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_#_Environment: Curacao and Bonaire are south of Caribbean hurricane
belt, so rarely threatened; Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are
subject to hurricanes from July to October

_#_Note: consists of two island groups--Curacao and Bonaire
are located off the coast of Venezuela, and Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint
Eustatius lie 800 km to the north

_*_People
_#_Population: 183,872 (July 1991), growth rate 0.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Netherlands Antillean(s); adjective--Netherlands
Antillean

_#_Ethnic divisions: mixed African 85%; remainder Carib Indian,
European, Latin, and Oriental

_#_Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic; Protestant, Jewish,
Seventh-Day Adventist

_#_Language: Dutch (official); Papiamento, a
Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect predominates; English widely
spoken; Spanish

_#_Literacy: 94% (male 94%, female 93%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981)

_#_Labor force: 89,000; government 65%, industry and commerce 28%
(1983)

_#_Organized labor: 60-70% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: part of the Dutch realm--full autonomy in internal affairs
granted in 1954

_#_Capital: Willemstad

_#_Administrative divisions: none (part of the Dutch realm)

_#_Independence: none (part of the Dutch realm)

_#_Constitution: 29 December 1954, Statute of the Realm of the
Netherlands, as amended

_#_Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
common law influence

_#_National holiday: Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)

_#_Executive branch: Dutch monarch, governor, prime minister, vice
prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: legislature (Staten)

_#_Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April
1980), represented by Governor General Jaime SALEH (since October 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Maria LIBERIA-PETERS (since 17
May 1988, previously served from September 1984 to November 1985)

_#_Political parties and leaders: political parties are indigenous
to each island:

Curacao--National People's Party (PNP), Maria
LIBERIA-PETERS;
New Antilles Movement (MAN), Domenico Felip MARTINA;
Workers' Liberation Front (FOL), Wilson (Papa) GODETT;
Socialist Independent (SI), George HUECK and Nelson MONTE;
Democratic Party of Curacao (DP), Augustin DIAZ;
Nos Patria, Chin BEHILIA;

Bonaire--Patriotic Union of Bonaire (UPB), C. V. Winklaar;
Democratic Party of Bonaire (PDB), John Evert (Jopie) ABRAHAM;
New Force, Rudy ELLIS;

Sint Maarten--Democratic Party of Sint Maarten (DP-St.M),
Claude WATHEY;
Patriotic Movement of Sint Maarten (SPM), Romeo PAPLOPHLET;

Sint Eustatius--Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius (DP-St.E),
Albert
K. Van PUTTEN; Windward Islands People's Movement (WIPM), Eric HENRIQUEZ;

Saba--Windward Islands People's Movement (WIPM Saba), Will
JOHNSTON; Saba Democratic Labor Movement, Vernon HASSELL; Saba Unity
Party, Carmen SIMMONDS

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

Staten--last held on 16 March 1990 (next to be held March 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(22 total) PNP 7, FOL-SI-Curacao 3, UPB 3, MAN 2,
Democratic Party of Sint Maarten 2, Democratic Party of Curacao 1,
SPM-Sint Maarten 1, WIPM 1, Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius 1,
Nos Patria-Curacao 1; note--the government of Prime
Minister Maria LIBERIA-PETERS is a coalition of several parties

_#_Communists: small leftist groups

_#_Member of: CARICOM (observer), ECLAC (associate), ICFTU, INTERPOL,
IOC, UNESCO (associate), UPU, WCL, WMO, WTO (associate)

_#_Diplomatic representation: as an autonomous part of the
Netherlands, Netherlands Antillean interests in the US are represented by
the Netherlands;

US--Consul General Sharon P. WILKINSON; Consulate General at
Sint Anna Boulevard 19, Willemstad, Curacao (mailing address P. O.
Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao); telephone [599] (9) 613066

_#_Flag: white with a horizontal blue stripe in the center
superimposed on a vertical red band also centered; five white
five-pointed stars are arranged in an oval pattern in the center of the
blue band; the five stars represent the five main islands of Bonaire,
Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Tourism, petroleum refining, and offshore finance are the
mainstays of the economy. The islands enjoy a high per capita income and
a well-developed infrastructure compared with other countries in the
region. Unlike many Latin American countries, the Netherlands Antilles
has avoided large international debt. Almost all consumer and capital
goods are imported, with the US being the major supplier.

_#_GDP: $1.0 billion, per capita $5,500; real growth rate 3% (1988
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 20% (1988)

_#_Budget: revenues $454 million; expenditures $525 million, including
capital expenditures of $42 million (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $959 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--petroleum products 98%;

partners--US 55%, UK 7%, Jamaica 5%

_#_Imports: $935 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--crude petroleum 64%, food, manufactures;

partners--Venezuela 52%, Nigeria 15%, US 12%

_#_External debt: $701.2 million (December 1987)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 125,000 kW capacity; 365 million kWh produced,
1,990 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism (Curacao and Sint Maarten), petroleum
refining (Curacao), petroleum transshipment facilities (Curacao and
Bonaire), light manufacturing (Curacao)

_#_Agriculture: hampered by poor soils and scarcity of water; chief
products--aloes, sorghum, peanuts, fresh vegetables, tropical fruit; not
self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $428 million

_#_Currency: Netherlands Antillean guilder, gulden, or florin
(plural--guilders, gulden, or florins);
1 Netherlands Antillean guilder, gulden, or florin (NAf.) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Netherlands Antillean guilders, gulden, or florins
(NAf.) per US$1--1.79 (fixed rate since 1989; 1.80 fixed rate 1971-88)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 950 km total; 300 km paved, 650 km gravel and earth

_#_Ports: Willemstad, Philipsburg, Kralendijk

_#_Merchant marine: 54 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 431,958
GRT/441,056 DWT; includes 4 passenger, 19 cargo, 8 refrigerated cargo,
6 container, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 7 multifunction large-load
carrier, 1 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 2 bulk; note--all but a few
are foreign owned, mostly in the Netherlands

_#_Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 7 total, 7 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: generally adequate facilities; extensive
interisland radio relay links; stations--9 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; 2 submarine
cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Netherlands Navy, Marine Corps, Royal
Netherlands Air Force, National Guard, Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49 49,249; 27,803 fit for military
service; 1,634 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Note: defense is responsibility of the Netherlands
_%_
_@_New Caledonia
(overseas territory of France)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 19,060 km2; land area: 18,760 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 2,254 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid

_#_Terrain: coastal plains with interior mountains

_#_Natural resources: nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver,
gold, lead, copper

_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 14%; forest and woodland 51%; other 35%

_#_Environment: typhoons most frequent from November to March

_#_Note: located 1,750 km east of Australia in the South Pacific
Ocean

_*_People
_#_Population: 171,559 (July 1991), growth rate 1.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 23 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--New Caledonian(s); adjective--New Caledonian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Melanesian 42.5%, European 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%,
Polynesian 3.8%, Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6%, other 3.0%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 60%, Protestant 30%, other 10%

_#_Language: French; 28 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects

_#_Literacy: 91% (male 91%, female 90%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1976)

_#_Labor force: 50,469; foreign workers for plantations and mines from
Wallis and Futuna, Vanuatu, and French Polynesia (1980 est.)

_#_Organized labor: NA

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies

_#_Type: overseas territory of France since 1956

_#_Capital: Noumea

_#_Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France);
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the
US Government, but there are 3 provinces named Iles Loyaute, Nord,
and Sud

_#_Independence: none (overseas territory of France); note--a
referendum on independence will be held in 1998, with a review of the
issue in 1992

_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

_#_Legal system: the 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy
to the islands; formerly under French law

_#_National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

_#_Executive branch: high commissioner, Consultative Committee
(cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May
1981);

Head of Government High Commissioner and President of the Council
of Government Bernard GRASSET (since 15 July 1988)

_#_Political parties:
white-dominated Rassemblement pour la Caledonie dans la Republique
(RPCR), conservative, Jacques LAFLEUR--affiliated to France's
Rassemblement pour la Republique (RPR);
Melanesian proindependence Kanak Socialist National Liberation Front
(FLNKS), Paul NEAOUTYINE;
Melanesian moderate Kanak Socialist Liberation (LKS), Nidoish
NAISSELINE;
National Front (FN), extreme right, Guy GEORGE;
Caledonie Demain (CD), right-wing, Bernard MARANT;
Union Oceanienne (UO), conservative, Michel HEMA;
Front Uni de Liberation Kanak (FULK), proindependence, Yann
CELENE

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

_#_Elections:

Territorial Assembly--last held 11 June 1989 (next to be held NA
1993);
results--percent of vote by party--RPCR 44.5%, FLNKS 28.5%, FN 7%, CD
5%, UO 4%, other 11%;
seats--(54 total) RPCR 27, FLNKS 19, FN 3, other 5; note--election
boycotted by FULK;

French Senate--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be
held September 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) RPCR 1;

French National Assembly--last held 5 and 12 June 1988
(next to be held June 1993);
results--percent of vote by party--RPR 83.5%, FN 13.5%, other 3%;
seats--(2 total) RPCR 2

_#_Communists: number unknown; Palita extreme left party; some
politically active Communists deported during 1950s; small number of
North Vietnamese

_#_Member of: FZ, SPC, WFTU, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: as an overseas territory of France,
New Caledonian interests are represented in the US by France

_#_Flag: the flag of France is used

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: New Caledonia has more than 25% of the world's known
nickel resources. In recent years the economy has suffered because of
depressed international demand for nickel, the principal source of export
earnings. Only a negligible amount of the land is suitable for
cultivation, and food accounts for about 25% of imports.

_#_GNP: $973 million, per capita $5,790; real growth rate 2.4%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.1% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 16.0% (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $224.0 million; expenditures $211.0 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (1985)

_#_Exports: $344 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--nickel metal 87%, nickel ore;

partners--France 52.3%, Japan 15.8%, US 6.4%

_#_Imports: $389 million (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--foods, fuels, minerals, machines, electrical
equipment;

partners--France 44.0%, US 10%, Australia 9%

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 400,000 kW capacity; 2,200 million kWh produced,
12,790 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: nickel mining

_#_Agriculture: large areas devoted to cattle grazing; coffee, corn,
wheat, vegetables; 60% self-sufficient in beef

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit cannabis cultivation is becoming a principal
source of income for some families

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $3.9 billion

_#_Currency: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural--francs);
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF)
per US$1--93.28 (January 1991), 99.00 (1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30
(1988), 109.27 (1987), 125.92 (1986), 163.35 (1985); note--linked at the
rate of 18.18 to the French franc

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 6,340 km total; only about 10% paved (1987)

_#_Ports: Noumea, Nepoui, Poro, Thio

_#_Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 29 total, 27 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 32,578 telephones (1987); stations--5 AM, 3 FM,
7 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Gendarmerie, Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 46,388; NA fit for military
service

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_New Zealand
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 268,680 km2; land area: 268,670 km2; includes
Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island,
Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands

_#_Comparative area: about the size of Colorado

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 15,134 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)

_#_Climate: temperate with sharp regional contrasts

_#_Terrain: predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains

_#_Natural resources: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber,
hydropower, gold, limestone

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
53%; forest and woodland 38%; other 7%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: earthquakes are common, though usually not severe

_*_People
_#_Population: 3,308,973 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--New Zealander(s); adjective--New Zealand

_#_Ethnic divisions: European 88%, Maori 8.9%, Pacific Islander
2.9%, other 0.2%

_#_Religion: Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%,
Methodist 5%, Baptist 2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none
9% (1986)

_#_Language: English (official), Maori

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970)

_#_Labor force: 1,591,900; services 67.4%, manufacturing 19.8%,
primary production 9.3% (1987)

_#_Organized labor: 681,000 members; 43% of labor force (1986)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none; abbreviated NZ

_#_Type: parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Wellington

_#_Administrative divisions: 93 counties, 9 districts*, and
3 town districts**; Akaroa, Amuri, Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Bruce,
Buller, Chatham Islands, Cheviot, Clifton, Clutha, Cook, Dannevirke,
Egmont, Eketahuna, Ellesmere, Eltham, Eyre, Featherston, Franklin, Golden
Bay, Great Barrier Island, Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*, Hawke's Bay,
Heathcote, Hikurangi**, Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt,
Inangahua, Inglewood, Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie,
Malvern, Manaia**, Manawatu, Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough, Masterton,
Matamata, Mount Herbert, Ohinemuri, Opotiki, Oroua, Otamatea,
Otorohanga*, Oxford, Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako, Pohangina, Raglan,
Rangiora*, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga, Saint Kilda,
Silverpeaks, Southland, Stewart Island, Stratford, Strathallan, Taranaki,
Taumarunui, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent,
Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo, Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino, Waimate,
Waimate West, Waimea, Waipa, Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa South,
Wairewa, Wairoa, Waitaki, Waitomo*, Waitotara, Wallace, Wanganui,
Waverley**, Westland, Whakatane*, Whangarei, Whangaroa, Woodville

_#_Dependent areas: Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

_#_Independence: 26 September 1907 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: no formal, written constitution; consists of various
documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments;
Constitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1 January 1987, but has
not been enacted

_#_Legal system: based on English law, with special land legislation
and land courts for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

_#_National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established
British sovereignty), 6 February (1840)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (commonly
called Parliament)

_#_Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II ( since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Dame Catherine TIZARD (since 12
December 1990);

Head of Government--Prime Minister James BOLGER (since
29 October 1990); Deputy Prime Minister Donald McKINNON (since 2
November 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Party (NP; government), James BOLGER;
New Zealand Labor Party (NZLP; opposition), Michael MOORE;
New Labor Party (NLP), Jim ANDERTON;
Democratic Party, Neil MORRISON;
Green Party, no official leader;
Socialist Unity Party (SUP; pro-Soviet), Kenneth DOUGLAS

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

House of Representatives--last held on 27 October 1990 (next to be
held October 1993);
results--NP 49%, LP 35%, Green Party 7%, New Labor 5%;
seats--(97 total) NP 67, LP 29, NLP 1

_#_Communists: SUP about 140, other groups, about 200

_#_Member of: ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on
11 August 1986), APEC, AsDB, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, OECD, PCA,
SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Denis Bazely
Gordon McLEAN; Chancery at 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 328-4800; there are New Zealand Consulates General in Los
Angeles and New York;

US--Ambassador Della M. NEWMAN; Embassy at 29 Fitzherbert Terrace,
Thorndon, Wellington (mailing address is P. O. Box 1190, Wellington, or
FPO San Francisco 96690-0001); telephone [64] (4) 722-068; there is a US
Consulate General in Auckland

_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer
half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Since 1984 the government has been reorienting an
agrarian economy dependent on a guaranteed British market to an open
free market economy that can compete on the global scene. The government
has hoped that dynamic growth would boost real incomes, reduce
inflationary pressures, and permit the expansion of welfare benefits. The
results have been mixed: inflation is down from double-digit levels
but growth has been sluggish and unemployment, always a highly sensitive
issue, has been at a record high 7.4%. In 1988 GDP fell by 1%, in
1989 grew by a moderate 2.4%, and was flat in 1990.

_#_GDP: $40.2 billion, per capita $12,200; real growth rate 0.7%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (FY90)

_#_Unemployment rate: 7.4% (March 1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $17.6 billion; expenditures $18.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY91 est.)

_#_Exports: $8.8 billion (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities--wool, lamb, mutton, beef, fruit, fish, cheese,
manufactures, chemicals, forestry products;

partners--EC 18.3%, Japan 17.9%, Australia 17.5%, US 13.5%,
China 3.6%, South Korea 3.1%

_#_Imports: $8.1 billion (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities--petroleum, consumer goods, motor vehicles, industrial
equipment;

partners--Australia 19.7%, Japan 16.9%, EC 16.9%, US 15.3%,
Taiwan 3.0%

_#_External debt: $17.4 billion (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.9% (1990); accounts for
about 20% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 7,800,000 kW capacity; 28,000 million kWh produced,
8,500 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: food processing, wood and paper products, textiles,
machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism,
mining

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 9% of GNP and 10% of the
work force; livestock predominates--wool, meat, dairy products all export
earners; crops--wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, and
vegetables; surplus producer of farm products; fish catch reached a
record 503,000 metric tons in 1988

_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $526
million

_#_Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural--dollars);
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1--1.6798 (January
1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088
(1986), 2.0064 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 4,716 km total; all 1.067-meter gauge; 274 km double
track; 113 km electrified; over 99% government owned

_#_Highways: 92,648 km total; 49,547 km paved, 43,101 km gravel or
crushed stone

_#_Inland waterways: 1,609 km; of little importance to transportation

_#_Pipelines: 1,000 km natural gas; 160 km refined products; 150 km
condensate

_#_Ports: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Wellington, Tauranga

_#_Merchant marine: 21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 204,269
GRT/281,375 DWT; includes 5 cargo, 1 container, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
1 railcar carrier, 4 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
1 liquefied gas, 5 bulk

_#_Civil air: about 40 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 157 total, 157 usable; 33 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 46 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: excellent international and domestic systems;
2,110,000 telephones; stations 64 AM, 2 FM, 14 TV; submarine cables
extend to Australia and Fiji; 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New
Zealand Air Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 874,443; 740,831 fit for
military service; 28,814 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $832 million, 1-2% of GDP (FY90)
_%_
_@_Nicaragua
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 129,494 km2; land area: 120,254 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than New York State

_#_Land boundaries: 1,231 km total; Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km

_#_Coastline: 910 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 25 nm security zone (status of claim uncertain);

Continental shelf: not specified;

Territorial sea: 200 nm

_#_Disputes: territorial disputes with Colombia over the Archipelago
de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; unresolved maritime
boundary in Golfo de Fonseca

_#_Climate: tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands

_#_Terrain: extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central
interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes

_#_Natural resources: gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc,
timber, fish

_#_Land use: arable land 9%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
43%; forest and woodland 35%; other 12%; including irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: subject to destructive earthquakes, volcanoes,
landslides, and occasional severe hurricanes; deforestation; soil
erosion; water pollution

_*_People
_#_Population: 3,751,884 (July 1991), growth rate 2.8% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 60 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 65 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Nicaraguan(s); adjective--Nicaraguan

_#_Ethnic divisions: mestizo 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Indian 5%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant 5%

_#_Language: Spanish (official); English- and Indian-speaking
minorities on Atlantic coast

_#_Literacy: 57% (male 57%, female 57%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1971)

_#_Labor force: 1,086,000; service 43%, agriculture 44%, industry 13%
(1986)

_#_Organized labor: 35% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Nicaragua

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Managua

_#_Administrative divisions: 9 administrative regions encompassing 16
departments (departamentos, singular--departamento); Boaco, Carazo,
Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz,
Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas,
Zelaya; note--Zelaya may have been replaced by 2 autonomous regions
(regiones autonomistas, singular--region autonomista) named
North Atlantic Coast and South Atlantic Coast

_#_Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

_#_Constitution: January 1987

_#_Legal system: civil law system; Supreme Court may review
administrative acts

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) and municipal courts

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Violeta
Barrios de CHAMORRO (since 25 April 1990);
Vice President Virgilio GODOY (since 25 April 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:

ruling coalition--National Opposition Union (UNO) is a
14-party alliance--National Conservative Party (PNC), Silviano MATAMOROS;
Conservative Popular Alliance Party (PAPC), Myriam ARGUELLO;
National Conservative Action Party (PANC), Hernaldo ZUNIGA;
National Democratic Confidence Party (PDCN), Augustin JARQUIN;
Independent Liberal Party (PLI), Wilfredo NAVARRO;
Neo-Liberal Party (PALI), Andres ZUNIGA;
Liberal Constitutionalist Party (PLC), Jose Ernesto SOMARRIBA;
National Action Party (PAN), Eduardo RIVAS;
Nicaraguan Socialist Party (PSN), Gustavo TABLADA;
Communist Party of Nicaragua (PCdeN), Eli ALTIMIRANO;
Popular Social Christian Party (PPSC), Luis HUMBERTO;
Nicaraguan Democratic Movement (MDN), Roberto URROZ;
Social Democratic Party (PSD), Guillermo POTOY;
Central American Integrationist Party (PIAC), Alejandro PEREZ;

opposition parties--Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN),
Daniel ORTEGA;
Central American Unionist Party (PUCA), Blanca ROJAS;
Democratic Conservative Party of Nicaragua (PCDN), Jose BRENES;
Liberal Party of National Unity (PLUIN), Eduardo CORONADO;
Movement of Revolutionary Unity (MUR), Francisco SAMPER;
Social Christian Party (PSC), Erick RAMIREZ;
Revolutionary Workers' Party (PRT), Bonifacio MIRANDA;
Social Conservative Party (PSOC), Fernando AGUERRO;
Popular Action Movement--Marxist-Leninist (MAP-ML), Isidro TELLEZ;
Popular Social Christian Party (PPSC), Mauricio DIAZ

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 16

_#_Elections:

President--last held on 25 February 1990 (next to be held February
1996);
results--Violeta Barrios de CHAMORRO (UNO) 54.7%, Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra
(FSLN) 40.8%, other 4.5%;

National Assembly--last held on 25 February 1990
(next to be held February 1996);
results--UNO 53.9%, FSLN 40.8%, PSC 1.6%, MUR 1.0%;
seats--(92 total) UNO 51, FSLN 39, PSC 1, MUR 1

_#_Communists: 15,000-20,000

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Permanent Congress of Workers
(CPT), Confederation of Labor Unification (CUS), Autonomous Nicaraguan
Workers' Central (CTN-A), Independent General Confederation of Workers
(CTG-I), Communist Labor Action and Unity Central (CAUS), Nicaraguan
Workers' Central (CST); Superior Council of Private Enterprise (COSEP) is
an umbrella group of 11 different business groups, including the Chamber
of Commerce, the Chamber of Industry, and the Nicaraguan Development
Institute (INDE)

_#_Member of: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ernesto PALAZIO;
Chancery at 1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone
(202) 387-4371 or 4372;

US--Ambassador Harry W. SHLAUDEMAN; Embassy at Kilometer 4.5
Carretera Sur., Managua (mailing address is APO Miami 34021); telephone
[505] (2) 666010 or 666013, 666015 through 18, 666026, 666027, 666032
through 34

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue
with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of
arms features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE
NICARAGUA on the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar
to the flag of El Salvador which features a round emblem encircled by the
words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in
the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue
stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Government control of the economy historically has been
extensive, although the Chamorro government has pledged to reduce it.
The financial system is directly controlled by the state, which also
regulates wholesale purchasing, production, sales, foreign trade, and
distribution of most goods. Over 50% of the agricultural and industrial
firms are state owned. Sandinista economic policies and the war
have produced a severe economic crisis. The foundation of the economy
continues to be the export of agricultural commodities, largely coffee
and cotton. Farm production fell by roughly 7% in 1989, the fifth
successive year of decline. The agricultural sector employs 44%
of the work force and accounts for 23% of GDP and 86% of export earnings.
Industry, which employs 13% of the work force and contributes about
25% to GDP, showed a drop of 7% in 1989 and remains below
pre-1979 levels. External debt is one of the highest in the world on a
per capita basis. In 1990 the annual inflation rate was 11,800%, sharply
up from 1,800% in 1989.

_#_GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $470; real growth rate - 1.0% (1990
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11,800% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 35% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $244 million; expenditures $550 million, including
capital expenditures of $73 million (1988)

_#_Exports: $298 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--coffee, cotton, sugar, bananas, seafood, meat,
chemicals;

partners--OECD 75%, USSR and Eastern Europe 15%, other 10%

_#_Imports: $710 million (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--petroleum, food, chemicals, machinery, clothing;

partners--Latin America 30%, US 25%, EC 20%, USSR and
Eastern Europe 10%, other 15% (1990 est.)

_#_External debt: $9 billion (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 7% (1989); accounts
for about 25% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 415,000 kW capacity; 1,342 million kWh produced,
360 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: food processing, chemicals, metal products, textiles,
clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 23% of GDP and 44% of work force; cash
crops--coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton; food crops--rice, corn,
cassava, citrus fruit, beans; variety of animal products--beef, veal,
pork, poultry, dairy; normally self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $294
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1,186 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $3.5 billion

_#_Currency: cordoba (plural--cordobas); 1 cordoba (C$) = 100
centavos

_#_Exchange rates: cordobas (C$) per US$1--13,300,000 (January
1991), 15,655 (1989), 270 (1988), 102.60 (1987), 97.48 (1986), 38.90
(1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 373 km 1.067-meter gauge, government owned; majority of
system not operating; 3 km 1.435-meter gauge line at Puerto Cabezas (does
not connect with mainline)

_#_Highways: 25,930 km total; 4,000 km paved, 2,170 km
gravel or crushed stone, 5,425 km earth or graded earth, 14,335 km
unimproved; Pan-American highway 368.5 km

_#_Inland waterways: 2,220 km, including 2 large lakes

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 56 km

_#_Ports: Corinto, El Bluff, Puerto Cabezas, Puerto Sandino, Rama

_#_Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,161
GRT/2,500 DWT

_#_Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 251 total, 162 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: low-capacity radio relay and wire system being
expanded; connection into Central American Microwave System; 60,000
telephones; stations--45 AM, no FM, 7 TV, 3 shortwave; earth
stations--1 Intersputnik and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 845,961; 521,425 fit for
military service; 44,222 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $70 million, 3.8% of GDP (1991)
_%_
_@_Niger
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,267,000 km2; land area: 1,266,700 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 5,697 km total; Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km,
Burkina 628 km, Chad 1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497
km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Disputes: Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in northern Niger;
demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which
has led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting
ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; Burkina and Mali are
proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger

_#_Climate: desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south

_#_Terrain: predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to
rolling plains in south; hills in north

_#_Natural resources: uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates

_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
7%; forest and woodland 2%; other 88%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: recurrent drought and desertification severely
affecting marginal agricultural activities; overgrazing; soil erosion

_#_Note: landlocked

_*_People
_#_Population: 8,154,145 (July 1991), growth rate 3.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 50 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 129 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 53 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Nigerien(s) adjective--Nigerien

_#_Ethnic divisions: Hausa 56%; Djerma 22%; Fula 8.5%; Tuareg 8%; Beri
Beri (Kanouri) 4.3%; Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%; about 4,000
French expatriates

_#_Religion: Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christians

_#_Language: French (official); Hausa, Djerma

_#_Literacy: 28% (male 40%, female 17%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2,500,000 wage earners (1982); agriculture 90%,
industry and commerce 6%, government 4%; 51% of population of working age
(1985)

_#_Organized labor: negligible

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Niger

_#_Type: republic; presidential system in which military officers
hold key offices

_#_Capital: Niamey

_#_Administrative divisions: 7 departments (departements,
singular--departement); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey, Tahoua,
Zinder

_#_Independence: 3 August 1960 (from France)

_#_Constitution: adopted NA December 1989 after 15 years of
military rule

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holidays: Republic Day, 18 December (1958)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

_#_Judicial branch: State Court (Cour d'Etat), Court of Appeal
(Cour d'Apel)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Brig. Gen. Ali SAIBOU (since 14
November 1987);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Aliou MAHAMIDOU (since 2 March
1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders: National Movement for the
Development Society (MNSD), leader NA; other political parties now
forming

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held December 1989 (next to be held NA 1996);
results--President Ali SAIBOU was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held 10 December 1989 (next to be
held NA); results--MNSD was the only party;
seats--(150 total) MNSD 150 (indirectly elected);
note--Niger is to hold a national conference to decide upon a
transitional government and an agenda for multiparty elections

_#_Communists: no Communist party; some sympathizers in outlawed
Sawaba party

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO,
FZ, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Moumouni Adamou DJERMAKOYE;
Chancery at 2204 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
483-4224 through 4227;

US--Ambassador Carl C. CUNDIFF; Embassy at Avenue des
Ambassades, Niamey (mailing address is B. P. 11201, Niamey); telephone
[227] 72-26-61 through 64

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and
green with a small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the
white band; similar to the flag of India which has a blue, spoked wheel
centered in the white band

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: About 90% of the population is engaged in farming and
stock rearing, activities which generate almost half the national
income. The economy also depends heavily on exploitation of large uranium
deposits. Uranium production grew rapidly in the mid-1970s, but tapered
off in the early 1980s, when world prices declined. France is a major
customer, while Germany, Japan, and Spain also make regular purchases.
The depressed demand for uranium has contributed to an overall
sluggishness in the economy, a severe trade imbalance, and a mounting
external debt.

_#_GDP: $2.0 billion, per capita $270; real growth rate - 3.3% (1989
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 2.8% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $220 million; expenditures $446 million, including
capital expenditures of $190 million (FY89 est.)

_#_Exports: $308 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--uranium 75%, livestock products, cowpeas, onions;

partners--France 65%, Nigeria 11%, Ivory Coast, Italy

_#_Imports: $386 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities--petroleum products, primary materials, machinery,
vehicles and parts, electronic equipment, pharmaceuticals, chemical
products, cereals, foodstuffs;

partners--France 32%, Ivory Coast 11%, Germany 5%, Italy 4%,
Nigeria 4%

_#_External debt: $1.8 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3.0% (1989 est.); accounts
for 18% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 102,000 kW capacity; 225 million kWh produced,
30 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals,
slaughterhouses, and a few other small light industries; uranium
production began in 1971

_#_Agriculture: accounts for roughly 40% of GDP and 90% of labor
force; cash crops--cowpeas, cotton, peanuts; food crops--millet, sorghum,
cassava, rice; livestock--cattle, sheep, goats; self-sufficient in food
except in drought years

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $380
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $3.0 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $504 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $61 million

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 39,970 km total; 3,170 km bituminous, 10,330 km gravel
and laterite, 3,470 km earthen, 23,000 km tracks

_#_Inland waterways: Niger river is navigable 300 km from Niamey to
Gaya on the Benin frontier from mid-December through March

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 31 total, 29 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: small system of wire, radiocommunications, and
radio relay links concentrated in southwestern area; 11,900 telephones;
stations--15 AM, 5 FM, 16 TV; satellite earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 4 domestic

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, paramilitary
Republican Guard, paramilitary Presidential Guard, paramilitary National
Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,713,566; 923,634 fit for
military service; 90,801 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $20.6 million, 0.9% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Nigeria
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 923,770 km2; land area: 910,770 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of California

_#_Land boundaries: 4,047 km total; Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km,
Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km

_#_Coastline: 853 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 30 nm

_#_Disputes: demarcation of international boundaries in Lake
Chad, the lack of which has led to border incidents in the past, is
completed and awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and
Nigeria; Nigerian proposals to reopen maritime boundary negotiations and
redemarcate the entire land boundary have been rejected by Cameroon

_#_Climate: varies--equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in
north

_#_Terrain: southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus;
mountains in southeast, plains in north

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal,
limestone, lead, zinc, natural gas

_#_Land use: arable land 31%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
23%; forest and woodland 15%; other 28%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: recent droughts in north severely affecting marginal
agricultural activities; desertification; soil degradation, rapid
deforestation

_*_People
_#_Population: 122,470,574 (July 1991), growth rate 3.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 118 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 50 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Nigerian(s); adjective--Nigerian

_#_Ethnic divisions: more than 250 tribal groups; Hausa and Fulani
of the north, Yoruba of the southwest, and Ibos of the southeast make
up 65% of the population; about 27,000 non-Africans

_#_Religion: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%

_#_Language: English (official); Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, Fulani, and
several other languages also widely used

_#_Literacy: 51% (male 62%, female 40%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 42,844,000; agriculture 54%, industry, commerce, and
services 19%, government 15%; 49% of population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: 3,520,000 wage earners belong to 42 recognized
trade unions, which come under a single national labor federation--the
Nigerian Labor Congress (NLC)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Federal Republic of Nigeria

_#_Type: military government since 31 December 1983

_#_Capital: Lagos; note--some government departments have relocated
to the designated new capital in Abuja

_#_Administrative divisions: 21 states and 1 territory*;
Abuja Capital Territory*, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bendel, Benue,
Borno, Cross River, Gongola, Imo, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kwara, Lagos,
Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto

_#_Independence: 1 October 1960 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 1 October 1979, amended 9 February 1984, revised 1989

_#_Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic, and tribal law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1960)

_#_Executive branch: president of the Armed Forces Ruling Council,
Armed Forces Ruling Council, National Council of State, Council of
Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: National Assembly was dissolved after the
military coup of 31 December 1983

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Federal Court of Appeal

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President and Commander in
Chief of Armed Forces Gen. Ibrahim BABANGIDA (since 27 August 1985)

_#_Political parties and leaders: two political parties established by
the government in 1989--Social Democratic Party (SDP) and National
Republican Convention (NRC)

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21

_#_Elections:

President--scheduled for 1 October 1992;

National Assembly--scheduled for early 1992

_#_Communists: the pro-Communist underground consists of a small
fraction of the Nigerian left; leftist leaders are prominent in the
country's central labor organization but have little influence on the
government

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMO, IMF, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPEC,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Hamzat AHMADU; Chancery at
2201 M Street NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 822-1500;
there are Nigerian Consulates General in Atlanta, New York and San
Francisco;

US--Ambassador Lannon WALKER; Embassy at 2 Eleke Crescent,
Victoria Island, Lagos (mailing address is P. O. Box 554, Lagos);
telephone [234] (1) 610097; there is a US Consulate General in Kaduna

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and
green

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Although Nigeria is Africa's leading oil-producing
country, it remains poor with a $280 per capita GDP. In 1990, despite
rising oil prices and a sharp drop in inflation, performance remained
slack with continuing underutilization of industrial capacity and a
second year of relatively weak agricultural performance. Agricultural
production was up only 4.2% in 1990, still below the 1987 level.
Industrial output showed a 7.2% increase, but remained below the 1985
level. Government efforts to reduce Nigeria's dependence on oil exports
and to sustain noninflationary growth have fallen short due to inadequate
new investment funds. Living standards continue to deteriorate from the
higher level of the early 1980s oil boom.

_#_GDP: $27.2 billion, per capita $230; real growth rate 2.7%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $8.0 billion; expenditures $8.0 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $13.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--oil 95%, cocoa, rubber;

partners--EC 51%, US 32%

_#_Imports: $9.5 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--consumer goods, capital equipment, chemicals, raw
materials;

partners--EC, US

_#_External debt: $35 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 7.2% (1990 est.); accounts
for 23% of GDP, including petroleum

_#_Electricity: 4,737,000 kW capacity; 11,270 million kWh produced,
100 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: crude oil and mining--coal, tin, columbite;
primary processing industries--palm oil, peanut, cotton, rubber,
wood, hides and skins; manufacturing industries--textiles,
cement, building materials, food products, footwear, chemical, printing,
ceramics, steel

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 28% of GNP and half of labor force;
inefficient small-scale farming dominates; once a large net exporter of
food and now an importer; cash crops--cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, rubber;
food crops--corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava, yams;
livestock--cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; fishing and forestry resources
extensively exploited

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit heroin and some cocaine trafficking;
marijuana cultivation for domestic consumption and export; major transit
country for heroin en route from Southwest Asia via Africa to Western
Europe and the US; growing transit route for cocaine from South America
via West Africa to Western Europe and the US

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $705
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $2.5 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.2 billion

_#_Currency: naira (plural--naira); 1 naira (4) = 100 kobo

_#_Exchange rates: naira (4) per US$1--8.707 (December 1990),
8.038 (1990), 7.3647 (1989), 4.5370 (1988), 4.0160 (1987), 1.7545 (1986),
0.8938 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,505 km 1.067-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 107,990 km total 30,019 km paved (mostly
bituminous-surface treatment); 25,411 km laterite, gravel, crushed stone,
improved earth; 52,560 km unimproved

_#_Inland waterways: 8,575 km consisting of Niger and Benue Rivers and
smaller rivers and creeks

_#_Pipelines: 2,042 km crude oil; 500 km natural gas; 3,000 km refined
products

_#_Ports: Lagos, Port Harcourt, Calabar, Warri, Onne, Sapele

_#_Merchant marine: 28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 420,658
GRT/668,951 DWT; includes 18 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 1
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 6 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1
chemical tanker, 1 bulk

_#_Civil air: 76 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 81 total, 68 usable; 32 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 14 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
21 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: above-average system limited by poor
maintenance; major expansion in progress; radio relay and cable routes;
155,000 telephones; stations--37 AM, 19 FM, 38 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, domestic, with 19 stations; 1 coaxial
submarine cable

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 28,070,431; 16,040,870 fit for
military service; 1,302,970 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $300 million, 1% of GNP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Niue
(free association with New Zealand)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 260 km2; land area: 260 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 64 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds

_#_Terrain: steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau

_#_Natural resources: fish, arable land

_#_Land use: arable land 61%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures
4%; forest and woodland 19%; other 12%

_#_Environment: subject to typhoons

_#_Note: one of world's largest coral islands; located about 460 km
east of Tonga

_*_People
_#_Population: 1,908 (July 1991), growth rate - 0.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Niuean(s); adjective--Niuean

_#_Ethnic divisions: Polynesian, with some 200 Europeans, Samoans, and
Tongans

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