muslim 4%, Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and
Baha'i 1%
Languages:
58% Persian and Persian dialects, 26% Turkic and Turkic dialects, 9%
Kurdish, 2% Luri, 1% Baloch, 1% Arabic, 1% Turkish, 2% other
Literacy:
54% (male 64%, female 43%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
15,400,000; agriculture 33%, manufacturing 21%; shortage of skilled labor
(1988 est.)
Organized labor:
none

:Iran Government

Long-form name:
Islamic Republic of Iran
Type:
theocratic republic
Capital:
Tehran
Administrative divisions:
24 provinces (ostanha, singular - ostan); Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari,
Azarbayjan-e Khavari, Bakhtaran, Bushehr, Chahar Machall va Bakhtiari,
Ecsfahan, Fars, Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Khorasan,
Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Achmadi, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi,
Mazandaran, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan
Independence:
1 April 1979, Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed
Constitution:
2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and
eliminate the prime ministership
Legal system:
the Constitution codifies Islamic principles of government
National holiday:
Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)
Executive branch:
cleric (faqih), president, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Cleric and functional Chief of State:
Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali HOSEINI-KHAMENEI (since 4
June 1989)
Head of Government:
President Ali Akbar HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI (since 3 August 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
there are at least 18 licensed parties; the three most important are -
Tehran Militant Clergy Association, Mohammad Reza MAHDAVI-KANI; Militant
Clerics Association, Mehdi MAHDAVI-KARUBI and Mohammad Asqar
MUSAVI-KHOINIHA; Fedaiyin Islam Organization, Sadeq KHALKHALI
Suffrage:
universal at age 15
Elections:
President:
last held July 1989 (next to be held April 1993); results - Ali Akbar
HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI was elected with only token opposition
Islamic Consultative Assembly:
last held 8 April 1992 (next to be held April 1996); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (270 seats total) number of seats by party NA
Communists:
1,000 to 2,000 est. hardcore; 15,000 to 20,000 est. sympathizers; crackdown
in 1983 crippled the party; trials of captured leaders began in late 1983
Other political or pressure groups:
groups that generally support the Islamic Republic include Hizballah,
Hojjatiyeh Society, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution, Muslim Students
Following the Line of the Imam; armed political groups that have been almost
completely repressed by the government include Mojahedin-e Khalq
Organization (MEK), People's Fedayeen, Kurdish Democratic Party; the Society
for the Defense of Freedom

:Iran Government

Member of:
CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
none; protecting power in the US is Pakistan - Iranian Interests Section,
2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-6200
US:
protecting power in Iran is Switzerland
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national
emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red is centered in
the white band; Allah Alkbar (God is Great) in white Arabic script is
repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along
the top edge of the red band

:Iran Economy

Overview:
Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and
other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private
trading and service ventures. After a decade of economic decline, Iran's GNP
grew roughly 4% in FY90 and 10% in FY91. An oil windfall in 1990 combined
with a substantial increase in imports contributed to Iran's recent economic
growth. Iran has also begun implementing a number of economic reforms to
reduce government intervention (including subsidies) and has allocated
substantial resources to development projects in the hope of stimulating the
economy. Nevertheless, lower oil revenues in 1991 - oil accounts for more
than 90% of export revenues and provides roughly 65% of the financing for
the five-year economic development plan - and dramatic increases in external
debt are threatening development plans and could prompt Iran to cut imports,
thus limiting economic growth in the medium term.
GNP:
exchange rate conversion - $90 billion, per capita $1,500; real growth rate
10% (FY91 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
18% (FY91 est.)
Unemployment rate:
30% (1989)
Budget:
revenues $63 billion; expenditures $80 billion, including capital
expenditures of $23 billion (FY90 est.)
Exports:
$17.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
petroleum 90%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides
partners:
Japan, Italy, France, Netherlands, Belgium/Luxembourg, Spain, and Germany
Imports:
$15.9 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery, military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals,
technical services, refined oil products
partners:
Germany, Japan, Italy, UK, France
External debt:
$10 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
14,579,000 kW capacity; 40,000 million kWh produced, 740 kWh per capita
(1989)
Industries:
petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other building materials,
food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production),
metal fabricating (steel and copper)
Agriculture:
principal products - wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts,
cotton, dairy products, wool, caviar; not self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and international drug
trade
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $1.0 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.675 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $976 million; note - aid fell sharply
following the 1979 revolution

:Iran Economy

Currency:
Iranian rial (plural - rials); 1 Iranian rial (IR) = 100 dinars; note -
domestic figures are generally referred to in terms of the toman (plural -
tomans), which equals 10 rials
Exchange rates:
Iranian rials (IR) per US$1 - 65.515 (January 1992), 67.505 (1991), 68.096
(1990), 72.015 (1989), 68.683 (1988), 71.460 (1987); note - black-market
rate 1,400 (January 1991)
Fiscal year:
21 March - 20 March

:Iran Communications

Railroads:
4,850 km total; 4,760 km 1.432-meter gauge, 92 km 1.676-meter gauge; 480 km
under construction from Bafq to Bandar Abbas, rail construction from Bafq to
Sirjan has been completed and is operational
Highways:
140,072 km total; 42,694 km paved surfaces; 46,866 km gravel and crushed
stone; 49,440 km improved earth; 1,200 km (est.) rural road network
Inland waterways:
904 km; the Shatt-al-Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for about
130 km, but closed since September 1980 because of Iran-Iraq war
Pipelines:
crude oil 5,900 km; petroleum products 3,900 km; natural gas 4,550 km
Ports:
Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war), Bandar Beheshti,
Bandar-e Abbas, Bandar-e Bushehr, Bandar-e Khomeyni, Bandar-e Shahid Raja,
Khorramshahr (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war)
Merchant marine:
134 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,466,395 GRT/8,329,760 DWT; includes
38 cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 32 oil tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 3
refrigerated cargo, 47 bulk, 2 combination bulk, 1 liquefied gas
Civil air:
48 major transport aircraft
Airports:
214 total, 188 usable; 81 with permanent-surface runways; 16 with runways
over 3,659 m; 16 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 71 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
radio relay extends throughout country; system centered in Tehran; 2,143,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 77 AM, 3 FM, 28 TV; satellite earth
stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; HF radio
and radio relay to Turkey, Pakistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan, and
Uzbekistan

:Iran Defense Forces

Branches:
Islamic Republic of Iran Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, and Revolutionary
Guard Corps (includes Basij militia and own ground, air, and naval forces);
Law Enforcement Forces
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 13,267,810; 7,895,591 fit for military service; 552,408 reach
military age (21) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $13 billion, 14-15% of GNP (1991 est.)

:Iraq Geography

Total area:
436,245 km2
Land area:
435,292 km2 (est.)
Comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Idaho
Land boundaries:
3,576 km; Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 134 km, Kuwait 240 km, Saudi Arabia 808 km,
Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km
Coastline:
58 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
not specific
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still trying to
work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes from their
eight-year war concerning border demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom
of navigation and sovereignty over the Shatt-al-Arab waterway; in April 1991
official Iraqi acceptance of UN Security Council Resolution 687, which
demands that Iraq accept the inviolability of the boundary set forth in its
1963 agreement with Kuwait, ending earlier claims to Bubiyan and Warbah
Islands or to all of Kuwait; a United Nations Boundary Demarcation
Commission is demarcating the Iraq-Kuwait boundary persuant to Resolution
687, and, on 17 June 1992, the UN Security Council reaffirmed the finality
of the Boundary Demarcation Commission's decisions; periodic disputes with
upstream riparian Syria over Euphrates water rights; potential dispute over
water development plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Climate:
mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers;
northernmost regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold
winters with occasionally heavy snows
Terrain:
mostly broad plains; reedy marshes in southeast; mountains along borders
with Iran and Turkey
Natural resources:
crude oil, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Land use:
arable land 12%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 9%; forest and
woodland 3%; other 75%; includes irrigated 4%
Environment:
development of Tigris-Euphrates Rivers system contingent upon agreements
with upstream riparians (Syria, Turkey); air and water pollution; soil
degradation (salinization) and erosion; desertification

:Iraq People

Population:
18,445,847 (July 1992), growth rate 3.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
45 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
84 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
62 years male, 64 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
7.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Iraqi(s); adjective - Iraqi
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 75-80%, Kurdish 15-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%
Religions:
Muslim 97%, (Shi`a 60-65%, Sunni 32-37%), Christian or other 3%
Languages:
Arabic (official), Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
Literacy:
60% (male 70%, female 49%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
4,400,000 (1989); services 48%, agriculture 30%, industry 22%, severe labor
shortage; expatriate labor force about 1,600,000 (July 1990)
Organized labor:
less than 10% of the labor force

:Iraq Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Iraq
Type:
republic
Capital:
Baghdad
Administrative divisions:
18 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al
Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'im, Babil,
Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala, Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din,
Wasit
Independence:
3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Constitution:
22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (interim Constitution); new
constitution drafted in 1990 but not adopted
Legal system:
based on Islamic law in special religious courts, civil law system
elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Revolution, 17 July (1968)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council,
vice chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council, prime minister, first
deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Majlis al-Watani)
Judicial branch:
Court of Cassation
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President SADDAM Husayn (since 16 July 1979); Vice President Taha Muhyi
al-Din MA'RUF (since 21 April 1974); Vice President Taha Yasin RAMADAN
(since 23 March 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Muhammad Hamza al-ZUBAYDI (since 13 September 1991); Deputy
Prime Minister Tariq `AZIZ (since NA 1979)
Suffrage:
universal adult at age 18
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held on 1 April 1989 (next to be held NA); results - Sunni Arabs 53%,
Shi`a Arabs 30%, Kurds 15%, Christians 2% est.; seats - (250 total) number
of seats by party NA
Other political or pressure groups:
political parties and activity severely restricted; possibly some opposition
to regime from disaffected members of the regime, Army officers, and Shi`a
religious and Kurdish ethnic dissidents
Member of:
ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Iraq has an Interest Section in the Algerian Embassy in Washington, DC;
Chancery at 1801 P Street NW, Washington, DC 20036; telephone (202) 483-7500

:Iraq Government

US:
no US representative in Baghdad since mid-January 1991; Embassy in Masbah
Quarter (opposite the Foreign Ministry Club), Baghdad (mailing address is P.
O. Box 2447 Alwiyah, Baghdad); telephone [964] (1) 719-6138 or 719-6139,
718-1840, 719-3791
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with three green
five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the
phrase Allahu Akbar (God is Great) in green Arabic script - Allahu to the
right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was
added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of
Syria that has two stars but no script and the flag of Yemen that has a
plain white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt that has a symbolic
eagle centered in the white band

:Iraq Economy

Overview:
The Ba`thist regime engages in extensive central planning and management of
industrial production and foreign trade while leaving some small-scale
industry and services and most agriculture to private enterprise. The
economy has been dominated by the oil sector, which has provided about 95%
of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s financial problems, caused by
massive expenditures in the eight-year war with Iran and damage to oil
export facilities by Iran, led the government to implement austerity
measures and to borrow heavily and later reschedule foreign debt payments.
After the end of hostilities in 1988, oil exports gradually increased with
the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities.
Agricultural development remained hampered by labor shortages, salinization,
and dislocations caused by previous land reform and collectivization
programs. The industrial sector, although accorded high priority by the
government, also was under financial constraints. Iraq's seizure of Kuwait
in August 1990, subsequent international economic embargoes, and military
actions by an international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically
changed the economic picture. Oil exports were cut to near zero, and
industrial and transportation facilities were severely damaged. Throughout
1991, the UN's economic embargo worked to reduce exports and imports and to
increase prices for most goods. The government's policy to allocate goods to
key supporters of the regime exacerbated shortages.
GNP:
$35 billion, per capita $1,940; real growth rate 10% (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
45% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
less than 5% (1989 est.)
Budget:
revenues $NA billion; expenditures $NA billion, including capital
expenditures of NA (1989)
Exports:
$10.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
crude oil and refined products, fertilizer, sulfur
partners:
US, Brazil, Turkey, Japan, Netherlands, Spain (1990)
Imports:
$6.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
manufactures, food
partners:
FRG, US, Turkey, France, UK (1990)
External debt:
$45 billion (1989 est.), excluding debt of about $35 billion owed to Arab
Gulf states
Industrial production:
NA%; manufacturing accounts for 10% of GNP (1989)
Electricity:
3,800,000 kW available out of 9,902,000 kw capacity due to Gulf war; 7,700
million kWh produced, 430 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
petroleum production and refining, chemicals, textiles, construction
materials, food processing
Agriculture:
accounts for 11% of GNP but 30% of labor force; principal products - wheat,
barley, rice, vegetables, dates, other fruit, cotton, wool; livestock -
cattle, sheep; not self-sufficient in food output

:Iraq Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $3 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $647 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $3.9 billion
Currency:
Iraqi dinar (plural - dinars); 1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates:
Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1 - 3.1 (fixed official rate since 1982);
black-market rate (December 1991) US$1 = 12 Iraqi dinars
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Iraq Communications

Railroads:
2,457 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
Highways:
34,700 km total; 17,500 km paved, 5,500 km improved earth, 11,700 km
unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
1,015 km; Shatt-al-Arab usually navigable by maritime traffic for about 130
km, but closed since September 1980 because of Iran-Iraq war; Tigris and
Euphrates Rivers have navigable sections for shallow-draft watercraft;
Shatt-al-Basrah canal was navigable by shallow-draft craft before closing in
1991 because of the Persian Gulf war
Pipelines:
crude oil 4,350 km; petroleum products 725 km; natural gas 1,360 km
Ports:
Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, Al Basrah (closed since 1980)
Merchant marine:
42 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 936,665 GRT/1,683,212 DWT; includes 1
passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 16 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 3
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 19 petroleum tanker, 1 chemical tanker; note - since
the 2 August 1990 invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi forces, Iraq has sought to
register at least part of its merchant fleet under convenience flags; none
of the Iraqi flag merchant fleet was trading internationally as of 1 January
1992
Civil air:
34 major transport aircraft (including 7 grounded in Iran; excluding 12
IL-76s and 7 Kuwait Airlines)
Airports:
113 total, 98 usable; 73 with permanent-surface runways; 8 with runways over
3,659 m; 52 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
reconstitution of damaged telecommunication infrastructure began after
Desert Storm; the network consists of coaxial cables and microwave links;
632,000 telephones; the network is operational; broadcast stations - 16 AM,
1 FM, 13 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT, 1 GORIZONT Atlantic Ocean in the Intersputnik system and 1
ARABSAT; coaxial cable and microwave to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey

:Iraq Defense Forces

Branches:
Army and Republican Guard, Navy, Air Force, Border Guard Force, Internal
Security Forces
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 4,042,374; 2,272,578 fit for military service; 213,788 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GNP

:Ireland Geography

Total area:
70,280 km2
Land area:
68,890 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
360 km; UK 360 km
Coastline:
1,448 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
no precise definition
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
Northern Ireland question with the UK; Rockall continental shelf dispute
involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a
boundary agreement in the Rockall area)
Climate:
temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool
summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time
Terrain:
mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and low
mountains; sea cliffs on west coast
Natural resources:
zinc, lead, natural gas, crude oil, barite, copper, gypsum, limestone,
dolomite, peat, silver
Land use:
arable land 14%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 71%; forest and
woodland 5%; other 10%
Environment:
deforestation

:Ireland People

Population:
3,521,207 (July 1992), growth rate 0.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
15 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-4 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
72 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Irishman(men), Irish (collective pl.); adjective - Irish
Ethnic divisions:
Celtic, with English minority
Religions:
Roman Catholic 93%, Anglican 3%, none 1%, unknown 2%, other 1% (1981)
Languages:
Irish (Gaelic) and English; English is the language generally used, with
Gaelic spoken in a few areas, mostly along the western seaboard
Literacy:
98% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
Labor force:
1,333,000; services 57.0%, manufacturing and construction 26.1%,
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 15.0%, energy and mining 1.9% (1991)
Organized labor:
58% of labor force (1991)

:Ireland Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
republic
Capital:
Dublin
Administrative divisions:
26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry,
Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath,
Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath,
Wexford, Wicklow
Independence:
6 December 1921 (from UK)
Constitution:
29 December 1937; adopted 1937
Legal system:
based on English common law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts;
judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Oireachtas) consists of an upper house or Senate
(Seanad Eireann) and a lower house or House of Representatives (Dail
Eireann)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Mary Bourke ROBINSON (since 9 November 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Albert REYNOLDS (since 11 February 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
Fianna Fail, Albert REYNOLDS; Labor Party, Richard SPRING; Fine Gael, John
BRUTON; Communist Party of Ireland, Michael O'RIORDAN; Workers' Party
(vacant); Sinn Fein, Gerry ADAMS; Progressive Democrats, Desmond O'MALLEY;
note - Prime Minister REYNOLDS heads a coalition consisting of the Fianna
Fail and the Progressive Democrats
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 9 November 1990 (next to be held November 1997); results - Mary
Bourke ROBINSON 52.8%, Brian LENIHAN 47.2%
Senate:
last held on 17 February 1987 (next to be held February 1992); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total, 49 elected) Fianna Fail 30,
Fine Gael 16, Labor 3, independents 11
House of Representatives:
last held on 12 July 1989 (next to be held June 1994); results - Fianna Fail
44.0%, Fine Gael 29.4%, Labor Party 9.3%, Progressive Democrats 5.4%,
Workers' Party 4.9%, Sinn Fein 1.1%, independents 5.9%; seats - (166 total)
Fianna Fail 77, Fine Gael 55, Labor Party 15, Workers' Party 7, Progressive
Democrats 6, independents 6
Communists:
under 500

:Ireland Government

Member of:
AG, BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO,
ITU, LORCS, NEA, NSG, OECD, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNIFIL,
UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Dermot GALLAGHER; Chancery at 2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-3939; there are Irish Consulates
General in Boston, Chicago, New York, and San Francisco
US:
Ambassador Richard A. MOORE; Embassy at 42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin;
telephone [353] (1) 688777; FAX [353] (1) 689-946
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange; similar
to the flag of the Ivory Coast, which is shorter and has the colors reversed
- orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar to the flag of Italy,
which is shorter and has colors of green (hoist side), white, and red

:Ireland Economy

Overview:
The economy is small, open, and trade dependent. Agriculture, once the most
important sector, is now dwarfed by industry, which accounts for 37% of GDP
and about 80% of exports and employs 26% of the labor force. The government
has successfully reduced the rate of inflation from double-digit figures in
the late 1970s to 3.8% in 1991. In 1987, after years of deficits, the
balance of payments was brought into the black. Unemployment, however,
remains a serious problem. A 1991 unemployment rate of 20.4% placed Ireland
along with Spain as the countries with the worst jobless records in Western
Europe.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $39.2 billion, per capita $11,200; real growth
rate 1.3% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.8% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
20.4% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $11.4 billion; expenditures $12.6 billion, including capital
expenditures of $1.6 billion (1992 est.)
Exports:
$27.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
chemicals, data processing equipment, industrial machinery, live animals,
animal products
partners:
EC 74% (UK 34%, Germany 11%, France 10%), US 8%
Imports:
$24.5 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
food, animal feed, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products, machinery,
textiles, clothing
partners:
EC 66% (UK 41%, Germany 9%, France 4%), US 14%
External debt:
$14.8 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.0% (1991); accounts for 37% of GDP
Electricity:
4,957,000 kW capacity; 14,480 million kWh produced, 4,080 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals, pharmaceuticals,
machinery, transportation equipment, glass and crystal
Agriculture:
accounts for 11% of GDP and 15% of the labor force; principal crops -
turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; livestock - meat and dairy
products; 85% self-sufficient in food; food shortages include bread grain,
fruits, vegetables
Economic aid:
donor - ODA commitments (1980-89), $90 million
Currency:
Irish pound (plural - pounds); 1 Irish pound (#Ir) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
Irish pounds (#Ir) per US$1 - 0.6227 (March 1992), 0.6190 (1991), 0.6030
(1990), 0.7472 (1989), 0.6553 (1988), 0.6720 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Ireland Communications

Railroads:
Irish National Railways (CIE) operates 1,947 km 1.602-meter gauge,
government owned; 485 km double track; 38 km electrified
Highways:
92,294 km total; 87,422 km paved, 4,872 km gravel or crushed stone
Inland waterways:
limited for commercial traffic
Pipelines:
natural gas 225 km
Ports:
Cork, Dublin, Shannon Estuary, Waterford
Merchant marine:
55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 146,081 GRT/177,058 DWT; includes 4
short-sea passenger, 32 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 3 container, 3
petroleum tanker, 3 specialized tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 6 bulk
Civil air:
23 major transport aircraft
Airports:
36 total, 35 usable; 17 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
small, modern system using cable and digital microwave circuits; 900,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 9 AM, 45 FM, 86 TV; 2 coaxial submarine
cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Ireland Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (including Naval Service and Air Corps), National Police (GARDA)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 894,421; 724,262 fit for military service; 34,182 reach
military age (17) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $566 million, 1-2% of GDP (1992 est.)

:Israel Header

Note:
The Arab territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war are not included
in the data below. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords and reaffirmed
by President Bush's post-Gulf crisis peace initiative, the final status of
the West Bank and Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors, and a
peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the
concerned parties. The Camp David Accords further specify that these
negotiations will resolve the location of the respective boundaries. Pending
the completion of this process, it is US policy that the final status of the
West Bank and Gaza Strip has yet to be determined (see West Bank and Gaza
Strip entries). On 25 April 1982 Israel relinquished control of the Sinai to
Egypt. Statistics for the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights are included in the
Syria entry.

:Israel Geography

Total area:
20,770 km2
Land area:
20,330 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
1,006 km; Egypt 255 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank
307, Gaza Strip 51 km
Coastline:
273 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
to depth of exploitation
Territorial sea:
6 nm
Disputes:
separated from Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank by the 1949 Armistice Line;
differences with Jordan over the location of the 1949 Armistice Line that
separates the two countries; West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied
with status to be determined; Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Israeli
troops in southern Lebanon since June 1982; water-sharing issues with Jordan
Climate:
temperate; hot and dry in desert areas
Terrain:
Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift
Valley
Natural resources:
copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand, sulfur, asphalt, manganese,
small amounts of natural gas and crude oil
Land use:
arable land 17%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures 40%; forest and
woodland 6%; other 32%; includes irrigated 11%
Environment:
sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; limited arable land and
natural water resources pose serious constraints; deforestation
Note:
there are 175 Jewish settlements in the West Bank, 38 in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 18 in the Gaza Strip, and 14 Israeli-built
Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem

:Israel People

Population:
4,748,059 (July 1992), growth rate 4.0% (1992); includes 95,000 Jewish
settlers in the West Bank, 14,000 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights,
4,000 in the Gaza Strip, and 132,000 in East Jerusalem (1992 est.)
Birth rate:
21 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
26 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
9 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
76 years male, 80 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Israeli(s); adjective - Israeli
Ethnic divisions:
Jewish 83%, non-Jewish (mostly Arab) 17%
Religions:
Judaism 82%, Islam (mostly Sunni Muslim) 14%, Christian 2%, Druze and other
2%
Languages:
Hebrew (official); Arabic used officially for Arab minority; English most
commonly used foreign language
Literacy:
92% (male 95%, female 89%) age 15 and over can read and write (1983)
Labor force:
1,400,000 (1984 est.); public services 29.3%; industry, mining, and
manufacturing 22.8%; commerce 12.8%; finance and business 9.5%; transport,
storage, and communications 6.8%; construction and public works 6.5%;
personal and other services 5.8%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing 5.5%;
electricity and water 1.0% (1983)
Organized labor:
90% of labor force

:Israel Government

Long-form name:
State of Israel
Type:
republic
Capital:
Israel proclaimed Jerusalem its capital in 1950, but the US, like nearly all
other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv
Administrative divisions:
6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem,
Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv
Independence:
14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Constitution:
no formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled
by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the basic laws of the parliament
(Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law
Legal system:
mixture of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and, in personal
matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim legal systems; in December 1985,
Israel informed the UN Secretariat that it would no longer accept compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day; Israel declared independence on 14 May 1948, but the
Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in April or May
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, vice prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral parliament (Knesset)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Chaim HERZOG (since 5 May 1983)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Yitzhak SHAMIR (since 20 October 1986)
Political parties and leaders:
Israel currently has a coalition government comprising 12 parties that hold
66 of the Knesset's 120 seats; currently in state of flux; election held 23
June 1992
Members of the government:
Likud bloc, Prime Minister Yitzhak SHAMIR; Sephardic Torah Guardians (SHAS),
Minister of Interior Arieh DER'I; National Religious Party, Minister of
Education Shulamit ALONI; Agudat Israel, Avraham SHAPIRA; Degel HaTorah,
Avraham RAVITZ; Moriya, Minister of Immigrant Absorption, Yair TZABAN;
Ge'ulat Israel, Eliezer MIZRAHI; New Liberal Party, Minister of Finance,
Avraham SHOCHAT; Tehiya Party, Minister of Science Technology, Yuval NEEMAN;
Tzomet Party Unity for Peace and Aliyah, Rafael EITAN; Moledet Party,
Rehavam ZEEVI
Opposition parties:
Labor Party, Shimon PERES; Citizens' Rights Movement, Shulamit ALONI; United
Workers' Party (MAPAM), Yair TZABAN; Center Movement-Shinui, Amnon
RUBENSTEIN; New Israeli Communist Party (MAKI), Meir WILNER; Progressive
List for Peace, Muhammad MI'ARI; Arab Democratic Party, `Abd Al Wahab
DARAWSHAH; Black Panthers, Charlie BITON
Suffrage:
universal at age 18

:Israel Government

Elections:
President:
last held 23 February 1988 (next to be held February 1994); results - Chaim
HERZOG reelected by Knesset
Knesset:
last held June 1992 (next to be held by NA; results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (120 total) Labor Party 44, Likud bloc 12, SHAS 6,
National Religious Party 6, Meretz 12, Agudat Yisrael 4, PAZI 3, MAKI 3,
Tehiya Party 3, Tzomet Party 8, Moledet Party 3, Degel HaTorah 4, Center
Movement Progressive List for Peace 1, Arab Democratic Party 2; Black
Panthers 1, Moriya 1, Ge'ulat Yisrael 1, Unity for Peace and Aliyah 1
Communists:
Hadash (predominantly Arab but with Jews in its leadership) has some 1,500
members
Other political or pressure groups:
Gush Emunim, Jewish nationalists advocating Jewish settlement on the West
Bank and Gaza Strip; Peace Now, critical of government's West Bank/Gaza
Strip and Lebanon policies
Member of:
AG (observer), CCC, EBRD, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, OAS (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Zalman SHOVAL; Chancery at 3514 International Drive NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 364-5500; there are Israeli Consulates
General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
Philadelphia, and San Francisco
US:
Ambassador William HARROP; Embassy at 71 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv (mailing
address is APO AE 09830; telephone [972] (3) 654338; FAX [972] (3) 663449;
there is a US Consulate General in Jerusalem
Flag:
white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen
David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands
near the top and bottom edges of the flag

:Israel Economy

Overview:
Israel has a market economy with substantial government participation. It
depends on imports of crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military
equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has intensively
developed its agricultural and industrial sectors over the past 20 years.
Industry employs about 20% of Israeli workers, agriculture 5%, and services
most of the rest. Diamonds, high-technology equipment, and agricultural
products (fruits and vegetables) are leading exports. Israel usually posts
balance-of-payments deficits, which are covered by large transfer payments
from abroad and by foreign loans. Roughly half of the government's $17
billion external debt is owed to the United States, which is its major
source of economic and military aid. To earn needed foreign exchange, Israel
has been targeting high-technology niches in international markets, such as
medical scanning equipment. Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in August 1990 dealt a
blow to Israel's economy. Higher world oil prices added an estimated $300
million to the oil import bill that year and helped keep annual inflation at
18%. Regional tension and the continuing Palestinian uprising (intifadah)
have contributed to a sharp drop in tourism - a key foreign exchange earner
- to the lowest level since the 1973 Arab-Israeli war. The influx of Jewish
immigrants from the former USSR, which topped 330,000 during the period
1990-91, will increase unemployment, intensify housing problems, widen the
government budget deficit, and fuel inflation.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $54.6 billion, per capita $12,000; real growth
rate 5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
18% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
11% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $41.7 billion; expenditures $47.6 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY92)
Exports:
$12.1 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
polished diamonds, citrus and other fruits, textiles and clothing, processed
foods, fertilizer and chemical products, military hardware, electronics
partners:
US, EC, Japan, Hong Kong, Switzerland
Imports:
$18.1 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
military equipment, rough diamonds, oil, chemicals, machinery, iron and
steel, cereals, textiles, vehicles, ships, aircraft
partners:
US, EC, Switzerland, Japan, South Africa, Canada, Hong Kong
External debt:
$24 billion, of which government debt is $17 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate - 7% (1991 est.); accounts for about 20% of GDP
Electricity:
5,300,000 kWh capacity; 21,000 million kWh produced, 4,800 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
food processing, diamond cutting and polishing, textiles, clothing,
chemicals, metal products, military equipment, transport equipment,
electrical equipment, miscellaneous machinery, potash mining,
high-technology electronics, tourism

:Israel Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for about 3% of GDP; largely self-sufficient in food production,
except for grains; principal products - citrus and other fruits, vegetables,
cotton; livestock products - beef, dairy, and poultry
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $18.2 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.8 billion
Currency:
new Israeli shekel (plural - shekels); 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new
agorot
Exchange rates:
new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 2.4019 (March 1992), 2.2791 (1991),
2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987)
Fiscal year:
previously 1 April - 31 March; FY91 was 1 April - 31 December, and since 1
January 1992 the fiscal year has conformed to the calendar year

:Israel Communications

Railroads:
600 km 1.435-meter gauge, single track; diesel operated
Highways:
4,750 km; majority is bituminous surfaced
Pipelines:
crude oil 708 km; petroleum products 290 km; natural gas 89 km
Ports:
Ashdod, Haifa
Merchant marine:
34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 629,966 GRT/721,106 DWT; includes 8
cargo, 23 container, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off; note - Israel
also maintains a significant flag of convenience fleet, which is normally at
least as large as the Israeli flag fleet; the Israeli flag of convenience
fleet typically includes all of its petroleum tankers
Civil air:
32 major transport aircraft
Airports:
51 total, 44 usable; 26 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
most highly developed in the Middle East although not the largest; good
system of coaxial cable and radio relay; 1,800,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 14 AM, 21 FM, 20 TV; 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations
- 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

:Israel Defense Forces

Branches:
Israel Defense Forces, including ground, naval, and air components;
historically, there have been no separate Israeli military services
Manpower availability:
eligible 15-49, 2,357,195; of the 1,189,275 males 15-49, 977,332 are fit for
military service; of the 1,167,920 females 15-49, 955,928 are fit for
military service; 44,624 males and 42,705 females reach military age (18)
annually; both sexes are liable for military service; Nahal or Pioneer
Fighting Youth, Frontier Guard, Chen
Defense expenditures:
$7.5 billion, 12.1% of GNP (1992 budget); note - does not include pay for
reserve soldiers and other defense-related categories; actual outlays would
therefore be higher

:Italy Geography

Total area:
301,230 km2
Land area:
294, 020 km2; includes Sardinia and Sicily
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Arizona
Land boundaries:
1,899.2 km; Austria 430 km, France 488 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 199
km, Switzerland 740 km, Vatican City 3.2 km
Coastline:
4,996 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
Terrain:
mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
Natural resources:
mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, dwindling natural gas and crude oil
reserves, fish, coal
Land use:
arable land 32%; permanent crops 10%; meadows and pastures 17%; forest and
woodland 22%; other 19%; includes irrigated 10%
Environment:
regional risks include land-slides, mudflows, snowslides, earthquakes,
volcanic eruptions, flooding, pollution; land sinkage in Venice
Note:
strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea
and air approaches to Western Europe

:Italy People

Population:
57,904,628 (July 1992), growth rate 0.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
10 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
74 years male, 81 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Italian(s); adjective - Italian
Ethnic divisions:
primarily Italian but population includes small clusters of German-,
French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and
Greek-Italians in the south; Sicilians; Sardinians
Religions:
virtually 100% Roman Catholic
Languages:
Italian; parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German
speaking; small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region;
Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area
Literacy:
97% (male 98%, female 96%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
23,988,000; services 58%, industry 32.2%, agriculture 9.8% (1988)
Organized labor:
40-45% of labor force (est.)

:Italy Government

Long-form name:
Italian Republic
Type:
republic
Capital:
Rome
Administrative divisions:
20 regions (regioni, singular - regione); Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria,
Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia,
Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto
Adige, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta, Veneto
Independence:
17 March 1861, Kingdom of Italy proclaimed
Constitution:
1 January 1948
Legal system:
based on civil law system, with ecclesiastical law influence; appeals
treated as trials de novo; judicial review under certain conditions in
Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Republic, 2 June (1946)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister (president of the Council of Ministers)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Parlamento) consists of an upper chamber or Senate of
the Republic (Senato della Repubblica) and a lower chamber or Chamber of
Deputies (Camera dei Deputati)
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (Corte Costituzionale)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Oscar Luigi SCALFARO (since 28 May 1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Guiliano AMATO (since 28 June 1992); Deputy Prime Minister
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Party (DC), Arnaldo FORLANI (general secretary),
Ciriaco De MITA (president); Socialist Party (PSI), Bettino CRAXI (party
secretary); Social Democratic Party (PSDI), Carlo VIZZINI (party secretary);
Liberal Party (PLI), Renato ALTISSIMO (secretary general); Democratic Party
of the Left (PDS - was Communist Party, or PCI, until January 1991), Achille
OCCHETTO (secretary general); Italian Social Movement (MSI), Gianfranco FINI
(national secretary); Republican Party (PRI), Giorgio La MALFA (political
secretary); Lega Nord (Northern League), Umberto BOSSI, president
Suffrage:
universal at age 18 (except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is
25)
Elections:
Senate:
last held 5-6 April 1992 (next to be held by April 1997); results - DC
33.9%, PCI 28.3%, PSI 10.7%, other 27.1%; seats - (326 total, 315 elected)
DC 107, PDS 64, PSI 49, Leagues 25, other 70
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 5-6 April 1992 (next to be held April 1997); results - DC 29.7%,
PDS 26.6%, PSI 13.6%, Leagues 8.7%, Communist Renewal 5.6%, MSI 5.4%, PRI
4.4%, PLI 2.8%, PSDI 2.7%, other 11%

:Italy Government

Other political or pressure groups:
the Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations (CGIL -
Communist dominated, CISL - Christian Democratic, and UIL - Social
Democratic, Socialist, and Republican); Italian manufacturers association
(Confindustria); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), Australia Group, AsDB, BIS, CCC, CDB (nonregional
member), CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-7, G-10,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IEA, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC,
NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, MTCR, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO,
ZC
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Boris BIANCHERI CHIAPPORI; Chancery at 1601 Fuller Street NW,
Washington, DC 20009; telephone (202) 328-5500; there are Italian Consulates
General in Boston, Chicago, Houston, New Orleans, Los Angeles, Philadelphia,
San Francisco, and Consulates in Detroit and Newark (New Jersey)
US:
Ambassador Peter F. SECCHIA; Embassy at Via Veneto 119/A, 00187, Rome
(mailing address is APO AE 09624); telephone [39] (6) 46741, FAX [39] (6)
467-2356; there are US Consulates General in Florence, Genoa, Milan, Naples,
and Palermo (Sicily)
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; similar to
the flag of Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and
orange; also similar to the flag of the Ivory Coast, which has the colors
reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green

:Italy Economy

Overview:
Since World War II the economy has changed from one based on agriculture
into a ranking industrial economy, with approximately the same total and per
capita output as France and the UK. The country is still divided into a
developed industrial north, dominated by small private companies, and an
undeveloped agricultural south, dominated by large public enterprises.
Services account for 48% of GDP, industry about 35%, agriculture 4%, and
public administration 13%. Most raw materials needed by industry and over
75% of energy requirements must be imported. After growing at an annual
average rate of 3% during the period 1983-90, growth slowed to about 1% in
1991. For the 1990s, Italy faces the problems of refurbishing a tottering
communications system, curbing pollution in major industrial centers, and
adjusting to the new competitive forces accompanying the ongoing economic
integration of the European Community.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $965.0 billion, per capita $16,700; real
growth rate 1.0% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.5% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
11.0% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $431 billion; expenditures $565 billion, including capital
expenditures of $48 billion (1991)
Exports:
$209 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
textiles, wearing apparel, metals, transportation equipment, chemicals
partners:
EC 58.5%, US 8%, OPEC 4%
Imports:
$222 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum, industrial machinery, chemicals, metals, food, agricultural
products
partners:
EC 58%, OPEC 7%, US 5%
External debt:
NA
Industrial production:
growth rate - 2.0% (1991); accounts for almost 35% of GDP
Electricity:
57,500,000 kW capacity; 235,000 million kWh produced, 4,072 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor
vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
Agriculture:
accounts for about 4% of GDP and 10% of the work force; self-sufficient in
foods other than meat and dairy products; principal crops - fruits,
vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; fish
catch of 388,200 metric tons in 1988
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $25.9 billion
Currency:
Italian lira (plural - lire); 1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100 centesimi
Exchange rates:
Italian lire (Lit) per US$1 - 1,248.4 (March 1992), 1,240.6 (January 1991),
1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987)

:Italy Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Italy Communications

Railroads:
20,011 km total; 16,066 km 1.435-meter government-owned standard gauge
(8,999 km electrified); 3,945 km privately owned - 2,100 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge (1,155 km electrified) and 1,845 km 0.950-meter narrow gauge
(380 km electrified)
Highways:
294,410 km total; autostrada (expressway) 5,900 km, state highways 45,170
km, provincial highways 101,680 km, communal highways 141,660 km; 260,500 km
paved, 26,900 km gravel and crushed stone, 7,010 km earth
Inland waterways:
2,400 km for various types of commercial traffic, although of limited
overall value
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,703 km; petroleum products 2,148 km; natural gas 19,400 km
Ports:
Cagliari (Sardinia), Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno, Naples, Palermo (Sicily),
Taranto, Trieste, Venice
Merchant marine:
546 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,004,462 GRT/10,265,132 DWT;
includes 17 passenger, 39 short-sea passenger, 94 cargo, 4 refrigerated
cargo, 24 container, 66 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 9 vehicle carrier, 1
multifunction large-load carrier, 1 livestock carrier, 142 petroleum tanker,
33 chemical tanker, 39 liquefied gas, 10 specialized tanker, 10 combination
ore/oil, 55 bulk, 2 combination bulk
Civil air:
125 major transport aircraft
Airports:
137 total, 134 usable; 91 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways
over 3,659 m; 36 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 39 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
modern, well-developed, fast; 25,600,000 telephones; fully automated
telephone, telex, and data services; high-capacity cable and radio relay
trunks; very good broadcast service by stations - 135 AM, 28 (1,840
repeaters) FM, 83 (1,000 repeaters) TV; international service by 21
submarine cables; 3 satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT with 3
Atlantic Ocean antennas and 2 Indian Ocean antennas; also participates in
INMARSAT and EUTELSAT systems

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