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civil aviation;

members--(161) all UN members except Albania, Belize, Byelorussian
Soviet Socialist Republic, Dominica, Liechtenstein, Namibia, Saint Kitts
and Nevis, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Western Samoa; other
members are Cook Islands, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea,
Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Monaco, Nauru,
San Marino, Switzerland, Tonga
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_#_International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)

established--NA 1863;

aim--to provide humanitarian aid in wartime;

members--(25 individuals) all Swiss nationals
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_#_International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)

established--NA December 1949;

aim--to promote the trade union movement;

members--(142 national organizations in the following 95 areas)
Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina,
Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Cyprus, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,
Falkland Islands, Fiji, Finland, France, The Gambia, Germany, Greece,
Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Hong Kong, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kiribati, South Korea, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico,
Montserrat, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Norway,
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Puerto Rico, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,
Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK, US,
USSR, Vanuatu, Vatican City, Venezuela, Western Samoa
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_#_International Court of Justice (ICJ), also known as the
World Court;

established--26 June 1945, effective 24 October 1945;

aim--primary judicial organ of the UN;

members--(15 judges) elected by the General Assembly and Security
Council to represent all principal legal systems
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_#_International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL)

established--13 June 1956;

aim--to promote international cooperation between criminal police
authorities;

members--(151) Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Aruba, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh,
Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei,
Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,
Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo,
Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji,
Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica,
Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi,
Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco,
Morocco, Mozambique, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Ireland, Norway, Oman, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Qatar,
Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, USSR, Uruguay,
Venezuela, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe
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_#_International Development Association (IDA)

established--26 January 1960, effective 24 September 1960;

aim--UN specialized agency and IBRD affiliate that provides
economic loans for low income countries;

members--(136);

Part I--(22 more economically advanced countries) Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, South Africa,
Sweden, UAE, UK, US;

Part II--(114 less developed nations) Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina,
Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina,
Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cyprus,
Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Greece,
Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras,
Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Ivory Coast, Jordan,
Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman,
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone,
Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe
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_#_International Energy Agency (IEA)

established--15 November 1974;

aim--established by the OECD to promote cooperation on energy
matters, especially emergency oil sharing and relations between oil
consumers and oil producers;

members--(21) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ,
Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_International Finance Corporation (IFC)

established--25 May 1955, effective 20 July 1956;

aim--UN specialized agency and IBRD affiliate that helps private
enterprise sector in economic development;

members--(133) Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon,
Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Denmark,
Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,
Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati,
South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay,
Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia,
Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia,
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Syria,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa,
Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe
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_#_International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

established--NA November 1974;

aim--UN specialized agency that promotes agricultural development;

members--(144);

Category I--(21 industrialized aid contributors) Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, UK, US;

Category II--(12 petroleum-exporting aid contributors) Algeria, Gabon,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE,
Venezuela;

Category III--(111 aid recipients) Afghanistan, Angola,
Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin,
Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,
Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,
Ethiopia, Fiji, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Israel, Ivory Coast,
Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Oman,
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,
Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Uruguay, Vietnam,
Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_International Investment Bank (IIB)

established--7 July 1970;

aim--to promote economic development;

members--(9) Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Mongolia,
Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_International Labor Organization (ILO)

established--11 April 1919 (affiliated with the UN
14 December 1946);

aim--UN specialized agency concerned with world labor issues;

members--(148) all UN members except Albania, Bhutan, Brunei,
The Gambia, Liechtenstein, Maldives, Oman, Saint Kitts and Nevis,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, South Africa, Vanuatu, Vietnam,
Western Samoa; other members are San Marino, Switzerland
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_International Maritime Organization (IMO)--name changed from
Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) on
22 May 1982;

established--17 March 1958;

aim--UN specialized agency concerned with world maritime affairs;

members--(132) Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium,
Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burma, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba,
Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland,
France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica,
Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liberia,
Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Saint Lucia,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, UAE, UK, US, USSR, Uruguay,
Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire;

associate member--(1) Hong Kong
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_#_International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT)

established--3 September 1976, effective 26 July 1979;

aim--to provide worldwide communications for maritime and other
applications;

members--(55) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Belgium,
Brazil, Bulgaria, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Canada, Chile,
China, Colombia, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon,
Germany, Greece, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan,
South Korea, Kuwait, Liberia, Malaysia, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway,
Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Saudi
Arabia, Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia,
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, UAE, UK, US, USSR
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_International Monetary Fund (IMF)

established--22 July 1944, effective 27 December 1945;

aim--UN specialized agency concerned with world monetary stability
and economic development;

members--(154) all UN members except Albania, Brunei, Bulgaria,
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Cuba, Liechtenstein, Ukrainian
Soviet Socialist Republic, USSR; other members are Kiribati, South Korea,
Tonga
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_International Olympic Committee (IOC)

established--23 June 1894;

aim--to promote the Olympic ideals and administer the Olympic
games:

1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France (8-23 February);

1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain (25 July-9 August);

1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Norway (12-27 February);

1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, United States (20 July-4 August):

1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan (date NA);

members--(165) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, American Samoa,
Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Australia,
Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin
Islands, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Cameroon, Canada,
Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,
Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark,
Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guam, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana,
Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya,
North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,
Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco,
Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua,
Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar,
Romania, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino,
Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland,
Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, USSR, Uruguay,
Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands, Western Samoa, Yemen,
Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_International Organization for Migration (IOM)--established as
Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for the Movement of Migrants
from Europe; renamed Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration
(ICEM) on 15 November 1952; renamed Intergovernmental Committee for
Migration (ICM) on NA November 1980; current name adopted
14 November 1989;

established--5 December 1951;

aim--to facilitate orderly international emigration and
immigration;

members--(35) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia,
Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Denmark, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, El Salvador, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel,
Italy, Kenya, South Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway,
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Switzerland, Thailand, US,
Uruguay, Venezuela;

observers--(22) Belize, Brazil, Canada, Cape Verde, Egypt, Finland,
France, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Japan, Mexico, NZ, San Marino, Somalia,
Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, UK,
Vatican City, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

established--NA February 1947;

aim--to promote the development of international standards;

members--(72 national standards organizations) Albania, Algeria,
Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria,
Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark,
Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica,
Japan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia,
Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore,
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, UK, US, USSR,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Yugoslavia;

correspondent members--(14) Bahrain, Barbados, Brunei, Guinea,
Hong Kong, Iceland, Jordan, Kuwait, Malawi, Mauritius, Oman, Senegal,
UAE, Uruguay
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_#_International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

established--NA 1928;

aim--to promote worldwide humanitarian aid through the
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in wartime, and League
of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS) in peacetime;

members--(9) 2 representatives from ICRC, 2 from LORCS, and 5 from
national societies elected by the international conference of the
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
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_#_International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

