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_#_Land use: arable land 18%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
28%; forest and woodland 12%; other 41%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: northern mountains geologically unstable and subject
to earthquakes; desertification

_#_Note: strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar

_#_Population: 26,181,889 (July 1991), growth rate 2.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 76 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 63 years male, 66 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Moroccan(s); adjective--Moroccan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 99.1%, non-Moroccan 0.7%, Jewish

_#_Religion: Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%

_#_Language: Arabic (official); several Berber dialects; French is
language of business, government, diplomacy, and postprimary education

_#_Literacy: 50% (male 61%, female 38%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 7,400,000; agriculture 50%, services 26%, industry
15%, other 9% (1985)

_#_Organized labor: about 5% of the labor force, mainly in the Union
of Moroccan Workers (UMT) and the Democratic Confederation of Labor (CDT)

_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Morocco

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Rabat

_#_Administrative divisions: 37 provinces (aqalim,
singular--iqlim) and 5 municipalities* (wilayat,
singular--wilayah); Agadir, Al Hoceima, Azilal, Beni Mellal, Ben
Slimane, Boulemane, Casablanca*, Chaouen, El Jadida, El Kelaa des
Srarhna, Er Rachidia, Essaouira, Fes, Fes*, Figuig, Guelmim, Ifrane,
Kenitra, Khemisset, Khenifra, Khouribga, Laayoune, Larache, Marrakech,
Marrakech*, Meknes, Meknes*, Nador, Ouarzazate, Oujda, Rabat-Sale*,
Safi, Settat, Sidi Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan, Taounate, Taroudannt, Tata,
Taza, Tetouan, Tiznit

_#_Independence: 2 March 1956 (from France)

_#_Constitution: 10 March 1972

_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law
system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of
Supreme Court

_#_National holiday: National Day (anniversary of King Hassan II's
accession to the throne), 3 March (1961)

_#_Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (Majlis

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State--King HASSAN II (since 3 March 1961);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Dr. Azzedine LARAKI (since
30 September 1986)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Morocco has 15 political parties;
the major ones are
Istiqlal Party, M'Hamed BOUCETTA;
Socialist Union of Popular Forces (USFP), Abderrahim BOUABID;
Popular Movement (MP), Secretariat General;
National Assembly of Independents (RNI), Ahmed OSMAN;
National Democratic Party (PND), Mohamed Arsalane EL-JADIDI;
Party for Progress and Socialism (PPS), Ali YATA;
Constitutional Union (UC), Maati BOUABID

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


Chamber of Representatives--last held on 14 September 1984 (were
scheduled for September 1990, but postponed until NA 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(306 total, 206 elected) CU 83, RNI 61, MP 47, Istiqlal 41,
USFP 36, PND 24, other 14

_#_Communists: about 2,000

_#_Member of: ABEDA, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Mohamed BELKHAYAT;
Chancery at 1601 21st Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202)
462-7979; there is a Moroccan Consulate General in New York;

US--Ambassador E. Michael USSERY; Embassy at 2 Avenue de Marrakech,
Rabat (mailing address is P. O. Box 120, Rabat, or APO New York 09284);
telephone [212] (7) 76-22-65; there are US Consulates General in

_#_Flag: red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known
as Solomon's seal in the center of the flag; green is the traditional
color of Islam

_#_Overview: The economy recovered moderately in 1990 because
of the resolution of a trade dispute with India over phosphoric
acid sales, a rebound in textile sales to the EC, and lower prices for
food imports. In addition, a dramatic increase in worker remittances,
increased Arab donor aid, and generous debt rescheduling agreements
helped ease foreign payments pressures. On the down side, higher oil
import costs fueled inflation. Servicing the $21 billion foreign debt,
high unemployment, and Morocco's vulnerability to external forces
remain severe problems for the 1990s.

_#_GDP: $25.4 billion, per capita $990; real growth rate 2.5% (1990

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.6% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 16% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $6.6 billion; expenditures $7.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $1.8 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $4.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--food and beverages 30%, semiprocessed goods 23%,
consumer goods 21%, phosphates 17%;

partners--EC 58%, India 7%, Japan 5%, USSR 3%, US 2%

_#_Imports: $5.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--capital goods 24%, semiprocessed goods 22%, raw
materials 16%, fuel and lubricants 16%, food and beverages 13%,
consumer goods 9%;

partners--EC 53%, US 11%, Canada 4%, Iraq 3%, USSR 3%, Japan 2%

_#_External debt: $21 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4% (1989 est.); accounts
for an estimated 20% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 2,262,000 kW capacity; 8,140 million kWh produced,
320 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing,
leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism

_#_Agriculture: 50% of employment and 30% of export value; not
self-sufficient in food; cereal farming and livestock raising
predominate; barley, wheat, citrus fruit, wine, vegetables, olives;
fishing catch of 491,000 metric tons in 1987

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis; trafficking on
the increase for both domestic and international drug markets; shipments
of cannabis mostly directed to Western Europe; occasional transit point
for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe.

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.3
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $7.0 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4.8 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $2.5 billion

_#_Currency: Moroccan dirham (plural--dirhams);
1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1--8.071 (January
1991), 8.242 (1990), 8.488 (1989), 8.209 (1988), 8.359 (1987), 9.104
(1986), 10.062 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 1,893 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (246 km double
track, 974 km electrified)

_#_Highways: 59,198 km total; 27,740 km bituminous treated, 31,458 km
gravel, crushed stone, improved earth, and unimproved earth

_#_Pipelines: 362 km crude oil; 491 km (abandoned) refined products;
241 km natural gas

_#_Ports: Agadir, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar, Kenitra, Mohammedia,
Nador, Safi, Tangier; also Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla

_#_Merchant marine: 51 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 315,169
GRT/487,490 DWT; includes 10 cargo, 2 container, 12 refrigerated cargo,
6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
11 chemical tanker, 4 bulk, 3 short-sea passenger

_#_Civil air: 23 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 75 total, 67 usable; 26 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 27 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good system composed of wire lines, cables, and
radio relay links; principal centers are Casablanca and Rabat, secondary
centers are Fes, Marrakech, Oujda, Tangier, and Tetouan; 280,000
telephones; stations--14 AM, 6 FM, 47 TV; 5 submarine cables; satellite
earth stations--2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT; radio relay to
Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable to Algeria; microwave
network linking Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Moroccan Army, Royal Moroccan Navy, Royal Moroccan
Air Force, Royal Gendarmerie, Auxiliary Forces

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 6,437,152; 4,092,027 fit for
military service; 299,535 reach military age (18) annually; limited

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.4 billion, 5.2% of GDP
_#_Total area: 801,590 km2; land area: 784,090 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of California

_#_Land boundaries: 4,571 km total; Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa
491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe
1,231 km

_#_Coastline: 2,470 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical to subtropical

_#_Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus
in northwest, mountains in west

_#_Natural resources: coal, titanium

_#_Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 56%; forest and woodland 20%; other 20%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: severe drought and floods occur in south;

_#_Population: 15,113,282 (July 1991), growth rate 4.6% (1991);
note--900,000 Mozambican refugees in Malawi (1990 est.)

_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 17 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 134 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 46 years male, 49 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Mozambican(s); adjective--Mozambican

_#_Ethnic divisions: majority from indigenous tribal groups; Europeans
about 10,000, Euro-Africans 35,000, Indians 15,000

_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 60%, Christian 30%, Muslim 10%

_#_Language: Portuguese (official); many indigenous dialects

_#_Literacy: 33% (male 45%, female 21%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: NA, but 90% engaged in agriculture

_#_Organized labor: 225,000 workers belong to a single union,
the Mozambique Workers' Organization (OTM)

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Mozambique

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Maputo

_#_Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias,
singular--provincia); Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo,
Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia

_#_Independence: 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

_#_Constitution: 30 November 1990

_#_Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June (1975)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic
(Assembleia da Republica)

_#_Judicial branch: People's Courts at all levels


Chief of State--President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6
November 1986);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Mario da Graca MACHUNGO
(since 17 July 1986)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO)--formerly a Marxist
organization with close ties to the USSR--was the only legal party before
30 November 1990 when the new Constitution went into effect establishing
a multiparty system; note--the government has announced that multiparty
elections will be held in 1991; parties such as
the Liberal Democratic Party of Mozambique (PALMO),
the Mozambique National Union (UNAMO),
and the Mozambique National Movement (MONAMO) have already emerged

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

_#_Elections: electoral law--to be ratified in 1991--will provide
for periodic, direct presidential and Assembly elections

_#_Communists: about 200,000 FRELIMO members; note--FRELIMO no
longer considers itself a Communist party

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Hipolito PATRICIO; Chancery
at Suite 570, 1990 M Street NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202)

US--Ambassador Townsend B. FRIEDMAN, Jr.; Embassy at Avenida
Kenneth Kuanda, 193 Maputo (mailing address is P. O. Box 783, Maputo);
telephone [258] (1) 49-27-97, 49-01-67, 49-03-50

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and
yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black
band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed
star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open
white book

_#_Overview: One of Africa's poorest countries, with a per capita GDP
of little more than $100, Mozambique has failed to exploit the economic
potential of its sizable agricultural, hydropower, and transportation
resources. Indeed, national output, consumption, and investment declined
throughout the first half of the 1980s because of internal disorders,
lack of government administrative control, and a growing foreign debt.
A sharp increase in foreign aid, attracted by an economic reform policy,
has resulted in successive years of economic growth since 1985.
Agricultural output, nevertheless, is at about only 75% of its 1981
level, and grain has to be imported. Industry operates at only 20-40% of
capacity. The economy depends heavily on foreign assistance to keep

_#_GDP: $1.6 billion, per capita $110; real growth rate 5.0%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22.9% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 50% (1989 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $186 million; expenditures $239 million,
including capital expenditures of $208 million (1988 est.)

_#_Exports: $90 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--shrimp 48%, cashews 21%, sugar 10%, copra 3%,
citrus 3%;

partners--US, Western Europe, GDR, Japan

_#_Imports: $764 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.), including aid;

commodities--food, clothing, farm equipment, petroleum;

partners--US, Western Europe, USSR

_#_External debt: $5.1 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1989 est.)

_#_Electricity: 2,265,000 kW capacity; 1,740 million kWh produced,
120 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints),
petroleum products, textiles, nonmetallic mineral products (cement,
glass, asbestos), tobacco

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 90% of the labor force, 50% of GDP,
and about 90% of exports; cash crops--cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane,
tea, shrimp; other crops--cassava, corn, rice, tropical fruits; not
self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $350
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $3.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $37 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $890 million

_#_Currency: metical (plural--meticais); 1 metical (Mt) = 100 centavos

_#_Exchange rates: meticais (Mt) per US$1--1,700 (November 1990),
800.00 (1989), 528.60 (1988), 289.44 (1987), 40.43 (1986), 43.18 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 3,288 km total; 3,140 km 1.067-meter gauge; 148 km
0.762-meter narrow gauge; Malawi-Nacala, Malawi-Beira, and
Zimbabwe-Maputo lines are subject to closure because of insurgency

_#_Highways: 26,498 km total; 4,593 km paved; 829 km gravel, crushed
stone, stabilized soil; 21,076 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: about 3,750 km of navigable routes

_#_Pipelines: 306 km crude oil (not operating); 289 km refined

_#_Ports: Maputo, Beira, Nacala

_#_Merchant marine: 5 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,806
GRT/12,873 DWT

_#_Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 197 total, 145 usable; 27 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 27 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system of troposcatter, open-wire lines,
and radio relay; 57,400 telephones; stations--15 AM, 3 FM, 1 TV;
earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3 domestic

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Mozambique Armed Forces (including Army, Naval
Command, Air Defense Forces, Border Guards), Militia

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 3,407,234; 1,957,123 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 8.4% of GDP (1987)
_#_Total area: 824,290 km2; land area: 823,290 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than half the size of Alaska

_#_Land boundaries: 3,935 km total; Angola 1,376 km, Botswana
1,360 km, South Africa 966 km, Zambia 233 km

_#_Coastline: 1,489 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: short section of boundary with Botswana is indefinite;
quadripoint with Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement;
claim by Namibia to Walvis Bay and 12 offshore islands administered
by South Africa

_#_Climate: desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic

_#_Terrain: mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari
Desert in east

_#_Natural resources: diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, lead, tin,
zinc, salt, vanadium, natural gas, fish; suspected deposits of oil,
natural gas, coal, and iron ore

_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 64%; forest and woodland 22%; other 13%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: inhospitable with very limited natural water
resources; desertification

_#_Note: Walvis Bay area is an exclave of South Africa in Namibia

_#_Population: 1,520,504 (July 1991), growth rate 3.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 69 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 58 years male, 63 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Namibian(s); adjective--Namibian

_#_Ethnic divisions: black 86%, white 6.6%, mixed 7.4%; about 50%
of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% from the Kavangos

_#_Religion: predominantly Christian

_#_Language: English is official language; Afrikaans is common
language of most of population and about 60% of white population, German
32%, English 7%; several indigenous languages

_#_Literacy: 38% (male 45%, female 31%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1960)

_#_Labor force: 500,000; agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 19%,
services 8%, government 7%, mining 6% (1981 est.)

_#_Organized labor: 20 trade unions representing about 90,000

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Namibia

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Windhoek

_#_Administrative divisions: the former administrative structure of
26 districts has been abolished and 14 temporary regions are still in
the process of being determined; note--the 26 districts were Bethanien,
Boesmanland, Caprivi Oos, Damaraland, Gobabis, Grootfontein, Hereroland
Oos, Hereroland Wes, Kaokoland, Karasburg, Karibib, Kavango,
Keetmanshoop, Luderitz, Maltahohe, Mariental, Namaland, Okahandja,
Omaruru, Otjiwarongo, Outjo, Owambo, Rehoboth, Swakopmund, Tsumeb,

_#_Independence: 21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)

_#_Constitution: ratified 9 February 1990

_#_Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and 1990 constitution

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 21 March 1990

_#_Executive branch: president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral; House of Review (upper house,
to be established with elections in 1992 by planned new regional
authorities); National Assembly (lower house elected by universal

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government--President Sam NUJOMA
(since 21 March 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders: South-West Africa People's
Organization (SWAPO), Sam NUJOMA;
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA), Dirk MUDGE;
United Democratic Front (UDF), Justus GAROEB;
Action Christian National (ACN), Kosie PRETORIUS;
National Patriotic Front (NPF), Moses KATJIUONGUA;
Federal Convention of Namibia (FCN), Hans DIERGAARDT;
Namibia National Front (NNF), Vekuii RUKORO

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President--last held 16 February 1990 (next to be
held March 1995); Sam NUJOMA was elected president by the Constituent
Assembly (now the National Assembly);

National Assembly--last held on 7-11 November 1989
(next to be held by November 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(72 total) SWAPO 41, DTA 21, UDF 4, ACN 3, NNF 1, FCN 1, NPF 1

_#_Communists: no Communist party

_#_Other political or pressure groups: NA

_#_Member of: C, ECA (associate), FAO, FLS, IAEA, IBRD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Tuliameni KALOMOH;
Chancery at 1413 K Street NW, 7th Floor, Washington, DC 20005
(mailing address is PO Box 34738, Washington DC 20043);
telephone (202) 289-3871;

US--Ambassador Genta Hawkins HOLMES; Embassy at Ausplan Building,
14 Lossen St., Windhoek (mailing address is P. O. Box 9890, Windhoek
9000, Namibia); telephone [264] (61) 221-601, 222-675, 222-680

_#_Flag: a large blue triangle with a yellow sunburst fills the
upper left section, and an equal green triangle (solid) fills the lower
right section; the triangles are separated by a red stripe which is
contrasted by two narrow white edge borders

_#_Overview: The economy is heavily dependent on the mining industry
to extract and process minerals for export. Mining accounts for almost
30% of GDP. Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in
Africa and the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. Alluvial
diamond deposits are among the richest in the world, making Namibia a
primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Namibia also produces large
quantities of lead, zinc, tin, silver, and tungsten, and it has
substantial resources of coal. More than half the population depends
on agriculture (largely subsistence agriculture) for its livelihood.

_#_GNP: $1.8 billion, per capita $1,240; real growth rate - 2.0%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15.1% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: over 30% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $794.1 million; expenditures $999.6 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY91 est.)

_#_Exports: $1,021 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--uranium, diamonds, zinc, copper, cattle, processed
fish, karakul skins;

partners--Switzerland, South Africa, FRG, Japan

_#_Imports: $894 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--foodstuffs, petroleum products and fuel, machinery and

partners--South Africa, FRG, US, Switzerland

_#_External debt: about $27 million at independence; under a 1971
International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruling, Namibia may not be
liable for debt incurred during its colonial period

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 486,000 kW capacity; 1,280 million kWh produced,
930 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, mining
(copper, lead, zinc, diamond, uranium)

_#_Agriculture: mostly subsistence farming; livestock raising major
source of cash income; crops--millet, sorghum, peanuts; fish catch
potential of over 1 million metric tons not being fulfilled, 1987 catch
reaching only 520,000 metric tons; not self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-87), $47.2 million

_#_Currency: South African rand (plural--rand);
1 South African rand (R) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: South African rand (R) per US$1--2.625 (January
1991), 2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685
(1986), 2.1911 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Railroads: 2,341 km 1.067-meter gauge, single track

_#_Highways: 54,500 km; 4,079 km paved, 2,540 km gravel, 47,881 km
earth roads and tracks

_#_Ports: Luderitz; primary maritime outlet is Walvis Bay (South

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 143 total, 123 usable; 21 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 67 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good urban, fair rural services; radio relay
connects major towns, wires extend to other population centers; 62,800
telephones; stations--2 AM, 40 FM, 3 TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: National Defense Force (Army), Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 309,978; 183,730 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 4.9% of GNP (1986)
_#_Total area: 21 km2; land area: 21 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 30 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)

_#_Terrain: sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs
with phosphate plateau in center

_#_Natural resources: phosphates

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: only 53 km south of Equator

_#_Note: Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in
the Pacific Ocean--the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and
Makatea in French Polynesia

_#_Population: 9,333 (July 1991), growth rate 1.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 41 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 69 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Nauruan(s); adjective--Nauruan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese
8%, European 8%

_#_Religion: Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman

_#_Language: Nauruan, a distinct Pacific Island language (official);
English widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and
commercial purposes

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Nauru

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: no capital city as such; government offices in Yaren

_#_Administrative divisions: 14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan,
Anibare, Baiti, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe,

_#_Independence: 31 January 1968 (from UN trusteeship under Australia,
New Zealand, and UK); formerly Pleasant Island

_#_Constitution: 29 January 1968

_#_Legal system: own Acts of Parliament and British common law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 31 January (1968)

_#_Executive branch: president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government--President Bernard DOWIYOGO
(since 12 December 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders: none

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 20


President--last held 9 December 1989 (next to be held December
results--Bernard DOWIYOGO elected by Parliament;

Parliament--last held on 9 December 1989 (next to be held
December 1992);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(18 total) independents 18

_#_Member of: C (special), ESCAP, ICAO, INTERPOL, ITU, SPC, SPF, UPU

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Theodore
Conrad MOSES resident in Melbourne (Australia); there is a Nauruan
Consulate in Agana (Guam);

US--the US Ambassador to Australia is accredited to Nauru

_#_Flag: blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across the
center and a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist
side; the star indicates the country's location in relation to the
Equator (the yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12 original
tribes of Nauru

_#_Overview: Revenues come from the export of phosphates, the reserves
of which are expected to be exhausted by the year 2000. Phosphates have
given Nauruans one of the highest per capita incomes in the Third
World--$10,000 annually. Few other resources exist so
most necessities must be imported, including fresh water from
Australia. The rehabilitation of mined land and the replacement of income
from phosphates constitute serious long-term problems. Substantial
investment in trust funds, out of phosphate income, will help cushion the

_#_GNP: over $90 million, per capita $10,000; real growth rate NA%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: 0%

_#_Budget: revenues $69.7 million; expenditures $51.5 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY86 est.)

_#_Exports: $93 million (f.o.b., 1984);


partners--Australia, NZ

_#_Imports: $73 million (c.i.f., 1984);

commodities--food, fuel, manufactures, building materials,

partners--Australia, UK, NZ, Japan

_#_External debt: $33.3 million

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 14,000 kW capacity; 50 million kWh produced,
5,430 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: phosphate mining, financial services, coconuts

_#_Agriculture: negligible; almost completely dependent on imports for
food and water

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries (1970-1988), $2 million

_#_Currency: Australian dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.2834 (January
1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905
(1986), 1.4269 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_#_Railroads: 3.9 km; used to haul phosphates from the center of the
island to processing facilities on the southwest coast

_#_Highways: about 27 km total; 21 km paved, 6 km improved earth

_#_Ports: Nauru

_#_Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 31,261
GRT/39,838 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 2 bulk

_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft, one on order

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: adequate intraisland and international radio
communications provided via Australian facilities; 1,600 telephones;
4,000 radios; stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: no regular armed forces; Directorate of the Nauru
Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service

_#_Defense expenditures: no formal defense structure
_@_Navassa Island
(territory of the US)
_#_Total area: 5.2 km2; land area: 5.2 km2

_#_Comparative area: about nine times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 8 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claimed by Haiti

_#_Climate: marine, tropical

_#_Terrain: raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating;
ringed by vertical white cliffs (9 to 15 meters high)

_#_Natural resources: guano

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
10%; forest and woodland 0%; other 90%

_#_Environment: mostly exposed rock, but enough grassland to support
goat herds; dense stands of fig-like trees, scattered cactus

_#_Note: strategic location between Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica in the
Caribbean Sea; 160 km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo, Cuba

_#_Population: uninhabited; transient Haitian fishermen and others
camp on the island

_#_Long-form name: none (territory of the US)

_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US
Coast Guard

_#_Overview: no economic activity

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
_#_Total area: 140,800 km2; land area: 136,800 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Arkansas

_#_Land boundaries: 2,926 km total; China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Climate: varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to
subtropical summers and mild winter in south

_#_Terrain: Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central
hill region, rugged Himalayas in north

_#_Natural resources: quartz, water, timber, hydroelectric potential,
scenic beauty; small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore

_#_Land use: arable land 17%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 13%; forest and woodland 33%; other 37%; includes irrigated 2%

_#_Environment: contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks;
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution

_#_Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India

_#_Population: 19,611,900 (July 1991), growth rate 2.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 39 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 98 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 50 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Nepalese (sing. and pl.); adjective--Nepalese

_#_Ethnic divisions: Newars, Indians, Tibetans, Gurungs, Magars,
Tamangs, Bhotias, Rais, Limbus, Sherpas, as well as many smaller groups

_#_Religion: only official Hindu state in world, although no sharp
distinction between many Hindu (about 90% of population) and Buddhist
groups (about 5% of population); Muslims 3%, other 2% (1981)

_#_Language: Nepali (official); 20 languages divided into numerous

_#_Literacy: 26% (male 38%, female 13%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 4,100,000; agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry 2%;
severe lack of skilled labor

_#_Organized labor: Teachers' Union and many other nonofficially
recognized unions

_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Nepal

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Kathmandu

_#_Administrative divisions: 14 zones (anchal, singular and plural);
Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur,
Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi,
Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti

_#_Independence: 1768, unified by Prithyi Narayan Shah

_#_Constitution: 9 November 1990

_#_Legal system: based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 28 December

_#_Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of
an upper house or National Council and a lower house or House of

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarbochha Adalat)


Chief of State--King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev (since 31 January
1972, crowned King 24 February 1985); Heir Apparent Crown Prince DIPENDRA
Bir Bikram Shah Dev, son of the King (born 21 June 1971);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Girija Prasad KOIRALA (since
29 May 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:

ruling party--Nepali Congress Party (NCP), Girija Prasad KOIRALA,
Ganesh Man SINGH, Krishna Prasad BHATTARAI;

center--the NDP has two factions: National Democratic
Party/Chand (NDP/Chand), Lokinra Bahadur CHAND, and
National Democratic Party/Thapa (NDP/Thapa), Surya Bahadur THAPA;
Terai Rights Sadbhavana (Goodwill) Party, G. N. Naryan SINGH;

Communist--Communist Party of Nepal/United Marxist and
Leninist (CPN/UML), Man Mohan ADIKHARY;
United People's Front (UPF), N. K. PRASAI;
Rohit Party, N. M. BIJUKCHHE;
Democratic Party, leader NA

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


House of Representatives--last held on 12 May 1991 (next to be
held May 1996);
results--NCP 38%, CPN/UML 28%, NDP/Chand 6%, UPF 5%, NDP/Thapa
5%, Terai Rights Sadbhavana Party 4%, Rohit 2%, CPN (Democratic) 1%,
independent 4%, other 7%;
seats--(205 total) NCP 110, CPN/UML 69, UPF 9, Terai Rights
Sadbhavana Party 6, NDP/Chand 3, Rohit 2, CPN (Democratic) 2,
NDP/Thapa 1, independent 3;

note--the new Constitution of 9 November 1990 gives Nepal a multiparty
democracy system for the first time in 32 years

_#_Communists: Communist Party of Nepal (CPN)

_#_Other political or pressure groups: numerous small, left-leaning
student groups in the capital; several small, radical Nepalese
antimonarchist groups

_#_Member of: AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Mohan Man SAINJU; Chancery at
2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 667-4550; there
is a Nepalese Consulate General in New York;

US--Ambassador Julia Chang BLOCH; Embassy at Pani Pokhari,
Kathmandu; telephone [977] (1) 411179 or 412718, 411601, 411613, 413890

_#_Flag: red with a blue border around the unique shape of two
overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white
stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed sun

_#_Overview: Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries
in the world with a per capita income of less than $200. Real growth
averaged 4% in the 1980s until FY89, when it plunged to 1.5% because of
a trade/transit dispute with India. Though the impasse is over,
political turmoil and inflated energy costs will probably constrain
growth to under 4%. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy,
providing a livelihood for over 90% of the population and
accounting for 60% of GDP. Industrial activity is limited, mainly
involving the processing of agricultural produce (jute, sugarcane,
tobacco, and grain). Production of textiles and carpets has expanded
recently and accounted for 87% of foreign exchange earnings in FY89.
Apart from agricultural land and forests, the only other exploitable
natural resources are mica, hydropower, and tourism. Agricultural
production in the late 1980s grew by about 5%, compared
with a population growth of 2.6%. Forty percent or more of the
population is undernourished partly because of poor distribution.
Economic prospects for the 1990s are poor, with economic growth
probably outpacing population growth only slightly.

_#_GDP: $3.0 billion, per capita $160; real growth rate 2.1% (FY90)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.0% (FY90 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 5%; underemployment estimated at 25-40% (1987)

_#_Budget: revenues $316.5 million; expenditures $618.5 million,
including capital expenditures of $398 (FY91 est.)

_#_Exports: $125 million (f.o.b., FY90), but does not include
unrecorded border trade with India;

commodities--clothing, carpets, leather goods, grain;

partners--India 38%, US 23%, UK 6%, other Europe 9% (FY88)

_#_Imports: $454.3illion (c.i.f., FY90 est.);

commodities--petroleum products 20%, fertilizer 11%, machinery 10%;

partners--India 36%, Japan 13%, Europe 4%, US 1% (FY88)

_#_External debt: $2.5 billion (April 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 6% (FY90 est.); accounts
for 7% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 280,000 kW capacity; 540 million kWh produced,
30 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette,
textiles, carpets, cement, brick; tourism

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 60% of GDP and 90% of work force; farm
products--rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops, milk, buffalo meat;
not self-sufficient in food, particularly in drought years

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic and
international drug markets

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $304
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-88), $2.0 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $30 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $286 million

_#_Currency: Nepalese rupee (plural--rupees);
1 Nepalese rupee (NR) = 100 paisa

_#_Exchange rates: Nepalese rupees (NRs) per US$1--30.805 (January
1991), 29.370 (1990), 27.189 (1989), 23.289 (1988), 21.819 (1987), 21.230
(1986), 18.246 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 16 July-15 July

_#_Railroads: 52 km (1990), all 0.762-meter narrow gauge; all in
Terai close to Indian border; 10 km from Raxaul to Birganj is
government owned

_#_Highways: 7,080 km total (1990); 2,898 km paved, 1,660 km gravel
or crushed stone; also 2,522 km of seasonally motorable tracks

_#_Civil air: 5 major and 11 minor transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 37 total, 37 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 8 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: poor telephone and telegraph service; fair
radio communication and broadcast service; international radio
communication service is poor; 50,000 telephones (1990); stations--88
AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Nepalese Army, Royal Nepalese Army Air Service,
Nepalese Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 4,669,421; 2,420,398 fit for
military service; 233,404 reach military age (17) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $38 million, 2% of GDP (FY91)
_#_Total area: 37,290 km2; land area: 33,940 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey

_#_Land boundaries: 1,027 km total; Belgium 450 km, Germany 577 km

_#_Coastline: 451 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters

_#_Terrain: mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some
hills in southeast

_#_Natural resources: natural gas, crude oil, fertile soil

_#_Land use: arable land 25%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
34%; forest and woodland 9%; other 31%; includes irrigated 15%

_#_Environment: 27% of the land area is below sea level and protected
from the North Sea by dikes

_#_Note: located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine,
Maas or Meuse, Schelde)

_#_Population: 15,022,393 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women);

_#_Ethnic divisions: Dutch 96%, Moroccans, Turks, and other 4% (1988)

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 36%, Protestant 27%, other 6%,
unaffiliated 31% (1988)

_#_Language: Dutch

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1979 est.)

_#_Labor force: 5,300,000; services 50.1%, manufacturing and
construction 28.2%, government 15.9%, agriculture 5.8% (1986)

_#_Organized labor: 29% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of the Netherlands

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Amsterdam, but government resides at The Hague

_#_Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (provincien,
singular--provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland, Friesland, Gelderland,
Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant, Noord-Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht,
Zeeland, Zuid-Holland

_#_Dependent areas: Aruba, Netherlands Antilles

_#_Independence: 1579 (from Spain)

_#_Constitution: 17 February 1983

_#_Legal system: civil law system incorporating French penal theory;
judicial review in the Supreme Court of legislation of lower order rather
than Acts of the States General; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations

_#_National holiday: Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)

_#_Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, vice prime minister,
Cabinet, Cabinet of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral legislature (Staten Generaal)
consists of an upper chamber or First Chamber (Eerste Kamer) and a lower
chamber or Second Chamber (Tweede Kamer)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (De Hoge Raad)


Chief of State--Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April
1980); Heir Apparent WILLEM-ALEXANDER, Prince of Orange, son of Queen
Beatrix (born 27 April 1967);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Ruud (Rudolph) F. M. LUBBERS
(since 4 November 1982); Vice Prime Minister Wim KOK (since 2 November

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Willem van VELZEN;
Labor (PvdA), Wim KOK;
Liberal (VVD), Joris VOORHOEVE;
Democrats '66 (D'66), Hans van MIERIO;
Communist (CPN), Henk HOEKSTRA;
a host of minor parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


First Chamber--last held on 9 June l987 (next to be held 9 June
1991); results--elected by the country's 12 provincial councils;
seats--(75 total) percent of seats by party NA;

Second Chamber--last held on 6 September 1989 (next to be held by
September 1993);
results--CDA 35.3%, PvdA 31.9%, VVD 14.6%, D'66 7.9%, other 10.3%;
seats--(150 total) CDA 54, PvdA 49, VVD 22, D'66 12, other 13

_#_Communists: about 6,000

_#_Other political or pressure groups: large multinational firms;
Federation of Netherlands Trade Union Movement (comprising Socialist and
Catholic trade unions) and a Protestant trade union; Federation of
Catholic and Protestant Employers Associations; the nondenominational
Federation of Netherlands Enterprises; and IKV--Interchurch Peace Council

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Johan Hendrick MEESMAN;
Chancery at 4200 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
244-5300; there are Dutch Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los
Angeles, New York, and San Francisco;

US--Ambassador C. Howard WILKINS, Jr.; Embassy at Lange Voorhout
102, The Hague (mailing address APO New York 09159);
telephone [31] (70) 362-4911; there is a US Consulate General in

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue;
similar to the flag of Luxembourg which uses a lighter blue and is longer

_#_Overview: This highly developed and affluent economy is based on
private enterprise. The government makes its presence felt, however,
through many regulations, permit requirements, and welfare programs
affecting most aspects of economic activity. The trade and financial
services sector contributes over 50% of GDP. Industrial activity
provides about 25% of GDP and is led by the food-processing,
oil-refining, and metalworking industries. The highly mechanized
agricultural sector employs only 5% of the labor force, but provides
large surpluses for export and the domestic food-processing industry.
An unemployment rate of 6.8% and a sizable budget deficit are
currently the most serious economic problems.

_#_GDP: $218.0 billion, per capita $14,600; real growth rate 3.1%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 6.8% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $68 billion; expenditures $76 billion, including
capital expenditures of $7 billion (1990)

_#_Exports: $107.8 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--agricultural products, processed foods and tobacco,
natural gas, chemicals, metal products, textiles, clothing;

partners--EC 74.9% (FRG 28.3%, Belgium-Luxembourg
14.2%, France 10.7%, UK 10.2%), US 4.7% (1988)

_#_Imports: $104.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--raw materials and semifinished products, consumer
goods, transportation equipment, crude oil, food products;

partners--EC 63.8% (FRG 26.5%, Belgium-Luxembourg 23.1%,
UK 8.1%), US 7.9% (1988)

_#_External debt: none

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.8% (1990 est.); accounts
for 25% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 22,216,000 kW capacity; 63,570 million kWh
produced, 4,300 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: agroindustries, metal and engineering products,
electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, fishing,
construction, microelectronics

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP; animal production
predominates; crops--grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables;
shortages of grain, fats, and oils

_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $19.4

_#_Currency: Netherlands guilder, gulden, or florin (plural--guilders,
gulden, or florins); 1 Netherlands guilder, gulden, or florin (f.) =
100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Netherlands guilders, gulden, or florins (f.) per
US$1--1.7018 (January 1991), 1.8209 (1990), 2.1207 (1989), 1.9766 (1988),
2.0257 (1987), 2.4500 (1986), 3.3214 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 3,037 km track (includes 1,871 km electrified and
1,800 km double track); 2,871 km 1.435-meter standard gauge operated by
Netherlands Railways (NS); 166 km privately owned

_#_Highways: 108,360 km total; 92,525 km paved (including 2,185 km
of limited access, divided highways); 15,835 km gravel, crushed stone

_#_Inland waterways: 6,340 km, of which 35% is usable by craft of
1,000 metric ton capacity or larger

_#_Pipelines: 418 km crude oil; 965 km refined products; 10,230 km
natural gas

_#_Ports: maritime--Amsterdam, Delfzijl, Den Helder, Dordrecht,
Eemshaven, Ijmuiden, Rotterdam, Scheveningen, Terneuzen, Vlissingen;
inland--29 ports

_#_Merchant marine: 344 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,722,838
GRT/3,822,230 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 187 cargo, 32
refrigerated cargo, 23 container, 12 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 livestock
carrier, 12 multifunction large-load carrier, 17 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 29 chemical tanker, 10 liquefied gas, 2
specialized tanker, 3 combination ore/oil, 9 bulk, 3 combination bulk;
note--many Dutch-owned ships are also registered in the captive
Netherlands Antilles register

_#_Civil air: 98 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 28 total, 28 usable; 18 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: highly developed, well maintained, and
integrated; extensive system of multiconductor cables, supplemented by
radio relay links; 9,418,000 telephones; stations--6 AM, 20 (33
repeaters) FM, 22 (8 repeaters) TV; 5 submarine cables; communication
satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and
2 Atlantic Ocean) and EUTELSAT systems

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy (including
Naval Air Service and Marine Corp), Royal Netherlands Air Force, Royal

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 4,141,910; 3,658,056 fit for
military service; 105,829 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $6.8 billion, 2.7% of GDP (1990)
_@_Netherlands Antilles
(part of the Dutch realm)
_#_Total area: 960 km2; land area: 960 km2; includes Bonaire,
Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten (Dutch part of the
island of Saint Martin)

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 5.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 364 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; modified by northeast trade winds

_#_Terrain: generally hilly, volcanic interiors

_#_Natural resources: phosphates (Curacao only), salt (Bonaire only)

_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 92%

Book of the day: