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:Guinea-Bissau Government

US:
Ambassador William L. JACOBSEN, Jr.; Embassy at 17 Avenida Domingos Ramos,
Bissau (mailing address is 1067 Bissau Codex, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau);
telephone [245] 20-1139, 20-1145, 20-1113
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical red
band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star centered in the
red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the
flag of Cape Verde, which has the black star raised above the center of the
red band and is framed by two corn stalks and a yellow clam shell

:Guinea-Bissau Economy

Overview:
Guinea-Bissau ranks among the poorest countries in the world, with a per
capita GDP below $200. Agriculture and fishing are the main economic
activities. Cashew nuts, peanuts, and palm kernels are the primary exports.
Exploitation of known mineral deposits is unlikely at present because of a
weak infrastructure and the high cost of development. The government's
four-year plan (1988-91) has targeted agricultural development as the top
priority.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $162 million, per capita $160; real growth rate
5.0% (1989)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
25% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $22.7 million; expenditures $30.8 million, including capital
expenditures of $18.0 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
$14.2 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
commodities:
cashews, fish, peanuts, palm kernels
partners:
Portugal, Senegal, France, The Gambia, Netherlands, Spain
Imports:
$68.9 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
commodities:
capital equipment, consumer goods, semiprocessed goods, foods, petroleum
partners:
Portugal, Netherlands, Senegal, USSR, Germany
External debt:
$462 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate - 1.0% (1989 est.); accounts for 10% of GDP (1989 est.)
Electricity:
22,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced, 30 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
agricultural processing, beer, soft drinks
Agriculture:
accounts for over 50% of GDP, nearly 100% of exports, and 90% of employment;
rice is the staple food; other crops include corn, beans, cassava, cashew
nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, and cotton; not self-sufficient in food;
fishing and forestry potential not fully exploited
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $49 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $615 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $41 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $68
million
Currency:
Guinea-Bissauan peso (plural - pesos); 1 Guinea-Bissauan peso (PG) = 100
centavos
Exchange rates:
Guinea-Bissauan pesos (PG) per US$1 - 1987.2 (1989), 1363.6 (1988), 851.65
(1987), 238.98 (1986)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Guinea-Bissau Communications

Highways:
3,218 km; 2,698 km bituminous, remainder earth
Inland waterways:
scattered stretches are important to coastal commerce
Ports:
Bissau
Civil air:
2 major transport aircraft
Airports:
34 total, 15 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
poor system of radio relay, open-wire lines, and radiocommunications; 3,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 1 TV

:Guinea-Bissau Defense Forces

Branches:
People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP; including Army, Navy, Air Force),
paramilitary force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 228,856; 130,580 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $9.3 million, 5-6% of GDP (1987)

:Guyana Geography

Total area:
214,970 km2
Land area:
196,850 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Idaho
Land boundaries:
2,462 km; Brazil 1,119 km, Suriname 600 km, Venezuela 743 km
Coastline:
459 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
outer edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
all of the area west of the Essequibo River claimed by Venezuela; Suriname
claims area between New (Upper Courantyne) and Courantyne/Kutari Rivers (all
headwaters of the Courantyne)
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons
(May to mid-August, mid-November to mid-January)
Terrain:
mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south
Natural resources:
bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish
Land use:
arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 6%; forest and
woodland 83%; other 8%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
flash floods a constant threat during rainy seasons; water pollution

:Guyana People

Population:
739,431 (July 1992), growth rate - 0.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
21 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-20 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
50 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
61 years male, 68 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Guyanese (singular and plural); adjective - Guyanese
Ethnic divisions:
East Indian 51%, black and mixed 43%, Amerindian 4%, European and Chinese 2%
Religions:
Christian 57%, Hindu 33%, Muslim 9%, other 1%
Languages:
English, Amerindian dialects
Literacy:
95% (male 98%, female 96%) age 15 and over having ever attended school (1990
est.)
Labor force:
268,000; industry and commerce 44.5%, agriculture 33.8%, services 21.7%;
public-sector employment amounts to 60-80% of the total labor force (1985)
Organized labor:
34% of labor force

:Guyana Government

Long-form name:
Co-operative Republic of Guyana
Type:
republic
Capital:
Georgetown
Administrative divisions:
10 regions; Barima-Waini, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Demerara-Mahaica, East
Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo Islands-West Demerara, Mahaica-Berbice,
Pomeroon-Supenaam, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper Demerara-Berbice, Upper
Takutu-Upper Essequibo
Independence:
26 May 1966 (from UK; formerly British Guiana)
Constitution:
6 October 1980
Legal system:
based on English common law with certain admixtures of Roman-Dutch law; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Republic Day, 23 February (1970)
Executive branch:
executive president, first vice president, prime minister, first deputy
prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Judicature
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Executive President Hugh Desmond HOYTE (since 6 August 1985); First Vice
President Hamilton GREEN (since 6 August 1985)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Hamilton GREEN (since NA August 1985)
Political parties and leaders:
People's National Congress (PNC), Hugh Desmond HOYTE; People's Progressive
Party (PPP), Cheddi JAGAN; Working People's Alliance (WPA), Eusi KWAYANA,
Rupert ROOPNARINE; Democratic Labor Movement (DLM), Paul TENNASSEE; People's
Democratic Movement (PDM), Llewellyn JOHN; National Democratic Front (NDF),
Joseph BACCHUS; United Force (UF), Manzoor NADIR; United Republican Party
(URP), Leslie RAMSAMMY; National Republican Party (NRP), Robert GANGADEEN;
Guyanese Labor Party (GLP), Nanda GOPAUL
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Executive President:
last held on 9 December 1985 (next to be held 1992); results - Hugh Desmond
HOYTE was elected president since he was leader of the party with the most
votes in the National Assembly elections
National Assembly:
last held on 9 December 1985 (next to be held mid-1992); results - PNC 78%,
PPP 16%, UF 4%, WPA 2%; seats - (65 total, 53 elected) PNC 42, PPP 8, UF 2,
WPA 1
Other political or pressure groups:
Trades Union Congress (TUC); Guyana Council of Indian Organizations (GCIO);
Civil Liberties Action Committee (CLAC); the latter two organizations are
small and active but not well organized; Guyanese Action for Reform and
Democracy (GUARD) includes various labor groups, as well as several of the
smaller political parties

:Guyana Government

Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Dr. Cedric Hilburn GRANT; Chancery at 2490 Tracy Place NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-6900; there is a Guyanese
Consulate General in New York
US:
Ambassador George JONES; Embassy at 99-100 Young and Duke Streets,
Georgetown; telephone [592] (2) 54900 through 54909
Flag:
green with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed
on a long yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow black border between the red
and yellow, and a narrow white border between the yellow and the green

:Guyana Economy

Overview:
Guyana is one of the world's poorest countries with a per capita income less
than one-fifth the South American average. After growing on average at less
than 1% a year in 1986-87, GDP dropped by 5% a year in 1988-90. The decline
resulted from bad weather, labor trouble in the canefields, and flooding and
equipment problems in the bauxite industry. Consumer prices rose about 100%
in 1989 and 75% in 1990, and the current account deficit widened
substantially as sugar and bauxite exports fell. Moreover, electric power is
in short supply and constitutes a major barrier to future gains in national
output. The government, in association with international financial
agencies, seeks to reduce its payment arrears and to raise new funds. The
government's stabilization program - aimed at establishing realistic
exchange rates, reasonable price stability, and a resumption of growth -
requires considerable public administrative abilities and continued patience
by consumers during a long incubation period. In 1991, buoyed by a recovery
in mining and agriculture, the economy posted 6% growth, according to
official figures. A large volume of illegal and quasi- legal economic
activity is not captured in estimates of the country's total output.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $250 million, per capita $300; real growth rate
6% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
75% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
12-15% (1990 est.)
Budget:
revenues $126 million; expenditures $250 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$189 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
bauxite, sugar, gold, rice, shrimp, molasses, timber, rum
partners:
UK 31%, US 23%, CARICOM 7%, Canada 6% (1988)
Imports:
$246 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
manufactures, machinery, food, petroleum
partners:
US 33%, CARICOM 10%, UK 9%, Canada 2% (1989)
External debt:
$2.0 billion, including arrears (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate - 12.0% (1990 est.); accounts for about 11% of GDP
Electricity:
252,500 kW capacity; 647 million kWh produced, 863 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
bauxite mining, sugar, rice milling, timber, fishing (shrimp), textiles,
gold mining
Agriculture:
most important sector, accounting for 24% of GDP and about half of exports;
sugar and rice are key crops; development potential exists for fishing and
forestry; not self-sufficient in food, especially wheat, vegetable oils, and
animal products
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $116 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $325 million;
Communist countries 1970-89, $242 million
Currency:
Guyanese dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Guyanese dollar (G$) = 100 cents

:Guyana Economy

Exchange rates:
Guyanese dollars (G$) per US$1 - 124.1 (March 1992) 111.8 (1991), 39.533
(1990), 27.159 (1989), 10.000 (1988), 9.756 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Guyana Communications

Railroads:
187 km total, all single track 0.914-meter gauge
Highways:
7,665 km total; 550 km paved, 5,000 km gravel, 1,525 km earth, 590 km
unimproved
Inland waterways:
6,000 km total of navigable waterways; Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo
Rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km, 100 km, and 80 km,
respectively
Ports:
Georgetown
Civil air:
3 major transport aircraft
Airports:
54 total, 49 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; none with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 13 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fair system with radio relay network; over 27,000 telephones; tropospheric
scatter link to Trinidad; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 3 FM, no TV, 1
shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Guyana Defense Forces

Branches:
Guyana Defense Force (GDF; includes Coast Guard and Air Corps), Guyana
Police Force (GPF), Guyana People's Militia (GPM), Guyana National Service
(GNS)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 196,066; 149,045 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $5.5 million, 6% of GDP (1989 est.)

:Haiti Geography

Total area:
27,750 km2
Land area:
27,560 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
275 km; Dominican Republic 275 km
Coastline:
1,771 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Continental shelf:
to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claims US-administered Navassa Island
Climate:
tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
Terrain:
mostly rough and mountainous
Natural resources:
bauxite
Land use:
arable land 20%; permanent crops 13%; meadows and pastures 18%; forest and
woodland 4%; other 45%; includes irrigated 3%
Environment:
lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from
June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; deforestation; soil
erosion
Note:
shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic

:Haiti People

Population:
6,431,977 (July 1992), growth rate 2.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
42 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
15 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-5 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
104 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
53 years male, 55 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Haitian(s); adjective - Haitian
Ethnic divisions:
black 95%, mulatto and European 5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic is the official religion; Roman Catholic 80% (of which an
overwhelming majority also practice Voodoo), Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%,
Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (1982)
Languages:
French (official) spoken by only 10% of population; all speak Creole
Literacy:
53% (male 59%, female 47%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
2,300,000; agriculture 66%, services 25%, industry 9%; shortage of skilled
labor, unskilled labor abundant (1982)
Organized labor:
NA

:Haiti Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Haiti
Type:
republic
Capital:
Port-au-Prince
Administrative divisions:
9 departments, (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre,
Grand'Anse, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est
Independence:
1 January 1804 (from France)
Constitution:
27 August 1983, suspended February 1986; draft constitution approved March
1987, suspended June 1988, most articles reinstated March 1989; October
1991, government claims to be observing the Constitution
Legal system:
based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 January (1804)
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) consisting of an upper
house or Senate and a lower house or Chamber of Deputies
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal (Cour de Cassation)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE (since 7 February 1991), ousted in a coup
in September 1991, but still recognized by international community as Chief
of State; President Joseph NERETTE installed by military on 7 October 1991
Head of Government:
de facto Prime Minister Marc BAZIN (since June 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
National Front for Change and Democracy (FNCD) led by Jean-Bertrand
ARISTIDE, including Congress of Democratic Movements (CONACOM), Victor
BENOIT; National Konbite Movement (MKN), Volvick Remy JOSEPH; National
Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ANDP), a coalition - that broke up
following elections - consisting of Movement for the Installation of
Democracy in Haiti (MIDH), Marc BAZIN; National Progressive Revolutionary
Party (PANPRA), Serge GILLES; and National Patriotic Movement of November 28
(MNP-28), Dejean BELIZAIRE; National Agricultural and Industrial Party
(PAIN), Louis DEJOIE; Movement for National Reconstruction (MRN), Rene
THEODORE; Haitian Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Joseph DOUZE; Assembly
of Progressive National Democrats (RDNP), Leslie MANIGAT; National Party of
Labor (PNT), Thomas DESULME; Mobilization for National Development (MDN),
Hubert DE RONCERAY; Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Haiti
(MODELH), Francois LATORTUE; Haitian Social Christian Party (PSCH), Gregoire
EUGENE; Movement for the Organization of the Country (MOP), Gesner COMEAU
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 16 December 1990, with runoff held 20 January 1991 (next to be
held by December 1994); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (83 total)
FNCD 27, ANDP 17, PDCH 7, PAIN 6, RDNP 6, MDN 5, PNT 3, MKN 2, MODELH 2, MRN
1, independents 5, other 2

:Haiti Government

President:
last held 16 December 1990 (next election to be held by December 1995);
results - Rev. Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE 67.5%, Marc BAZIN 14.2%, Louis DEJOIE
4.9%
Elections:
Senate:
last held 16 December 1990, with runoff held 20 January 1991 (next to be
held December 1992); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (27 total) FNCD
13, ANDP 6, PAIN 2, MRN 2, PDCH 1, RDNP 1, PNT 1, independent 1
Communists:
United Party of Haitian Communists (PUCH), Rene THEODORE (roughly 2,000
members)
Other political or pressure groups:
Democratic Unity Confederation (KID), Roman Catholic Church, Confederation
of Haitian Workers (CTH), Federation of Workers Trade Unions (FOS),
Autonomous Haitian Workers (CATH), National Popular Assembly (APN)
Member of:
ACCT, CARICOM (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES,
LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Jean CASIMIR; Chancery at 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-4090 through 4092; there are
Haitian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, and San Juan
(Puerto Rico)
US:
Ambassador Alvin P. ADAMS, Jr.; Embassy at Harry Truman Boulevard,
Port-au-Prince (mailing address is P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince),
telephone [509] 22-0354 or 22-0368, 22-0200, 22-0612
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white
rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by
flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE
(Union Makes Strength)

:Haiti Economy

Overview:
About 75% of the population live in abject poverty. Agriculture is mainly
small-scale subsistence farming and employs nearly three-fourths of the work
force. The majority of the population does not have ready access to safe
drinking water, adequate medical care, or sufficient food. Few social
assistance programs exist, and the lack of employment opportunities remains
one of the most critical problems facing the economy, along with soil
erosion and political instability. Trade sanctions applied by the
Organization of American States in response to the September 1991 coup
against President Aristide have further damaged the economy.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $2.7 billion, per capita $440; real growth rate -
3.0% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
20% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
25-50% (1990 est.)
Budget:
revenues $300 million; expenditures $416 million, including capital
expenditures of $145 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$169 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
light manufactures 65%, coffee 19%, other agriculture 8%, other 8%
partners:
US 84%, Italy 4%, France 3%, other industrial countries 6%, less developed
countries 3% (1987)
Imports:
$348 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
machines and manufactures 34%, food and beverages 22%, petroleum products
14%, chemicals 10%, fats and oils 9%
partners:
US 64%, Netherlands Antilles 5%, Japan 5%, France 4%, Canada 3%, Germany 3%
(1987)
External debt:
$838 million (December 1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0.3% (FY88); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
217,000 kW capacity; 468 million kWh produced, 74 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
sugar refining, textiles, flour milling, cement manufacturing, tourism,
light assembly industries based on imported parts
Agriculture:
accounts for 28% of GDP and employs 74% of work force; mostly small-scale
subsistence farms; commercial crops - coffee, mangoes, sugarcane and wood;
staple crops - rice, corn, sorghum; shortage of wheat flour
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $700 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $770 million
Currency:
gourde (plural - gourdes); 1 gourde (G) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
gourdes (G) per US$1 - 5.0 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

:Haiti Communications

Railroads:
40 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge, single-track, privately owned industrial
line
Highways:
4,000 km total; 950 km paved, 900 km otherwise improved, 2,150 km unimproved
Inland waterways:
negligible; less than 100 km navigable
Ports:
Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haitien
Civil air:
12 major transport aircraft
Airports:
13 total, 10 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
domestic facilities barely adequate, international facilities slightly
better; 36,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 33 AM, no FM, 4 TV, 2
shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Haiti Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (including Police), Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,313,044; 706,221 fit for military service; 59,060 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $34 million, 1.5% of GDP (1988 est.)

:Heard Island and McDonald Islands Geography

Total area:
412 km2
Land area:
412 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
101.9 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
antarctic
Terrain:
Heard Island - bleak and mountainous, with an extinct volcano; McDonald
Islands - small and rocky
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
primarily used as research stations
Note:
located 4,100 km southwest of Australia in the southern Indian Ocean

:Heard Island and McDonald Islands People

Population:
uninhabited

:Heard Island and McDonald Islands Government

Long-form name:
Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Type:
territory of Australia administered by the Antarctic Division of the
Department of Science in Canberra (Australia)
Capital:
none; administered from Canberra, Australia

:Heard Island and McDonald Islands Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

:Heard Island and McDonald Islands Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only

:Heard Island and McDonald Islands Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia

:Holy See (Vatican City) Geography

Total area:
0.438 km2
Land area:
0.438 km2
Comparative area:
about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
3.2 km; Italy 3.2 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with hot, dry summers
(May to September)
Terrain:
low hill
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
urban
Note:
landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's smallest state; outside the
Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo (the pope's summer
residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights

:Holy See (Vatican City) People

Population:
802 (July 1992), growth rate 1.2% (1992)
Nationality:
no noun or adjectival forms
Ethnic divisions:
primarily Italians but also Swiss and other nationalities
Religions:
Roman Catholic
Languages:
Italian, Latin, and various other languages
Literacy:
100% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
high dignitaries, priests, nuns, guards, and 3,000 lay workers who live
outside the Vatican
Organized labor:
Association of Vatican Lay Workers, 1,800 members (1987)

:Holy See (Vatican City) Government

Long-form name:
State of the Vatican City; note - the Vatican City is the physical seat of
the Holy See, which is the central government of the Roman Catholic Church
Type:
monarchical-sacerdotal state
Capital:
Vatican City
Independence:
11 February 1929 (from Italy)
Constitution:
Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March 1968)
National holiday:
Installation Day of the Pope (John Paul II), 22 October (1978); note - Pope
John Paul II was elected on 16 October 1978
Executive branch:
pope
Legislative branch:
unicameral Pontifical Commission
Judicial branch:
none; normally handled by Italy
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Pope JOHN PAUL II (Karol WOJTYA; since 16 October 1978)
Head of Government:
Secretary of State Archbishop Angelo SODANO
Political parties and leaders:
none
Suffrage:
limited to cardinals less than 80 years old
Elections:
Pope:
last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of the current
pope); results - Karol WOJTYA was elected for life by the College of
Cardinals
Other political or pressure groups:
none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)
Member of:
CSCE, IAEA, ICFTU, IMF (observer), INTELSAT, IOM (observer), ITU, OAS
(observer), UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, UPU, WIPO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation:
Apostolic Pro-Nuncio Archbishop Agostino CACCIAVILLAN; 3339 Massachusetts
Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 333-7121
US:
Ambassador Thomas P. MELADY; Embassy at Villino Pacelli, Via Aurelia 294,
00165 Rome (mailing address is APO AE 09624); telephone [396] 639-0558
Flag:
two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with the crossed keys of
Saint Peter and the papal tiara centered in the white band

:Holy See (Vatican City) Economy

Overview:
This unique, noncommercial economy is supported financially by contributions
(known as Peter's Pence) from Roman Catholics throughout the world, the sale
of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and
the sale of publications. The incomes and living standards of lay workers
are comparable to, or somewhat better than, those of counterparts who work
in the city of Rome.
Budget:
revenues $92 million; expenditures $178 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992)
Electricity:
5,000 kW standby capacity (1990); power supplied by Italy
Industries:
printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and staff uniforms;
worldwide banking and financial activities
Currency:
Vatican lira (plural - lire); 1 Vatican lira (VLit) = 100 centesimi
Exchange rates:
Vatican lire (VLit) per US$1 - 1,248.4 (March 1992), 1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1
(1990), 1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987); note - the Vatican
lira is at par with the Italian lira which circulates freely
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Holy See (Vatican City) Communications

Railroads:
850 m, 750 mm gauge (links with Italian network near the Rome station of
Saint Peter's)
Highways:
none; all city streets
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 3 AM, 4 FM, no TV; 2,000-line automatic telephone
exchange; no communications satellite systems

:Holy See (Vatican City) Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal Guards are posted at
entrances to the Vatican City

:Honduras Geography

Total area:
112,090 km2
Land area:
111,890 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
1,520 km; Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342 km, Nicaragua 922 km
Coastline:
820 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
dispute with El Salvador over several sections of the land boundary; dispute
over Golfo de Fonseca maritime boundary because of disputed sovereignty of
islands; unresolved maritime boundary with Nicaragua
Climate:
subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains
Terrain:
mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains
Natural resources:
timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish
Land use:
arable land 14%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 30%; forest and
woodland 34%; other 20%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
subject to frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; damaging hurricanes
and floods along Caribbean coast; deforestation; soil erosion

:Honduras People

Population:
5,092,776 (July 1992), growth rate 2.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
37 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
54 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
65 years male, 68 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Honduran(s); adjective - Honduran
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo (mixed Indian and European) 90%, Indian 7%, black 2%, white 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic about 97%; small Protestant minority
Languages:
Spanish, Indian dialects
Literacy:
73% (male 76%, female 71%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
1,300,000; agriculture 62%, services 20%, manufacturing 9%, construction 3%,
other 6% (1985)
Organized labor:
40% of urban labor force, 20% of rural work force (1985)

:Honduras Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Honduras
Type:
republic
Capital:
Tegucigalpa
Administrative divisions:
18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida,
Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan,
Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque,
Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro
Independence:
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982
Legal system:
rooted in Roman and Spanish civil law; some influence of English common law;
accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS Romero (since 26 January 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Party (PLH) - faction leaders, Carlos FLORES Facusse (leader of
Florista Liberal Movement), Carlos MONTOYA (Azconista subfaction), Ramon
VILLEDA Bermudez and Jorge Arturo REINA (M-Lider faction); National Party
(PNH), Jose Celin DISCUA, party president; PNH faction leaders - Oswaldo
RAMOS Soto and Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS Romero (Monarca faction); National
Innovation and Unity Party - Social Democrats (PINU-SD), Enrique AGUILAR
Cerrato Paz; Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Jorge ILLESCAS; Democratic
Action (AD), Walter LOPEZ Reyes
Suffrage:
universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
National Congress:
last held on 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1993); results - PNH
51%, PLH 43%, PDCH 1.9%, PINU-SD 1.5%, other 2.6%; seats - (128 total) PNH
71, PLH 55, PINU-SD 2
President:
last held on 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1993); results -
Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS (PNH) 51%, Carlos FLORES Facusse (PLH) 43.3%, other
5.7%
Other political or pressure groups:
National Association of Honduran Campesinos (ANACH), Honduran Council of
Private Enterprise (COHEP), Confederation of Honduran Workers (CTH),
National Union of Campesinos (UNC), General Workers Confederation (CGT),
United Federation of Honduran Workers (FUTH), Committee for the Defense of
Human Rights in Honduras (CODEH), Coordinating Committee of Popular
Organizations (CCOP)

:Honduras Government

Member of:
BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Jorge Ramon HERNANDEZ Alcerro; Chancery at 3007 Tilden Street NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 966-7702; there are Honduran
Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
and San Francisco, and Consulates in Baton Rouge, Boston, Detroit, Houston,
and Jacksonville
US:
Ambassador S. Crescencio ARCOS; Embassy at Avenida La Paz, Tegucigalpa
(mailing address is APO AA 34022); telephone [504] 32-3120
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with five blue
five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band; the
stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of Central
America - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua;
similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled
by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the
white band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle
encircled by the word REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on
the bottom, centered in the white band

:Honduras Economy

Overview:
Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Agriculture, the most important sector of the economy, accounts for more
than 25% of GDP, employs 62% of the labor force, and produces two-thirds of
exports. Productivity remains low. Industry, still in its early stages,
employs nearly 9% of the labor force, accounts for 15% of GDP, and generates
20% of exports. The service sectors, including public administration,
account for 50% of GDP and employ nearly 20% of the labor force. Basic
problems facing the economy include rapid population growth, high
unemployment, sharply increased inflation, a lack of basic services, a large
and inefficient public sector, and the dependence of the export sector
mostly on coffee and bananas, which are subject to sharp price fluctuations.
Despite government efforts at reform and large-scale foreign assistance, the
economy still is unable to take advantage of its sizable natural resources.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $5.2 billion, per capita $1,050; real growth rate
- 0.3% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
26% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15% unemployed, 30-40% underemployed (1989)
Budget:
revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion, including capital
expenditures of $511 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
bananas, coffee, shrimp, lobster, minerals, lumber
partners:
US 52%, Germany 11%, Japan, Italy, Belgium
Imports:
$1.3 billion (c.i.f. 1991)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, chemical products, manufactured goods,
fuel and oil, foodstuffs
partners:
US 39%, Japan 9%, CACM, Venezuela, Mexico
External debt:
$2.8 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.9% (1989); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
575,000 kW capacity; 1,850 million kWh produced, 374 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
agricultural processing (sugar and coffee), textiles, clothing, wood
products
Agriculture:
most important sector, accounting for more than 25% of GDP, over 60% of the
labor force, and two-thirds of exports; principal products include bananas,
coffee, timber, beef, citrus fruit, shrimp; importer of wheat
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally
for local consumption; transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.1 billion
Currency:
lempira (plural - lempiras); 1 lempira (L) = 100 centavos

:Honduras Economy

Exchange rates:
lempiras (L) per US$1 - 5.4 (fixed rate); 5.70 parallel black-market rate
(November 1990)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Honduras Communications

Railroads:
785 km total; 508 km 1.067-meter gauge, 277 km 0.914-meter gauge
Highways:
8,950 km total; 1,700 km paved, 5,000 km otherwise improved, 2,250 km
unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
465 km navigable by small craft
Ports:
Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo
Merchant marine:
201 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 629,134 GRT/939,289 DWT; includes 2
passenger-cargo, 127 cargo, 17 refrigerated - cargo, - 7 - container, - 2 -
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 19 petroleum tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 3
specialized tanker, 1 vehicle carrier, 18 bulk, 2 passenger, 1 short-sea
passenger; note - a flag of convenience registry; Republics of the former
USSR own 10 ships under the Honduran flag
Civil air:
6 major transport aircraft
Airports:
171 total, 133 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
improved, but still inadequate; connection into Central American Microwave
System; 35,100 telephones; broadcast stations - 176 AM, no FM, 28 TV, 7
shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

:Honduras Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, Public Security Forces (FUSEP)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,148,376; 684,375 fit for military service; 57,028 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $43.4 million, about 1% of GDP (1992 est.)

:Hong Kong Geography

Total area:
1,040 km2
Land area:
990 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than six times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
30 km; China 30 km
Coastline:
733 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
3 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring
through summer, warm and sunny in fall
Terrain:
hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north
Natural resources:
outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar
Land use:
arable land 7%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and
woodland 12%; other 79%; includes irrigated 3%
Environment:
more than 200 islands; occasional typhoons

:Hong Kong People

Population:
5,889,095 (July 1992), growth rate 0.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
13 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
- 2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
76 years male, 83 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
adjective - Hong Kong
Ethnic divisions:
Chinese 98%, other 2%
Religions:
eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%
Languages:
Chinese (Cantonese), English
Literacy:
77% (male 90%, female 64%) age 15 and over having ever attended school
(1971)
Labor force:
2,800,000 (1990); manufacturing 28.5%, wholesale and retail trade,
restaurants, and hotels 27.9%, services 17.7%, financing, insurance, and
real estate 9.2%, transport and communications 4.5%, construction 2.5%,
other 9.7% (1989)
Organized labor:
16% of labor force (1990)

:Hong Kong Government

Long-form name:
none; abbreviated HK
Type:
dependent territory of the UK; scheduled to revert to China in 1997
Capital:
Victoria
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK); the UK signed an agreement with China
on 19 December 1984 to return Hong Kong to China on 1 July 1997; in the
joint declaration, China promises to respect Hong Kong's existing social and
economic systems and lifestyle for 50 years after transition
Constitution:
unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice; new Basic Law
approved in March 1990 in preparation for 1997
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 29 August (1945)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, chief secretary of the Executive Council
Legislative branch:
Legislative Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Governor-designate Chris PATTEN (since July 1992); Chief Secretary Sir David
Robert FORD (since February 1987)
Suffrage:
direct election - universal at age 21 as a permanent resident living in the
territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years; indirect election - limited
to about 100,000 professionals of electoral college and functional
constituencies
Elections:
Legislative Council:
indirect elections last held 12 September 1991 and direct elections were
held 15 September 1991 (next to be held for the first time in September
1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total; 21
indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 18 directly elected, 18
appointed by governor, 3 ex officio members); indirect elections - number of
seats by functional constituency NA; direct elections - UDHK 12, Meeting
Point 3, ADPL 1, other 2
Communists:
5,000 (est.) cadres affiliated with Communist Party of China
Other political or pressure groups:
Federation of Trade Unions (pro-China), Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union
Council (pro-Taiwan), Confederation of Trade Unions (prodemocracy), Hong
Kong General Chamber of Commerce, Chinese General Chamber of Commerce
(pro-China), Federation of Hong Kong Industries, Chinese Manufacturers'
Association of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union, Hong Kong
Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China
Member of:
APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP (associate), GATT, ICFTU, IMO (associate), IOC, ISO
(correspondent), WCL, WMO

:Hong Kong Government

Diplomatic representation:
as a dependent territory of the UK, the interests of Hong Kong in the US are
represented by the UK
US:
Consul General Richard L. WILLIAMS; Consulate General at 26 Garden Road,
Hong Kong (mailing address is Box 30, Hong Kong, or FPO AP 96522-0002);
telephone [852] 239-011
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with the Hong
Kong coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag;
the coat of arms contains a shield (bearing two junks below a crown) held by
a lion (representing the UK) and a dragon (representing China) with another
lion above the shield and a banner bearing the words HONG KONG below the
shield

:Hong Kong Economy

Overview:
Hong Kong has a bustling free market economy with few tariffs or nontariff
barriers. Natural resources are limited, and food and raw materials must be
imported. Manufacturing accounts for about 18% of GDP, employs 28% of the
labor force, and exports about 90% of its output. Real GDP growth averaged a
remarkable 8% in 1987-88, then slowed to 2.5-3.0% in 1989-90. Unemployment,
which has been declining since the mid-1980s, is now about 2%. A shortage of
labor continues to put upward pressure on prices and the cost of living.
Short-term prospects remain solid so long as major trading partners continue
to be reasonably prosperous. The crackdown in China in 1989-91 casts a
shadow over the longer term economic outlook.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $80.9 billion, per capita $13,800; real growth
rate 3.8% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12.0% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2.0% (1991 est.)
Budget:
$8.8 billion (FY90)
Exports:
$82.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990), including reexports of $53.1 billion
commodities:
clothing, textiles, yarn and fabric, footwear, electrical appliances,
watches and clocks, toys
partners:
China 25%, US 24%, Germany 7%, Japan 6%, UK 2%, (1990)
Imports:
$82.4 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials, semimanufactures, petroleum
partners:
China 37%, Japan 16%, Taiwan 9%, US 8% (1990)
External debt:
$9.5 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4% 1991 (est)
Electricity:
8,600,000 kW capacity; 25,637 million kWh produced, 4,378 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks
Agriculture:
minor role in the economy; rice, vegetables, dairy products; less than 20%
self-sufficient; shortages of rice, wheat, water
Illicit drugs:
a hub for Southeast Asian heroin trade; transshipment and major financial
and money-laundering center
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $152 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $923 million
Currency:
Hong Kong dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Hong Kong dollar (HK$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Hong Kong dollars (HK$) per US$ - 7.800 (1991), 7.790 (1990), 7.800 (1989),
7.810 (1988), 7.760 (1987); note - linked to the US dollar at the rate of
about 7.8 HK$ per 1 US$ since 1985
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Hong Kong Communications

Railroads:
35 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, government owned
Highways:
1,484 km total; 794 km paved, 306 km gravel, crushed stone, or earth
Ports:
Hong Kong
Merchant marine:
142 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 5,035,223 GRT/8,598,134 DWT;
includes 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 15 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo,
26 container, 13 petroleum tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 6 combination ore/oil,
5 liquefied gas, 68 bulk, 1 combination bulk; note - a flag of convenience
registry; ships registered in Hong Kong fly the UK flag, and an estimated
500 Hong Kong - owned ships are registered elsewhere
Civil air:
16 major transport aircraft
Airports:
2 total; 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services;
3,000,000 telephones; microwave transmission links and extensive optical
fiber transmission network; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 British
Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) repeater station and 1 British Forces
Broadcasting Service repeater station; 2,500,000 radio receivers; 1,312,000
TV sets (1,224,000 color TV sets); satellite earth stations - 1 Pacific
Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; coaxial cable to Guangzhou,
China; links to 5 international submarine cables providing access to ASEAN
member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

:Hong Kong Defense Forces

Branches:
Headquarters of British Forces, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force, Royal Hong Kong
Auxiliary Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,732,360; 1,334,923 fit for military service; 46,285 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $300 million, 0.5% of GDP (1989 est.); this
represents one-fourth of the total cost of defending itself, the remainder
being paid by the UK
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Howland Island Geography

Total area:
1.6 km2
Land area:
1.6 km2
Comparative area:
about 2.7 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
6.4 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Terrain:
low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing
reef; depressed central area
Natural resources:
guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 5%; other 95%
Environment:
almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines, and low-growing
shrubs; small area of trees in the center; lacks fresh water; primarily a
nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine
wildlife; feral cats
Note:
remote location 2,575 km southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific Ocean,
just north of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and Australia

:Howland Island People

Population:
uninhabited
Population:
note:
American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval attacks
during World War II; occupied by US military during World War II, but
abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit only and
generally restricted to scientists and educators

:Howland Island Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and Wildlife
Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National
Wildlife Refuge System
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

:Howland Island Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

:Howland Island Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the middle of the
west coast
Airports:
airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling stop on the
round-the-world flight of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan - they left Lae,
New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never seen again; the airstrip is
no longer serviceable
Note:
Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast that was
partially destroyed during World War II, but has since been rebuilt in
memory of famed aviatrix Amelia Earhart

:Howland Island Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast
Guard

:Hungary Geography

Total area:
93,030 km2
Land area:
92,340 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
2,113 km; Austria 366 km, Slovenia 82 km, Czechoslovakia 676 km, Romania 443
km, Croatia 292 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km, Ukraine 103 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Czechoslovakia
Climate:
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling plains
Natural resources:
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils
Land use:
arable land 54%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures 14%; forest and
woodland 18%; other 11%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
levees are common along many streams, but flooding occurs almost every year
Note:
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western
Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean
basin

:Hungary People

Population:
10,333,327 (July 1992), growth rate - 0.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
12 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
13 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
14 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
66 years male, 75 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Hungarian(s); adjective - Hungarian
Ethnic divisions:
Hungarian 96.6%, Gypsy 5.8%, German 1.6%, Slovak 1.1%, Southern Slav 0.3%,
Romanian 0.2%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20.0%, Lutheran 5.0%, atheist and other 7.5%
Languages:
Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%
Literacy:
99% (male 99%, female 98%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Labor force:
5.4 million; services, trade, government, and other 43.2%, industry 30.9%,
agriculture 18.8%, construction 7.1% (1991)
Organized labor:
45-55% of labor force; Central Council of Hungarian Trade Unions (SZOT)
includes 19 affiliated unions, all controlled by the government; independent
unions legal; may be as many as 12 small independent unions in operation

:Hungary Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Hungary
Type:
republic
Capital:
Budapest
Administrative divisions:
19 counties (megyek, singular - megye) and 1 capital city* (fovaros);
Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest*, Csongrad,
Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok,
Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas,
Veszprem, Zala
Independence:
1001, unification by King Stephen I
Constitution:
18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October
1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks
on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of
parliamentary oversight
Legal system:
in process of revision, moving toward rule of law based on Western model
National holiday:
October 23 (1956); commemorates the Hungarian uprising
Executive branch:
president, prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Orszaggyules)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, may be restructured as part of ongoing government overhaul
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Arpad GONCZ (since 3 August 1990; previously interim President
from 2 May 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Jozsef ANTALL (since 23 May 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Forum, Jozsef ANTALL, chairman; Dr. Lajos FUR, acting president;
Free Democrats, Peter TOLGYESSY, chairman; Independent Smallholders, Jozsef
TORGYAN, president; Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP), Gyula HORN, chairman;
Young Democrats, Gabor FODOR, head; Christian Democrats, Dr. Lazlo SURJAN,
president; note - the Hungarian Socialist (Communist) Workers' Party (MSZMP)
renounced Communism and became the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP) in
October 1989; there is still a small (fringe) MSZMP
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 3 August 1990 (next to be held August 1994); results - President
GONCZ elected by popular vote; note - President GONCZ was elected by the
National Assembly with a total of 294 votes out of 304 as interim President
from 2 May 1990 until elected President
National Assembly:
last held on 25 March 1990 (first round, with the second round held 8 April
1990); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (386 total) Democratic
Forum 162, Free Democrats 90, Independent Smallholders 45, Hungarian
Socialist Party (MSP) 33, Young Democrats 22, Christian Democrats 21,
independents or jointly sponsored candidates 13
Communists:
fewer than 100,000 (December 1989)

:Hungary Government

Member of:
BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, ECE, FAO, G-9, GATT, HG, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NSG,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Pal TAR; Chancery at 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC
20008; telephone (202) 362-6730; there is a Hungarian Consulate General in
New York
US:
Ambassador Charles THOMAS; Embassy at V. Szabadsag Ter 12, Budapest (mailing
address is APO AE 09213-5270); telephone [36] (1) 112-6450; FAX 132-8934
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

:Hungary Economy

Overview:
Hungary is in the midst of a difficult transition between a command and a
market economy. Agriculture is an important sector, providing sizable export
earnings and meeting domestic food needs. Industry accounts for about 40% of
GDP and 30% of employment. Hungary claims that less than 20% of foreign
trade is now with former CEMA countries, while about 70% is with OECD
members. Hungary's economic reform programs during the Communist era gave it
a head start in creating a market economy and attracting foreign investment.
In 1990, Hungary received half of all foreign investment in Eastern Europe
and in 1991 received the largest single share. The growing private sector
accounts for one-quarter to one-third of national output according to
unofficial estimates. Privatization of state enterprises is progressing,
although excessive redtape, bureaucratic oversight, and uncertainties about
pricing have slowed the process. Escalating unemployment and high rates of
inflation may impede efforts to speed up privatization and budget reform,
while Hungary's heavy foreign debt will make the government reluctant to
introduce full convertability of the forint before 1993.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $60.1 billion, per capita $5,700; real growth
rate - 7% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
34% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
8.0% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $12.7 billion; expenditures $13.6 billion (1992 planned)
Exports:
$10.2 billion (f.o.b. 1991)
commodities:
capital goods 25.9%, foods 23%, consumer goods 16.5%, fuels 2.4%, other
32.2%
partners:
USSR and Eastern Europe 31.9%, EC 32.2%, EFTA 12% (1990)
Imports:
$11.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
capital goods 31.6%, fuels 13.8%, manufactured consumer goods 14.6%,
agriculture 6%, other 34.0%
partners:
USSR and Eastern Europe 34%, EC 31%, EFTA 15.4%
External debt:
$22.7 billion (January 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate - 20% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
6,967,000 kW capacity; 28,376 million kWh produced, 2,750 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
mining, metallurgy, engineering industries, processed foods, textiles,
chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), trucks, buses
Agriculture:
including forestry, accounts for about 15% of GDP and 19% of employment;
highly diversified crop-livestock farming; principal crops - wheat, corn,
sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets; livestock - hogs, cattle, poultry, dairy
products; self-sufficient in food output
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southeast Asia heroin transiting the Balkan route

:Hungary Economy

Economic aid:
recipient - $9.1 billion in assistance from OECD countries (from 1st quarter
1990 to end of 2nd quarter 1991)
Currency:
forint (plural - forints); 1 forint (Ft) = 100 filler
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Hungary Communications

Railroads:
7,765 km total; 7,508 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 222 km narrow gauge
(mostly 0.760-meter), 35 km 1.520-meter broad gauge; 1,147 km double track,
2,161 km electrified; all government owned (1991)
Highways:
130,014 km total; 29,715 km national highway system - 26,834 km asphalt, 142
km concrete, 51 km stone and road brick, 2,276 km macadam, 412 km unpaved;
58,495 km country roads (66% unpaved), and 41,804 km (est.) other roads (70%
unpaved) (1988)
Inland waterways:
1,622 km (1988)
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,204 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas 3,895 km (1986)
Ports:
Budapest and Dunaujvaros are river ports on the Danube; maritime outlets are
Rostock (Germany), Gdansk (Poland), Gdynia (Poland), Szczecin (Poland),
Galati (Romania), and Braila (Romania)
Merchant marine:
14 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) and 1 bulk totaling 85,489 GRT/119,520
DWT
Civil air:
28 major transport aircraft
Airports:
90 total, 90 usable; 20 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over
3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
automatic telephone network based on radio relay system; 1.9 million phones;
telephone density is at 17 per 100 inhabitants; 49% of all phones are in
Budapest; 12-15 year wait for a phone; 16,000 telex lines (June 1990);
broadcast stations - 32 AM, 15 FM, 41 TV (8 Soviet TV repeaters); 4.2
million TVs (1990); 1 satellite ground station using INTELSAT and
Intersputnik

:Hungary Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guard, Territorial Defense
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 2,619,277; 2,092,867 fit for military service; 87,469 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - 60.8 billion forints, 1.7% of GNP (1992 est.);
note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
exchange rate would produce misleading results

:Iceland Geography

Total area:
103,000 km2
Land area:
100,250 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Kentucky
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
4,988 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Ireland, and the UK
(Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)
Climate:
temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp,
cool summers
Terrain:
mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks, icefields; coast deeply
indented by bays and fiords
Natural resources:
fish, hydroelectric and geothermal power, diatomite
Land use:
arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 23%; forest and
woodland 1%; other 76%
Environment:
subject to earthquakes and volcanic activity
Note:
strategic location between Greenland and Europe; westernmost European
country

:Iceland People

Population:
259,012 (July 1992), growth rate 0.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
18 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
4 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
76 years male, 81 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Icelander(s); adjective - Icelandic
Ethnic divisions:
homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norwegians and Celts
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran 96%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, none 1%
(1988)
Languages:
Icelandic
Literacy:
100% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1976 est.)
Labor force:
134,429; commerce, finance, and services 55.4%, other manufacturing 14.3%.,
agriculture 5.8%, fish processing 7.9%, fishing 5.0% (1986)
Organized labor:
60% of labor force

:Iceland Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Iceland
Type:
republic
Capital:
Reykjavik
Administrative divisions:
23 counties (syslar, singular - sysla) and 14 independent towns*
(kaupstadhir, singular - kaupstadhur); Akranes*, Akureyri*, Arnessysla,
Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Austur-Hunavatnssysla, Austur-Skaftafellssysla,
Borgarfjardharsysla, Dalasysla, Eyjafjardharsysla, Gullbringusysla,
Hafnarfjordhur*, Husavik*, Isafjordhur*, Keflavik*, Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*,
Myrasysla, Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasys-la,
Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla, Reykjavik*,
Saudharkrokur*, Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*, Skagafjardharsysla,
Snaefellsnes-og Hnappadalssysla, Strandasysla, Sudhur-Mulasysla,
Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Vesttmannaeyjar*, Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla,
Vestur-Hunavatnssysla, Vestur-Isafjardharsysla, Vestur-Skaftafellssysla
Independence:
17 June 1944 (from Denmark)
Constitution:
16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944
Legal system:
civil law system based on Danish law; does not accept compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Establishment of the Republic, 17 June (1944)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (Althing)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Haestirettur)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR (since 1 August 1980)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister David ODDSSON (since 30 April 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Independence Party (conservative), David ODDSSON; Progressive Party,
Steingrimur HERMANNSSON; Social Democratic Party, Jon Baldvin HANNIBALSSON;
People's Alliance (left socialist), Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON; Citizens Party
(conservative nationalist), Julius SOLNES; Women's List
Suffrage:
universal at age 20
Elections:
President:
last held on 29 June 1980 (next scheduled for June 1992); results - there
were no elections in 1984 and 1988 as President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR was
unopposed
Althing:
last held on 20 April 1991 (next to be held by April 1995); results -
Independence Party 38.6%, Progressive Party 18.9%, Social Democratic Party
15.5%, People's Alliance 14.4%, Womens List 8.13%, Liberals 1.2%, other
3.27% seats - (63 total) Independence 26, Progressive 13, Social Democratic
10, People's Alliance 9, Womens List 5

:Iceland Government

Member of:
BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NACC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, OECD, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Tomas A. TOMASSON; Chancery at 2022 Connecticut Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-6653 through 6655; there is an
Icelandic Consulate General in New York
US:
Ambassador Charles E. COBB, Jr.; Embassy at Laufasvegur 21, Box 40,
Reykjavik (mailing address is FPO AE 09728-0340); telephone [354] (1) 29100
Flag:
blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the
flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

:Iceland Economy

Overview:
Iceland's prosperous Scandinavian-type economy is basically capitalistic,
but with extensive welfare measures, low unemployment, and comparatively
even distribution of income. The economy is heavily dependent on the fishing
industry, which provides nearly 75% of export earnings. In the absence of
other natural resources, Iceland's economy is vulnerable to changing world
fish prices. The economic improvements resulting from climbing fish prices
in 1990 and a noninflationary labor agreement probably will be reversed by
tighter fish quotas and a delay in the construction of an aluminum smelting
plant. The conservative government's economic priorities include reducing
the budget and current account deficits, containing inflation, revising
agricultural and fishing policies, diversifying the economy, and tying the
krona to the EC's European currency unit in 1993. The fishing industries -
notably the shrimp industry - are experiencing a series of bankruptcies and
mergers. Inflation has continued to drop sharply from 20% in 1989 to about
7.5% in 1991 and possibly 3% in 1992, while unemployment is expected to
increase to 2.5%. GDP is expected to contract by nearly 4% in 1992.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $4.2 billion, per capita $16,200; real growth
rate 0.3% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.5% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
1.8% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
fish and fish products, animal products, aluminum, diatomite
partners:
EC 67.7% (UK 25.3%, FRG 12.7%), US 9.9%, Japan 6% (1990)
Imports:
$1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, textiles
partners:
EC 49.8% (FRG 12.4%, Denmark 8.6%, UK 8.1%), US 14.4%, Japan 5.6% (1990)
External debt:
$3 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.75% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
1,063,000 kW capacity; 5,165 million kWh produced, 20,780 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
fish processing, aluminum smelting, ferro-silicon production, hydropower
Agriculture:
accounts for about 25% of GDP (including fishing); fishing is most important
economic activity, contributing nearly 75% to export earnings; principal
crops - potatoes and turnips; livestock - cattle, sheep; self-sufficient in
crops; fish catch of about 1.4 million metric tons in 1989
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $19.1 million
Currency:
krona (plural - kronur); 1 Icelandic krona (IKr) = 100 aurar

:Iceland Economy

Exchange rates:
Icelandic kronur (IKr) per US$1 - 57.277 (January 1992), 58.996 (1991),
58.284 (1990), 57.042 (1989), 43.014 (1988), 38.677 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Iceland Communications

Highways:
12,343 km total; 166 km bitumen and concrete; 1,284 km bituminous treated
and gravel; 10,893 km earth
Ports:
Reykjavik, Akureyri, Hafnarfjordhur, Keflavik, Seydhisfjordhur,
Siglufjordhur, Vestmannaeyjar
Merchant marine:
12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 37,969 GRT/57,060 DWT; includes 5
cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum tanker, 1
chemical tanker
Civil air:
20 major transport aircraft
Airports:
94 total, 89 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
adequate domestic service; coaxial and fiber-optical cables and radio relay
for trunk network; 135,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 19 AM, 30 (43
repeaters) FM, 13 (132 repeaters) TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station carries majority of international traffic

:Iceland Defense Forces

Branches:
no armed forces; Police, Coast Guard; Iceland's defense is provided by the
US-manned Icelandic Defense Force (IDF) headquartered at Keflavik
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 69,072; 61,556 fit for military service; no conscription or
compulsory military service
Defense expenditures:
none

:India Geography

Total area:
3,287,590 km2
Land area:
2,973,190 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Land boundaries:
14,103 km; Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380,
Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
Coastline:
7,000 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Continental shelf:
edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
boundaries with Bangladesh, China, and Pakistan; water sharing problems with
downstream riparians, Bangladesh over the Ganges and Pakistan over the Indus
Climate:
varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Terrain:
upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the
Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Natural resources:
coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica,
bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, crude oil, limestone
Land use:
arable land 55%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 4%; forest and
woodland 23%; other 17%; includes irrigated 13%
Environment:
droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common; deforestation; soil
erosion; overgrazing; air and water pollution; desertification
Note:
dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes

:India People

Population:
886,362,180 (July 1992), growth rate 1.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
30 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
81 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:

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