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_#_Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural--dollars);
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year (as of January 1991); previously
1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: about 1,000 km total; 300 km paved; 400 km improved;
300 km unimproved

_#_Ports: Kingstown

_#_Merchant marine: 242 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,855,061
GRT/2,919,872 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 132 cargo,
11 container, 15 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 9 refrigerated cargo,
13 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker,
4 liquefied gas, 44 bulk, 6 combination bulk, 1 vehicle carrier;
note--China owns 3 ships; a flag of convenience registry

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 6 total, 6 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: islandwide fully automatic telephone system;
6,500 telephones; VHF/UHF interisland links to Barbados and the
Grenadines; new SHF links to Grenada and Saint Lucia;
stations--2 AM, no FM, 1 TV (cable)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force,
Coast Guard

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 28,339; NA fit for military
service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_San Marino
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 60 km2; land area: 60 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundary: 39 km with Italy

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

_#_Terrain: rugged mountains

_#_Natural resources: building stones

_#_Land use: arable land 17%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 83%

_#_Environment: dominated by the Appenines

_#_Note: landlocked; world's smallest republic; enclave of Italy

_*_People
_#_Population: 23,264 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 8 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Sanmarinese (sing. and pl.);
adjective--Sanmarinese

_#_Ethnic divisions: Sanmarinese, Italian

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic

_#_Language: Italian

_#_Literacy: 96% (male 96%, female 95%) age 14 and over can
read and write (1976)

_#_Labor force: about 4,300

_#_Organized labor: Democratic Federation of Sanmarinese Workers
(affiliated with ICFTU) has about 1,800 members; Communist-dominated
General Federation of Labor, 1,400 members

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of San Marino

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: San Marino

_#_Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (castelli,
singular--castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano,
Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle

_#_Independence: 301 AD (by tradition)

_#_Constitution: 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of
the functions of a constitution

_#_Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law
influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic,
3 September

_#_Executive branch: two captains regent, Congress of State (cabinet);
real executive power is wielded by the secretary of state for foreign
affairs and the secretary of state for internal affairs

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Great and General Council (Consiglio
Grande e Generale)

_#_Judicial branch: Council of Twelve (Consiglio dei XII)

_#_Leaders:

Co-Chiefs of State--Captain Regent Aldamiro BARTOLINI and
Captain Regent Ottaviano ROSSI (since 1 April 1990);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Gabriele GATTI (since July
1986)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Party (DCS), Gabriele GATTI;
San Marino Democratic Progressive Party (PPDS) formerly San Marino
Communist Party (PCS), Gilberto GHIOTTI;
San Marino Socialist Party (PSS), Remy GIACOMINI;
Democratic Movement (MD), Emilio Della BALDA;
San Marino Social Democratic Party (PSDS), Augusto CASALI;
San Marino Republican Party (PRS), Cristoforo BUSCARINI

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

Grand and General Council--last held 29 May 1988
(next to be held by May 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(60 total) DCS 27, PCS 18, PSU 8, PSS 7

_#_Communists: about 300 members

_#_Other political parties or pressure groups: political parties
influenced by policies of their counterparts in Italy

_#_Member of: CE, CSCE, ICAO, ICFTU, ILO, IMF (observer), IOC, IOM
(observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM (guest), UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU,
WHO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: San Marino maintains honorary
Consulates General in Washington and New York, and an honorary Consulate
in Detroit;

US--no mission in San Marino, but the Consul General in Florence
(Italy) is accredited to San Marino; Consulate General at
Lungarno Amerigo Vespucci, 38, 50123 Firenze, Italy (mailing address is
APO New York 09019-0007); telephone [39] (55) 239-8276 through 8279 and
217-605

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue
with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat
of arms has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a
wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS
(Liberty)

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: More than 2 million tourists visit each year,
contributing about 60% to GDP. The sale of postage stamps to foreign
collectors is another important income producer. The manufacturing sector
employs nearly 40% of the labor force and agriculture less than 4%. The
per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to
northern Italy.

_#_GDP: $393 million, per capita $17,000; real growth rate 2%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 6.5% (1985)

_#_Budget: revenues $99.2 million; expenditures $NA, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1983)

_#_Exports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy;
commodity trade consists primarily of exchanging building stone, lime,
wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceramics for a wide
variety of consumer manufactures

_#_Imports: see _#_Exports

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: supplied by Italy

_#_Industries: wine, olive oil, cement, leather, textile, tourist

_#_Agriculture: employs less than 4% of labor force; products--wheat,
grapes, corn, olives, meat, cheese, hides; small numbers of cattle, pigs,
horses; depends on Italy for food imports

_#_Economic aid: NA

_#_Currency: Italian lira (plural--lire);
1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100 centesimi; also mints its own coins

_#_Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1--1,134.4 (January
1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987),
1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 104 km

_#_Telecommunications: automatic telephone system; 11,700 telephones;
stations--no AM, 20 FM, no TV; radio relay and cable links into Italian
networks; no communication satellite facilities

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: public security or police force of less than 50 people

_#_Manpower availability: all fit men ages 16-60 constitute a militia
that can serve as an army

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Sao Tome and Principe
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 960 km2; land area: 960 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 5.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 209 km

_#_Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)

_#_Terrain: volcanic, mountainous

_#_Natural resources: fish

_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 20%; meadows and
pastures 1%; forest and woodland 75%; other 3%

_#_Environment: deforestation; soil erosion

_#_Note: located south of Nigeria and west of Gabon near the Equator
in the North Atlantic Ocean

_*_People
_#_Population: 128,499 (July 1991), growth rate 3.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 38 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 60 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 68 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Sao Tomean(s); adjective--Sao Tomean

_#_Ethnic divisions: mestico, angolares (descendents of Angolan
slaves), forros (descendents of freed slaves), servicais (contract
laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of
servicais born on the islands), and Europeans (primarily Portuguese)

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh-Day
Adventist

_#_Language: Portuguese (official)

_#_Literacy: 57% (male 73%, female 42%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981)

_#_Labor force: 21,096 (1981); most of population engaged in
subsistence agriculture and fishing; labor shortages on plantations and
of skilled workers; 56% of population of working age (1983)

_#_Organized labor: NA

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Sao Tome

_#_Administrative divisions: 2 districts (concelhos,
singular--concelho); Principe, Sao Tome

_#_Independence: 12 July 1975 (from Portugal)

_#_Constitution: 5 November 1975, approved 15 December 1982

_#_Legal system: based on Portuguese law system and customary law; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1975)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral People's National Assembly
(Assembleia Popular Nacional)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Miguel TROVOADA (since 4 April 1991);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Daniel Lima Dos Santos DAIO
(since 21 January 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Party for Democratic Convergence-Reflection Group (PCD-GR),
Prime Minister Daniel Lima Dos Santos DAIO, secretary general;
Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe (MLSTP),
Carlos da GRACIA;
Christian Democratic Front (FDC), Alphonse Dos SANTOS;
Democratic Opposition Coalition (CODO), leader NA; other small parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 3 March 1991 (next to be held March
1996);
results--Miguel TROVOADA was elected without opposition in Sao Tome's
first multiparty presidential election;

National People's Assembly--last held 20 January 1991 (next to be
held January 1996);
results--PCD-GR 54.4%, MLSTP 30.5%, CODO 5.2%, FDC 1.5%, other 8.3%;
seats--(55 total) PCD-GR 33, MLSTP 21, CODO 1; note--this was the first
National Assembly multiparty election in Sao Tome

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Joaquim Rafael BRANCO;
Chancery (temporary) at 801 Second Avenue, Suite 1504, New York, NY
10017; telephone (212) 697-4211;

US--Ambassador Keith L. WAUCHOPE in Gabon is accredited to Sao
Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to the
islands

_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double
width), and green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side
in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on
the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy has remained dependent on cocoa since the
country gained independence nearly 15 years ago. Since then, however,
cocoa production has gradually deteriorated because of drought and
mismanagement, so that by 1987 output had fallen to less than 50% of
its former levels. As a result, a shortage of cocoa for export has
created a serious balance-of-payments problem. Production of less
important crops, such as coffee, copra, and palm kernels, has
also declined. The value of imports generally exceeds that of
exports by a ratio of 4 to 1. The emphasis on cocoa production at
the expense of other food crops has meant that Sao Tome has to import
90% of food needs. It also has to import all fuels and most manufactured
goods. Over the years, Sao Tome has been unable to service its external
debt, which amounts to roughly 80% of export earnings. Considerable
potential exists for development of a tourist industry, and the
government has taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. The
government also implemented a Five-Year Plan covering 1986-90 to
restructure the economy and reschedule external debt service payments in
cooperation with the International Development Association and Western
lenders.