established--9 December 1932, effective 1 January 1934, affiliated
with the UN 15 November 1947;

aim--UN specialized agency concerned with world telecommunications;

members--(164) all UN members except Dominica, Saint Kitts
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Seychelles; other members are Kiribati,
North Korea, South Korea, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, Switzerland,
Tonga, Vatican City
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_#_International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT)

established--20 August 1971, effective 12 February 1973;

aim--to develop and operate a global commercial telecommunications
satellite system;

members--(118) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Australia,
Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia,
Brazil, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Denmark, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland,
India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast,
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal,
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Qatar,
Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, Spain,
Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK,
US, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe
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_#_Islamic Development Bank (IDB)

established--15 December 1973;

aim--to promote Islamic economic aid and social development;

members--(43 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization)
Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei, Burkina,
Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The Gambia, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya,
Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Pakistan,
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Syria,
Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Latin American Economic System (LAES), also known as
Sistema Economico Latinoamericana (SELA);

established--17 October 1975;

aim--to promote economic and social development through regional
cooperation;

members--(26) Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,
Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua,
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Latin American Integration Association (LAIA), also known as
Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI);

established--12 August 1980, effective 18 March 1981;

aim--to promote freer regional trade;

members--(11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador,
Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela;

observers--(13) Andean Group, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic,
Guatemala, Honduras, Inter-American Development Bank, Organization of
American States, Panama, Portugal, Spain, UN Development Program,
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
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_#_League of Arab States (LAS)--see Arab League (AL)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS)

established--5 May 1919;

aim--to provide humanitarian aid in peacetime;

members--(147) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium,
Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma,
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African
Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba,
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, The Gambia, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy,
Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea,
Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein,
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda,
Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and
Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia,
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, USSR, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam,
Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe;

associate members--(2) Equatorial Guinea, Gabon
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_#_least developed countries (LLDCs)--that subgroup of the less
developed countries (LDCs) initially identified by the UN General
Assembly in 1971 as having no significant economic growth, per capita
GNPs/GDPs normally less than $500, and low literacy rates; also known
as the undeveloped countries;

the 41 LLDCs are--Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana,
Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad,
Comoros, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kiribati, Laos, Lesotho, Malawi, Maldives, Mali,
Mauritania, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe,
Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu,
Western Samoa, Yemen
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_less developed countries (LDCs)--the bottom group in the
comprehensive but mutually exclusive hierarchy of developed countries
(DCs), USSR/Eastern Europe (USSR/EE), and less developed countries
(LDCs); mainly countries with low levels of output, living standards,
and technology; per capita GNPs/GDPs are generally below $5,000 and
often less than $1,000; includes the advanced developing countries,
developing countries, Four Dragons (Four Tigers), least developed
countries (LLDCs), low-income countries, middle-income countries,
newly industrializing economies (NIEs), the South, Third World,
underdeveloped countries, undeveloped countries;

the 173 LDCs are--Afghanistan, Algeria, American Samoa, Angola,
Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil,
British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,
Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad,
Chile, China, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Colombia, Comoros, Congo,
Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands, Fiji, French Guiana,
French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Gaza Strip, Ghana, Gibraltar,
Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, Guernsey, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jersey, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati,
North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Isle of Man,
Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Mexico,
Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Montserrat, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana
Islands, Oman, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Islands,
Puerto Rico, Qatar, Reunion, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis,
Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
Swaziland, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, UAE,
Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands,
Wallis and Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara, Western Samoa, Yemen,
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_low-income countries--another term for the less developed
countries with below-average per capita GNPs/GDPs; see less developed
countries (LDCs)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_middle-income countries--another term for the less developed
countries with above-average per capita GNPs/GDPs; see less developed
countries (LDCs)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_newly industrializing countries (NICs)--former term for the newly
industrializing economies; see newly industrializing economies (NIEs)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_newly industrializing economies (NIEs)--that subgroup of the less
developed countries (LDCs) that has experienced particularly rapid
industrialization of their economies; formerly known as the newly
industrializing countries (NICs); also known as advanced developing
countries; usually includes the Four Dragons (Hong Kong, South Korea,
Singapore, Taiwan) plus Brazil and Mexico
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Nonaligned Movement (NAM)

established--1-6 September 1961;

aim--political and military cooperation apart from the traditional
East or West blocs;

members--(102 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization)
Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina,
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad,
Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt,
Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast,
Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Qatar, Rwanda,
Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland,
Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, UAE,
Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe,
Palestine Liberation Organization;

observers--(9) Antigua and Barbuda, Brazil, Costa Rica, Dominica,
El Salvador, Mexico, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Uruguay;

guests--(11) Australia, Austria, Dominican Republic, Finland,
Greece, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Nordic Council (NC)

established--16 March 1952, effective 12 February 1953;

aim--to promote regional economic, cultural, and environmental
cooperation;

members--(5) Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden;
note--Denmark includes Faroe Islands and Greenland
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Nordic Investment Bank (NIB)

established--4 December 1975, effective 1 June 1976;

aim--to promote economic cooperation and development;

members--(5) Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_North--a popular term for the rich industrialized countries
generally located in the northern portion of the Northern Hemisphere; the
counterpart of the South; see developed countries (DCs)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

established--17 September 1949;

aim--mutual defense and cooperation in other areas;

members--(16) Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece,
Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey,
UK, US
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)

established--NA 1958;

aim--associated with OECD, seeks to promote the peaceful uses of
nuclear energy;

members--(23) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
Turkey, UK, US
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la
America Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL)--see Agency for the Prohibition
of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

established--14 December 1960, effective 30 September 1961;

aim--to promote economic cooperation and development;

members--(24) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US;

special member--(1) Yugoslavia
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Organization of African Unity (OAU)

established--25 May 1963;

aim--to promote unity and cooperation among African states;

members--(51) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi,
Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo,
Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia,
Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Sao Tome and
Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland,
Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Organization of American States (OAS)

established--30 April 1948, effective 13 December 1951;

aim--to promote peace and security as well as economic and social
development;

members--(35) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas,
Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Cuba (excluded from formal participation since 1962), Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname,
Trinidad and Tobago, US, Uruguay, Venezuela;

observers--(22) Algeria, Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, EC, Egypt,
Equatorial Guinea, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Israel,
Italy, Japan, Morocco, Netherlands, Pakistan, Portugal, Saudi Arabia,
Spain, Switzerland, Vatican City
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC)

established--9 January 1968;

aim--to promote cooperation in the petroleum industry;

members--(10) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar,
Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)

established--18 June 1981, effective 4 July 1981;

aim--to promote political, economic, and defense cooperation;

members--(7) Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines;

associate member--(1) British Virgin Islands
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

established--14 September 1960;

aim--to coordinate petroleum policies;

members--(13) Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)

established--22-25 September 1969;

aim--to promote Islamic solidarity and cooperation in economic,
social, cultural, and political affairs;

members--(44 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization)
Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei, Burkina,
Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The Gambia, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya,
Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Oman,
Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan,
Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation
Organization; note--Afghanistan was suspended in January 1980, but in
March 1989 the self-proclaimed Afghan Interim Government based in
Pakistan was given membership;

observer--(1) Turkish-Cypriot administered area of Cyprus
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Paris Club--see Group of 10
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

established--NA 1899;

aim--to facilitate the settlement of international disputes;

members--(75) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia,
Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia,
Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Laos, Lebanon,
Luxembourg, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,
Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Senegal, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden,
Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist
Republic, UK, US, USSR, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zimbabwe
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Population Commission

established--3 October 1946;

aim--ECOSOC organization dealing with population matters;

members--(27) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Rio Group (RG)

established--NA 1988;

aim--a consultation mechanism on regional Latin American issues;

members--(11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador,
Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela; note--Panama was expelled
in 1988
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Second World--another term for the traditionally Marxist-Leninist
states with authoritarian governments and command economies based on the
Soviet model; see centrally planned economies
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_socialist countries--in general, countries in which the government
owns and plans the use of the major factors of production; note--the
term is sometimes used incorrectly as a synonym for Communist countries
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_South--a popular term for the poorer, less industrialized countries
generally located south of the developed countries; the counterpart of
the North; see less developed countries (LDCs)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

established--8 December 1985;

aim--to promote economic, social, and cultural cooperation;

members--(7) Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan,
Sri Lanka
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_South Pacific Commission (SPC)

established--6 February 1947, effective 29 July 1948;

aim--to promote regional cooperation in economic and social
matters;

members--(27) American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji,
France, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands,
Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, NZ, Niue,
Northern Mariana Islands, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau),
Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn Islands, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga,
Tuvalu, UK, US, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna, Western Samoa
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_South Pacific Forum (SPF)

established--5 August 1971;

aim--to promote regional cooperation in political matters;

members--(15) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati,
Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue,
Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Western Samoa;

observer--(1) Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Southern African Customs Union (SACU)

established--11 December 1969;

aim--to promote free trade and cooperation in customs matters;

members--(9) Bophuthatswana, Botswana, Ciskei, Lesotho, Namibia,
South Africa, Swaziland, Transkei, Venda
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC)

established--1 April 1980;

aim--to promote regional economic development and reduce
dependence on South Africa;

members--(10) Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique,
Namibia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Statistical Commission

established--21 June 1946;

aim--ECOSOC organization dealing with development and
standardization of national statistics;

members--(24) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Third World--another term for the less developed countries;
see less developed countries (LDCs)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_underdeveloped countries--refers to those less developed countries
with the potential for above-average economic growth; see less developed
countries (LDCs)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_undeveloped countries--refers to those extremely poor less
developed countries (LDCs) with little prospect for economic growth;
see least developed countries (LLDCs)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale
(UDEAC)--see Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations (UN)

established--26 June 1945, effective 24 October 1945;

aim--to maintain international peace and security as well as
promote cooperation involving economic, social, cultural and humanitarian
problems;

members--(159) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh,
Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Byelorussian Soviet
Socialist Republic, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central
African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo,
Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,
Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,
Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North
Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi,
Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,
Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman,
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,
Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia,
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,
Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Uganda, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, UAE, UK, US, USSR, Uruguay,
Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe;
note--all UN members are represented in the General Assembly;

observers--(4) Monaco, San Marino, Switzerland, Vatican City
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM)

established--20 December 1988;

aim--established by the UN Security Council to verify the
withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola;

members--(10) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Congo, Czechoslovakia,
India, Jordan, Norway, Spain, Yugoslavia
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Center for Human Settlements (UNCHS or Habitat)

established--12 October 1978;

aim--to assist in solving human settlement problems;

members--(88) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)--acronym retained from the
predecessor organization UN International Children's Emergency Fund;

established--11 December 1946;

aim--to help establish child health and welfare services;

members--(41) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

established--30 December 1964;

aim--to promote international trade;

members--(166) all UN members plus North Korea, South Korea,
Monaco, San Marino, Switzerland, Tonga, Vatican City
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

established--22 November 1965;

aim--to provide technical assistance to stimulate economic and
social development;

members--(48) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)

established--31 May 1974;

aim--established by the UN Security Council to observe the 1973
Arab-Israeli ceasefire;

members--(4) Austria, Canada, Finland, Poland
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO)

established--16 November 1945, effective 4 November 1946;

aim--to promote cooperation in education, science, and culture;

members--(159) all UN members except Brunei, Liechtenstein,
Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, UK, US, Vanuatu; other members
are Cook Islands, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Monaco, San Marino,
Switzerland, Tonga;

associate members--(3) Aruba, British Virgin Islands,
Netherlands Antilles
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)

established--15 December 1972;

aim--to promote international cooperation on all environmental
matters;

members--(58) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)

established--4 March 1964;

aim--established by the UN Security Council to serve as a
peacekeeping force beween Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in Cyprus;

members--(8) Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland,
Sweden, UK
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations General Assembly

established--26 June 1945, effective 24 October 1945;

aim--primary deliberative organ in the UN;

members--(159) all UN members are represented in the General
Assembly
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

established--17 November 1966, effective 1 January 1967;

aim--UN specialized agency that promotes industrial development
especially among the members;

members--(150) all UN members except Antigua and Barbuda,
Australia, Brunei, Cambodia, Chad, Djibouti, Iceland, Liberia,
Liechtenstein, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Western Samoa;
other members are North Korea, South Korea, Switzerland, Tonga
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)

established--19 March 1978;

aim--established by the UN Security Council to confirm the
withdrawal of Israeli forces, restore peace, and reestablish Lebanese
authority in southern Lebanon;

members--(9) Fiji, Finland, France, Ghana, Ireland, Italy, Nepal,
Norway, Sweden
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG)

established--9 August 1988;

aim--established by the UN Security Council to observe the 1988
Iran-Iraq ceasefire;

members--(26) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Canada,
Denmark, Finland, Ghana, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy,
Kenya, Malaysia, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Peru, Poland, Senegal, Sweden,
Turkey, Uruguay, Yugoslavia, Zambia
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan
(UNMOGIP)

established--13 August 1948;

aim--established by the UN Security Council to observe the 1949
India-Pakistan ceasefire;

members--(8) Belgium, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway,
Sweden, Uruguay
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

established--3 December 1949, effective 1 January 1951;

aim--to try to ensure the humanitarian treatment of refugees and
find permanent solutions to refugee problems;

members--(43) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium,
Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Lesotho, Madagascar,
Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan,
Somalia, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey,
Uganda, UK, US, Vatican City, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)--acronym retained from
predecessor organization UN Fund for Population Activities;

established--NA July 1967;

aim--to promote assistance in dealing with population problems;

members--(48) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the
Near East (UNRWA)

established--8 December 1949;

aim--to provide assistance to Palestinian refugees;

members--(10) Belgium, Egypt, France, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon,
Syria, Turkey, UK, US
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Secretariat

established--26 June 1945, effective 24 October 1945;

aim--primary administrative organ of the UN;

members--Secretary General appointed for a five-year term by the
General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Security Council

established--26 June 1945, effective 24 October 1945;

aim--to maintain international peace and security;

permanent members--(5) China, France, UK, US, USSR;

nonpermanent members--(10) elected for two year terms by the
UN General Assembly; Austria (1991-92), Belgium (1991-92),
Cuba (1990-91), Ecuador (1991-92), India (1991-92),
Ivory Coast (1990-91), Romania (1990-91), Yemen (1990-91),
Zaire (1990-91), Zimbabwe (1991-92)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)

established--NA May 1948;

aim--initially established by the UN Security Council to supervise
the 1948 Arab-Israeli ceasefire and subsequently extended to work
in the Sinai, Lebanon, Jordan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan;

members--(16) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Canada, Chile,
Denmark, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, NZ, Norway,
Sweden, US, USSR
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_United Nations Trusteeship Council

established--26 June 1945, effective 24 October 1945;

aim--to supervise the administration of the UN trust territories;
only one of the original 11 trusteeships remains--the Trust Territory of
the Pacific Islands (Palau);

members--(5) China, France, UK, US, USSR
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Universal Postal Union (UPU)

established--9 October 1874, affiliated with the UN
15 November 1947, effective 1 July 1948;

aim--UN specialized agency that promotes international postal
cooperation;

members--(168) all UN members except Antigua and Barbuda, Namibia,
South Africa; other members are Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea,
Monaco, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, San Marino, Switzerland, Tonga,
Tuvalu, UK Overseas Territories, Vatican City
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_USSR/Eastern Europe (USSR/EE)--the middle group in the
comprehensive but mutually exclusive hierarchy of developed countries
(DCs), USSR/Eastern Europe (USSR/EE), and less developed countries
(LDCs); these countries are in political and economic transition; this
group includes Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland,
Romania, USSR, Yugoslavia
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Warsaw Pact (WP)--was established 14 May 1955 to promote mutual
defense; members met 1 July 1991 to dissolve the alliance;
member states--Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and
the USSR--are now in the process of ratifying this agreement
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_West African Development Bank (WADB), also known as Banque
Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD);

established--14 November 1973;

aim--to promote economic development and integration;

members--(7) Benin, Burkina, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal,
Togo
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_West African Economic Community (CEAO)--acronym from Communaute
Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest;

established--3 June 1972;

aim--to promote regional economic development;

members--(7) Benin, Burkina, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger,
Senegal;

observers--(2) Guinea, Togo
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Western European Union (WEU)

established--23 October 1954, effective 6 May 1955;

aim--mutual defense and progressive political unification;

members--(9) Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_World Bank--see International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (IBRD)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_World Confederation of Labor (WCL)

established--19 June 1920 as the International Federation of
Christian Trade Unions (IFCTU), renamed 4 October 1968;

aim--to promote the trade union movement;

members--(93 national organizations) Algeria, Angola,
Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium,
Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Cuba, Cyprus, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France,
French Guiana, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guadaloupe, Guatemala,
Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Italy,
Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico,
Montserrat, Namibia, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Suriname, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, UK, US, Uruguay,
Vietnam, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_World Court--see International Court of Justice (ICJ)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)

established--NA 1945;

aim--to promote the trade union movement;

members--(74 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization)
Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Argentina, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh,
Benin, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cambodia, China, Congo, Costa Rica,
Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,
Ethiopia, France, French Guiana, The Gambia, Germany, Guadaloupe,
Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, North Korea, Kuwait, Laos,
Lebanon, Madagascar, Martinique, Mauritius, Mongolia, Namibia, New
Caledonia, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines,
Poland, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Romania, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Solomon Islands, South
Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Trinidad and Tobago, USSR, Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_World Food Council (WFC)

established--17 December 1974;

aim--ECOSOC organization that studies world food problems and
recommends solutions;

members--(36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_World Food Program (WFP)

established--24 November 1961;

aim--ECOSOC organization that provides food aid to assist in
development or disaster relief;

members--(30) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_World Health Organization (WHO)

established--22 July 1946, effective 7 April 1948;

aim--UN specialized agency concerned with health matters;

members--(165) all UN members except Belize, Liechtenstein;
other members are Cook Islands, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea,
Monaco, San Marino, Switzerland, Tonga
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

established--14 July 1967, effective 26 April 1970;

aim--UN specialized agency concerned with the protection of
literary, artistic, and scientific works;

members--(124) Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Australia, Austria,
The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Benin, Brazil, Bulgaria,
Burkina, Burundi, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Cameroon,
Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo,
Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt,
El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast,
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi,
Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia,
Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Panama,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda,
Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Spain,
Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda,
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, UAE, UK, US, USSR, Uruguay,
Vatican City, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia,
Zimbabwe
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

established--11 October 1947, effective 4 April 1951;

aim--specialized UN agency concerned with meteorological
cooperation;

members--(159) all UN members except Bhutan, Equatorial Guinea,
Grenada, Liechtenstein, Namibia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines, Western Samoa; South Africa is included although
WMO membership is suspended; other members are British Caribbean
Territories, French Polynesia, Hong Kong, North Korea, South Korea,
Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, Switzerland
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_World Tourism Organization (WTO)

established--2 January 1975;

aim--promote tourism as a means of contributing to economic
development, international understanding, and peace;

members--(104) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Australia,
Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina,
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo,
Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt,
Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
Grenada, Guinea, Haiti, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,
Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea,
South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi,
Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco,
Nepal, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Poland,
Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal,
Sierra Leone, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania,
Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, US, USSR, Uruguay, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe;

associate members--(4) Aruba, Macau, Netherlands Antilles,
Puerto Rico;

permanent observer--(1) Vatican City

=========================================================================

Appendix D: Weights and Measures

Mathematical Notation

Mathematical Power Name
_________________________________________________________________________
10 +18 or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 one quintillion
10 +15 or 1,000,000,000,000,000 one quadrillion
10 +12 or 1,000,000,000,000 one trillion
10 +9 or 1,000,000,000 one billion
10 +6 or 1,000,000 one million
10 +3 or 1,000 one thousand
10 +2 or 100 one hundred
10 +1 or 10 ten
10 +0 or 1 one
10 -1 or 0.1 one tenth
10 -2 or 0.01 one hundredth
10 -3 or 0.001 one thousandth
10 -6 or 0.000 001 one millionth
10 -9 or 0.000 000 001 one billionth
10 -12 or 0.000 000 000 001 one trillionth
10 -15 or 0.000 000 000 000 001 one quadrillionth
10 -18 or 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 one quintillionth
=========================================================================

Metric Interrelationships

Conversions from a multiple or submultiple to the basic units of meters,
liters, or grams can be done using the table. For example, to convert
from kilometers to meters, multiply by 1,000 (9.26 kilometers equals
9,260 meters) or to convert from meters to kilometers, multiply by 0.001
(9,260 meters equals 9.26 kilometers)
_________________________________________________________________________
Length,
weight,
Prefix Symbol capacity Area Volume
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
exa E 10 +18 10 +36 10 +54
peta P 10 +15 10 +30 10 +45
tera T 10 +12 10 +24 10 +36
giga G 10 +9 10 +18 10 +27
mega M 10 +6 10 +12 10 +18
hectokilo hk 10 +5 10 +10 10 +15
myria ma 10 +4 10 +8 10 +12
kilo k 10 +3 10 +6 10 +9
hecto h 10 +2 10 +4 10 +6
deka da 10 +1 10 +2 10 +3
basic unit - 1 meter, 1 meter2 1 meter3
1 gram,
1 liter
deci d 10 -1 10 -2 10 -3
centi c 10 -2 10 -4 10 -6
milli m 10 -3 10 -6 10 -9
decimilli dm 10 -4 10 -8 10 -12
centimilli cm 10 -5 10 -10 10 -15
micro u 10 -6 10 -12 10 -18
nano n 10 -9 10 -18 10 -27
pico p 10 -12 10 -24 10 -36
femto f 10 -15 10 -30 10 -45
atto a 10 -18 10 -36 10 -54

========================================================================

EQUIVALENTS

The exponents 2 and 3 are used for square and cubic, respectively.

Unit Metric Equivalent US Equivalent
_________________________________________________________________________

acre 0.404 685 64 hectares 43,560 feet2
acre 4,046,856 4 meters2 4,840 yards2
acre 0.004 046 856 4 0.001 562 5 miles2,
kilometers2 statute
are 100 meters2 119.599 yards2
barrel (petroleum, US) 158.987 29 liters 42 gallons
(proof spirits, US) 151.416 47 liters 40 gallons
(beer, US) 117.347 77 liters 31 gallons
bushel 35.239 07 liters 4 pecks
cable 219.456 meters 120 fathoms
chain (surveyor's) 20.116 8 meters 66 feet
cord (wood) 3.624 556 meters3 128 feet3
cup 0.236 588 2 liters 8 ounces, liquid (US)
degrees, celsius (water boils at 100 multiply by 1.8 and add
degrees C, freezes at 32 to obtain degrees F
0 degrees C)
degrees, fahrenheit subtract 32 and divide (water boils at 212
by 1.8 to obtain degrees F, freezes at
degrees C 32 degrees F)
dram, avoirdupois 1.771 845 2 grams 0.062 5 ounces, avoirdupois
dram, troy 3.887 934 6 grams 0.125 ounces, troy
dram, liquid (US) 3.696 69 milliliters 0.125 ounces, liquid
fathom 1.828 8 meters 6 feet
foot 30.48 centimeters 12 inches
foot 0.304 8 meters 0.333 333 3 yards
foot 0.000 304 8 kilometers 0.000 189 39 miles, statute
foot2 929.030 4 centimeters2 144 inches2
foot 2 0.092 903 04 meters2 0.111 111 1 yards2
foot3 28.316 846 592 liters 7.480 519 gallons
foot3 0.028 316 847 meters3 1,728 inches3
furlong 201.168 meters 220 yards
gallon, liquid (US) 3.785 411 784 liters 4 quarts, liquid
gill (US) 118.294 118 milliliters 4 ounces, liquid
grain 64.798 91 milligrams 0.002 285 71 ounces, advp.
gram 1,000 milligrams 0.035 273 96 ounces, advp.
hand (height of horse) 10.16 centimeters 4 inches
hectare 10,000 meters2 2.471 053 8 acres
hundredweight, long 50.802 345 kilograms 112 pounds, avoirdupois
hundredweight, short 45.359 237 kilograms 100 pounds, avoirdupois
inch 2.54 centimeters 0.083 333 33 feet
inch2 6.451 6 centimeters2 0.006 944 44 feet2
inch3 16.387 064 centimeters3 0.000 578 7 feet3
inch3 16.387 064 milliliters 0.029 761 6 pints, dry
inch3 16.387 064 milliliters 0.034 632 0 pints, liquid
kilogram 0.001 tons, metric 2.204 623 pounds, avoirdupois
kilometer 1,000 meters 0.621 371 19 miles, statute
kilometer2 100 hectares 247.105 38 acres
kilometer2 1,000,000 meters2 0.386 102 16 miles2, statute
knot (1 nautical mi/hr) 1.852 kilometers/hour 1.151 statute miles/hour
league, nautical 5.559 552 kilometers 3 miles, nautical
league, statute 4.828.032 kilometers 3 miles, statute
link (surveyor's) 20.116 8 centimeters 7.92 inches
liter 0.001 meters3 61.023 74 inches3
liter 0.1 dekaliter 0.908 083 quarts, dry
liter 1,000 milliliters 1.056 688 quarts, liquid
meter 100 centimeters 1.093 613 yards
meter2 10,000 centimeters2 1.195 990 yards2
meter3 1,000 liters 1.307 951 yards3
micron 0.000 001 meter 0.000 039 4 inches
mil 0.025 4 millimeters 0.001 inch
mile, nautical 1.852 kilometers 1.150 779 4 miles, statute
mile2, nautical 3.429 904 kilometers2 1.325 miles2, statute
mile, statute 1.609 344 kilometers 5,280 feet or 8 furlongs
mile2, statute 258.998 811 hectares 640 acres or 1 section
mile2, statute 2.589 988 11 kilometers2 0.755 miles2, nautical
minim (US) 0.061 611 52 milliliters 0.002 083 33 ounces, liquid
ounce, avoirdupois 28.349 523 125 grams 437.5 grains
ounce, liquid (US) 29.573 53 milliliters 0.062 5 pints, liquid
ounce, troy 31.103 476 8 grams 480 grains
pace 76.2 centimeters 30 inches
peck 8.809 767 5 liters 8 quarts, dry
pennyweight 1.555 173 84 grams 24 grains
pint, dry (US) 0.550 610 47 liters 0.5 quarts, dry
pint, liquid (US) 0.473 176 473 liters 0.5 quarts, liquid
point (typographical) 0.351 459 8 millimeters 0.013 837 inches
pound, avoirdupois 453.592 37 grams 16 ounces, avourdupois
pound, troy 373.241 721 6 grams 12 ounces, troy
quart, dry (US) 1.101 221 liters 2 pints, dry
quart, liquid (US) 0.946 352 946 liters 2 pints, liquid
quintal 100 kilograms 220.462 26 pounds, avdp.
rod 5.029 2 meters 5.5 yards
scruple 1.295 978 2 grams 20 grains
section (US) 2.589 988 1 kilometers2 1 mile2, statute or 640 acres
span 22.86 centimeters 9 inches
stere 1 meter3 1.307 95 yards3
tablespoon 14.786 76 milliliters 3 teaspoons
teaspoon 4.928 922 milliliters 0.333 333 tablespoons
ton, long or deadweight 1,016.046 909 kilograms 2,240 pounds, avoirdupois
ton, metric 1,000 kilograms 2,204.623 pounds, avoirdupois
ton, metric 1,000 kilograms 32,150.75 ounces, troy
ton, register 2.831 684 7 meters3 100 feet3
ton, short 907.184 74 kilograms 2,000 pounds, avoirdupois
township (US) 93.239 572 kilometers2 36 miles2, statute
yard 0.914 4 meters 3 feet
yard2 0.836 127 36 meters2 9 feet2
yard3 0.764 554 86 meters3 27 feet3
yard3 764.554 857 984 liters 201.974 gallons
=========================================================================

Appendix E: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names

This list indicates where various names including all United States
Foreign Service Posts, alternate names, former names, and political or
geographical portions of larger entities can be found in The World
Factbook. Spellings are not necessarily those approved by the United
States Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Alternate names are included in
parentheses; additional information is included in brackets.

Name Entry in The World Factbook

Abidjan [US Embassy] Ivory Coast
Abu Dhabi [US Embassy] United Arab Emirates
Acapulco [US Consular Agency] Mexico
Accra [US Embassy] Ghana
Adana [US Consulate] Turkey
Addis Ababa [US Embassy] Ethiopia
Adelaide [US Consular Agency] Australia
Adelie Land (Terre Adelie) Antarctica
[claimed by France]
Aden Yemen
Aden, Gulf of Indian Ocean
Admiralty Islands Papua New Guinea
Adriatic Sea Atlantic Ocean
Aegean Islands Greece
Aegean Sea Atlantic Ocean
Afars and Issas, French Djibouti
Territory of the (F.T.A.I.)
Agalega Islands Mauritius
Aland Islands Finland
Alaska United States
Alaska, Gulf of Pacific Ocean
Aldabra Islands Seychelles
Alderney Guernsey
Aleutian Islands United States
Alexander Island Antarctica
Alexandria [US Consulate General] Egypt
Algiers [US Embassy] Algeria
Alhucemas, Penon de Spain
Alphonse Island Seychelles
Amami Strait Pacific Ocean
Amindivi Islands India
Amirante Isles Seychelles
Amman [US Embassy] Jordan
Amsterdam [US Consulate General] Netherlands
Amsterdam Island French Southern and Antarctic Lands
(Ile Amsterdam)
Amundsen Sea Pacific Ocean
Amur China; Soviet Union
Andaman Islands India
Andaman Sea Indian Ocean
Anegada Passage Atlantic Ocean
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Sudan
Anjouan Comoros
Ankara [US Embassy] Turkey
Annobon Equatorial Guinea
Antananarivo [US Embassy] Madagascar
Antipodes Islands New Zealand
Antwerp [US Consulate General] Belgium
Aozou Strip [claimed by Libya] Chad
Aqaba, Gulf of Indian Ocean
Arabian Sea Indian Ocean
Arafura Sea Pacific Ocean
Argun China; Soviet Union
Ascension Island Saint Helena
Assumption Island Seychelles
Asuncion [US Embassy] Paraguay
Asuncion Island Northern Mariana Islands
Atacama Chile
Athens [US Embassy] Greece
Attu United States
Auckland [US Consulate General] New Zealand
Auckland Islands New Zealand
Australes Iles (Iles Tubuai) French Polynesia
Axel Heiberg Island Canada
Azores Portugal
Azov, Sea of Atlantic Ocean

Bab el Mandeb Indian Ocean
Babuyan Channel Pacific Ocean
Babuyan Islands Philippines
Baffin Bay Arctic Ocean
Baffin Island Canada
Baghdad [US Embassy] Iraq
Balabac Strait Pacific Ocean
Balearic Islands Spain
Balearic Sea (Iberian Sea) Atlantic Ocean
Bali [US Consular Agency] Indonesia
Bali Sea Indian Ocean
Balintang Channel Pacific Ocean
Balintang Islands Philippines
Balleny Islands Antarctica
Balochistan Pakistan
Baltic Sea Atlantic Ocean
Bamako [US Embassy] Mali
Banaba (Ocean Island) Kiribati
Bandar Seri Begawan [US Embassy] Brunei
Banda Sea Pacific Ocean
Bangkok [US Embassy] Thailand
Bangui [US Embassy] Central African Republic
Banjul [US Embassy] Gambia, The
Banks Island Canada
Banks Islands (Iles Banks) Vanuatu
Barcelona [US Consulate General] Spain
Barents Sea Arctic Ocean
Barranquilla [US Consulate] Colombia
Bashi Channel Pacific Ocean
Basilan Strait Pacific Ocean
Bass Strait Indian Ocean
Batan Islands Philippines
Bavaria (Bayern) Germany
Beagle Channel Atlantic Ocean
Bear Island (Bjornoya) Svalbard
Beaufort Sea Arctic Ocean
Bechuanaland Botswana
Beijing [US Embassy] China
Beirut [US Embassy] Lebanon
Belau Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the
(Palau)
Belem [US Consular Agency] Brazil
Belep Islands (Iles Belep) New Caledonia
Belfast [US Consulate General] United Kingdom
Belgian Congo Zaire
Belgrade [US Embassy] Yugoslavia
Belize City [US Embassy] Belize
Belle Isle, Strait of Atlantic Ocean
Bellinghausen Sea Pacific Ocean
Belmopan Belize
Bengal, Bay of Indian Ocean
Bering Sea Pacific Ocean
Bering Strait Pacific Ocean
Berkner Island Antarctica
Berlin [US Branch Office] Germany
Berlin, East Germany
Berlin, West Germany
Bern [US Embassy] Switzerland
Bessarabia Romania; Soviet Union
Bijagos, Arquipelago dos Guinea-Bissau
Bikini Atoll Marshall Islands
Bilbao [US Consulate] Spain
Bioko Equatorial Guinea
Biscay, Bay of Atlantic Ocean
Bishop Rock United Kingdom
Bismarck Archipelago Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Sea Pacific Ocean
Bissau [US Embassy] Guinea-Bissau
Bjornoya (Bear Island) Svalbard
Black Rock Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Black Sea Atlantic Ocean
Boa Vista Cape Verde
Bogota [US Embassy] Colombia
Bombay [US Consulate General] India
Bonaire Netherlands Antilles
Bonifacio, Strait of Atlantic Ocean
Bonin Islands Japan
Bonn [US Embassy] Germany
Bophuthatswana South Africa
Bora-Bora French Polynesia
Bordeaux [US Consulate General] France
Borneo Brunei; Indonesia; Malaysia
Bornholm Denmark
Bosporus Atlantic Ocean
Bothnia, Gulf of Atlantic Ocean
Bougainville Island Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Strait Pacific Ocean
Bounty Islands New Zealand
Brasilia [US Embassy] Brazil
Brazzaville [US Embassy] Congo
Bridgetown [US Embassy] Barbados
Brisbane [US Consulate] Australia
British East Africa Kenya
British Guiana Guyana
British Honduras Belize
British Solomon Islands Solomon Islands
British Somaliland Somalia
Brussels [US Embassy, US Mission Belgium
to European Communities, US
Mission to the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization (USNATO)]
Bucharest [US Embassy] Romania
Budapest [US Embassy] Hungary
Buenos Aires [US Embassy] Argentina
Bujumbura [US Embassy] Burundi

Cabinda Angola
Cabot Strait Atlantic Ocean
Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands
Cairo [US Embassy] Egypt
Calcutta [US Consulate General] India
Calgary [US Consulate General] Canada
California, Gulf of Pacific Ocean
Campbell Island New Zealand
Canal Zone Panama
Canary Islands Spain
Canberra [US Embassy] Australia
Cancun [US Consular Agency] Mexico
Canton (Guangzhou) China
Canton Island Kiribati
Cape Town [US Consulate General] South Africa
Caracas [US Embassy] Venezuela
Cargados Carajos Shoals Mauritius
Caroline Islands Micronesia, Federated States of;
Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the
Caribbean Sea Atlantic Ocean
Carpentaria, Gulf of Pacific Ocean
Casablanca [US Consulate General] Morocco
Cato Island Australia
Cebu [US Consulate] Philippines
Celebes Indonesia
Celebes Sea Pacific Ocean
Celtic Sea Atlantic Ocean
Central African Empire Central African Republic
Ceuta Spain
Ceylon Sri Lanka
Chafarinas, Islas Spain
Chagos Archipelago (Oil Islands) British Indian Ocean Territory
Channel Islands Guernsey; Jersey
Chatham Islands New Zealand
Cheju-do Korea, South
Cheju Strait Pacific Ocean
Chengdu [US Consulate General] China
Chesterfield Islands New Caledonia
(Iles Chesterfield)
Chiang Mai [US Consulate General] Thailand
Chihli, Gulf of (Bo Hai) Pacific Ocean
China, People's Republic of China
China, Republic of Taiwan
Choiseul Solomon Islands
Christchurch [US Consular Agency] New Zealand
Christmas Island [Indian Ocean] Australia
Christmas Island [Pacific Ocean] Kiribati
(Kiritimati)
Chukchi Sea Arctic Ocean
Ciskei South Africa
Ciudad Juarez [US Consulate Mexico
General]
Cochabamba [US Consular Agency] Bolivia
Coco, Isla del Costa Rica
Cocos Islands Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombo [US Embassy] Sri Lanka
Colon [US Consular Agency] Panama
Colon, Archipielago de Ecuador
(Galapagos Islands)
Commander Islands Soviet Union
(Komandorskiye Ostrova)
Conakry [US Embassy] Guinea
Congo (Brazzaville) Congo
Congo (Kinshasa) Zaire
Congo (Leopoldville) Zaire
Con Son Islands Vietnam
Cook Strait Pacific Ocean
Copenhagen [US Embassy] Denmark
Coral Sea Pacific Ocean
Corn Islands (Islas del Maiz) Nicaragua
Corsica France
Cosmoledo Group Seychelles
Cote d'Ivoire Ivory Coast
Cotonou [US Embassy] Benin
Crete Greece
Crooked Island Passage Atlantic Ocean
Crozet Islands (Iles Crozet) French Southern and Antarctic Lands
Curacao [US Consulate General] Netherlands Antilles
Cusco [US Consular Agency] Peru

Dahomey Benin
Daito Islands Japan
Dakar [US Embassy] Senegal
Daman (Damao) India
Damascus [US Embassy] Syria
Danger Atoll Cook Islands
Danish Straits Atlantic Ocean
Danzig (Gdansk) Poland
Dao Bach Long Vi Vietnam
Dardanelles Atlantic Ocean
Dar es Salaam [US Embassy] Tanzania
Davis Strait Atlantic Ocean
Deception Island Antarctica
Denmark Strait Atlantic Ocean
D'Entrecasteaux Islands Papua New Guinea
Devon Island Canada
Dhahran [US Consulate General] Saudi Arabia
Dhaka [US Embassy] Bangladesh
Diego Garcia British Indian Ocean Territory
Diego Ramirez Chile
Diomede Islands Soviet Union [Big Diomede]; United States
[Little Diomede]
Diu India
Djibouti [US Embassy] Djibouti
Dodecanese Greece
Doha [US Embassy] Qatar
Douala [US Consulate General] Cameroon
Dover, Strait of Atlantic Ocean
Drake Passage Atlantic Ocean
Dubai [US Consulate General] United Arab Emirates
Dublin [US Embassy] Ireland
Durango [US Consular Agency] Mexico
Durban [US Consulate General] South Africa
Dusseldorf [US Consulate General] Germany
Dutch East Indies Indonesia
Dutch Guiana Suriname

East China Sea Pacific Ocean
Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) Chile
Eastern Channel (East Korea Pacific Ocean
Strait or Tsushima Strait)
East Germany (German Democratic Germany
Republic)
East Korea Strait (Eastern Pacific Ocean
Channel or Tsushima Strait)
East Pakistan Bangladesh
East Siberian Sea Arctic Ocean
East Timor (Portuguese Timor) Indonesia
Edinburgh [US Consulate General] United Kingdom
Elba Italy
Ellef Ringnes Island Canada
Ellesmere Island Canada
Ellice Islands Tuvalu
Elobey, Islas de Equatorial Guinea
Enderbury Island Kiribati
Enewetak Atoll (Eniwetok Atoll) Marshall Islands
England United Kingdom
English Channel Atlantic Ocean
Eniwetok Atoll Marshall Islands
Epirus, Northern Albania; Greece
Eritrea Ethiopia
Essequibo [claimed by Venezuela] Guyana
Estonia Soviet Union [de facto]
Etorofu Soviet Union [de facto]

Farquhar Group Seychelles
Fernando de Noronha Brazil
Fernando Po (Bioko) Equatorial Guinea
Finland, Gulf of Atlantic Ocean
Florence [US Consulate General] Italy
Florida, Straits of Atlantic Ocean
Formosa Taiwan
Formosa Strait (Taiwan Strait) Pacific Ocean
Fort-de-France Martinique
[US Consulate General]
Frankfurt am Main Germany
[US Consulate General]
Franz Josef Land Soviet Union
Freetown [US Embassy] Sierra Leone
French Cameroon Cameroon
French Indochina Cambodia; Laos; Vietnam
French Guinea Guinea
French Sudan Mali
French Territory of the Afars Djibouti
and Issas (F.T.A.I.)
French Togo Togo
Friendly Islands Tonga
Fukuoka [US Consulate] Japan
Funchal [US Consular Agency] Portugal
Fundy, Bay of Atlantic Ocean
Futuna Islands (Hoorn Islands) Wallis and Futuna

Gaborone [US Embassy] Botswana
Galapagos Islands (Archipi%elago Ecuador
de Colon)
Galleons Passage Atlantic Ocean
Gambier Islands (Iles Gambier) French Polynesia
Gaspar Strait Indian Ocean
Geneva [Branch Office of the US Switzerland
Embassy, US Mission to European
Office of the UN and Other
International Organizations]
Genoa [US Consulate General] Italy
George Town [US Consular Agency] Cayman Islands
Georgetown [US Embassy] Guyana
German Democratic Republic Germany
(East Germany)
German Federal Republic of Germany
(West Germany)
Gibraltar, Strait of Atlantic Ocean
Gilbert Islands Kiribati
Goa India
Gold Coast Ghana
Golan Heights Syria
Good Hope, Cape of South Africa
Goteborg [US Consulate General] Sweden
Gotland Sweden
Gough Island Saint Helena
Grand Banks Atlantic Ocean
Grand Cayman Cayman Islands
Grand Turk [US Consular Agency] Turks and Caicos Islands
Great Australian Bight Indian Ocean
Great Belt (Store Baelt) Atlantic Ocean
Great Britain United Kingdom
Great Channel Indian Ocean
Greater Sunda Islands Brunei; Indonesia; Malaysia
Green Islands Papua New Guinea
Greenland Sea Arctic Ocean
Grenadines, Northern Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Grenadines, Southern Grenada
Guadalajara Mexico
[US Consulate General]
Guadalcanal Solomon Islands
Guadalupe, Isla de Mexico
Guangzhou [US Consulate General] China
Guantanamo [US Naval Base] Cuba
Guatemala [US Embassy] Guatemala
Gubal, Strait of Indian Ocean
Guinea, Gulf of Atlantic Ocean
Guayaquil [US Consulate General] Ecuador

Ha'apai Group Tonga
Habomai Islands Soviet Union [de facto]
Hague,The [US Embassy] Netherlands
Haifa [US Consular Agency] Israel
Hainan Dao China
Halifax [US Consulate General] Canada
Halmahera Indonesia
Hamburg [US Consulate General] Germany
Hamilton [US Consulate General] Bermuda
Hanoi Vietnam
Harare [US Embassy] Zimbabwe
Hatay Turkey
Havana [US post not maintained, Cuba
representation by US Interests
Section (USINT) of the Swiss
Embassy]
Hawaii United States
Heard Island Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Helsinki [US Embassy] Finland
Hermosillo [US Consulate] Mexico
Hispaniola Dominican Republic; Haiti
Hokkaido Japan
Holy See, The Vatican City
Hong Kong [US Consulate General] Hong Kong
Honiara [US Consulate] Solomon Islands
Honshu Japan
Hormuz, Strait of Indian Ocean
Horn, Cape (Cabo de Hornos) Chile
Horne, Iles de Wallis and Futuna
Horn of Africa Ethiopia; Somalia
Hudson Bay Arctic Ocean
Hudson Strait Arctic Ocean

Inaccessible Island Saint Helena
Indochina Cambodia; Laos; Vietnam
Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol) China
Ionian Islands Greece
Ionian Sea Atlantic Ocean
Irian Jaya Indonesia
Irish Sea Atlantic Ocean
Islamabad [US Embassy] Pakistan
Islas Malvinas Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Istanbul [US Consulate General] Turkey
Italian Somaliland Somalia
Iwo Jima Japan
Izmir [US Consulate General] Turkey

Jakarta [US Embassy] Indonesia
Japan, Sea of Pacific Ocean
Java Indonesia
Java Sea Indian Ocean
Jeddah [US Consulate General] Saudi Arabia
Jerusalem [US Consulate General] Israel; West Bank
Johannesburg South Africa
[US Consulate General]
Juan de Fuca, Strait of Pacific Ocean
Juan Fernandez, Isla de Chile
Juventud, Isla de la Cuba
(Isle of Youth)

Kabul [US Embassy now closed] Afghanistan
Kaduna [US Consulate General] Nigeria
Kalimantan Indonesia
Kamchatka Peninsula Soviet Union
(Poluostrov Kamchatka)
Kampala [US Embassy] Uganda
Kampuchea Cambodia
Karachi [US Consulate General] Pakistan
Kara Sea Arctic Ocean
Karimata Strait Indian Ocean
Kathmandu [US Embassy] Nepal
Kattegat Atlantic Ocean
Kauai Channel Pacific Ocean
Keeling Islands Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Kerguelen, Iles French Southern and Antarctic Lands
Kermadec Islands New Zealand
Khabarovsk Soviet Union
Khartoum [US Embassy] Sudan
Khmer Republic Cambodia
Kiel Canal (Nord-Ostsee Kanal) Atlantic Ocean
Khuriya Muriya Islands Oman
(Kuria Muria Islands)
Khyber Pass Pakistan
Kigali [US Embassy] Rwanda
Kingston [US Embassy] Jamaica
Kinshasa [US Embassy] Zaire
Kiritimati (Christmas Island) Kiribati
Kithira Strait Atlantic Ocean
Kodiak Island United States
Kola Peninsula Soviet Union
(Kol'skiy Poluostrov)
Kolonia [US Special Office] Micronesia, Federated States of
Korea Bay Pacific Ocean
Korea, Democratic People's Korea, North
Republic of
Korea, Republic of Korea, South
Korea Strait Pacific Ocean
Koror [US Special Office] Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of
Kosovo Yugoslavia
Kowloon Hong Kong
Krakow [US Consulate] Poland
Kuala Lumpur [US Embassy] Malaysia
Kunashiri (Kunashir) Soviet Union [de facto]
Kuril Islands Soviet Union [de facto]
Kuwait [US Embassy] Kuwait
Kwajalein Atoll Marshall Islands

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