Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

Part 31 out of 39

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 3.3 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width),
and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow
band; the coat of arms includes the royal seal framed by the Pillars of
Hercules which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either
side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: This Western capitalistic economy has done well since
Spain joined the EC in 1986. With annual increases in real GNP averaging
about 5% in the 1987-90 period, Spain has been the fastest growing member
of the EC. Increased investment--both domestic and foreign--has been the
most important factor pushing the economic expansion. Inflation moderated
to 4.8% in 1988, but an overheated economy caused inflation to reach
almost 7% in 1989-90. Another economic problem facing Spain is an
unemployment rate of 16.3%, the highest in Europe.

_#_GDP: $435.9 billion, per capita $11,100; real growth rate 3.7%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.7% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 16.3% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $100.1 billion; expenditures $111.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990)

_#_Exports: $55.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--foodstuffs, live animals, wood, footwear, machinery,
chemicals;

partners--EC 67.8%, US 6.5%, other developed countries 9%

_#_Imports: $87.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--petroleum, footwear, machinery, chemicals, grain,
soybeans, coffee, tobacco, iron and steel, timber, cotton, transport
equipment;

partners--EC 59.7%, US 8.5%, other developed countries 11.5%,
Middle East 3.4%

_#_External debt: $37 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3.5% (1990 est.)

_#_Electricity: 46,589,000 kW capacity; 141,000 million kWh produced,
3,590 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and
beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding,
automobiles, machine tools

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GNP and 14% of labor force; major
products--grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus
fruit, beef, pork, poultry, dairy; largely self-sufficient in food;
fish catch of 1.4 million metric tons is among top 20 nations

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1.9
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-79), $545.0 million; not currently a recipient

_#_Currency: peseta (plural--pesetas); 1 peseta (Pta) =
100 centimos

_#_Exchange rates: pesetas (Ptas) per US$1--95.20 (January 1991),
101.93 (1990), 118.38 (1989), 116.49 (1988), 123.48 (1987), 140.05
(1986), 170.04 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 15,430 km total; Spanish National Railways (RENFE)
operates 12,691 km 1.668-meter gauge, 6,184 km electrified, and
2,295 km double track; FEVE (government-owned narrow-gauge railways)
operates 1,821 km of predominantly 1.000-meter gauge and 441 km
electrified; privately owned railways operate 918 km of predominantly
1.000-meter gauge, 512 km electrified, and 56 km double track

_#_Highways: 150,839 km total; 82,513 km national (includes 2,433 km
limited-access divided highway, 63,042 km bituminous treated, 17,038 km
intermediate bituminous, concrete, or stone block) and 68,326 km
provincial or local roads (bituminous treated, intermediate bituminous,
or stone block)

_#_Inland waterways: 1,045 km, but of minor economic importance

_#_Pipelines: 265 km crude oil; 1,794 km refined products; 1,666 km
natural gas

_#_Ports: Algeciras, Alicante, Almeria, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz,
Cartagena, Castellon de la Plana, Ceuta, El Ferrol del Caudillo,
Puerto de Gijon, Huelva, La Coruna, Las Palmas (Canary Islands),
Mahon, Malaga, Melilla, Rota, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Sagunto,
Tarragona, Valencia, Vigo, and 175 minor ports

_#_Merchant marine: 304 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,367,529
GRT/5,984,306 DWT; includes 2 passenger, 9 short-sea passenger,
105 cargo, 17 refrigerated cargo, 14 container, 29 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 4 vehicle carrier, 50 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 14 chemical tanker, 7 liquefied gas, 1 combination ore/oil,
4 specialized tanker, 48 bulk

_#_Civil air: 172 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 104 total, 98 usable; 61 with permanent-surface runways;
4 with runways over 3,659 m; 22 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 25 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: generally adequate, modern facilities;
15,350,464 telephones; stations--206 AM, 411 (134 relays) FM, 143
(1,297 relays) TV; 17 coaxial submarine cables; communications
satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT (5 Atlantic Ocean,
1 Indian Ocean), MARISAT, and ENTELSAT systems

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Civil Guard

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 10,134,256; 8,222,987 fit for
military service; 339,749 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $8.6 billion, 2% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Spratly Islands
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: less than 5 km2; land area: less than 5 km2; includes
100 or so islets, coral reefs, and sea mounts scattered over the
South China Sea

_#_Comparative area: undetermined

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 926 km

_#_Maritime claims: undetermined

_#_Disputes: China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam
claim all or part of the Spratly Islands

_#_Climate: tropical

_#_Terrain: flat

_#_Natural resources: fish, guano; oil and natural gas potential

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: subject to typhoons; includes numerous small islands,
atolls, shoals, and coral reefs

_#_Note: strategically located near several primary shipping
lanes in the central South China Sea; serious navigational hazard

_*_People
_#_Population: no permanent inhabitants; garrisons

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Economic activity is limited to commercial fishing and
phosphate mining. Geological surveys carried out several years ago
suggest that substantial reserves of oil and natural gas may lie beneath
the islands; commercial exploitation has yet to be developed.

_#_Industries: some guano mining

_*_Communications
_#_Airports: 3 total, 2 usable; none with runways over 2,439 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Ports: no natural harbors

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: approximately 50 small islands or reefs are occupied
by China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam
_%_
_@_Sri Lanka
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 65,610 km2; land area: 64,740 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than West Virginia

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 1,340 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; monsoonal; northeast monsoon (December to
March); southwest monsoon (June to October)

_#_Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in
south-central interior

_#_Natural resources: limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems,
phosphates, clay

_#_Land use: arable land 16%; permanent crops 17%; meadows and
pastures 7%; forest and woodland 37%; other 23%; includes irrigated 8%

_#_Environment: occasional cyclones, tornados; deforestation; soil
erosion

_#_Note: only 29 km from India across the Palk Strait; near major
Indian Ocean sea lanes

_*_People
_#_Population: 17,423,736 (July 1991), growth rate 1.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 21 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Sri Lankan(s); adjective--Sri Lankan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Sinhalese 74%; Tamil 18%; Moor 7%; Burgher,
Malay, and Veddha 1%

_#_Religion: Buddhist 69%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 8%

_#_Language: Sinhala (official); Sinhala and Tamil listed as national
languages; Sinhala spoken by about 74% of population, Tamil spoken by
about 18%; English commonly used in government and spoken by about 10% of
the population

_#_Literacy: 86% (male 91%, female 81%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981)

_#_Labor force: 6,600,000; agriculture 45.9%, mining and
manufacturing 13.3%, trade and transport 12.4%, services and other 28.4%
(1985 est.)

_#_Organized labor: about 33% of labor force, over 50% of which are
employed on tea, rubber, and coconut estates

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Colombo

_#_Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Amparai, Anuradhapura,
Badulla, Batticaloa, Colombo, Galle, Gampaha, Hambantota, Jaffna,
Kalutara, Kandy, Kegalla, Kurunegala, Mannar, Matale, Matara, Moneragala,
Mullaittivu, Nuwara Eliya, Polonnaruwa, Puttalam, Ratnapura, Trincomalee,
Vavuniya; note--the administrative structure may now include 8 provinces
(Central, North Central, North Eastern, North Western, Sabaragamuwa,
Southern, Uva, and Western) and 25 districts (with Kilinochchi added to
the existing districts)

_#_Independence: 4 February 1948 (from UK; formerly Ceylon)

_#_Constitution: 31 August 1978

_#_Legal system: a highly complex mixture of English common law,
Roman-Dutch, Muslim, and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence and National Day, 4 February (1948)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Ranasinghe PREMADASA (since 2 January
1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Dingiri Banda WIJETUNGE (since
6 March 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
United National Party (UNP), Ranasinghe PREMADASA;
Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP), Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE;
Sri Lanka Muslim Congress (SLMC), M. H. M. ASHRAFF;
All Ceylon Tamil Congress (ACTC), Kumar PONNAMBALAM;
People's United Front (MEP, or Mahajana Eksath Peramuna), Dinesh
GUNAWARDENE;
Eelam Democratic Front (EDF), Edward Sebastian PILLAI;
Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF), leader (vacant);
Eelam Revolutionary Organization of Students (EROS), Velupillai
BALAKUMARAN;
New Socialist Party (NSSP, or Nava Sama Samaja Party),
Vasudeva NANAYAKKARA;
Lanka Socialist Party/Trotskyite (LSSP, or Lanka Sama Samaja Party),
Colin R. de SILVA;
Sri Lanka People's Party (SLMP, or Sri Lanka Mahajana Party),
Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARANATUNGA;
Communist Party/Moscow (CP/M), K. P. SILVA;
Communist Party/Beijing (CP/B), N. SHANMUGATHASAN;
note--the United Socialist Alliance (USA) includes the NSSP, LSSP,
SLMP, CP/M, and CP/B

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 19 December 1988 (next to be held
December 1994);
results--Ranasinghe PREMADASA (UNP) 50%,
Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE (SLFP) 45%, other 5%;

Parliament--last held 15 February 1989
(next to be held by February 1995);
results--UNP 51%, SLFP 32%, SLMC 4%, TULF 3%, USA 3%, EROS 3%, MEP 1%,
other 3%;
seats--(225 total) UNP 125, SLFP 67, other 33

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Liberation Tigers of Tamil
Eelam (LTTE) and other smaller Tamil separatist groups; Janatha Vimukthi
Peramuna (JVP or People's Liberation Front); Buddhist clergy; Sinhalese
Buddhist lay groups; labor unions

_#_Member of: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador W. Susanta De ALWIS; Chancery
at 2148 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-4025
through 4028; there is a Sri Lankan Consulate in New York;

US--Ambassador Marion V. CREEKMORE, Jr.; Embassy at 210 Galle Road,
Colombo 3 (mailing address is P. O. Box 106, Colombo); telephone [94] (1)
448007

_#_Flag: yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two
equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other panel is
a large dark red rectangle with a yellow lion holding a sword and there
is a yellow bo leaf in each corner; the yellow field appears as a border
that goes around the entire flag and extends between the two panels

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Agriculture, forestry, and fishing dominate the economy,
employing about 45% of the labor force and accounting for 26% of
GDP. The plantation crops of tea, rubber, and coconuts provide about 35%
of export earnings. The economy has been plagued by high rates of
unemployment since the late 1970s. Economic growth, which has been
depressed by ethnic unrest, accelerated in 1990 as domestic conditions
began to improve.

_#_GDP: $6.6 billion, per capita $380; real growth rate 4.5% (1990
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 23% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 20% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $2.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $0.5 billion (1990)

_#_Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--tea, textiles and garments, petroleum products,
coconut, rubber, agricultural products, gems and jewelry, marine
products;

partners--US 26%, FRG, Japan, UK, Belgium, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China

_#_Imports: $2.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--food and beverages, textiles and textile materials,
petroleum, machinery and equipment;

partners--Japan, Saudi Arabia, US 5.6%, India, Singapore, FRG, UK,
Iran

_#_External debt: $5.6 billion (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 6% (1989 est.); accounts for
18% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 1,300,000 kW capacity; 4,200 million kWh produced,
240 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, and other
agricultural commodities; cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco,
clothing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 26% of GDP and nearly half of labor
force; most important staple crop is paddy rice; other field
crops--sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseeds, roots, spices; cash
crops--tea, rubber, coconuts; animal products--milk, eggs, hides, meat;
not self-sufficient in rice production

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.0
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-88), $4.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $169 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $369 million

_#_Currency: Sri Lankan rupee (plural--rupees);
1 Sri Lankan rupee (SLRe) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Sri Lankan rupees (SLRs) per US$1--40.272 (January
1991), 40.063 (1990), 36.047 (1989), 31.807 (1988), 29.445 (1987), 28.017
(1986), 27.163 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 1,948 km total (1989); all 1.868-meter broad gauge;
102 km double track; no electrification; government owned

_#_Highways: 75,263 km total (1988); 27,637 km paved (mostly
bituminous treated), 32,887 km crushed stone or gravel, 14,739 km
improved earth or unimproved earth; several thousand km of mostly
unmotorable tracks (1988 est.)

_#_Inland waterways: 430 km; navigable by shallow-draft craft

_#_Pipelines: crude and refined products, 62 km (1987)

_#_Ports: Colombo, Trincomalee

_#_Merchant marine: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 364,466
GRT/551,686 DWT; includes 18 cargo, 6 refrigerated cargo, 5 container,
2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 bulk

_#_Civil air: 8 major transport (including 1 leased)

_#_Airports: 14 total, 13 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good international service; 114,000 telephones
(1982); stations--12 AM, 5 FM, 5 TV; submarine cables extend to
Indonesia and Djibouti; 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 4,636,767; 3,625,289 fit for
military service; 178,010 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $300 million, 5% of GDP (1991)
_%_
_@_Sudan
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 2,505,810 km2; land area: 2,376,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than one quarter the size of US

_#_Land boundaries: 7,697 km total; Central African Republic 1,165 km,
Chad 1,360 km, Egypt 1,273 km, Ethiopia 2,221 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya
383 km, Uganda 435 km, Zaire 628 km

_#_Coastline: 853 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 18 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: administrative boundary with Kenya does not coincide
with international boundary; administrative boundary with Egypt
does not coincide with international boundary

_#_Climate: tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season
(April to October)

_#_Terrain: generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in east and
west

_#_Natural resources: small reserves of crude oil, iron ore,
copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, crude oil

_#_Land use: arable land 5%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 24%; forest and woodland 20%; other 51%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: dominated by the Nile and its tributaries; dust
storms; desertification

_#_Note: largest country in Africa

_*_People
_#_Population: 27,220,088 (July 1991), growth rate 3.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 85 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 54 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Sudanese (sing. and pl.); adjective--Sudanese

_#_Ethnic divisions: black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%,
other 1%

_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim (in north) 70%, indigenous beliefs 20%,
Christian (mostly in south and Khartoum) 5%

_#_Language: Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects
of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, and Sudanic languages, English; program of
Arabization in process

_#_Literacy: 27% (male 43%, female 12%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 6,500,000; agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 10%,
government 6%; labor shortages for almost all categories of skilled
employment (1983 est.); 52% of population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: trade unions suspended following 30 June 1989
coup; now in process of being legalized anew

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of the Sudan

_#_Type: military; civilian government suspended and martial law
imposed after 30 June 1989 coup

_#_Capital: Khartoum

_#_Administrative divisions: 9 states (wilayat,
singular--wilayat or wilayah*); Aali an Nil,
Al Wusta*, Al Istiwaiyah*, Al Khartum,
Ash Shamaliyah*, Ash Sharqiyah*, Bahr al Ghazal,
Darfur, Kurdufan

_#_Independence: 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK; formerly
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan)

_#_Constitution: 12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April
1985; interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of
30 June 1989

_#_Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law;
as of 20 January 1991, the Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic
law in the six northern states of Al Wusta, Al Khartum, Ash
Shamaliyah, Ash Sharqiyah, Darfur, and Kurdufan; the
council is still studying criminal provisions under Islamic law; Islamic
law will apply to all residents of the six northern states regardless of
their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1956)

_#_Executive branch: executive and legislative authority vested in a
13-member Revolutionary Command Council (RCC); chairman of the RCC acts
as prime minister; in July 1989 RCC appointed a predominately civilian
22-member cabinet to function as advisers

_#_Legislative branch: none

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Special Revolutionary Courts

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--Revolutionary Command
Council Chairman and Prime Minister Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad
al-BASHIR (since 30 June 1989);
Deputy Chairman of the Command Council and Deputy Prime Minister
Maj. Gen. al-Zubayr Muhammad SALIH Ahmed (since 9 July 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders: none; banned following
30 June 1989 coup

_#_Suffrage: none

_#_Elections: none

_#_Member of: ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdallah Ahmad ABDALLAH;
Chancery at 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 338-8565 through 8570; there is a Sudanese Consulate General in New
York;

US--Ambassador James R. CHEEK; Embassy at Shar'ia Ali Abdul Latif,
Khartoum (mailing address is P. O. Box 699, Khartoum, or APO New York
09668); telephone 74700 or 74611

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black
with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Sudan, one of the world's poorest countries, is buffeted
by civil war, chronic political instability, adverse weather, and
counterproductive economic policies. The economy is dominated
by governmental entities that account for more than 70% of new
investment. The private sector's main areas of activity are agriculture
and trading, with most private industrial investment predating 1980. The
economy's base is agriculture, which employs 80% of the work force.
Industry mainly processes agricultural items. Sluggish economic
performance over the past decade, attributable largely to declining
annual rainfall, has reduced levels of per capita income and
consumption. A high foreign debt and huge arrearages continue to cause
difficulties. In 1990 the International Monetary Fund took the unusual
step of declaring Sudan noncooperative on account of its nonpayment of
arrearages to the Fund.

_#_GDP: $8.5 billion, per capita $330; real growth rate - 7%
(FY90 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 60% (FY90 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA

_#_Budget: revenues $514 million; expenditures $1.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $183 million (FY89 est.)

_#_Exports: $465 million (f.o.b., FY90 est.);

commodities--cotton 52%, sesame, gum arabic, peanuts;

partners--Western Europe 46%, Saudi Arabia 14%, Eastern Europe 9%,
Japan 9%, US 3% (FY88)

_#_Imports: $1.0 billion (c.i.f., FY90 est.);

commodities--petroleum products 28%, manufactured goods, machinery
and equipment, medicines and chemicals;

partners--Western Europe 32%, Africa and Asia 15%, US 13%,
Eastern Europe 3% (FY88)

_#_External debt: $12.3 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0.7% (FY89); accounts for
11% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 606,000 kW capacity; 900 million kWh produced,
37 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar,
soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 35% of GNP and 80% of labor force;
water shortages; two-thirds of land area suitable for raising crops and
livestock; major products--cotton, oilseeds, sorghum, millet, wheat,
gum arabic, sheep; marginally self-sufficient in most foods

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.5
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $4.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $3.1 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $588 million

_#_Currency: Sudanese pound (plural--pounds);
1 Sudanese pound (5Sd) = 100 piasters

_#_Exchange rates: official rate--Sudanese pounds (5Sd) per
US$1--4.5004 (fixed rate since 1987), 2.8121 (1987), 2.5000 (1986),
2.2883 (1985); note--commercial exchange rate 12.2 (May 1990)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 5,500 km total; 4,784 km 1.067-meter gauge, 716 km
1.6096-meter-gauge plantation line

_#_Highways: 20,000 km total; 1,600 km bituminous treated,
3,700 km gravel, 2,301 km improved earth, 12,399 km unimproved earth
and track

_#_Inland waterways: 5,310 km navigable

_#_Pipelines: refined products, 815 km

_#_Ports: Port Sudan, Suakin

_#_Merchant marine: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 42,277
GRT/59,588 DWT; includes 3 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo

_#_Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 78 total, 66 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
30 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: large, well-equipped system by African
standards, but barely adequate and poorly maintained; consists of
radio relay, cables, radio communications, and troposcatter; domestic
satellite system with 14 stations; 73,400 telephones; stations--4 AM,
1 FM, 2 TV; earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 6,176,917; 3,792,635 fit for
military service; 306,695 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $610 million, 7.2% of GDP (1989 est)
_%_
_@_Suriname
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 163,270 km2; land area: 161,470 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Georgia

_#_Land boundaries: 1,707 km total; Brazil 597 km, French Guiana
510 km, Guyana 600 km

_#_Coastline: 386 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claims area in French Guiana between Litani Rivier and
Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa); claims area in Guyana
between New (Upper Courantyne) and Courantyne/Kutari Rivers (all
headwaters of the Courantyne)

_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

_#_Terrain: mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps

_#_Natural resources: timber, hydropower potential, fish, shrimp,
bauxite, iron ore, and small amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, gold

_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures NEGL%; forest and woodland 97%; other 3%; includes irrigated
NEGL%

_#_Environment: mostly tropical rain forest

_*_People
_#_Population: 402,385 (July 1991), growth rate 1.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 39 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 71 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Surinamer(s); adjective--Surinamese

_#_Ethnic divisions: Hindustani (East Indian) 37.0%, Creole (black and
mixed) 31.0%, Javanese 15.3%, Bush black 10.3%, Amerindian 2.6%, Chinese
1.7%, Europeans 1.0%, other 1.1%

_#_Religion: Hindu 27.4%, Muslim 19.6%, Roman Catholic 22.8%,
Protestant (predominantly Moravian) 25.2%, indigenous beliefs
about 5%

_#_Language: Dutch (official); English widely spoken; Sranan Tongo
(Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki) is native language of Creoles
and much of the younger population and is lingua franca among others;
also Hindi Suriname Hindustani (a variant of Bhoqpuri) and Javanese

_#_Literacy: 95% (male 95%, female 95%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 104,000 (1984)

_#_Organized labor: 49,000 members of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Suriname

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Paramaribo

_#_Administrative divisions: 10 districts (distrikten,
singular--distrikt); Brokopondo, Commewijne, Coronie, Marowijne,
Nickerie, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca, Sipaliwini, Wanica

_#_Independence: 25 November 1975 (from Netherlands; formerly
Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana)

_#_Constitution: ratified 30 September 1987

_#_Legal system: NA

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 25 November (1975)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president and prime minister,
Cabinet of Ministers, Council of State; note--commander in chief of the
National Army maintains significant power

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President
Ronald VENETIAAN (since 16 September 1991); Vice President and
Prime Minister Jules AJODHIA (since 16 September 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:

traditional ethnic-based parties--The New Front (NF), Henck
ARRON, a coalition formed of four parties following the 24 December
1990 military coup--Progressive Reform Party (VHP), Jaggernath LACHMON;
National Party of Suriname (NPS), Henck ARRON;
Indonesian Peasants Party (KTPI), Willy SOEMITA; and
Suriname Labor Party (SLP), Frank DERBY;

promilitary New Democratic Party (NDP), Jules Albert WIJDENBOSCH,
Frank PLAYFAIR;

Democratic Alternative '91 (DA '91),
Gerard BRUNINGS, a coalition of five parties formed in
January 1991--Alternative Forum, Gerard BRUNINGS, Winston JESSURUN;
Reformed Progressive Party (HPP), Panalall PARMISSER;
Party for Brotherhood and Unity in Politics (BEP), Caprino ALLENDY;
Pendawalima, Marsha JAMIN; and
Independent Progressive Group, Karam RAMSUNDERSINGH;

leftists--Revolutionary People's Party (RVP), Michael NAARENDORP;
Progressive Workers and Farmers (PALU), Iwan KROLIS

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 6 September 1991 (next to be held May
1996);
results--elected by the National Assembly--Ronald VENETIAAN (NF)
80% (645 votes), Jules WIJDENBOSCH (NDP) 14% (115 votes), Hans PRADE
(DA '91) 6% (49 votes)

National Assembly--last held 25 May 1991 (next to be held
May 1996);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(51 total) NF 30, NDP 12, DA '91 9

_#_Member of: ACP, CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, FAO, GATT, G-77, IADB,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES,
LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Willem A. UDENHOUT; Chancery
at Suite 108, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 244-7488 or 7490 through 7492; there is a Surinamese
Consulate General in Miami;

US--Ambassador John (Jack) P. LEONARD; Embassy at Dr. Sophie
Redmonstraat 129, Paramaribo (mailing address is P. O. Box 1821,
Paramaribo); telephone [597] 72900, 77881, or 76459

_#_Flag: five horizontal bands of green (top, double width), white,
red (quadruple width), white, and green (double width); there is a large
yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is dominated by the bauxite industry, which
accounts for about 70% of export earnings and 40% of tax revenues. The
economy has been in trouble since the Dutch ended development aid in
1982. A drop in world bauxite prices that started in the late 1970s and
continued until late 1986, was followed by the outbreak of a guerrilla
insurgency in the interior. The guerrillas targeted the economic
infrastructure, crippling the important bauxite sector and shutting down
other export industries. These problems have created high inflation,
high unemployment, widespread black market activity, and a bad climate
for foreign investment. A small gain in economic growth of 2.0% was
registered in 1989 due to reduced guerrilla activity and improved
international markets for bauxite.

_#_GDP: $1.35 billion, per capita $3,400; real growth rate 2.0%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 33% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $466 million; expenditures $716 million,
including capital expenditures of $123 million (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $425 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.);

commodities--alumina, bauxite, aluminum, rice, wood and wood
products, shrimp and fish, bananas;

partners--Norway 33%, Netherlands 20%, US 15%, FRG 9%,
Brazil 5%, UK 5%, Japan 3%, other 10%

_#_Imports: $370 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.);

commodities--capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton,
consumer goods;

partners--US 37%, Netherlands 15%, Netherlands Antilles 11%,
Trinidad and Tobago 9%, Brazil 5%, UK 3%, other 20%

_#_External debt: $138 million (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 16.4% (1988 est.); accounts
for 22% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 458,000 kW capacity; 2,018 million kWh produced,
5,090 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: bauxite mining, alumina and aluminum production,
lumbering, food processing, fishing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 11% of both GDP and labor force; paddy
rice planted on 85% of arable land and represents 60% of total farm
output; other products--bananas, palm kernels, coconuts, plantains,
peanuts, beef, chicken; shrimp and forestry products of increasing
importance; self-sufficient in most foods

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $2.5
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $1.45 billion

_#_Currency: Surinamese guilder, gulden, or florin (plural--guilders,
gulden, or florins); 1 Surinamese guilder, gulden, or florin (Sf.) =
100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Surinamese guilders, gulden, or florins (Sf.)
per US$1--1.7850 (fixed rate)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 166 km total; 86 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned,
and 80 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; all single track

_#_Highways: 8,300 km total; 500 km paved; 5,400 km bauxite gravel,
crushed stone, or improved earth; 2,400 km sand or clay

_#_Inland waterways: 1,200 km; most important means of transport;
oceangoing vessels with drafts ranging from 4.2 m to 7 m can navigate
many of the principal waterways

_#_Ports: Paramaribo, Moengo

_#_Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
6,472 GRT/8,914 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 container

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 46 total, 42 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: international facilities good; domestic radio
relay system; 27,500 telephones; stations--5 AM, 14 FM, 6 TV, 1
shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: National Army (including Navy which is company-size,
small Air Force element), Civil Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 107,544; 64,146 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $91 million, 7.2% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Svalbard
(territory of Norway)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 62,049 km2; land area: 62,049 km2; includes Spitsbergen
and Bjornoya (Bear Island)

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 3,587 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm unilaterally claimed by Norway,
not recognized by USSR;

Territorial sea: 4 nm

_#_Disputes: focus of maritime boundary dispute between Norway
and USSR

_#_Climate: arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current;
cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and
north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the
year

_#_Terrain: wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered;
west coast clear of ice about half the year; fjords along west and north
coasts

_#_Natural resources: coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc,
wildlife, fish

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%; there are no trees and the only
bushes are crowberry and cloudberry

_#_Environment: great calving glaciers descend to the sea

_#_Note: located 445 km north of Norway where the Arctic Ocean,
Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea meet

_*_People
_#_Population: 3,942 (July 1991), growth rate NA% (1991); about
one-third of the population resides in the Norwegian areas (Longyearbyen
and Svea on Vestspitsbergen) and two-thirds in the Soviet areas
(Barentsburg and Pyramiden on Vestspitsbergen); about 9 persons live at
the Polish research station

_#_Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)

_#_Ethnic divisions: Russian 64%, Norwegian 35%, other 1% (1981)

_#_Language: Russian, Norwegian

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: none

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: territory of Norway administered by the Ministry of Industry,
Oslo, through a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen,
Spitsbergen; by treaty (9 February 1920) sovereignty was given to Norway

_#_Capital: Longyearbyen

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991);

Head of Government--Governor Leif ELDRING (since NA)

_#_Member of: none

_#_Flag: the flag of Norway is used

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard.
By treaty (9 February 1920), the nationals of the treaty powers have
equal rights to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian
regulation. Although US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined
in the past, the only companies still mining are Norwegian and Soviet.
Each company mines about half a million tons of coal annually. The
settlements on Svalbard are essentially company towns. The Norwegian
state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian population
on the island, runs many of the local services, and provides most of the
local infrastructure. There is also some trapping of seal, polar bear,
fox, and walrus.

_#_Budget: revenues $13.3 million, expenditures $13.3 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990)

_#_Electricity: 21,000 kW capacity; 45 million kWh produced,
11,420 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Currency: Norwegian krone (plural--kroner);
1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 ore

_#_Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1--5.9060 (January
1991), 6.2597 (1990), 6.9045 (1989), 6.5170 (1988), 6.7375 (1987), 7.3947
(1986), 8.5972 (1985)

_*_Communications
_#_Ports: limited facilities--Ny-Alesund, Advent Bay

_#_Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 5 meteorological/radio stations;
stations--1 AM, 1 (2 relays) FM, 1 TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)
_%_
_@_Swaziland
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 17,360 km2; land area: 17,200 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

_#_Land boundaries: 535 km total; Mozambique 105 km, South Africa
430 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Climate: varies from tropical to near temperate

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains

_#_Natural resources: asbestos, coal, clay, tin, hydropower, forests,
and small gold and diamond deposits

_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 67%; forest and woodland 6%; other 19%; includes irrigated
2%

_#_Environment: overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion

_#_Note: landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa

_*_People
_#_Population: 859,336 (July 1991), growth rate 2.7% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 101 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 59 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Swazi(s); adjective--Swazi

_#_Ethnic divisions: African 97%, European 3%

_#_Religion: Christian 60%, indigenous beliefs 40%

_#_Language: English and siSwati (official); government business
conducted in English

_#_Literacy: 55% (male 57%, female 54%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1976)