_#_GDP: $46.0 million, per capita $380; real growth rate 1.5% (1989)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 36% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $10.2 million; expenditures $36.8 million,
including capital expenditures of $22.5 million (1989)

_#_Exports: $5.9 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--cocoa 85%, copra, coffee, palm oil;

partners--FRG, GDR, Netherlands, China

_#_Imports: $26.8 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--machinery and electrical equipment 54%, food
products 23%, other 23%;

partners--Portugal, GDR, Angola, China

_#_External debt: $110 million (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 7.1% (1986)

_#_Electricity: 5,000 kW capacity; 12 million kWh produced,
100 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: light construction, shirts, soap, beer, fisheries,
shrimp processing

_#_Agriculture: dominant sector of economy, primary source of exports;
cash crops--cocoa (85%), coconuts, palm kernels, coffee; food
products--bananas, papaya, beans, poultry, fish; not self-sufficient in
food grain and meat

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $8
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $59 million

_#_Currency: dobra (plural--dobras); 1 dobra (Db) = 100 centimos

_#_Exchange rates: dobras (Db) per US$1--122.48 (December 1988),
72.827 (1987), 36.993 (1986), 41.195 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 300 km (two-thirds are paved); roads on Principe are
mostly unpaved and in need of repair

_#_Ports: Sao Tome, Santo Antonio

_#_Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways
1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: minimal system; 2,200 telephones; stations--1
AM, 2 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 28,984; 15,287 fit for military
service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 1.6% of GDP (1980)
_%_
_@_Saudi Arabia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 2,149,690 km2; land area: 2,149,690 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than one-fourth the size of US

_#_Land boundaries: 4,410 km total; Iraq 488 km, Iraq-Saudi Arabia
Neutral Zone 198 km, Jordan 742 km, Kuwait 222 km, Oman 676 km, Qatar
40 km, UAE 586 km, Yemen 1,458 km

_#_Coastline: 2,510 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 18 nm;

Continental shelf: not specific;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: no defined boundaries with Yemen and UAE;
shares Neutral Zone with Iraq--in December 1981, Iraq and Saudi Arabia
signed a boundary agreement that divides the zone between them, but the
agreement must be ratified before it becomes effective; Kuwaiti
ownership of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim Islands is disputed by
Saudi Arabia

_#_Climate: harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature

_#_Terrain: mostly uninhabited, sandy desert

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper

_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 39%; forest and woodland 1%; other 59%; includes irrigated
NEGL%

_#_Environment: no perennial rivers or permanent water bodies;
developing extensive coastal seawater desalination facilities;
desertification

_#_Note: extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide
great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf
and Suez Canal

_*_People
_#_Population: 17,869,558 (July 1991), growth rate 4.2% (1991);
note--the population figure is based on growth since the last official
Saudi census of 1974 that reported a total of 7 million persons and
included foreign workers; estimates from other sources may be 15-30%
lower

_#_Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 12 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 69 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 68 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Saudi(s); adjective--Saudi or Saudi Arabian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%

_#_Religion: Muslim 100%

_#_Language: Arabic

_#_Literacy: 62% (male 73%, female 48%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 4,200,000; about 60% are foreign workers; government
34%, industry and oil 28%, services 22%, and agriculture 16%

_#_Organized labor: trade unions are illegal

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

_#_Type: monarchy

_#_Capital: Riyadh

_#_Administrative divisions: 14 emirates (imarat,
singular--imarah); Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah,
Al Jawf, Al Madinah, Al Qasim, Al Qurayyat, Ar Riyad, Ash
Sharqiyah, Asir, Hail, Jizan, Makkah, Najran,
Tabuk

_#_Independence: 23 September 1932 (unification)

_#_Constitution: none; governed according to Sharia (Islamic law)

_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law, several secular codes have been
introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)

_#_Executive branch: monarch and prime minister, crown prince and
deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: none

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Council of Justice

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--King and Prime Minister
FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982);
Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al
Saud (half-brother to the King, appointed heir to the throne 13 June
1982)

_#_Suffrage: none

_#_Elections: none

_#_Communists: negligible

_#_Member of: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19,
G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador BANDAR Bin Sultan; Chancery
at 601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202)
342-3800; there are Saudi Arabian Consulates General in Houston, Los
Angeles, and New York;

US--Ambassador Charles W. FREEMAN, Jr.; Embassy at Collector Road
M, Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh (mailing address is P. O. Box 9041, Riyadh
11143, or APO New York 09038); telephone [966] (1) 488-3800; there are US
Consulates General in Dhahran and Jiddah (Jeddah)

_#_Flag: green with large white Arabic script (that may be translated
as There is no God but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God) above a
white horizontal saber (the tip points to the hoist side); green is the
traditional color of Islam

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 70% of
budget revenues, 33% of GDP, and almost all export earnings. Saudi Arabia
has the largest reserves of petroleum in the world, ranks as the largest
exporter of petroleum, plays a leading role in OPEC, and invests
substantial amounts abroad.

_#_GDP: $79 billion, per capita $4,800; real growth rate 0.5%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 0% (1989 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $31.5 billion; expenditures $38.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $6.9 billion (1990)

_#_Exports: $28.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--petroleum and petroleum products 85%;

partners--US 22%, Japan 20%, Singapore 7%, France 5%

_#_Imports: $19.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--manufactured goods, transportation equipment,
construction materials, processed food products;

partners--UK 17%, US 15%, Japan 12%, FRG 6%

_#_External debt: $18.9 billion (December 1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 1.1% (1989 est.); accounts for
37% of GDP, including petroleum

_#_Electricity: 25,205,000 kW capacity; 50,500 million kWh produced,
2,950 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic
petrochemicals, cement, small steel-rolling mill, construction,
fertilizer, plastic

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 10% of GDP, 16% of labor force;
fastest growing economic sector; subsidized by government;
products--wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus fruit, mutton,
chickens, eggs, milk; approaching self-sufficiency in food

_#_Economic aid: donor--pledged $64.7 billion in bilateral aid
(1979-89)

_#_Currency: Saudi riyal (plural--riyals); 1 Saudi riyal (SR) = 100
halalas

_#_Exchange rates: Saudi riyals (SR) per US$1--3.7450 (fixed rate
since late 1986), 3.7033 (1986), 3.6221 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 886 km 1.435-meter standard gauge

_#_Highways: 74,000 km total; 35,000 km bituminous, 39,000 km gravel
and improved earth

_#_Pipelines: 6,400 km crude oil; 150 km refined products; 2,200 km
natural gas, includes 1,600 km of natural gas liquids

_#_Ports: Jiddah, Ad Dammam, Ras Tanura, Jizan, Al Jubayl,
Yanbu al Bahr, Yanbu al Sinaiyah

_#_Merchant marine: 84 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,492,174
GRT/2,436,635 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 6 short-sea passenger,
14 cargo, 12 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 container, 6 refrigerated cargo, 5
livestock carrier, 26 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 8
chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 1 specialized tanker, 1 bulk

_#_Civil air: 182 major transport aircraft available

_#_Airports: 207 total, 188 usable; 69 with permanent-surface runways;
13 with runways over 3,659 m; 38 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 103 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good system with extensive microwave and
coaxial cable systems; 1,624,000 telephones; stations--21 AM, 16 FM,
97 TV; radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and
Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait; submarine cable to Djibouti and Egypt;
earth stations--3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT,
1 ARABSAT, 1 INMARSAT, 1 ARABSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, National
Guard, Coast Guard, Frontier Force, Special Security Force, Public
Security Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 6,663,217; 3,724,610 fit for
military service; 165,167 reach military age (17) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $13.9 billion, 16.9% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Senegal
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 196,190 km2; land area: 192,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than South Dakota

_#_Land boundaries: 2,640 km total; The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km,
Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km

_#_Coastline: 531 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: short section of the boundary with The Gambia is
indefinite; the International Court of Justice (ICJ) rendered its
decision on the Guinea-Bissau/Senegal maritime boundary in favor
of Senegal--that decision has been rejected by Guinea-Bissau;
boundary with Mauritania

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (December to April) has
strong southeast winds; dry season (May to November) dominated by hot,
dry harmattan wind

_#_Terrain: generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in
southeast

_#_Natural resources: fish, phosphates, iron ore

_#_Land use: arable land 27%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 30%; forest and woodland 31%; other 12%; includes irrigated
1%

_#_Environment: lowlands seasonally flooded; deforestation;
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

_#_Note: The Gambia is almost an enclave

_*_People
_#_Population: 7,952,657 (July 1991), growth rate 3.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 86 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 56 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Senegalese (sing. and pl.);
adjective--Senegalese

_#_Ethnic divisions: Wolof 36%, Fulani 17%, Serer 17%, Toucouleur
9%, Diola 9%, Mandingo 9%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 2%

_#_Religion: Muslim 92%, indigenous beliefs 6%, Christian 2%
(mostly Roman Catholic)

_#_Language: French (official); Wolof, Pulaar, Diola, Mandingo

_#_Literacy: 38% (male 52%, female 25%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2,509,000; 77% subsistence agricultural workers;
175,000 wage earners--private sector 40%, government and parapublic 60%;
52% of population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: majority of wage-labor force represented by
unions; however, dues-paying membership very limited; major confederation
is National Confederation of Senegalese Labor (CNTS), an affiliate of
governing party

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Senegal

_#_Type: republic under multiparty democratic rule

_#_Capital: Dakar

_#_Administrative divisions: 10 regions (regions,
singular--region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga,
Saint-Louis, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor

_#_Independence: 4 April 1960 (from France); The Gambia and Senegal
signed an agreement on 12 December 1981 (effective 1 February 1982) that
called for the creation of a loose confederation to be known as
Senegambia, but the agreement was dissolved on 30 September 1989

_#_Constitution: 3 March 1963, last revised in 1984

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in Supreme Court, which also audits the government's
accounting office; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 4 April (1960)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Abdou DIOUF (since 1 January 1981);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Habib THIAM (since 7 April
1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Socialist Party (PS), President Abdou DIOUF;
Senegalese Democratic Party (PDS), Abdoulaye WADE;
13 other small uninfluential parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21

_#_Elections:

President--last held 28 February 1988 (next to be held February
1993);
results--Abdou DIOUF (PS) 73%, Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 26%, other 1%;

National Assembly--last held 28 February 1988 (next to be
held February 1993);
results--PS 71%, PDS 25%, other 4%;
seats--(120 total) PS 103, PDS 17

_#_Communists: small number of Communists and sympathizers

_#_Other political or pressure groups: students, teachers, labor,
Muslim Brotherhoods

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WADB, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ibra Deguene KA; Chancery at
2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-0540
or 0541;

US--Ambassador George E. MOOSE; Embassy on Avenue Jean XXIII at the
corner of Avenue Kleber, Dakar (mailing address is B. P. 49, Dakar);
telephone [221] 23-42-96 or 23-34-24

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and
red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band;
uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The agricultural sector accounts for about 20% of GDP and
provides employment for about 75% of the labor force. About 40% of the
total cultivated land is used to grow peanuts, an important export crop.
The principal economic resource is fishing, which brought in about $200
million or about 25% of total foreign exchange earnings in 1987. Mining
is dominated by the extraction of phosphate, but production has faltered
because of reduced worldwide demand for fertilizers in recent years. Over
the past 10 years tourism has become increasingly important to the
economy.

_#_GDP: $4.6 billion, per capita $615; real growth rate 0.6% (1989)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.4% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 3.5% (1987)

_#_Budget: revenues $921 million; expenditures $1,024 million;
including capital expenditures of $14 million (FY89 est.)

_#_Exports: $801 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--manufactures 30%, fish products 27%, peanuts 11%,
petroleum products 11%, phosphates 10%;

partners--US, France, other EC, Ivory Coast, India

_#_Imports: $1.0 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities--semimanufactures 30%, food 27%, durable consumer
goods 17%, petroleum 12%, capital goods 14%;

partners--US, France, other EC, Nigeria, Algeria, China, Japan

_#_External debt: $4.1 billion (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.7% (1989); accounts for
17% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 210,000 kW capacity; 760 million kWh produced,
100 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: fishing, agricultural processing, phosphate mining,
petroleum refining, building materials

_#_Agriculture: including fishing, accounts for 20% of GDP and more
than 75% of labor force; major products--peanuts (cash crop), millet,
corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; estimated
two-thirds self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 299,000 metric tons
in 1987

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $551
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $4.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $589 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $295 million

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 1,034 km 1.000-meter gauge; all single track except
70 km double track Dakar to Thies

_#_Highways: 14,000 km total; 3,770 km paved, 10,230 km laterite or
improved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 900 km total; 785 km on the Senegal, 115 km
on the Saloum

_#_Ports: Dakar, Kaolack

_#_Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 9,263
GRT/15,167 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 bulk

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 25 total, 20 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: above-average urban system, using radio relay
and cable; 40,200 telephones; stations--8 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 3 submarine
cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie;
Surete Nationale

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,749,540; 913,806 fit for
military service; 91,607 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $100 million, 2% of GDP (1989 est.)
_%_
_@_Seychelles
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 455 km2; land area: 455 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 491 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claims Tromelin Island

_#_Climate: tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast
monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon
(March to May)

_#_Terrain: Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky,
hilly; others are coral, flat, elevated reefs

_#_Natural resources: fish, copra, cinnamon trees

_#_Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops 18%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 18%; other 60%

_#_Environment: lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are
rare; short droughts possible; no fresh water, catchments collect rain;
40 granitic and about 50 coralline islands

_#_Note: located north-northeast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean

_*_People
_#_Population: 68,932 (July 1991), growth rate 0.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 23 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 8 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 15 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 75 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Seychellois (sing. and pl.);
adjective--Seychelles

_#_Ethnic divisions: Seychellois (mixture of Asians, Africans,
Europeans)

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 90%, Anglican 8%, other 2%

_#_Language: English and French (official); Creole

_#_Literacy: 58% (male 56%, female 60%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1971)

_#_Labor force: 27,700; industry and commerce 31%, services 21%,
government 20%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 12%, other 16% (1985);
57% of population of working age (1983)

_#_Organized labor: three major trade unions

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Seychelles

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Victoria

_#_Administrative divisions: 23 administrative districts;
Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Louis, Anse Royale,
Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade,
Glacis, Grand' Anse (on Mahe Island), Grand' Anse (on Praslin Island),
La Digue, La Riviere Anglaise, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance,
Pointe La Rue, Port Glaud, Saint Louis, Takamaka

_#_Independence: 29 June 1976 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 5 June 1979

_#_Legal system: based on English common law, French civil law, and
customary law

_#_National holiday: Liberation Day (anniversary of coup), 5 June
(1977)

_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Assemblee
du Peuple)

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President France Albert
RENE (since 5 June 1977)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--Seychelles People's
Progressive Front (SPPF), France Albert RENE

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 17

_#_Elections:

President--last held 9-11 June 1989 (next to be held June 1994);
results--President France Albert RENE reelected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held 5 December 1987 (next to be
held December 1992);
results--SPPF is the only party;
seats--(25 total, 23 elected) SPPF 23

_#_Communists: negligible, although some Cabinet ministers
espouse pro-Soviet line

_#_Other political or pressure groups: trade unions, Roman Catholic
Church

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Second Secretary, Charge d'Affaires
ad interim Marc R. MARENGO; Chancery (temporary) at 820 Second Avenue,
Suite 201, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 687-9766;

US--Ambassador James B. MORAN; Embassy at 4th Floor, Victoria
House, Victoria (mailing address is Box 148, Victoria, and Victoria
House, Box 251, Victoria, Mahe, Seychelles, or APO New York 09030-0006);
telephone (248) 25256

_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), white (wavy), and green;
the white band is the thinnest, the red band is the thickest

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: In this small, open, tropical island economy, the tourist
industry employs about 30% of the labor force and provides the main
source of hard currency earnings. In recent years the government has
encouraged foreign investment in order to upgrade hotels and other
services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the high
dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing,
and small-scale manufacturing.

_#_GDP: $283 million, per capita $4,100; real growth rate 7.0% (1989)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 9% (1987)

_#_Budget: revenues $170 million; expenditures $173 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

_#_Exports: $31 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--fish, copra, cinnamon bark, petroleum products
(reexports);

partners--France 63%, Pakistan 12%, Reunion 10%, UK 7% (1987)

_#_Imports: $164 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--manufactured goods, food, tobacco, beverages,
machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products;

partners--UK 20%, France 14%, South Africa 13%, PDRY 13%,
Singapore 8%, Japan 6% (1987)

_#_External debt: $171 million (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 7% (1987); accounts for
10% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 25,000 kW capacity; 67 million kWh produced,
960 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: tourism, processing of coconut and vanilla, fishing,
coir rope factory, boat building, printing, furniture, beverage

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 7% of GDP, mostly subsistence farming;
cash crops--coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla; other products--sweet potatoes,
cassava, bananas; broiler chickens; large share of food needs imported;
expansion of tuna fishing under way

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $26
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1978-88), $310 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $60 million

_#_Currency: Seychelles rupee (plural--rupees);
1 Seychelles rupee (SRe) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Seychelles rupees (SR) per US$1--5.0878 (January
1991), 5.3369 (1990), 5.6457 (1989), 5.3836 (1988), 5.6000 (1987), 6.1768
(1986), 7.1343 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 260 km total; 160 km bituminous, 100 km crushed stone or
earth

_#_Ports: Victoria

_#_Merchant marine: 1 refrigerated cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,827 GRT/2,170 DWT

_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 14 total, 14 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: direct radio communications with adjacent
islands and African coastal countries; 13,000 telephones; stations--2 AM,
no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station; USAF tracking station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Presidential Protection Unit,
Police Force, Militia

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 17,399; 8,933 fit for military
service

_#_Defense expenditures: $12 million, 6% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Sierra Leone
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 71,740 km2; land area: 71,620 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than South Carolina

_#_Land boundaries: 958 km total; Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km

_#_Coastline: 402 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to
December); winter dry season (December to April)

_#_Terrain: coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country,
upland plateau, mountains in east

_#_Natural resources: diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold,
chromite

_#_Land use: arable land 25%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures
31%; forest and woodland 29%; other 13%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: extensive mangrove swamps hinder access to sea;
deforestation; soil degradation

_*_People
_#_Population: 4,274,543 (July 1991), growth rate 2.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 20 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 151 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 42 years male, 48 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Sierra Leonean(s); adjective--Sierra Leonean

_#_Ethnic divisions: native African 99% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%);
Creole, European, Lebanese, and Asian 1%; 13 tribes

_#_Religion: Muslim 30%, indigenous beliefs 30%, Christian 10%,
other or none 30%

_#_Language: English (official); regular use limited to literate
minority; principal vernaculars are Mende in south and Temne in north;
Krio is the language of the resettled ex-slave population of the Freetown
area and is lingua franca

_#_Literacy: 21% (male 31%, female 11%) age 15 and over can
read and write English, Mende, Temne, or Arabic (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 1,369,000 (est.); agriculture 65%, industry 19%,
services 16% (1981); only about 65,000 earn wages (1985); 55% of
population of working age

_#_Organized labor: 35% of wage earners

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Sierra Leone

_#_Type: republic under presidential regime

_#_Capital: Freetown

_#_Administrative divisions: 4 provinces; Eastern, Northern, Southern,
Western

_#_Independence: 27 April 1961 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 14 June 1978

_#_Legal system: based on English law and customary laws indigenous to
local tribes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Republic Day, 27 April (1961)

_#_Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Gen. Joseph
Saidu MOMOH (since 28 November 1985); First Vice President Abu Bakar
KAMARA (since 4 April 1987); Second Vice President Salia JUSU-SHERIFF
(since 4 April 1987)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--All People's Congress
(APC), Gen. Joseph Saidu MOMOH; note--constitutional referendum to
adopt a multiparty system is scheduled for June 1991

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 1 October 1985 (next to be held October 1992);
results--Gen. Joseph Saidu MOMOH was elected without opposition;

House of Representatives--last held 30 May 1986 (next to be
held February 1992);
results--APC is the only party;
seats--(127 total, 105 elected) APC 105

_#_Communists: no party, although there are a few Communists and a
slightly larger number of sympathizers

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC,
ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador George CAREW; Chancery at
1701 19th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 939-9261;

US--Ambassador Johnny YOUNG; Embassy at the corner of Walpole and
Siaka Stevens Street, Freetown; telephone [232] (22) 26481

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of light green (top), white, and
light blue

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economic and social infrastructure is not well
developed. Subsistence agriculture dominates the economy, generating
about one-third of GDP and employing about two-thirds of the working
population. Manufacturing accounts for less than 10% of GDP, consisting
mainly of the processing of raw materials and of light manufacturing for
the domestic market. Diamond mining provides an important source of hard
currency. The economy suffers from high unemployment, rising inflation,
large trade deficits, and a growing dependency on foreign assistance.
The government in 1990 was attempting to get the budget deficit under
control and, in general, to bring economic policy in line with the
recommendations of the IMF and the World Bank.

_#_GDP: $1,302 million, per capita $325; real growth rate 1.8% (FY89)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): over 100% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $134 million; expenditures $187 million,
including capital expenditures of $32 million (FY91 est.)

_#_Exports: $138 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--rutile 50%, bauxite 17%, cocoa 11%, diamonds 3%,
coffee 3%;

partners--US, UK, Belgium, FRG, other Western Europe

_#_Imports: $183 million (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--capital goods 40%, food 32%, petroleum 12%,
consumer goods 7%, light industrial goods;

partners--US, EC, Japan, China, Nigeria

_#_External debt: $632 million (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 19% (FY88 est.); accounts
for 8% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 83,000 kW capacity; 180 million kWh produced,
45 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: mining (diamonds, bauxite, rutile), small-scale
manufacturing (beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear), petroleum
refinery

_#_Agriculture: accounts for over 30% of GDP and two-thirds of the
labor force; largely subsistence farming; cash crops--coffee, cocoa, palm
kernels; harvests of food staple rice meets 80% of domestic needs;
annual fish catch averages 53,000 metric tons

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $161
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $698 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $18 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $101 million

_#_Currency: leone (plural--leones); 1 leone (Le) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: leones per US$1--196.0784 (January 1991),
144.9275 (1990), 58.1395 (1989), 31.2500 (1988), 30.7692 (1987),
8.3963 (1986), 4.7304 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 84 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge mineral line is used on a
limited basis because the mine at Marampa is closed

_#_Highways: 7,400 km total; 1,150 km bituminous, 490 km laterite
(some gravel), remainder improved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 800 km; 600 km navigable year round

_#_Ports: Freetown, Pepel

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 12 total, 8 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: marginal telephone and telegraph service;
national microwave radio relay system unserviceable at present; 23,650
telephones; stations--1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 939,214; 453,877 fit for
military service; no conscription

_#_Defense expenditures: $6 million, 0.7% of GDP (1988 est.)
_%_
_@_Singapore
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 632.6 km2; land area: 622.6 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 193 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: not specific;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry
seasons; thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)

_#_Terrain: lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water
catchment area and nature preserve

_#_Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

_#_Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 5%; other 84%

_#_Environment: mostly urban and industrialized

_#_Note: focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

_*_People
_#_Population: 2,756,330 (July 1991), growth rate 1.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 77 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Singaporean(s), adjective--Singapore

_#_Ethnic divisions: Chinese 76.4%, Malay 14.9%, Indian 6.4%, other
2.3%

_#_Religion: majority of Chinese are Buddhists or atheists; Malays
are nearly all Muslim (minorities include Christians, Hindus, Sikhs,
Taoists, Confucianists)

_#_Language: Chinese, Malay, Tamil, and English (all official);
Malay (national)

_#_Literacy: 88% (male 93%, female 84%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 1,280,000; financial, business, and other services
35.3%, manufacturing 29.0%, commerce 22.8%, construction 6.6%,
other 6.3% (1989)

_#_Organized labor: 210,000; 16.1% of labor force (1989)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Singapore

_#_Type: republic within Commonwealth

_#_Capital: Singapore

_#_Administrative divisions: none

_#_Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)

_#_Constitution: 3 June 1959, amended 1965; based on preindependence
State of Singapore Constitution

_#_Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: National Day, 9 August (1965)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, two deputy prime
ministers, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Book of the day: