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lack of natural resources, population growth of more than 2% a year,
large-scale unemployment, and a limited infrastructure; furthermore,
it is highly vulnerable to natural disasters. Despite these constraints,
real GDP growth averaged about 3.5% annually during 1985-89. A strong
agricultural performance in FY90 pushed the growth rate up to 5.5%.
Alleviation of poverty remains the cornerstone of the government's
development strategy.

_#_GDP: $20.4 billion, per capita $180; real growth rate 4.0%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (FY90 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 30% (FY90 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $2.2 billion; expenditures $3.9 billion, including
capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (FY90)

_#_Exports: $1.5 billion (FY90 est.);

commodities--jute, tea, leather, shrimp, textiles;

partners--US 25%, Western Europe 22%, Middle East 9%, Japan 8%,
Eastern Europe 7%

_#_Imports: $3.6 billion (FY90 est.);

commodities--food, petroleum and other energy, nonfood consumer
goods, semiprocessed goods, and capital equipment;

partners--Western Europe 18%, Japan 14%, Middle East 9%, US 8%

_#_External debt: $10.9 billion (FY90 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.1% (FY90 est.); accounts
for 15% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 1,990,000 kW capacity; 5,700 million kWh produced,
50 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: jute manufacturing, base metals, food processing,
cotton textiles, tobacco processing, chemicals

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 40% of GDP, 60% of
employment, and one third of exports; imports 10% of food grain
requirements; world's largest exporter of jute; commercial
products--jute, rice, wheat, tea, sugarcane, potatoes, beef, milk,
poultry; shortages include wheat, vegetable oils and cotton; fish catch
778,000 metric tons in 1986

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.4
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-88), $10.6 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $652 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $1.5 billion

_#_Currency: taka (plural--taka); 1 taka (Tk) = 100 paise

_#_Exchange rates: taka (Tk) per US$1--35.790 (January 1991), 34.567
(1990), 32.270 (1989), 31.733 (1988), 30.950 (1987), 30.407 (1986),
27.995 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 2,892 km total (1986); 1,914 km 1.000 meter gauge,
978 km 1.676 meter broad gauge

_#_Highways: 7,240 km total (1985); 3,840 km paved, 3,400 km unpaved

_#_Inland waterways: 5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes
2,575-3,058 km main cargo routes)

_#_Ports: Chittagong, Chalna

_#_Merchant marine: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
339,081 GRT/500,008 DWT; includes 38 cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 3 bulk

_#_Pipelines: 1,220 km natural gas

_#_Civil air: 15 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 16 total, 12 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 6 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: adequate international radio communications and
landline service; fair domestic wire and microwave service; fair
broadcast service; 241,250 telephones; stations--9 AM, 6 FM, 11 TV;
2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT satellite earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force; paramilitary forces--Bangladesh
Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Armed Police Reserve, Coastal Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 28,896,632; 17,154,593 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $319 million, 1.5% of GDP (FY91)
_%_
_@_Barbados
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 430 km2; land area: 430 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 97 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to October)

_#_Terrain: relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, fishing, natural gas

_#_Land use: arable land 77%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 9%; forest and woodland 0%; other 14%

_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes (especially June to October)

_#_Note: easternmost Caribbean island

_*_People
_#_Population: 254,626 (July 1991), growth rate 0.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Barbadian(s); adjective--Barbadian

_#_Ethnic divisions: African 80%, mixed 16%, European 4%

_#_Religion: Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist
7%, other 12%), Roman Catholic 4%; none 17%, unknown 3%, other 9%
(1980)

_#_Language: English

_#_Literacy: 99% (male 99%, female 99%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1970)

_#_Labor force: 112,300; services and government 37%; commerce 22%;
manufacturing and construction 22%; transportation, storage,
communications, and financial institutions 9%; agriculture 8%; utilities
2% (1985 est.)

_#_Organized labor: 32% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Bridgetown

_#_Administrative divisions: 11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew,
Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy,
Saint Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas; note--there may
be a new city of Bridgetown

_#_Independence: 30 November 1966 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 30 November 1966

_#_Legal system: English common law; no judicial review of
legislative acts

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper
house or Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Hugh SPRINGER (since 24 February
1984);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Lloyd Erskine SANDIFORD (since
2 June 1987)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Labor Party (DLP), Erskine SANDIFORD;
Barbados Labor Party (BLP), Henry FORDE;
National Democratic Party (NDP), Richie HAYNES

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

House of Assembly--last held 22 January 1991 (next to be held by
January 1996);
results--DLP 49.8%;
seats--(28 total) DLP 18, BLP 10

_#_Communists: negligible

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Industrial and General Workers
Union, Sir Frank WALCOTT; People's Progressive Movement, Eric SEALY;
Workers' Party of Barbados, Dr. George BELLE

_#_Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Sir William DOUGLAS; Chancery
at 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-9200
through 9202; there is a Barbadian Consulate General in New York and a
Consulate in Los Angeles;

US--Ambassador G. Philip HUGHES; Embassy at Canadian
Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street, Bridgetown (mailing
address is P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown or FPO Miami 34054); telephone (809)
436-4950 through 4957

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
blue with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the
trident head represents independence and a break with the past (the
colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: A per capita income of $6,500 gives Barbados one of
the highest standards of living of all the small island states of the
eastern Caribbean. Historically, the economy was based on the cultivation
of sugarcane and related activities. In recent years, however, the
economy has diversified into manufacturing and tourism. The tourist
industry is now a major employer of the labor force and a primary source
of foreign exchange. An unemployment rate of 18% remains one of the most
serious economic problems facing the country.

_#_GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $6,500; real growth rate
3.6% (1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.2% (1989)

_#_Unemployment: 18% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $501 million; expenditures $484 million,
including capital expenditures of $113 million (FY91)

_#_Exports: $165 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--sugar and molasses, chemicals, electrical components,
clothing, rum, machinery and transport equipment;

partners: CARICOM 30%, US 20%, UK 20%

_#_Imports: $701 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--foodstuffs, consumer durables, raw materials,
machinery, crude oil, construction materials, chemicals;

partners--US 35%, CARICOM 13%, UK 12%, Japan 6%, Canada 8%,
Venezuela 4%

_#_External debt: $550 million (June 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 1.5% (1989); accounts
for 14 % of GDP

_#_Electricity: 132,000 kW capacity; 494 million kWh produced, 1,880
kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly
for export

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP; major cash crop is sugarcane;
other crops--vegetables and cotton; not self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $169 million

_#_Currency: Barbadian dollars (plural--dollars); 1 Barbadian dollar
(Bds$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1--2.0113 (fixed
rate)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 1,570 km total; 1,475 km paved, 95 km gravel and earth

_#_Ports: Bridgetown

_#_Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,200
GRT/7,338 DWT

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m

_#_Telecommunications: islandwide automatic telephone system with
89,000 telephones; tropospheric scatter link to Trinidad and Saint Lucia;
stations--3 AM, 2 FM, 2 (1 is pay) TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Barbados Defense Force, Coast Guard, Royal
Barbados Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 69,038; 48,455 fit for military
service, no conscription

_#_Defense expenditures: $10 million, 0.7% of GDP (1989)
_%_
_@_Bassas da India
(French possession)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: undetermined

_#_Comparative area: undetermined

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 35.2 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claimed by Madagascar

_#_Climate: tropical

_#_Terrain: a volcanic rock 2.4 m high

_#_Natural resources: none

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other (rock) 100%

_#_Environment: surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones

_#_Note: navigational hazard since it is usually under water during
high tide; located in southern Mozambique Channel about halfway between
Africa and Madagascar

_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the
Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity

_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_Belgium
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 30,510 km2; land area: 30,230 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

_#_Land boundaries: 1,385 km total; France 620 km, Germany 167 km,
Luxembourg 148 km, Netherlands 450 km

_#_Coastline: 64 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: equidistant line with neighbors (extends
about 68 km from coast);

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid,
cloudy

_#_Terrain: flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills,
rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

_#_Natural resources: coal, natural gas

_#_Land use: arable land 24%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and
pastures 20%; forest and woodland 21%; other 34%, includes irrigated
NEGL%

_#_Environment: air and water pollution

_#_Note: majority of West European capitals within 1,000 km of
Brussels; crossroads of Western Europe; Brussels is the seat of the EC

_*_People
_#_Population: 9,921,910 (July 1991), growth rate 0.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Belgian(s); adjective--Belgian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Fleming 55%, Walloon 33%, mixed or other 12%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 75%, remainder Protestant or other

_#_Language: Flemish (Dutch) 56%, French 32%, German 1%; legally
bilingual 11%; divided along ethnic lines

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980 est.)

_#_Labor force: 4,200,000; services 69%, industry 28%, agriculture
3% (1988)

_#_Organized labor: 70% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Belgium

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Brussels

_#_Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (French--provinces,
singular--province; Flemish--provincien, singular--provincie);
Antwerpen, Brabant, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur,
Oost-Vlaanderen, West-Vlaanderen

_#_Independence: 4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)

_#_Constitution: 7 February 1831, last revised 8-9 August 1980; the
government is in the process of revising the Constitution, with the aim
of federalizing the Belgian state

_#_Legal system: civil law system influenced by English constitutional
theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: National Day, 21 July (ascension of King Leopold
to the throne in 1831)

_#_Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, five deputy prime
ministers, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper
chamber or Senate (Flemish--Senaat, French--Senat) and a lower chamber
or Chamber of Representatives (Flemish--Kamer van
Volksvertegenwoordigers, French--Chambre des Representants)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Flemish--Hof van
Cassatie, French--Cour de Cassation)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--King BAUDOUIN I (since 17 July 1951);
Heir Apparent Prince ALBERT of Liege (brother of the King; born 6
June 1934);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Wilfried MARTENS,
(since April 1979, with a 10-month interruption in 1981)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Flemish Social Christian (CVP), Herman van ROMPUY, president;
Walloon Social Christian (PSC), Gerard DEPREZ, president;
Flemish Socialist (SP), Frank VANDENBROUCKE, president;
Walloon Socialist (PS), Guy SPITAELS, president;
Flemish Liberal (PVV), Guy VERHOFSTADT, president;
Walloon Liberal (PRL), Antoine DUQUESNE, president;
Francophone Democratic Front (FDF), Georges CLERFAYT, president;
Volksunie (VU), Jaak GABRIELS, president;
Communist Party (PCB), Louis van GEYT, president;
Vlaams Blok (VB), Karel DILLEN;
other minor parties

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

_#_Elections:

Senate--last held 13 December 1987 (next to be held by
January 1992);
results--CVP 19.2%, PS 15.7%, SP 14.7%, PVV 11.3%, PRL 9.3%,
VU 8.1%, PSC 7.8%, ECOLO-AGALEV 7.7%, VB 2.0%, VDF 1.3%,
other 1.96%;
seats--(106 total) CVP 22, PS 20, SP 17, PRL 12, PVV 11, PSC 9, VU 8,
ECOLO-AGALEV 5, VB 1, FDF 1;

Chamber of Representatives--last held 13 December 1987
(next to be held by January 1992);
results--CVP 19.45%, PS 15.66%, SP 14.88%, PVV 11.55%, PRL 9.41%,
PSC 8.01%, VU 8.05%, ECOLO-AGALEV 7.05%, VB 1.90%, FDF 1.16%, other
2.88%;
seats--(212 total) CVP 43, PS 40, SP 32, PVV 25, PRL 23,
PSC 19, VU 16, ECOLO-AGALEV 9, FDF 3, VB 2

_#_Communists: under 5,000 members (December 1985 est.)

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Christian and Socialist Trade
Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other associations
representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal
and medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural
interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as the
Flemish Action Committee Against Nuclear Weapons and Pax Christi

_#_Member of: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE,
CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, G-10, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NEA, OAS
(observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP,
UNRWA, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Juan CASSIERS; Chancery at
3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 333-6900;
there are Belgian Consulates General in Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los
Angeles, and New York;

US--Ambassador Maynard W. GLITMAN; Embassy at 27 Boulevard du
Regent, B-1000 Brussels (mailing address is APO New York 09667-1000);
telephone [32] (2) 513-3830; there is a US Consulate General in Antwerp

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow,
and red; the design was based on the flag of France

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: This small private-enterprise economy has capitalized
on its central geographic location, highly developed transport
network, and diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is
concentrated mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north, although
the government is encouraging reinvestment in the southern region
of Walloon. With few natural resources Belgium must import essential raw
materials, making its economy closely dependent on the state of world
markets. Over 70% of trade is with other EC countries. During
the period 1988-90 Belgium's economic performance was marked by buoyant
output growth, moderate inflation, and a substantial external surplus.
Real GDP grew by an average of 3.9% in 1988-90. However, the economy
is likely to slow in 1991-92 to below 3% GDP growth.

_#_GDP: $144.8 billion, per capita $14,600; real growth rate 3.3%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1991 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 8.2% est. (1991 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $45.0 billion; expenditures $55.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (1989)

_#_Exports: $106 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.) Belgium-Luxembourg
Economic Union;

commodities--iron and steel, transportation equipment,
tractors, diamonds, petroleum products;

partners--EC 74%, US 5%, Communist countries 2% (1989)

_#_Imports: $108 billion (c.i.f., 1989) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic
Union;

commodities--fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs;

partners--EC 73%, US 4%, oil-exporting less developed countries 4%,
Communist countries 3% (1989)

_#_External debt: $28.8 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.3% (1991 est.); accounts
for almost 30% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 17,325,000 kW capacity; 62,780 million kWh produced,
6,350 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: engineering and metal products, processed food and
beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum, coal

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 2% of GDP; emphasis on livestock
production--beef, veal, pork, milk; major crops are sugar beets, fresh
vegetables, fruits, grain, and tobacco; net importer of farm products

_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $5.8
billion

_#_Currency: Belgian franc (plural--francs); 1 Belgian franc (BF) =
100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Belgian francs (BF) per US$1--31.102 (January
1991), 33.418 (1990), 39.404 (1989), 36.768 (1988), 37.334 (1987), 44.672
(1986), 59.378 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: Belgian National Railways (SNCB) operates 3,667 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, government owned; 2,563 km double track;
1,978 km electrified; 191 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned and
operated

_#_Highways: 103,396 km total; 1,317 km limited access, divided
autoroute; 11,717 km national highway; 1,362 km provincial road; about
38,000 km paved and 51,000 km unpaved rural roads

_#_Inland waterways: 2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)

_#_Ports: Antwerp, Brugge, Gent, Oostende, Zeebrugge

_#_Merchant marine: 69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,785,066
GRT/2,927,618 DWT; includes 12 cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off, 6 container, 7
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 3
combination ore/oil, 9 chemical tanker, 11 bulk, 6 combination bulk

_#_Pipelines: refined products 1,167 km; crude 161 km; natural gas
3,300 km

_#_Civil air: 47 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 42 total, 42 usable; 24 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 14 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international telephone
and telegraph facilities; 4,720,000 telephones; stations--8 AM, 19 FM (42
relays), 25 TV (10 relays); 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations
operating in INTELSAT 3 Atlantic Ocean and EUTELSAT systems

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,521,178; 2,115,935 fit for
military service; 64,634 reach military age (19) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $4.8 billion, 2.5% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Belize
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 22,960 km2; land area: 22,800 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Massachusetts

_#_Land boundaries: 516 km total; Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

_#_Coastline: 386 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Disputes: claimed by Guatemala, but boundary negotiations to
resolve dispute are nearing completion

_#_Climate: tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to
February)

_#_Terrain: flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

_#_Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 2%; forest and woodland 44%; other 52%, includes irrigated
NEGL%

_#_Environment: frequent devastating hurricanes (September to
December) and coastal flooding (especially in south); deforestation

_#_Note: national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize City to
Belmopan because of hurricanes; only country in Central America without a
coastline on the North Pacific Ocean

_*_People
_#_Population: 228,069 (July 1991), growth rate 3.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 38 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 35 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: male 67 years, female 72 years (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Belizean(s); adjective--Belizean

_#_Ethnic divisions: Creole 39.7%, Mestizo 33.1%, Maya 9.5%, Garifuna
7.6%, East Indian 2.1%, other 8.0%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%,
Methodist 6%, Mennonite 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal 2%,
Jehovah's Witnesses 1%, other 2%), none 2%, unknown 3%, other 3%
(1980)

_#_Language: English (official), Spanish, Maya, Garifuna (Carib)

_#_Literacy: 91% (male 91%, female 91%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1970)

_#_Labor force: 51,500; agriculture 30.0%, services 16.0%, government
15.4%, commerce 11.2%, manufacturing 10.3%; shortage of skilled
labor and all types of technical personnel (1985)

_#_Organized labor: 12% of labor force; 7 unions currently active

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Belmopan

_#_Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal,
Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

_#_Independence: 21 September 1981 (from UK; formerly British
Honduras)

_#_Constitution: 21 September 1981

_#_Legal system: English law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of an
upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Dame Elmira Minita GORDON (since 21
September 1981);

Head of Government--Prime Minister George Cadle PRICE (since 4
September 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
People's United Party (PUP), George PRICE, Florencio MARIN, Said MUSA;
United Democratic Party (UDP), Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean LINDO, Dean BARROW;
Belize Popular Party (BPP), Louis SYLVESTRE

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

National Assembly--last held 4 September 1989 (next to be
held September 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA; seats--(28 total)
PUP 15 seats, UDP 13 seats; note--in January 1990 one
member expelled from UDP joined PUP, making the seat count
16 PUP, UDP 12

_#_Communists: negligible

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Society for the Promotion
of Education and Research (SPEAR) headed by former PUP minister;
United Workers Front

_#_Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, (observer), ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador James V. HYDE; Chancery at
Suite 2J, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 363-4505;

US--Ambassador Eugene L. SCASSA; Embassy at Gabourel Lane and
Hutson Street, Belize City (mailing address is P. O. Box 286, Belize
City); telephone [501] 77161 through 77163

_#_Flag: blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom
edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat
of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany
tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the
Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based primarily on agriculture and
merchandising. Agriculture accounts for more than 30% of GDP and provides
75% of export earnings, while sugar, the chief crop, accounts for almost
40% of hard currency earnings. The US, Belize's main trading partner, is
assisting in efforts to reduce dependency on sugar with an agricultural
diversification program.

_#_GDP: $290 million, per capita $1,320; real growth rate 9% (1990
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 12% (1988)

_#_Budget: revenues $87.4 million; expenditures $130.5 million,
including capital expenditures of $53.5 million (FY90 est.)

_#_Exports: $108 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--sugar, clothing, seafood, molasses, citrus, wood and
wood products;

partners--US 47%, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Canada (1987)

_#_Imports: $204 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--machinery and transportation equipment, food,
manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals;

partners--US 55%, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Mexico (1987)

_#_External debt: $169 million (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 9.7% (1989); accounts for
16% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 34,700 kW capacity; 90 million kWh produced,
410 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: garment production, citrus concentrates, sugar
refining, rum, beverages, tourism

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP (including fish and forestry);
commercial crops include sugarcane, bananas, coca, citrus fruits;
expanding output of lumber and cultured shrimp; net importer of basic
foods

_#_Illicit drugs: an illicit producer of cannabis for the
international drug trade; eradication program cut marijuana
production from 200 metric tons in 1987 to 66 metric tons in 1989;
transshipment point for cocaine

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $104
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $199 million

_#_Currency: Belizean dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Belizean dollar
(Bz$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1--2.00 (fixed rate)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 2,710 km total; 500 km paved, 1,600 km gravel, 300 km
improved earth, and 310 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft;
seasonally navigable

_#_Ports: Belize City; additional ports for shallow draught craft
include Corozol, Punta Gorda, Big Creek

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 42 total, 32 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 8,650 telephones; above-average system based on
radio relay; stations--6 AM, 5 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: British Forces Belize, Belize Defense Force (including
Army, Navy, Air Force, and Volunteer Guard), Belize National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 53,184; 31,790 fit for military
service; 2,545 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $4.8 million, 1.8% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Benin
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 112,620 km2; land area: 110,620 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

_#_Land boundaries: 1,989 km total; Burkina 306 km, Niger 266 km,
Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644 km

_#_Coastline: 121 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

_#_Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low
mountains

_#_Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone,
marble, timber

_#_Land use: arable land 12%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures
4%; forest and woodland 35%; other 45%, includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in
winter; deforestation; desertification

_#_Note: recent droughts have severely affected marginal
agriculture in north; no natural harbors

_*_People
_#_Population: 4,831,823 (July 1991), growth rate 3.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 119 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 52 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Beninese (sing., pl.); adjective--Beninese

_#_Ethnic divisions: African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important
being Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba); Europeans 5,500

_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15%

_#_Language: French (official); Fon and Yoruba most common
vernaculars in south; at least six major tribal languages in north

_#_Literacy: 23% (male 32%, female 16%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 1,900,000 (1987); agriculture 60%, transport,
commerce, and public services 38%, industry less than 2%; 49% of
population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: about 75% of wage earners

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Benin

_#_Type: dropped Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms
adopted February 1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4
April 1991

_#_Capital: Porto-Novo (official), Cotonou (de facto)

_#_Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou,
Mono, Oueme, Zou

_#_Independence: 1 August 1960 (from France; formerly Dahomey)

_#_Constitution: 2 December 1990

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: National Day, 1 August (1990)

_#_Executive branch: president, cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Nicephore
SOGLO (since 4 April 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: the People's Revolutionary Party
of Benin (PRPB) headed by President Mathieu KEREKOU, chairman of
the Central Committee, was dissolved 30 April 1990;
Alliance of the Democratic Union for the Forces of Progress (UDFP),
Timothee ADANLIN;
Movement for Democracy and Social Progress (MDPS), Jean-Roger AHOYO; and
the Union for Liberty and Development (ULD), Marcellin DEGBE;

Alliance of the National Party for Democracy and Development (PNDD) and
the Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Pascal Chabi KAO;

Alliance of the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and the National Union
for Solidarity and Progress (UNSP), Bruno AMOUSSOU;

Our Common Cause (NCC), Albert TEVEODJRE;
National Rally for Democracy (RND), Joseph KEKE;

Alliance of the National Movement for Democracy and Development (MNDD);
Movement for Solidarity, Union, and Progress (MSUP);
and Union for Democracy and National Reconstruction (UDRN), Bertin BORNA;

Union for Democracy and National Solidarity (UDS), Mama Amadou N'DIAYE;
Assembly of Liberal Democrats for National Reconstruction (RDL),
Severin ADJOVI;

Alliance of the Alliance for Social Democracy (ASD) and Bloc for
Social Democracy (BSD), Robert DOSSOU;

Alliance of the Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP) and
Democratic Union for Social Renewal (UDRS), Bio Gado Seko N'GOYE;
National Union for Democracy and Progress (UNDP), Robert TAGNON;
numerous other small parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 10 and 24 March 1991 (next to be held
March 1996);
results--Nicephore SOGLO 68%, Mathieu KEREKOU 32%;

National Assembly--last held 10 and 24 March 1991 (next to be held
March 1996);
results--NA percent of the vote;
seats--(64 total) UDFP-MDPS-ULD 12, PNDD/PRD 9, PSD/UNSP 8, NCC 7,
RND 7, MNDD/MSUP/UDRN 6, UDS 5, RDL 4, ASD/BSD 3, ADP/UDRS 2, UNDP 1

_#_Communists: Communist Party of Dahomey (PCD) remains active

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ,
G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Candide AHOUANSOU; Charge
d'Affaires Corneille MEHISSOU; Chancery at 2737 Cathedral Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-6656;

US--Ambassador Harriet ISOM; Embassy at Rue Caporal Anani Bernard,
Cotonou (mailing address is B. P. 2012, Cotonou); telephone [229]
30-06-50

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a
vertical green band on the hoist side

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Benin is one of the least developed countries in the
world because of limited natural resources and a poorly developed
infrastructure. Agriculture accounts for almost 40% of GDP, employs
about 60% of the labor force, and generates a major share of foreign
exchange earnings. The industrial sector contributes only about 15% to
GDP and employs 2% of the work force. Persistently low prices in recent
years have limited hard currency earnings from Benin's major exports of
agricultural products and crude oil.

_#_GDP: $2.0 billion, per capita $400; real growth rate 2.6% (1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.0% (1990)

_#_Unemployment: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $194 million; expenditures $390 million, including
capital expenditures of $104 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $250 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--crude oil, cotton, palm products, cocoa;

partners--FRG 36%, France 16%, Spain 14%, Italy 8%, UK 4%

_#_Imports: $442 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products,
intermediate goods, capital goods, light consumer goods;

partners--France 34%, Netherlands 10%, Japan 7%, Italy 6%, US 4%

_#_External debt: $1.0 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 0.7% (1988); accounts for
30% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 28,000 kW capacity; 24 million kWh produced,
5 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: textiles,cigarettes, construction materials,
beverages, food production, petroleum

_#_Agriculture: small farms produce 90% of agricultural output;
production is dominated by food crops--corn, sorghum, cassava, beans,
and rice; cash crops include cotton, palm oil, and peanuts; poultry
and livestock output has not kept up with consumption

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $46
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $101 million

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989),
297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 578 km, all 1.000-meter gauge, single track

_#_Highways: 5,050 km total; 920 km paved, 2,600 laterite, 1,530 km
improved earth

_#_Inland waterways: navigable along small sections, important
only locally

_#_Ports: Cotonou

_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 6 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system of open wire, submarine cable, and
radio relay; 16,200 telephones; stations--2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT satellite earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: People's Armed Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force),
National Gendarmerie, People's Militia, Presidential Guard

_#_Manpower availability: eligible 15-49, 2,089,646; of the 991,278
males 15-49, 507,482 are fit for military service; of the 1,098,368
females 15-49, 554,454 are fit for military service; about 57,106 males
and 55,297 females reach military age (18) annually; both sexes are
liable for military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $38 million, 2.3% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Bermuda
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 50 km2; land area: 50 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 103 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in
winter

_#_Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

_#_Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 20%; other 80%

_#_Environment: ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes;
consists of about 360 small coral islands

_#_Note: 1,050 km east of North Carolina; some reclaimed land
leased by US Government

_*_People
_#_Population: 58,433 (July 1991), growth rate 1.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 7 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Bermudian(s); adjective--Bermudian

_#_Ethnic divisions: black 61%, white and other 39%

_#_Religion: Anglican 37%, Roman Catholic 14%, African Methodist
Episcopal (Zion) 10%, Methodist 6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, other
28%

_#_Language: English

_#_Literacy: 98% (male 98%, female 99%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970)

_#_Labor force: 32,000; clerical 25%, services 22%, laborers 21%,
professional and technical 13%, administrative and managerial 10%,
sales 7%, agriculture and fishing 2% (1984)

_#_Organized labor: 8,573 members (1985); largest union is Bermuda
Industrial Union

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK

_#_Capital: Hamilton

_#_Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*;
Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*,
Saint George's, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Constitution: 8 June 1968

_#_Legal system: English law

_#_National holiday: Bermuda Day, 22 May

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, deputy governor,
premier, deputy premier, Executive Council (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Sir Desmond LANGLEY (since NA October 1988);

Head of Government--Premier John William David SWAN (since NA
January 1982)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
United Bermuda Party (UBP), John W. D. SWAN;
Progressive Labor Party (PLP), Frederick WADE;
National Liberal Party (NLP), Gilbert DARRELL

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21

_#_Elections:

House of Assembly--last held 9 February 1989 (next to be
held by February 1994); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(40 total) UBP 23, PLP 15, NLP 1, other 1

_#_Communists: negligible

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Bermuda Industrial Union (BIU),
headed by Ottiwell SIMMONS

_#_Member of: CARICOM (observer), ICFTU, IOC

_#_Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK,
Bermuda's interests in the US are represented by the UK;

US--Consul General L. Ebersole GAINES; Consulate General at
Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton (mailing address is
P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX, or FPO New York 09560-5300); telephone
(809) 295-1342

_#_Flag: red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion
holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off
Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in
the world, having successfully exploited its location by providing luxury
tourist facilities and financial services. The tourist industry attracts
more than 90% of its business from North America. The industrial sector
is small, and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land.
About 80% of food needs are imported.

_#_GDP: $1.3 billion, per capita $22,400; real growth rate 2.0% (1989
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.8% (June 1989)

_#_Unemployment: 2.0% (1988)

_#_Budget: revenues $307 million; expenditures $275 million, including
capital expenditures of $31 million (FY90 est.)

_#_Exports: $30 million (f.o.b., FY88);

commodities--semitropical produce, light manufactures;

partners--US 25%, Italy 25%, UK 14%, Canada 5%, other 31%

_#_Imports: $420 million (c.i.f., FY88);

commodities--fuel, foodstuffs, machinery;

partners--US 58%, Netherlands Antilles 9%, UK 8%, Canada 6%, Japan
5%, other 14%

_#_External debt: NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 154,000 kW capacity; 504 million kWh produced,
8,640 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, finance, structural concrete products,
paints, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for less than 1% of GDP; most basic foods
must be imported; produces bananas, vegetables, citrus fruits, flowers,
dairy products

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $34
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $267 million

_#_Currency: Bermudian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Bermudian dollar
(Bd$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1--1.0000 (fixed
rate)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 210 km public roads, all paved (about 400 km of private
roads)

_#_Ports: Freeport, Hamilton, Saint George

_#_Merchant marine: 84 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,826,756
GRT/6,932,981 DWT; includes 3 short-sea passenger, 8 cargo, 7
refrigerated cargo, 4 container, 8 roll-on/roll-off, 26 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker, 11 liquefied gas, 17 bulk; note--a flag of
convenience registry

_#_Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m

_#_Telecommunications: modern with fully automatic telephone system;
52,670 telephones; stations--5 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; 3 submarine cables; 2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Reserve
Constabulary

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_Bhutan
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 47,000 km2; land area: 47,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than half the size of Indiana

_#_Land boundaries: 1,075 km total; China 470 km, India 605 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot
summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

_#_Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

_#_Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide,
tourism potential

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 5%; forest and woodland 70%; other 23%

_#_Environment: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas were the
source of the country name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon

_#_Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India;
controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

_*_People
_#_Population: 1,598,216 (July 1991), growth rate 2.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 135 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 48 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Bhutanese (sing., pl.); adjective--Bhutanese

_#_Ethnic divisions: Bhote 60%, ethnic Nepalese 25%, indigenous or
migrant tribes 15%

_#_Religion: Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced
Hinduism 25%

_#_Language: Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects--most widely spoken
dialect is Dzongkha (official); Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: NA; agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and
commerce 2%; massive lack of skilled labor

_#_Organized labor: not permitted

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Bhutan

_#_Type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

_#_Capital: Thimphu

_#_Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular
and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi,
Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang,
Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang

_#_Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

_#_Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights

_#_Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: National Day (Ugyen Wangchuck became first
hereditary king), 17 December (1907)

_#_Executive branch: monarch, chairman of the Royal Advisory Council,
Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), chairman of the Council of
Ministers, Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Tshogdu)

_#_Judicial branch: High Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK
(since 24 July 1972)

_#_Political parties: no legal parties

_#_Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections

_#_Elections: no national elections

_#_Communists: no overt Communist presence

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Buddhist clergy, Indian
merchant community; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant
antigovernment campaign

_#_Member of: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF,
IOC, ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO

_#_Diplomatic representation: no formal diplomatic relations, although
informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassies in
New Delhi (India); the Bhutanese mission to the UN in New York has
consular jurisdiction in the US

_#_Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the
upper triangle is orange and the lower triangle is red; centered along
the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the
hoist side

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy, one of the world's least developed,
is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood
for 90% of the population and account for about 50% of GDP. Rugged
mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other
infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely
aligned with that of India through strong trade and monetary links.
Low wages in industry lead most Bhutanese to stay in agriculture.
Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian
migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for
tourists are its most important natural resources.

_#_GDP: $273 million, per capita $199 (1988) real growth rate 4%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment: NA

_#_Budget: revenues $99 million; expenditures $128 million, including
capital expenditures of $65 million (FY89 est.)

_#_Exports: $70.9 million (f.o.b., FY89);

commodities--cardamon, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit;

partners--India 93%

_#_Imports: $138.3 million (c.i.f., FY89 est.);

commodities--fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts,
vehicles, fabrics;

partners--India 67%

_#_External debt: $70.1 million (FY89 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 12.4% (1988 est.); accounts
for 18% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 353,000 kW capacity; 2,000 million kWh produced,
1,280 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic
beverages, calcium carbide

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