_#_Labor force: 195,000; over 60,000 engaged in subsistence
agriculture; about 92,000 wage earners (many only intermittently), with
agriculture and forestry 36%, community and social services 20%,
manufacturing 14%, construction 9%, other 21%; 24,000-29,000 employed in
South Africa (1987)

_#_Organized labor: about 10% of wage earners

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Swaziland

_#_Type: monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth

_#_Capital: Mbabane (administrative); Lobamba (legislative)

_#_Administrative divisions: 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini,
Shiselweni

_#_Independence: 6 September 1968 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended
on 12 April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but
has not been formally presented to the people

_#_Legal system: based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory
courts, Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Somhlolo (Independence) Day, 6 September (1968)

_#_Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament is advisory and consists
of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Obed DLAMINI (since 12 July
1989)

_#_Political parties: none; banned by the Constitution promulgated on
13 October 1978

_#_Suffrage: none

_#_Elections: no direct elections

_#_Communists: no Communist party

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU,
PCA, SACU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Absalom Vusani MAMBA;
Chancery at 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 362-6683;

US--Ambassador Stephen H. ROGERS; Embassy at Central Bank Building,
Warner Street, Mbabane (mailing address is P. O. Box 199, Mbabane);
telephone [268] 46441 through 5

_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and
blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a
large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated
with feather tassels, all placed horizontally

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which
occupies much of the labor force and contributes about 23% to GDP.
Manufacturing, which includes a number of agroprocessing factories,
accounts for another 26% of GDP. Mining has declined in importance in
recent years; high-grade iron ore deposits were depleted in 1978, and
health concerns cut world demand for asbestos. Exports of sugar and
forestry products are the main earners of hard currency. Surrounded by
South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland
is heavily dependent on South Africa, from which it receives 92% of
its imports and to which it sends about 40% of its exports.

_#_GNP: $563 million, per capita $670; real growth rate 5.0% (1990
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $322.9 million; expenditures $325.5 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY92 est.)

_#_Exports: $543 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, citrus,
canned fruit;

partners--South Africa 40% (est.), EC, Canada

_#_Imports: $651 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment,
petroleum products, foodstuffs, chemicals;

partners--South Africa 92% (est.), Japan, Belgium, UK

_#_External debt: $290 million (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA; accounts for 26%
of GDP (1989)

_#_Electricity: 50,000 kW capacity; 130 million kWh produced,
170 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: mining (coal and asbestos), wood pulp, sugar

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 23% of GDP and over 60% of labor force;
mostly subsistence agriculture; cash crops--sugarcane, citrus fruit,
cotton, pineapples; other crops and livestock--corn, sorghum, peanuts,
cattle, goats, sheep; not self-sufficient in grain

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $142
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $488 million

_#_Currency: lilangeni (plural--emalangeni); 1 lilangeni (E) =
100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: emalangeni (E) per US$1--2.5625 (January 1991),
2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685
(1986), 2.1911 (1985); note--the Swazi emalangeni is at par with the
South African rand

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 297 km plus 71 km disused, 1.067-meter gauge, single
track

_#_Highways: 2,853 km total; 510 km paved, 1,230 km crushed stone,
gravel, or stabilized soil, and 1,113 km improved earth

_#_Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 23 total, 22 usable; 1 with permanent-surfaced runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: system consists of carrier-equipped open-wire
lines and low-capacity radio relay links; 15,400 telephones;
stations--6 AM, 6 FM, 10 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force, Royal Swaziland Police
Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 185,562; 107,254 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $8 million, 1.3% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Sweden
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 449,964 km2; land area: 410,928 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than California

_#_Land boundaries: 2,205 km total; Finland 586 km, Norway 1,619 km

_#_Coastline: 3,218 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool,
partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

_#_Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

_#_Natural resources: zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber,
uranium, hydropower potential

_#_Land use: arable land 7%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
2%; forest and woodland 64%; other 27%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: water pollution; acid rain

_#_Note: strategic location along Danish Straits linking
Baltic and North Seas

_*_People
_#_Population: 8,564,317 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 81 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Swede(s); adjective--Swedish

_#_Ethnic divisions: homogeneous white population; small Lappish
minority; foreign born or first-generation immigrants (Finns, Yugoslavs,
Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks) about 12%

_#_Religion: Evangelical Lutheran 94%, Roman Catholic 1.5%,
Pentecostal 1%, other 3.5% (1987)

_#_Language: Swedish, small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities;
immigrants speak native languages

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1979 est.)

_#_Labor force: 4,572,000 (October 1990); government services 37.4%,
mining, manufacturing, electricity, and water service 23.1%, private
services 22.2%, transportation and communications 7%, construction 6.3%,
agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting 3.8%, other 0.2% (1988)

_#_Organized labor: 80% of labor force (1990 est.)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Sweden

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Stockholm

_#_Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (lan, singular and
plural); Alvsborgs Lan, Blekinge Lan, Gavleborgs Lan,
Goteborgs och Bohus Lan, Gotlands Lan, Hallands Lan, Jamtlands
Lan, Jonkopings Lan, Kalmar Lan, Kopparbergs Lan,
Kristianstads Lan, Kronobergs Lan, Malmohus Lan, Norrbottens
Lan, Orebro Lan, Ostergotlands Lan, Skaraborgs Lan,
Sodermanlands Lan, Stockholms Lan, Uppsala Lan, Varmlands
Lan, Vasterbottens Lan, Vasternorrlands Lan, Vastmanlands
Lan

_#_Independence: 6 June 1809, constitutional monarchy established

_#_Constitution: 1 January 1975

_#_Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June

_#_Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Riksdag)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Hogsta Domstolen)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--King CARL XVI Gustaf (since 19 September 1973);
Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the
King (born 14 July 1977);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Carl BILDT (since 3 October
1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
ruling four-party coalition consists of the
Moderate Party (conservative), Carl BILDT;
Liberal People's Party, Bengt WESTERBERG;
Center Party, Olof JOHANSSON; and the
Christian Democratic Party, Alf SVENSSON;
Social Democratic Party, Ingvar CARLSSON;
New Democracy Party, Count Ian WACHMEISTER;
Left Party (VP; Communist), Lars WERNER;
Swedish Communist Party (SKP), Rune PETTERSSON;
Communist Workers' Party, Rolf HAGEL;
Green Party, no formal leader

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

Riksdag--last held 15 September 1991 (next to be held
September 1994);
results--Social Democratic 37.6%, Moderate (conservative)
21.9%, Liberal People's Party 9.1%, Center Party 8.5%, Christian
Democrats 7.1%, New Democracy 6.7%, Left Party (Communist) 4.5%, Green
Party 3.4%, other 1.2%;
seats--(349 total) Social Democratic 138, Moderate (conservative) 80,
Liberal People's Party 33, Center Party 31, Christian Democrats 26, New
Democracy 25, Left Party (Communist) 16; note: the Green Party leaves
the Riksdag because it received less than the required 4% of the vote

_#_Communists: VP and SKP; VP, formerly the Left Party-Communists,
is reported to have roughly 17,800 members and attracted 5.8% of the vote
in the 1988 election; VP dropped the Communist label in 1990, but
maintains a Marxist ideology

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer) AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, CSCE,
EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-6, G-8, G-9, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL,
INTELSAT, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (guest), NC,
NEA, NIB, OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Anders THUNBORG; Chancery at
Suite 1200, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 944-5600; there are Swedish Consulates General in
Chicago, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, and New York;

US--Ambassador Charles E. REDMAN; Embassy at Strandvagen 101,
S-115 89 Stockholm; telephone [46] (8) 783-5300

_#_Flag: blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges of the
flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Aided by a long period of peace and neutrality during
World War I through World War II, Sweden has achieved an enviable
standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and
extensive welfare benefits. It has essentially full employment,
a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external
communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber, hydropower, and
iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy that is heavily
oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for
about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering
sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. For some observers,
the Swedish model has succeeded in making economic efficiency
and social egalitarianism complementary, rather than competitive,
goals. Others argue that the Swedish model is on the verge of
collapsing by pointing to the serious economic problems Sweden
faces in 1991: high inflation and absenteeism, growing unemployment
and deficits, and declining international competitiveness. In 1990,
to improve the economy, the government approved a mandate for
Sweden to seek EC membership and an austerity and privatization
package and implemented a major tax reform. These reforms may
succeed in turning the economy around in 1992.

_#_GDP: $137.8 billion, per capita $16,200; real growth rate 0.3%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.9% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 1.6% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $60.1 billion; expenditures $56.7 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY89)

_#_Exports: $57.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp
and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals, petroleum and
petroleum products;

partners--EC 54.4%, (FRG 14.2%, UK 10.1%, Denmark 6.6%), US 8.6%,
Norway 8.2%

_#_Imports: $54.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--machinery, petroleum and petroleum products,
chemicals, motor vehicles, foodstuffs, iron and steel, clothing;

partners--EC 55.3%, US 8.4%

_#_External debt: $14.1 billion (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 2.0% (1990)

_#_Electricity: 39,716,000 kW capacity; 142,000 million kWh produced,
16,700 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio
and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed
foods, motor vehicles

_#_Agriculture: animal husbandry predominates, with milk and dairy
products accounting for 37% of farm income; main crops--grains, sugar
beets, potatoes; 100% self-sufficient in grains and potatoes, 85%
self-sufficient in sugar beets

_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $10.3
billion

_#_Currency: Swedish krona (plural--kronor);
1 Swedish krona (SKr) = 100 ore

_#_Exchange rates: Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1--5.6402 (January
1991), 5.9188 (1990), 6.4469 (1989), 6.1272 (1988), 6.3404 (1987), 7.1236
(1986), 8.6039 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 12,000 km total; Swedish State Railways (SJ)--10,819 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, 6,955 km electrified and 1,152 km double
track; 182 km 0.891-meter gauge; 117 km rail ferry service; privately
owned railways--511 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (332 km electrified);
371 km 0.891-meter gauge (all electrified)

Book of the day: