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_#_Infant mortality rate: 61 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 64 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Zimbabwean(s); adjective--Zimbabwean

_#_Ethnic divisions: African 98% (Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, other 11%);
white 1%, mixed and Asian 1%

_#_Religion: syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%,
Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, a few Muslim

_#_Language: English (official); Shona, Sindebele

_#_Literacy: 67% (male 74%, female 60%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 3,100,000; agriculture 74%, transport and services
16%, mining, manufacturing, construction 10% (1987)

_#_Organized labor: 17% of wage and salary earners have union
membership

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Zimbabwe

_#_Type: parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Harare

_#_Administrative divisions: 8 provinces; Manicaland, Mashonaland
Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo (Victoria),
Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands

_#_Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK; formerly Southern Rhodesia)

_#_Constitution: 21 December 1979

_#_Legal system: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980)

_#_Executive branch: executive president, 2 vice presidents, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--Executive President Robert
Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987);
Co-Vice President Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987);
Co-Vice President Joshua M. NKOMO (since 6 August 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), Robert MUGABE;
Zimbabwe African National Union-Sithole (ZANU-S), Ndabaningi SITHOLE;
Zimbabwe Unity Movement (ZUM), Edgar TEKERE

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

Executive President--last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held
NA March 1995);
results--Robert MUGABE 78.3%; Edgar TEKERE 21.7%;

Parliament--last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held
NA March 1995);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(150 total, 120 elected) ZANU 117, ZUM 2, ZANU-S 1

_#_Communists: no Communist party

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Counselor (Political Affairs), Head of
Chancery, Ambassador Stanislaus Garikai CHIGWEDERE; Chancery at
2852 McGill Terrace NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-7100;

US--Ambassador (vacant); Embassy at 172 Herbert Chitapo
Avenue, Harare (mailing address is P. O. Box 3340, Harare);
telephone [263] (4) 794-521

_#_Flag: seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black,
red, yellow, and green with a white equilateral triangle edged in black
based on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a red
five-pointed star in the center of the triangle

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Agriculture employs three-fourths of the labor force and
supplies almost 40% of exports. The manufacturing sector, based on
agriculture and mining, produces a variety of goods and contributes 35%
to GDP. Mining accounts for only 5% of both GDP and employment, but
supplies of minerals and metals account for about 40% of exports. Wide
year-to-year fluctuations in agricultural production over the past six
years have resulted in an uneven growth rate, one that on average matched
the 3% annual increase in population.

_#_GDP: $5.6 billion, per capita $540; real growth rate 4.2% (1990
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: at least 20% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $2.7 billion; expenditures $3.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $330 million (FY91)

_#_Exports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--agricultural 35% (tobacco 20%, other 15%),
manufactures 20%, gold 10%, ferrochrome 10%, cotton 5%;

partners--Europe 55% (EC 40%, Netherlands 5%, other 10%),
Africa 20% (South Africa 10%, other 10%), US 5%

_#_Imports: $1.4 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--machinery and transportation equipment 37%, other
manufactures 22%, chemicals 16%, fuels 15%;

partners--EC 31%, Africa 29% (South Africa 21%, other 8%), US 8%,
Japan 4%

_#_External debt: $2.96 billion (December 1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.7% (1988 est.); accounts
for 35% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 2,036,000 kW capacity; 5,460 million kWh produced,
540 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: mining, steel, clothing and footwear, chemicals,
foodstuffs, fertilizer, beverage, transportation equipment, wood products

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 15% of GDP and employs 74% of
population; 40% of land area divided into 4,500 large commercial farms
and 42% in communal lands; crops--corn (food staple), cotton, tobacco,
wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; livestock--cattle, sheep, goats, pigs;
self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-89), $389
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.3 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $36 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $134 million

_#_Currency: Zimbabwean dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Zimbabwean dollar (Z$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Zimbabwean dollars (Z$) per US$1--2.6724 (January
1991), 2.4480 (1990), 2.1133 (1989), 1.8018 (1988), 1.6611 (1987), 1.6650
(1986), 1.6119 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 2,745 km 1.067-meter gauge; 42 km double track; 355 km
electrified

_#_Highways: 85,237 km total; 15,800 km paved, 39,090 km crushed
stone, gravel, stabilized soil: 23,097 km improved earth; 7,250 km
unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: Lake Kariba is a potential line of communication

_#_Pipelines: 8 km, refined products

_#_Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 499 total, 415 usable; 23 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 35 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: system was once one of the best in Africa, but
now suffers from poor maintenance; consists of radio relay links,
open-wire lines, and radio communications stations; 247,000 telephones;
stations--8 AM, 18 FM, 8 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Police
Support Unit, Paramilitary Police, People's Militia

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,263,724; 1,399,354 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $412.4 million, NA% of GDP (FY91 est.)
_%_
_@_Taiwan
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 35,980 km2; land area: 32,260 km2; includes the
Pescadores, Matsu, and Quemoy

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of
Connecticut

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 1,448 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: involved in complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with
China, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam; Paracel Islands occupied by
China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; Japanese-administered
Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai) claimed by China and Taiwan

_#_Climate: tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon
(June to August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year

_#_Terrain: eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently
rolling plains in west

_#_Natural resources: small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone,
marble, and asbestos

_#_Land use: arable land 24%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
5%; forest and woodland 55%; other 15%; irrigated 14%

_#_Environment: subject to earthquakes and typhoons

_*_People
_#_Population: 20,658,702 (July 1991), growth rate 1.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (19901

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Chinese (sing., pl.); adjective--Chinese

_#_Ethnic divisions: Taiwanese 84%, mainland Chinese 14%, aborigine 2%

_#_Religion: mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist 93%,
Christian 4.5%, other 2.5%

_#_Language: Mandarin Chinese (official); Taiwanese and Hakka dialects
also used

_#_Literacy: 91.2% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990)

_#_Labor force: 7,900,000; industry and commerce 53%, services 22%,
agriculture 15.6%, civil administration 7% (1989)

_#_Organized labor: 1,300,000 or about 18.4% (government controlled)
(1983)

_*_Administration
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: one-party presidential regime; opposition political parties
legalized in March, 1989

_#_Capital: Taipei

_#_Administrative divisions: the authorities in Taipei claim to be the
government of all China; in keeping with that claim, the central
administrative divisions include 2 provinces (sheng, singular and plural)
and 2 municipalities* (shih, singular and plural)--Fu-chien (some 20
offshore islands of Fujian Province including Quemoy and Matsu),
Kao-hsiung*, T'ai-pei*, and Taiwan (the island of Taiwan and the
Pescadores islands); the more commonly referenced administrative
divisions are those of Taiwan Province--16 counties (hsien, singular and
plural), 5 municipalities* (shih, singular and plural), and 2 special
municipalities** (chuan-shih, singular and plural); Chang-hua, Chia-i,
Chia-i*, Chi-lung*, Hsin-chu, Hsin-chu*, Hua-lien, I-lan, Kao-hsiung,
Kao-hsiung**, Miao-li, Nan-t'ou, P'eng-hu, P'ing-tung, T'ai-chung,
T'ai-chung*, T'ai-nan, T'ai-nan*, T'ai-pei, T'ai-pei**, T'ai-tung,
T'ao-yuan, and Yun-lin; the provincial capital is at
Chung-hsing-hsin-ts'un; note--Taiwan uses the Wade-Giles system
for romanization

_#_Constitution: 25 December 1947, presently undergoing revision

_#_Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: National Day (Anniversary of the Revolution),
10 October (1911)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, premier of the
Executive Yuan, vice premier of the Executive Yuan, Executive Yuan

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Yuan

_#_Judicial branch: Judicial Yuan

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President LI Teng-hui (since 13 January 1988);
Vice President LI Yuan-zu (since 20 May 1990);

Head of Government--Premier (President of the Executive Yuan)
HAO Po-ts'un (since 2 May 1990); Vice Premier (Vice President of the
Executive Yuan) SHIH Ch'i-yang (since NA July 1988)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Kuomintang (Nationalist Party), LI Teng-hui, chairman;
Democratic Socialist Party and Young China
Party controlled by Kuomintang;
Democratic Progressive Party (DPP);
Labor Party;
27 other minor parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 20

_#_Elections:

President--last held 21 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996);
results--President LI Teng-hui was reelected by the National Assembly;

Vice President--last held 21 March 1990
(next to be held March 1996);
results--LI Yuan-zu was elected by the National Assembly;

Legislative Yuan--last held 2 December 1989 (next to be held
December 1992);
results--KMT 65%, DPP 33%, independents 2%;
seats--(304 total, 102 elected) KMT 78, DPP 21, independents 3;

National Assembly:--originally elected in November 1947 (last
supplementary election in December 1986; Assembly will be completely
reelected in December 1991)

_#_Member of: expelled from UN General Assembly and Security
Council on 25 October 1971 and withdrew on same date from other
charter-designated subsidiary organs; expelled from IMF/World Bank group
April/May 1980; seeking to join GATT; attempting to retain membership in
INTELSAT; suspended from IAEA in 1972, but still allows IAEA controls
over extensive atomic development; AsDB, ICC, ICFTU, IOC

_#_Diplomatic representation: none; unofficial commercial and cultural
relations with the people of the US are maintained through a private
instrumentality, the Coordination Council for North American Affairs
(CCNAA) with headquarters in Taipei and field offices in Washington and
10 other US cities with all addresses and telephone numbers NA;

US--unofficial commercial and cultural relations with the people of
Taiwan are maintained through a private institution, the American
Institute in Taiwan (AIT), which has offices in Taipei at #7 Lane 134,
telephone [886] (2) 709-2000, and in Kao-hsiung at #2 Chung Cheng 3d
Road, telephone [886] (7) 224-0154 through 0157, and the American Trade
Center at Room 3207 International Trade Building, Taipei World Trade
Center, 333 Keelung Road Section 1, Taipei 10548, telephone [886] (2)
720-1550

_#_Flag: red with a dark blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner
bearing a white sun with 12 triangular rays

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist economy with considerable
government guidance of investment and foreign trade and partial
government ownership of some large banks and industrial firms. Real
growth in GNP has averaged about 9% a year during the past three decades.
Export growth has been even faster and has provided the impetus for
industrialization. Agriculture contributes about 4% to GNP, down from 35%
in 1952. Taiwan currently ranks as number 13 among major trading
countries. Traditional labor-intensive industries are steadily being
replaced with more capital- and technology-intensive industries.

_#_GNP: $150.8 billion, per capita $7,380; real growth rate
5.2% (1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.4% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 1.7% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $30.3 billion; expenditures $30.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY91 est.)

_#_Exports: $67.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--textiles 15.6%, electrical machinery 18.2%, general
machinery and equipment 14.8%, basic metals and metal products 7.8%,
foodstuffs 1.7%, plywood and wood products 1.6% (1989);

partners--US 36.2%, Japan 13.7% (1989)

_#_Imports: $54.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--machinery and equipment 15.3%, crude oil 5%, chemical
and chemical products 11.1%, basic metals 13.0%, foodstuffs 2.2% (1989);

partners--Japan 31%, US 23%, FRG 5% (1989)

_#_External debt: $1.1 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.7% (1990 est.)

_#_Electricity: 17,000,000 kW capacity; 68,000 million kWh produced,
3,310 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: electronics, textiles, chemicals, clothing,
food processing, plywood, sugar milling, cement, shipbuilding, petroleum

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GNP and 16% of labor force
(includes part-time farmers); heavily subsidized sector; major
crops--vegetables, rice, fruit, tea; livestock--hogs, poultry, beef,
milk, cattle; not self-sufficient in wheat, soybeans, corn; fish catch
increasing, 1.4 million metric tons (1988)

_#_Economic aid: US, including Ex-Im (FY46-82), $4.6 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $445
million

_#_Currency: New Taiwan dollar (plural--dollars);
1 New Taiwan dollar (NT$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: New Taiwan dollars per US$1--27.2 (January 1991),
27.243 (November 1990), 26.407 (1989), 28.589 (1988), 31.845 (1987),
37.838 (1986), 39.849 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: about 4,600 km total track with 1,075 km common
carrier lines and 3,525 km industrial lines; common carrier lines
consist of the 1.067-meter gauge 708 km West Line and the 367 km East
Line; a 98.25 km South Link Line connection is under construction; common
carrier lines owned by the government and operated by the Railway
Administration under Ministry of Communications; industrial lines owned
and operated by government enterprises

_#_Highways: 20,041 km total; 17,095 km bituminous or concrete,
2,371 km crushed stone or gravel, 575 km graded earth

_#_Pipelines: 615 km refined products, 97 km natural gas

_#_Ports: Kao-hsiung, Chi-lung (Keelung), Hua-lien, Su-ao, T'ai-tung

_#_Merchant marine: 226 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,557,167
GRT/9,153,646 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 52 cargo, 17
refrigerated cargo, 75 container, 15 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 3 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 62 bulk

_#_Airports: 38 total, 37 usable; 33 with permanent-surface runways;
3 with runways over 3,659 m; 16 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 8 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: best developed system in Asia outside of Japan;
7,800,000 telephones; extensive microwave transmission links on east and
west coasts; stations--91 AM, 23 FM, 15 TV (13 relays); 8,620,000
radios; 6,386,000 TVs (5,680,000 color, 706,000 monochrome);
earth stations--1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT; submarine cable links to Japan (Okinawa), the Philippines,
Guam, Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Australia, Middle East, and
Western Europe

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, Taiwan
Garrison Command, Ministry of National Defense

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 5,874,345; 4,577,294 fit for
military service; about 187,807 currently reach military age (19)
annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $9.10 billion, 4.5% of GDP (FY91)
_%_

Appendix A: The United Nations System

The UN is composed of six principal organs and numerous subordinate
agencies and bodies as follows:

1) Secretariat

2) General Assembly:
UNCHS United Nations Center for Human Settlements (Habitat)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Program
UNEP United Nations Environment Program
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNHCR United Nations Office of High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNITAR United Nations Institute for Training and Research
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine
Refugees in the Near East
UNSF United Nations Special Fund
UNU United Nations University
WFC World Food Council
WFP World Food Program

3) Security Council:
UNAVEM United Nations Angola Verification Mission
UNDOF United Nations Disengagement Observer Force
UNFICYP United Nations Force in Cyprus
UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
UNIIMOG United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group
UNMOGIP United Nations Military Observer Group in India and
Pakistan
UNTSO United Nations Truce Supervision Organization

4) Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC):
Specialized agencies
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
IDA International Development Association
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IFC International Finance Corporation
ILO International Labor Organization
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
ITU International Telecommunication Union
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UPU Universal Postal Union
WHO World Health Organization
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
Related organizations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
Regional commissions
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
Functional commissions
Commission on Human Rights
Commission on Narcotic Drugs
Commission for Social Development
Commission on the Status of Women
Population Commission
Statistical Commission

5) Trusteeship Council

6) International Court of Justice (ICJ)

=========================================================================

Appendix B: Abbreviations for International Organizations and Groups

ABEDA Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa
ACC Arab Cooperation Council
ACCT Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation
ACP African, Caribbean, and Pacific Countries
AfDB African Development Bank
AFESD Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development
AG Andean Group
AL Arab League
ALADI Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion; see Latin
American Integration Association (LAIA)
AMF Arab Monetary Fund
AMU Arab Maghreb Union
ANZUS Australia-New Zealand-United States Security Treaty
APEC Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
AsDB Asian Development Bank
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations

BAD Banque Africaine de Developpement;
see African Development Bank (AfDB)
BADEA Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique;
see Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA)
BCIE Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico; see Central
American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)
BDEAC Banque de Developpment des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale; see
Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC)
Benelux Benelux Economic Union
BID Banco Interamericano de Desarvollo; see Inter-American
Development Bank (IADB)
BIS Bank for International Settlements
BOAD Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement; see West African
Development Bank (WADB)

C Commonwealth
CACM Central American Common Market
CAEU Council of Arab Economic Unity
CARICOM Caribbean Community and Common Market
CCC Customs Cooperation Council
CDB Caribbean Development Bank
CE Council of Europe
CEAO Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest; see West
African Economic Community (CEAO)
CEEAC Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale; see
Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC)
CEMA Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; also known as CMEA or
Comecon; abolished 1 January 1991
CEPGL Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs; see Economic
Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)
CERN Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire; see European
Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
CG Contadora Group
CMEA Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA); also known as
Comecon; abolished 1 January 1991
COCOM Coordinating Committee on Export Controls
Comecon Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA); also known as
CMEA; abolished 1 January 1991
CP Colombo Plan
CSCE Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe

DC developed country

EADB East African Development Bank
EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
EC European Community
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECAFE Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; see Economic and
Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLA Economic Commission for Latin America; see Economic Commission
for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ECOSOC Economic and Social Council
ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
ECWA Economic Commission for Western Asia; see Economic and Social
Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)
EFTA European Free Trade Association
EIB European Investment Bank
Entente Council of the Entente
ESA European Space Agency
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FLS Front Line States
FZ Franc Zone

G-2 Group of 2
G-3 Group of 3
G-5 Group of 5
G-6 Group of 6 (not to be confused with the Big Six)
G-7 Group of 7
G-8 Group of 8
G-9 Group of 9
G-10 Group of 10
G-11 Group of 11
G-19 Group of 19
G-24 Group of 24
G-30 Group of 30
G-33 Group of 33
G-77 Group of 77
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GCC Gulf Cooperation Council

Habitat see United Nations Center for Human Settlements (UNCHS)

IADB Inter-American Development Bank
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IBEC International Bank for Economic Cooperation
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
ICC International Chamber of Commerce
ICEM Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration; see
International Organization for Migration (IOM)
ICFTU International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
ICJ International Court of Justice
ICM Intergovernmental Committee for Migration; see
International Organization for Migration (IOM)
ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross
IDA International Development Association
IDB Islamic Development Bank
IEA International Energy Agency
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IFC International Finance Corporation
IGADD Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development
IIB International Investment Bank
ILO International Labor Organization
IMCO Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization; see
International Maritime Organization (IMO)
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite Organization
INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization
IOC International Olympic Committee
IOM International Organization for Migration
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ITU International Telecommunication Union

LAES Latin American Economic System
LAIA Latin American Integration Association
LAS League of Arab States; see Arab League (AL)
LDC less developed country
LLDC least developed country
LORCS League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

NAM Nonaligned Movement
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NC Nordic Council
NEA Nuclear Energy Agency
NIB Nordic Investment Bank
NIC newly industrializing country; see newly industrializing
economy (NIE)
NIE newly industrializing economy

OAPEC Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries
OAS Organization of American States
OAU Organization of African Unity
OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
OECS Organization of Eastern Caribbean States
OIC Organization of the Islamic Conference
OPANAL Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America
and the Caribbean
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

PCA Permanent Court of Arbitration

RG Rio Group

SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
SACU Southern African Customs Union
SADCC Southern African Development Coordination Conference
SELA Sistema Economico Latinoamericana; see Latin American Economic
System (LAES)
SPC South Pacific Commission
SPF South Pacific Forum

UDEAC Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale; see
Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)
UN United Nations
UNAVEM United Nations Angola Verification Mission
UNCHS United National Center for Human Settlements (also
known as Habitat)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDOF United Nations Disengagement Observer Force
UNDP United Nations Development Program
UNEP United Nations Environment Program
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization
UNFICYP United Nations Force in Cyprus
UNFPA United Nations Fund for Population Activities; see UN Population
Fund (UNFPA)
UNHCR United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund; see
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
UNIIMOG United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group
UNMOGIP United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees
in the Near East
UNTSO United Nations Truce Supervision Organization
UPU Universal Postal Union
USSR/EE USSR/Eastern Europe

WADB West African Development Bank
WCL World Confederation of Labor
WEU Western European Union
WFC World Food Council
WFP World Food Program
WFTU World Federation of Trade Unions
WHO World Health Organization
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WP Warsaw Pact (members met 1 July 1991 to dissolve the alliance)
WTO World Tourism Organization

note: not all international organizations and groups have abbreviations

=========================================================================

Appendix C: International Organizations and Groups

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_advanced developing countries--another term for those less
developed countries (LDCs) with particularly rapid industrial
development; see newly industrializing economies (NIEs)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_African, Caribbean, and Pacific Countries (ACP)

established--1 April 1976;

aim--members have a preferential economic and aid relationship with
the EC;

members--(66) Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados,
Belize, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde,
Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Dominica,
Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati,
Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo,
Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Western Samoa,
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_African Development Bank (AfDB), also known as Banque Africaine de
Developpement (BAD);

established--4 August 1963;

aim--to promote economic and social development;

regional members--(50) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina,
Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros,
Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia,
Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia,
Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco,
Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo,
Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe;

nonregional members--(25) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium,
Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy,
Japan, South Korea, Kuwait, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Saudi Arabia,
Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US, Yugoslavia
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique (ACCT)--see Agency
for Cultural and Technical Cooperation (ACCT)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation (ACCT)--acronym
from Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique;

established--21 March 1970;

aim--to promote cultural and technical cooperation among
French-speaking countries;

members--(30) Belgium, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Canada,
Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Dominica,
France, Gabon, Guinea, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Mali,
Mauritius, Monaco, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Togo, Tunisia,
Vanuatu, Vietnam, Zaire;

associate members--(7) Cameroon, Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Laos,
Mauritania, Morocco, Saint Lucia;

participating governments--(2) New Brunswick (Canada),
Quebec (Canada)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the
Caribbean (OPANAL)--acronym from Organismo para la Proscripcion de
las Armas Nucleares en la America Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL);

established--14 February 1967;

aim--to encourage the peaceful uses of atomic energy and prohibit
nuclear weapons;

members--(25) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Bolivia,
Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico,
Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago,
Uruguay, Venezuela;

_@_observer--(1) Cuba
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Andean Group (AG)

established--26 May 1969, effective 16 October 1969;

aim--to promote harmonious development through economic
integration;

members--(5) Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela;

associate member--(1) Panama;

observers--(26) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil,
Canada, Costa Rica, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, India,
Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Paraguay, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, UK, US, Uruguay, Yugoslavia
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA), also known as
Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique (BADEA);

established--18 February 1974, effective 16 September 1974;

aim--to promote economic development;

members--(17 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria,
Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania,
Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE,
Palestine Liberation Organization; note--these are all the members of the
Arab League except Djibouti, Somalia, and Yemen
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Arab Cooperation Council (ACC)

established--16 February 1989;

aim--to promote economic cooperation and integration, possibly
leading to an Arab Common Market;

members--(4) Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Yemen
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD)

established--16 May 1968;

aim--to promote economic and social development;

members--(20 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria,
Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt (suspended from 1979 to 1988), Iraq, Jordan,
Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,
Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation
Organization
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Arab League (AL), also known as League of Arab States (LAS);

established--22 March 1945;

aim--to promote economic, social, political, and military
cooperation;

members--(20 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria,
Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya,
Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria,
Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Arab Maghreb Union (AMU)

established--17 February 1989;

aim--to promote cooperation and integration among the Arab states
of northern Africa;

members--(5) Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Arab Monetary Fund (AMF)

established--27 April 1976, effective 2 February 1977;

aim--to promote Arab cooperation, development, and integration in
monetary and economic affairs;

members--(19 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria,
Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania,
Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE,
Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

established--NA November 1989;

aim--to promote trade and investment in the Pacific basin;

members--(12) all ASEAN members (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia,
Philippines, Singapore, Thailand) plus Australia, Canada, Japan,
South Korea, NZ, US
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Asian Development Bank (AsDB)

established--19 December 1966;

aim--to promote regional economic cooperation;

regional members--(34) Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan,
Burma, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia,
Japan, Kiribati, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal,
NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Islands,
Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Turkey, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western
Samoa;

nonregional members--(15) Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, UK, US
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI)--see
Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

established--9 August 1967;

aim--regional economic, social, and cultural cooperation among the
non-Communist countries of Southeast Asia;

members--(6) Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore,
Thailand;

observer--(1) Papua New Guinea
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Australia-New Zealand-United States Security Treaty (ANZUS)

established--1 September 1951, effective 29 April 1952;

aim--trilateral mutual security agreement, although the US
suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986;

members--(3) Australia, NZ, US
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico (BCIE)--see
Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Banco Interamericano de Desarvollo (BID)--see Inter-American
Development Bank (IADB)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

established--20 January 1930, effective 17 March 1930;

aim--to promote cooperation among central banks in international
financial settlements;

members--(29) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada,
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US,
Yugoslavia
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Banque Africaine de Developpement (BAD)--see African Development
Bank (AfDB)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique (BADEA)--see
Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Banque de Developpement des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale
(BDEAC)--see Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD)--see West African
Development Bank (WADB)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Benelux Economic Union (Benelux)--acronym from Belgium,
Netherlands, and Luxembourg;

established--3 February 1958, effective 1 November 1960;

aim--to develop closer economic cooperation and integration;

members--(3) Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Big Seven--membership is the same as the Group of 7;

established--NA;

aim--to discuss and coordinate major economic policies;

members--(7) Big Six (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK)
plus the US
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Big Six--not to be confused with the Group of 6;

established--NA;

aim--economic cooperation;

members--(6) Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM)

established--4 July 1973, effective 1 August 1973;

aim--to promote economic integration and development, especially
among the less developed countries;

members--(13) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize,
Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis,
Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago;

observers--(7) Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands,
Dominican Republic, Haiti, Netherlands Antilles, Suriname
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Caribbean Development Bank (CDB)

established--18 October 1969, effective 26 January 1970;

aim--to promote economic development and cooperation;

regional members--(20) Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas,
Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Colombia,
Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Mexico, Montserrat,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Venezuela;

nonregional members--(3) Canada, France, UK
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Cartagena Group--see Group of 11
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)--acronym from
Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale;

established--8 December 1964, effective 1 January 1966;

aim--to promote the establishment of a Central African Common
Market;

members--(6) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo,
Equatorial Guinea, Gabon
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC)--acronym from
Banque de Developpement des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale;

established--3 December 1975;

aim--to provide loans for economic development;

members--(9) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo,
Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Germany, Kuwait
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)--acronym from
Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico;

established--13 December 1960;

aim--to promote economic integration and development;

members--(5) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,
Nicaragua
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Central American Common Market (CACM)

established--13 December 1960, effective 3 June 1961;

aim--to promote establishment of a Central American Common Market;

members--(5) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,
Nicaragua
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_centrally planned economies--a term applied mainly to the
traditionally Communist states that looked to the USSR for leadership;
many are now evolving toward more democratic and market-oriented systems;
also known formerly as the Second World or as the Communist countries;
through the 1980s, this group included Albania, Bulgaria, Cambodia,
China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Hungary, North Korea, Laos, Mongolia,
Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam, Yugoslavia
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Colombo Plan (CP)

established--1 July 1951;

aim--to promote economic and social development in Asia and
the Pacific;

members--(26) Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma,
Cambodia, Canada, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, South Korea, Laos,
Malaysia, Maldives, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines,
Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, UK, US
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Commission for Social Development

established--21 June 1946 as the Social Commission, renamed
29 July 1966;

aim--ECOSOC organization dealing with social development programs;

members--(32) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Commission on Human Rights

established--18 February 1946;

aim--ECOSOC organization dealing with human rights;

members--(43) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Commission on Narcotic Drugs

established--16 February 1946;

aim--ECOSOC organization dealing with illicit drugs;

members--(40) selected on a rotating basis from all regions with
emphasis on producing and processing countries
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Commission on the Status of Women

established--21 June 1946;

aim--ECOSOC organization dealing with women's rights;

members--(32) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Commonwealth (C)

established--31 December 1931;

aim--voluntary association that evolved from the British Empire and
that seeks to foster multinational cooperation and assistance;

members--(48) Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Canada, Cyprus, Dominica,
The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati,
Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Namibia, NZ,
Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and
Tobago, Uganda, UK, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Zambia, Zimbabwe;

special members--(2) Nauru, Tuvalu
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest (CEAO)--see
West African Economic Community (CEAO)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale
(CEEAC)--see Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs (CEPGL)--see
Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Communist countries--traditionally the Marxist-Leninist states with
authoritarian governments and command economies based on the Soviet
model; see centrally planned economies
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)

established--NA November 1972;

aim--discusses issues of mutual concern and reviews implementation
of the Helsinki Agreement;

members--(35) Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus,
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco,
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US, USSR, Vatican City, Yugoslavia
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire (CERN)--see
European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Contadora Group (CG) was established 5 January 1983 (on the
Panamanian island of Contadora) to reduce tensions and conflicts in
Central America but evolved into the Rio Group (RG); members included
Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf--see
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Coordinating Committee on Export Controls (COCOM)

established--NA 1949;

aim--compiles strategic embargo list of goods not to be sold by the
West to Eastern bloc countries;

members--(15) Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece,
Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey, UK, US
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA), also known as
CMEA or Comecon, was established 25 January 1949 to promote the
development of socialist economies and was abolished 1 January 1991;
members included Afghanistan (observer), Albania (had not participated
since 1961 break with USSR), Angola (observer), Bulgaria, Cuba,
Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia (observer), GDR, Hungary, Laos (observer),
Mongolia, Mozambique (observer), Nicaragua (observer), Poland, Romania,
USSR, Vietnam, Yemen (observer), Yugoslavia (associate)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU)

established--3 June 1957, effective 30 May 1964;

aim--to promote economic integration among Arab nations;

members--(11) Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania,
Somalia, Sudan, Syria, UAE, Yemen
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Council of Europe (CE)

established--5 May 1949, effective 3 August 1949;

aim--to promote increased unity and quality of life in Europe;

members--(24) Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein,
Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Council of the Entente (Entente)

established--29 May 1959;

aim--to promote economic, social, and political coordination;

members--(5) Benin, Burkina, Ivory Coast, Niger, Togo
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Customs Cooperation Council (CCC)

established--15 December 1950;

aim--to promote international cooperation in customs matters;

members--(104) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas,
Bangladesh, Belgium, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi,
Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chile, China, Congo, Cuba,
Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon,
The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hong Kong,
Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali,
Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal,
Netherlands, NZ, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US,
Uruguay, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_developed countries (DCs)--the top group in the comprehensive but
mutually exclusive hierarchy of developed countries (DCs),
USSR/Eastern Europe (USSR/EE), and less developed countries (LDCs);
includes the market-oriented economies of the mainly democratic nations
in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD),
Bermuda, Israel, South Africa, and the European ministates; also known
as the First World, high-income countries, the North, industrial
countries; generally have a per capita GNP/GDP in excess of $10,000
although some OECD countries and South Africa have figures well under
$10,000 and three of the excluded OPEC countries have figures of $10,000
or more;

the 34 DCs are--Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda,
Canada, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta,
Monaco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, South Africa,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US, Vatican City
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_developing countries--an imprecise term for the less developed
countries with growing economies; see less developed countries (LDCs)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_East African Development Bank (EADB)

established--6 June 1967, effective 1 December 1967;

aim--to promote economic development;

members--(3) Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)

established--28 March 1947 as Economic Commission for Asia and
the Far East (ECAFE);

aim--to promote economic development as a regional commission for
the UN's ECOSOC;

members--(38) Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei,
Burma, Cambodia, China, Fiji, France, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan,
South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal,
Netherlands, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore,
Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, UK, US, USSR,
Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Samoa;

associate members--(9) Cook Islands, Guam, Hong Kong, Kiribati,
Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Niue,
Northern Mariana Islands, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)

established--9 August 1973 as Economic Commission for Western Asia
(ECWA);

aim--to promote economic development as a regional commission for
the UN's ECOSOC;

members--(12) Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman,
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

established--26 June 1945, effective 24 October 1945;

aim--to coordinate the economic and social work of the UN; includes
five regional commissions (see Economic Commission for Africa, Economic
Commission for Europe, Economic Commission for Latin America and the
Caribbean, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific,
Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia) and six functional
commissions (see Commission for Social Development, Commission on Human
Rights, Commission on Narcotic Drugs, Commission on the Status of Women,
Population Commission, and Statistical Commission);

members--(54) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)

established--29 April 1958;

aim--to promote economic development as a regional commission of
the UN's ECOSOC;

members--(51) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi,
Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo,
Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique,
Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo,
Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe;

associate members--(3) France, Namibia, UK
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE)--see
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Economic Commission for Europe (ECE)

established--28 March 1947;

aim--to promote economic development as a regional commission of
the UN's ECOSOC;

members--(33) Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Byelorussian
Soviet Socialist Republic, Canada, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic,
US, USSR, Yugoslavia
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA)--see Economic
Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

established--25 February 1948 as Economic Commission for
Latin America (ECLA);

aim--to promote economic development as a regional commission of
the UN's ECOSOC;

members--(41) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas,
Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France,
Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico,
Netherlands, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Spain, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela;

associate members--(5) Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Montserrat,
Netherlands Antilles, Virgin Islands
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Economic Commission for Western Asia (ECWA)--see Economic and
Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC)--acronym from
Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale;

established--18 October 1983;

aim--to promote regional economic cooperation and establish a
Central African Common Market;

members--(10) Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad,
Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Zaire;

observer--(1) Angola
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)--acronym
from Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs;

established--26 September 1976;

aim--to promote regional economic cooperation and integration;

members--(3) Burundi, Rwanda, Zaire
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

established--28 May 1975;

aim--to promote regional economic cooperation;

members--(16) Benin, Burkina, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger,
Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)

established--15 April 1991;

aim--to facilitate the transition of seven centrally planned
economies in Europe (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania,
USSR, and Yugoslavia) to market economies by committing 60% of its
loans to privatization;

members--(34) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Cyprus, Denmark,
European Community (EC), Egypt, European Investment Bank (EIB),
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan,
South Korea, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Morocco,
Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey,
UK, US; note--includes all 12 members of the EC as individual countries
and the EC itself as an institution
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_European Community (EC)

established--8 April 1965, effective 1 July 1967;

aim--a fusing of the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom),
the European Coal and Steel Community (ESC), and the European Economic
Community (EEC or Common Market); the EC plans to establish a completely
integrated common market in 1992 and an eventual federation of Europe;

members--(12) Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland,
Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_European Free Trade Association (EFTA)

established--4 January 1960, effective 3 May 1960;

aim--to promote expansion of free trade;

members--(7) Austria, Finland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway,
Sweden, Switzerland
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_European Investment Bank (EIB)

established--25 March 1957, effective 1 January 1958;

aim--to promote economic development of the EC;

members--(12) Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland,
Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)--acronym retained
from the predecessor organization Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche
Nucleaire;

established--1 July 1953, effective 29 September 1954;

aim--to foster nuclear research for peaceful purposes only;

members--(14) Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece,
Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK;

observers--(3) Poland (scheduled to become a member 1 July 1991),
Turkey, Yugoslavia
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_European Space Agency (ESA)

established--31 July 1973, effective 1 May 1975;

aim--to promote peaceful cooperation in space research and
technology;

members--(13) Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland,
Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK;

associate member--(1) Finland
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_First World--another term for countries with advanced,
industrialized economies; see developed countries (DCs)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

established--16 October 1945;

aim--UN specialized agency to raise living standards and increase
availability of agricultural products;

members--(157) all UN members except Brunei, Byelorussian Soviet
Socialist Republic, Liechtenstein, Singapore, South Africa, Ukrainian
Soviet Socialist Republic, USSR; other members are Cook Islands,
North Korea, South Korea, Switzerland, Tonga
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Four Dragons the four small Asian less developed countries (LDCs)
that have experienced unusually rapid economic growth; also known as the
Four Tigers; this group includes Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore,
Taiwan
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Four Tigers--another term for the Four Dragons; see Four Dragons
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Franc Zone (FZ)

established--NA;

aim--monetary union among countries whose currencies are linked to
the French franc;

members--(15) Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Republic,
Chad, Comoros, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Ivory Coast,
Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo; note--France includes metropolitan France,
the four overseas departments of France (French Guiana, Guadeloupe,
Martinique, Reunion), the two territorial collectivities of France
(Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon), and the three overseas territories
of France (French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Front Line States (FLS)

established--NA;

aim--to achieve black majority rule in South Africa;

members--(7) Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania,
Zambia, Zimbabwe
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

established--30 October 1947, effective 1 January 1948;

aim--to promote the expansion of international trade on a
nondiscriminatory basis;

members--(101) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil,
Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic,
Chad, Chile, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia,
Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guyana, Haiti, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland,
India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan,
Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Macau, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,
Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra
Leone, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Sweden,
Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,
Turkey, Uganda, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia,
Zimbabwe
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Group of 2 (G-2)

established--informal term that came into use about 1986;

aim--bilateral economic cooperation between the two most powerful
economic giants;

members--(2) Japan, US
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Group of 3 (G-3)

established--NA October 1990;

aim--mechanism for policy coordination;

members--(3) Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Group of 5 (G-5)

established--22 September 1985;

aim--the five major non-Communist economic powers;

members--(5) France, Germany, Japan, UK, US
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Group of 6 (G-6)--not to be confused with the Big Six;

established--22 May 1984;

aim--seeks to achieve nuclear disarmament;

members--(6) Argentina, Greece, India, Mexico, Sweden, Tanzania
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Group of 7 (G-7)--membership is the same as the Big Seven;

established--22 September 1985;

aim--the seven major non-Communist economic powers;

members--(7) Group of 5 (France, Germany, Japan, UK, US) plus
Canada and Italy
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Group of 8 (G-8)

established--NA October 1975;

aim--the developed countries (DCs) that participated in the
Conference on International Economic Cooperation (CIEC), held in several
sessions between NA December 1975 and 3 June 1977;

members--(8) Australia, Canada, EC (as one member), Japan, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, US
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Group of 9 (G-9)

established--NA;

aim--informal group that meets occasionally on matters of mutual
interest;

members--(9) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Hungary,
Romania, Sweden, Yugoslavia
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Group of 10 (G-10), also known as the Paris Club;

established--NA October 1962;

aim--wealthiest members of the IMF who provide most of the money
to be loaned and act as the informal steering committee; name persists in
spite of the addition of Switzerland on NA April 1984;

members--(11) Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan,
Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Group of 11 (G-11), also known as the Cartagena Group;

established--22 June 1984, in Cartagena, Colombia;

aim--forum for largest debtor nations in Latin America;

members--(11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Group of 19 (G-19)

established--NA October 1975;

aim--the less developed countries (LDCs) that participated in the
Conference on International Economic Cooperation (CIEC) held in several
sessions between NA December 1975 and 3 June 1977;

members--(19) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Cameroon, Egypt, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru,
Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Group of 24 (G-24)

established--NA January 1972;

aim--to promote the interests of developing countries in Africa,
Asia, and Latin America within the IMF;

members--(24) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Egypt,
Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Lebanon,
Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Syria,
Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Group of 30 (G-30)

established--NA 1979;

aim--to discuss and propose solutions to the world's economic
problems;

members--(30) informal group of 30 leading international bankers,
economists, financial experts, and businessmen organized by Johannes
Witteveen (former managing director of the IMF)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Group of 33 (G-33)

established--NA 1987;

aim--to promote solutions to international economic problems;

members--(33) leading economists from 13 countries
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Group of 77 (G-77)

established--NA October 1967;

aim--to promote economic cooperation among developing countries;
name persists in spite of increased membership;

members--(123 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization)
Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape
Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Congo,
Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon,
The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica,
Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua,
Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, UAE, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam,
Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine
Liberation Organization
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), also known as the Cooperation
Council for the Arab States of the Gulf;

established--25-26 May 1981;

aim--to promote regional cooperation in economic, social,
political, and military affairs;

members--(6) Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Habitat--see United Nations Center for Human Settlements (UNCHS)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_high-income countries--another term for the industrialized
countries with high per capita GNPs/GDPs; see developed countries (DCs)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_industrial countries--another term for the developed countries; see
developed countries (DCs)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), also known as
Banco Interamericano de Desarollo (BID);

established--8 April 1959; effective 30 December 1959;

aim--to promote economic and social development in Latin America;

members--(44) Argentina, Austria, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium,
Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany,
Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,
Mexico, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal,
Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US,
Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD)

established--NA January 1986;

aim--to promote cooperation on drought-related matters;

members--(6) Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

established--26 October 1956, effective 29 July 1957;

aim--to promote peaceful uses of atomic energy;

members--(111) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Australia,
Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma,
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,
Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia,
Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia,
Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti,
Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea,
Kuwait, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar,
Malaysia, Mali, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia,
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania,
Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Africa, Spain,
Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand,
Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, UAE, UK,
US, USSR, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yugoslavia, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_International Bank for Economic Cooperation (IBEC)

established--22 October 1963;

aim--to promote economic cooperation and development;

members--(9) Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Mongolia,
Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), also
known as the World Bank;

established--22 July 1944, effective 27 December 1945;

aim--UN specialized agency that initially promoted economic
rebuilding after World War II and now provides economic development
loans;

members--(152) all UN members except Albania, Angola, Brunei,
Bulgaria, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Cuba, Czechoslovakia,
Liechtenstein, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, USSR; other members
are Kiribati, South Korea, Tonga
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)

established--NA 1919;

aim--to promote free trade, private enterprise, and represent
business interests at national and international levels;

members--(60 national councils) Argentina, Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Brazil, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada, Colombia, Cyprus, Denmark,
Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Greece, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jordan,
South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco,
Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
Taiwan, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela,
Yugoslavia, Zaire
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
_#_International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

established--7 December 1944, effective 4 April 1947;

aim--UN specialized agency to promote international cooperation in

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