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_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Disputes: the disputed international boundary between Burkina and
Mali was submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October
1983 and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both
sides agreed to accept; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary
demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger

_#_Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy,
humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

_#_Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand;
savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

_#_Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone,
uranium; bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known
but not exploited

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 25%; forest and woodland 7%; other 66%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry
seasons; desertification

_#_Note: landlocked

_*_People
_#_Population: 8,338,542 (July 1991), growth rate 2.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 51 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 21 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 114 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 45 years male, 47 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Malian(s); adjective--Malian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Mande (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole) 50%, Peul 17%,
Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 5%, other 10%

_#_Religion: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%

_#_Language: French (official); Bambara spoken by about 80% of the
population; numerous African languages

_#_Literacy: 32% (male 41%, female 24%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2,666,000 (1986 est.); agriculture 80%, services 19%,
industry and commerce 1% (1981); 50% of population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: National Union of Malian Workers (UNTM) is
umbrella organization for over 13 national unions

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Mali

_#_Type: republic; the single-party constitutional government
was overthrown on 26 March 1991; the new ruling National
Reconciliation Council has promised a multiparty democracy

_#_Capital: Bamako

_#_Administrative divisions: 7 regions (regions,
singular--region); Gao, Kayes, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso,
Tombouctou; note--there may be a new capital district of Bamako

_#_Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France; formerly French
Sudan)

_#_Constitution: 2 June 1974, effective 19 June 1979; amended
September 1981 and March 1985; suspended following the coup of
26 March 1991

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Section of Court of
State; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic,
22 September (1960)

_#_Executive branch: National Conciliation Council led by the
military, following the coup of 26 March 1991

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemble
Nationale)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--following the military coup of 26 March 1991
President Gen. Moussa TRAORE was deposed and the National
Reconciliation Council, led by Lt. Col. Amadou Toumani TOURE and Lt. Col.
Kafougouna KONE, was installed;

Head of Government--Interim Premier Soumana SACKO (since 2
April 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: formerly the only party, the
Democratic Union of Malian People (UDPM), was disbanded after the coup of
26 March 1991, and the new regime legalized the formation of political
parties on 5 April 1991; new political parties are--Union of Democratic
Forces (UFD), Demba DIALLO;
Union for Democracy and Development (UDD), Moussa Bala COULIBALY;
Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally (US-RDA), Mamadou Madeira KEITA;
African Party for Solidarity and Justice (ADEMA), Alpha Oumar KONARE;
Party for Democracy and Progress (PDP), Idrissa TRAORE;
Democratic Party for Justice (PDJ), Abdul BA;
Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP), Almany SYLLA;
Party for the Unity of Malian People (PUPM), Nock AGATTIA;
Hisboulah al Islamiya, Hamidou DRAMERA;
Union of Progressive Forces (UFP), Yacouba SIDIBE;
National Congress of Democratic Initiative (CNID), Mountaga TALL;
Assembly for Justice and Progress, Kady DRAME;
other parties forming

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21

_#_Elections:

President--last held on 9 June 1985 (next to be held June 1991);
results--General Moussa TRAORE was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held on 26 June 1988 (next to be held June
1991); results--UDPM is the only party; seats--(82 total) UDPM 82;
note--following the military coup of 26 March 1991 President TRAORE
was deposed and the UDPM was disbanded; the new ruling National
Reconciliation Council, formed of 17 soldiers, has promised to
institute a multiparty democracy and is expected to hold elections
by December 1991

_#_Communists: a few Communists and some sympathizers (no legal
Communist party)

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Mohamed Alhousseyni TOURE;
Chancery at 2130 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
332-2249 or 939-8950;

US--Ambassador Herbert D. GELBER; Embassy at Rue Rochester NY and
Rue Mohamed V., Bamako (mailing address is B. P. 34, Bamako); telephone
[223] 223712

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and
red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with
about 70% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is
largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10%
of the population live as nomads and some 80% of the labor force is
engaged in agriculture and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated
on processing farm commodities.

_#_GDP: $2.0 billion, per capita $250; real growth rate 9.9% (1989
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA% (1987)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $329 million; expenditures $519 million, including
capital expenditures of $178 (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $285 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--livestock, peanuts, dried fish, cotton, skins;

partners--mostly franc zone and Western Europe

_#_Imports: $513 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--textiles, vehicles, petroleum products, machinery,
sugar, cereals;

partners--mostly franc zone and Western Europe

_#_External debt: $2.2 billion (1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 19.9% (1989 est.); accounts
for 7% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 253,000 kW capacity; 730 million kWh produced,
90 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: small local consumer goods and processing,
construction, phosphate, gold, fishing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP; most production based on
small subsistence farms; cotton and livestock products account for over
70% of exports; other crops--millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts;
livestock--cattle, sheep, and goats

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $349
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.65 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $92 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $190 million

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 642 km 1.000-meter gauge; linked to Senegal's rail
system through Kayes

_#_Highways: about 15,700 km total; 1,670 km bituminous, 3,670 km
gravel and improved earth, 10,360 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 1,815 km navigable

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 37 total, 29 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: domestic system poor but improving; provides
only minimal service with radio relay, wire, and radio communications
stations; expansion of radio relay in progress; 11,000 telephones;
stations--2 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV; satellite earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Air Force; paramilitary Gendarmerie,
Republican Guard, National Guard, National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,631,445; 940,954 fit for
military service; no conscription

_#_Defense expenditures: $45 million, 2.4% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Malta
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 320 km2; land area: 320 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington,
DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 140 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 25 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry
summers

_#_Terrain: mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal
cliffs

_#_Natural resources: limestone, salt

_#_Land use: arable land 38%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 59%; includes irrigated 3%

_#_Environment: numerous bays provide good harbors; fresh water very
scarce--increasing reliance on desalination

_#_Note: strategic location in central Mediterranean, 93 km south
of Sicily, 290 km north of Libya

_*_People
_#_Population: 356,427 (July 1991), growth rate 0.8% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Maltese (sing. and pl.); adjective--Maltese

_#_Ethnic divisions: mixture of Arab, Sicilian, Norman, Spanish,
Italian, English

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 98%

_#_Language: Maltese and English (official)

_#_Literacy: 84% (male 86%, female 82%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1985)

_#_Labor force: 126,135; government (excluding job corps) 37%,
services 26%, manufacturing 22%, training programs 9%, construction 4%,
agriculture 2% (1989)

_#_Organized labor: about 40% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Malta

_#_Type: parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Valletta

_#_Administrative divisions: none (administration directly from
Valletta)

_#_Independence: 21 September 1964 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 26 April 1974, effective 2 June 1974

_#_Legal system: based on English common law and Roman civil law; has
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Freedom Day, 31 March

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: Constitutional Court and Court of Appeal

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Vincent (Censu) TABONE (since 4 April
1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Dr. Edward (Eddie) FENECH
ADAMI (since 12 May 1987); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Guido DE MARCO
(since 14 May 1987)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Nationalist Party, Edward FENECH ADAMI;
Malta Labor Party, Karmenu MIFSUD BONNICI

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

House of Representatives--last held on 9 May 1987 (next to be
held by May 1992);
results--NP 51.1%, MLP 48.9%;
seats--(usually 65 total, but additional seats are given to the party
with the largest popular vote to ensure a legislative majority; current
total 69) MLP 34, NP 31 before popular vote adjustment; MLP 34, NP 35
after adjustment

_#_Communists: fewer than 100 (est.)

_#_Member of: C, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Salvatore J. STELLINI;
Chancery at 2017 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 462-3611 or 3612; there is a Maltese Consulate General in New York;

US--Ambassador Sally J. NOVETZKE; Embassy at 2nd Floor, Development
House, Saint Anne Street, Floriana, Valletta (mailing address is P. O.
Box 535, Valletta); telephone [356] 240424, 240425, 243216, 243217,
243653, 223654

_#_Flag: two equal vertical bands of white (hoist side) and red; in
the upper hoist-side corner is a representation of the George Cross,
edged in red

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Significant resources are limestone, a favorable
geographic location, and a productive labor force. Malta produces only
about 20% of its food needs, has limited freshwater supplies, and has no
domestic energy sources. Consequently, the economy is highly dependent on
foreign trade and services. Manufacturing and tourism are the largest
contributors to the economy. Manufacturing accounts for about 27% of GDP,
with the electronics and textile industries major contributors. In 1989
inflation was held to a low 0.9%. Per capita GDP at $5,500 places Malta
in the middle-income range of the world's nations.

_#_GDP: $1.9 billion, per capita $5,500 (1988); real growth rate 6.4%
(1989)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.9% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 3.7% (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $1,020 million; expenditures $1,230 million,
including capital expenditures of $380 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $866 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--clothing, textiles, footwear, ships;

partners--Italy 30%, FRG 22%, UK 11%

_#_Imports: $1,328 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--food, petroleum, machinery and semimanufactured goods;

partners--Italy 30%, UK 16%, FRG 13%, US 4%

_#_External debt: $90 million, medium and long-term (December 1987)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 19.2% (1989); accounts
for 27% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 328,000 kW capacity; 1,110 million kWh produced,
2,990 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: tourism, electronics, ship repair yard, construction,
food manufacturing, textiles, footwear, clothing, beverages, tobacco

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 3% of GDP; overall, 20% self-sufficient;
main products--potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, wheat, barley, tomatoes,
citrus, cut flowers, green peppers, hogs, poultry, eggs; generally
adequate supplies of vegetables, poultry, milk, pork products; seasonal
or periodic shortages in grain, animal fodder, fruits, other basic
foodstuffs

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $172
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $333 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $76 million;
Communist countries (1970-88), $48 million

_#_Currency: Maltese lira (plural--liri); 1 Maltese lira (LM) = 100
cents

_#_Exchange rates: Maltese liri (LM) per US$1--0.3004 (January 1991),
0.3172 (1990), 0.3483 (1989), 0.3306 (1988), 0.3451 (1987), 0.3924
(1986), 0.4676 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 1,291 km total; 1,179 km paved (asphalt), 77 km crushed
stone or gravel, 35 km improved and unimproved earth

_#_Ports: Valletta, Marsaxlokk

_#_Merchant marine: 415 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,005,791
GRT/8,644,369 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 8 short-sea passenger, 160
cargo, 5 container, 2 passenger-cargo, 13 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3
vehicle carrier, 1 barge carrier, 6 refrigerated cargo, 9 chemical
tanker, 8 combination ore/oil, 2 specialized tanker, 1 liquefied gas,
79 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 104 bulk, 11 combination
bulk; note--a flag of convenience registry; China owns 1 ship, USSR owns
7, Cuba owns 7, and Vietnam owns 1

_#_Civil air: 7 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m

_#_Telecommunications: modern automatic system centered in Valletta;
163,800 telephones; stations--9 AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; 1 submarine cable;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Armed Forces, Maltese Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 94,081; 75,222 fit for military
service

_#_Defense expenditures: $21.9 million, 1.3% of GDP (1989 est.)
_%_
_@_Man, Isle of
(British crown dependency)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 588 km2; land area: 588 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 113 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: cool summers and mild winters; humid; overcast about half
the time

_#_Terrain: hills in north and south bisected by central valley

_#_Natural resources: lead, iron ore

_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%; extensive arable land
and forests

_#_Environment: strong westerly winds prevail

_#_Note: located in Irish Sea equidistant from England, Scotland,
and Ireland

_*_People
_#_Population: 64,075 (July 1991), growth rate 0.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Manxman, Manxwoman, adjective--Manx

_#_Ethnic divisions: native Manx of Norse-Celtic descent; British

_#_Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Baptist,
Presbyterian, Society of Friends

_#_Language: English, Manx Gaelic

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%) but compulsory education
age 5 to 16

_#_Labor force: 25,864 (1981)

_#_Organized labor: 22 labor unions patterned along British lines

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: British crown dependency

_#_Capital: Douglas

_#_Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

_#_Independence: none (British crown dependency)

_#_Constitution: 1961, Isle of Man Constitution Act

_#_Legal system: English law and local statute

_#_National holiday: Tynwald Day, 5 July

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, lieutenant governor, prime
minister, Executive Council (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Tynwald consists of an upper
house or Legislative Council and a lower house or House of Keys

_#_Judicial branch: High Court of Justice

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952), represented by Lieutenant Governor Air Marshal Sir Laurence JONES
(since NA 1990);

Head of Government--President of the Legislative Council Sir
Charles KERRUISH (since NA 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders: there is no party system and
members sit as independents

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21

_#_Elections:

House of Keys--last held in 1986 (next to be held 1991);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(24 total) independents 24

_#_Communists: probably none

_#_Member of: none

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (British crown dependency)

_#_Flag: red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (Trinacria), in
the center; the three legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the knee;
in order to have the toes pointing clockwise on both sides of the flag, a
two-sided emblem is used

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism are key
sectors of the economy. The government's policy of offering incentives to
high-technology companies and financial institutions to locate on the
island has paid off in expanding employment opportunities in high-income
industries. As a result, agriculture and fishing, once the mainstays of
the economy, have declined in their shares of GNP. Banking now
contributes over 20% to GNP and manufacturing about 15%. Trade is mostly
with the UK.

_#_GNP: $490 million, per capita $7,573; real growth rate NA% (1988)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: 1.5% (1988)

_#_Budget: revenues $130.4 million; expenditures $114.4 million,
including capital expenditures of $18.1 million (FY85 est.)

_#_Exports: $NA;

commodities--tweeds, herring, processed shellfish meat;

partners--UK

_#_Imports: $NA;

commodities--timber, fertilizers, fish;

partners--UK

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 61,000 kW capacity; 190 million kWh produced,
2,930 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: an important offshore financial center; financial
services, light manufacturing, tourism

_#_Agriculture: cereals and vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry

_#_Economic aid: NA

_#_Currency: Manx pound (plural--pounds); 1 Manx pound (5M) = 100
pence

_#_Exchange rates: Manx pounds (5M) per US$1--0.5171 (January 1991),
0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817
(1986), 0.7714 (1985); the Manx pound is at par with the British pound

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 36 km electric track, 24 km steam track

_#_Highways: 640 km motorable roads

_#_Ports: Douglas, Ramsey, Peel

_#_Merchant marine: 73 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,634,471
GRT/2,906,039 DWT; includes 8 cargo, 6 container, 6 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 31 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical
tanker, 2 combination ore/oil, 3 liquefied gas, 13 bulk; note--a captive
register of the United Kingdom, although not all ships on the register
are British-owned

_#_Airports: 2 total; 1 usable with permanent-surface runways
1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 24,435 telephones; stations--1 AM, 4 FM, 4 TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_Marshall Islands
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 181.3 km2; land area: 181.3 km2; includes the atolls
of Bikini, Eniwetak, and Kwajalein

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 370.4 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claims US territory of Wake Island

_#_Climate: wet season May to November; hot and humid; islands border
typhoon belt

_#_Terrain: low coral limestone and sand islands

_#_Natural resources: phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed
minerals

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 60%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 40%

_#_Environment: occasionally subject to typhoons; two archipelagic
island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152 islands

_#_Note: located 3,825 km southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific
Ocean, about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and Papua New Guinea;
Bikini and Eniwetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the
famous World War II battleground, is now used as a US missile test range

_*_People
_#_Population: 48,091 (July 1991), growth rate 3.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 53 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 64 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Marshallese; adjective--Marshallese

_#_Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Micronesian

_#_Religion: predominantly Christian, mostly Protestant

_#_Language: English universally spoken and is the official language;
two major Marshallese dialects from Malayo-Polynesian family; Japanese

_#_Literacy: 93% (male 100%, female 88%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)

_#_Labor force: 4,800 (1986)

_#_Organized labor: none

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of the Marshall Islands

_#_Type: constitutional government in free association with the US;
the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986

_#_Capital: Majuro

_#_Administrative divisions: none

_#_Independence: 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN
trusteeship; formerly the Marshall Islands District of the Trust
Territory of the Pacific Islands)

_#_Constitution: 1 May 1979

_#_Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the
legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

_#_National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic of the Marshall
Islands, 1 May (1979)

_#_Executive branch: president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Nitijela

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Amata KABUA
(since 1979)

_#_Political parties and leaders: no formal parties; President KABUA
is chief political (and traditional) leader

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held NA November 1987 (next to be held November
1991); results--President Amata KABUA was reelected;

Parliament--last held NA November 1987 (next to be held November
1991); results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(33 total)

_#_Communists: none

_#_Member of: ESCAP (associate), ICAO, SPC, SPF, UN

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Wilfred I. KENDALL;
Chancery at 2433 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 234-5414;

US--Ambassador William BODDE, Jr.; Embassy at NA address
(mailing address is P. O. Box 680, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall
Islands 96960-4380); telephone 692-4011

_#_Flag: blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side
corner--orange (top) and white; there is a white star with four large
rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Agriculture and tourism are the mainstays of the economy.
Agricultural production is concentrated on small farms, and the most
important commercial crops are coconuts, tomatoes, melons, and
breadfruit. A few cattle ranches supply the domestic meat market.
Small-scale industry is limited to handicrafts, fish processing, and
copra. The tourist industry is the primary source of foreign exchange and
employs about 10% of the labor force. The islands have few natural
resources, and imports far exceed exports. In 1987 the US Government
provided grants of $40 million out of the Marshallese budget of
$55 million.

_#_GDP: $63 million, per capita $1,500; real growth rate NA%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.6% (1981)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $55 million; expenditures NA, including capital
expenditures of NA (1987 est.)

_#_Exports: $2.5 million (f.o.b., 1985);

commodities--copra, copra oil, agricultural products, handicrafts;

partners--NA

_#_Imports: $29.2 million (c.i.f., 1985);

commodities--foodstuffs, beverages, building materials;

partners--NA

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 42,000 kW capacity; 80 million kWh produced, 1,840 kWh
per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: copra, fish, tourism; craft items from shell, wood, and
pearl; offshore banking (embryonic)

_#_Agriculture: coconuts, cacao, taro, breadfruit, fruits, copra;
pigs, chickens

_#_Economic aid: under the terms of the Compact of Free Association,
the US is to provide approximately $40 million in aid annually

_#_Currency: US currency is used

_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used

_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: macadam and concrete roads on major islands (Majuro,
Kwajalein), otherwise stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads and
tracks

_#_Ports: Majuro

_#_Merchant marine: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,654,871
GRT/3,236,549 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 3 container, 7 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 11 bulk carrier; note--a flag of convenience
registry

_#_Airports: 5 total, 5 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: telephone network--570 lines (Majuro) and 186
(Ebeye); telex services; islands interconnected by shortwave radio (used
mostly for government purposes); stations--1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave;
2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; US Government satellite
communications system on Kwajalein

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
_%_
_@_Martinique
(overseas department of France)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,100 km2; land area: 1,060 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than six times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 290 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to
October)

_#_Terrain: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano

_#_Natural resources: coastal scenery and beaches, cultivable land

_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and pastures
30%; forest and woodland 26%; other 26%; includes irrigated 5%

_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic
activity that result in an average of one major natural disaster every
five years

_#_Note: located 625 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

_*_People
_#_Population: 345,180 (July 1991), growth rate 0.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 80 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Martiniquais (sing. and pl.);
adjective--Martiniquais

_#_Ethnic divisions: African and African-Caucasian-Indian mixture
90%, Caucasian 5%, East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African
5%

_#_Language: French, Creole patois

_#_Literacy: 93% (male 92%, female 93%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1982)

_#_Labor force: 100,000; service industry 31.7%, construction and
public works 29.4%, agriculture 13.1%, industry 7.3%, fisheries 2.2%,
other 16.3%

_#_Organized labor: 11% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Department of Martinique

_#_Type: overseas department of France

_#_Capital: Fort-de-France

_#_Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

_#_Independence: none (overseas department of France)

_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

_#_Legal system: French legal system

_#_National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

_#_Executive branch: government commissioner

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and unicameral
Regional Council

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND (since
21 May 1981);

Head of Government--Government Commissioner Jean Claude ROURE
(since 5 May 1989); President of the General Council Emile MAURICE
(since NA 1988)

_#_Political parties:
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Stephen BAGO;
Union of the Left composed of the Progressive Party of Martinique (PPM),
Aime CESAIRE;
Socialist Federation of Martinique, Michael YOYO;
and
the Communist Party of Martinique (PCM), Armand NICOLAS;
Union for French Democracy (UDF), Jean MARAN

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

General Council--last held on NA October 1988
(next to be held by March 1991); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(44 total) number of seats by party NA;

Regional Assembly--last held on 16 March 1986 (next to be held by
March 1992); results--UDF/RPR coalition 49.8%, PPM/FSM/PCM
coalition 41.3%, other 8.9%;
seats--(41 total) PPM/FSM/PCM coalition 21, UDF/RPR coalition 20;

French Senate--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1992); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(2 total) UDF 1, PPM 1;

French National Assembly--last held on 5 and 12 June 1988 (next
to be held June 1993); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(4 total) PPM 1, FSM 1, RPR 1, UDF 1

_#_Communists: 1,000 (est.)

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Proletarian Action Group (GAP);
Alhed Marie-Jeanne Socialist Revolution Group (GRS), Martinique
Independence Movement (MIM), Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance (ARC),
Central Union for Martinique Workers (CSTM), Marc Pulvar; Frantz Fanon
Circle; League of Workers and Peasants

_#_Member of: FZ, WCL, WFTU

_#_Diplomatic representation: as an overseas department of France,
Martiniquais interests are represented in the US by France;

US--Consul General Raymond G. ROBINSON; Consulate General at 14 Rue
Blenac, Fort-de-France (mailing address is B. P. 561, Fort-de-France
97206); telephone [590] 63-13-03

_#_Flag: the flag of France is used

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based on sugarcane, bananas, tourism, and
light industry. Agriculture accounts for about 12% of GDP and the small
industrial sector for 10%. Sugar production has declined, with most of
the sugarcane now used for the production of rum. Banana exports are
increasing, going mostly to France. The bulk of meat, vegetable, and
grain requirements must be imported, contributing to a chronic trade
deficit that requires large annual transfers of aid from France. Tourism
has become more important than agricultural exports as a source of
foreign exchange. The majority of the work force is employed in the
service sector and in administration. In 1986 per capita GDP was
relatively high at $6,000. During 1986 the unemployment rate was 30% and
was particularly severe among younger workers.

_#_GDP: $2.0 billion, per capita $6,000; real growth rate NA% (1986)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 30% (1986)

_#_Budget: revenues $268 million; expenditures $268 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $196 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--refined petroleum products, bananas, rum, pineapples;

partners--France 65%, Guadeloupe 24%, FRG (1987)

_#_Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction
materials, vehicles, clothing and other consumer goods;

partners--France 65%, UK, Italy, FRG, Japan, US (1987)

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 113,000 kW capacity; 564 million kWh produced,
1,660 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: construction, rum, cement, oil refining, sugar, tourism

_#_Agriculture: including fishing and forestry, accounts for about 12%
of GDP; principal crops--pineapples, avocados, bananas, flowers,
vegetables, and sugarcane for rum; dependent on imported food,
particularly meat and vegetables

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $9.9 billion

_#_Currency: French franc (plural--francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100
centimes

_#_Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.1307 (January 1991),
5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261
(1986), 8.9852 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 1,680 km total; 1,300 km paved, 380 km gravel and earth

_#_Ports: Fort-de-France

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 2 total; 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways less than 2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: domestic facilities are adequate; 68,900
telephones; interisland radio relay links to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and
Saint Lucia; stations--1 AM, 6 FM, 10 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: French Forces, Gendarmerie

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 95,235; NA fit for military
service

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_Mauritania
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,030,700 km2; land area: 1,030,400 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than three times the size of
New Mexico

_#_Land boundaries: 5,074 km total; Algeria 463 km, Mali 2,237 km,
Senegal 813 km, Western Sahara 1,561 km

_#_Coastline: 754 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: boundary with Senegal

_#_Climate: desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty

_#_Terrain: mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central
hills

_#_Natural resources: iron ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate

_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 38%; forest and woodland 5%; other 56%; includes irrigated
NEGL%

_#_Environment: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows primarily
in March and April; desertification; only perennial river is the Senegal

_*_People
_#_Population: 1,995,755 (July 1991), growth rate 3.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 94 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 44 years male, 50 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Mauritanian(s); adjective--Mauritanian

_#_Ethnic divisions: mixed Maur/black 40%, Maur 30%, black 30%

_#_Religion: Muslim, nearly 100%

_#_Language: Hasaniya Arabic (national); French (official);
Toucouleur, Fula, Sarakole, Wolof

_#_Literacy: 34% (male 47%, female 21%) age 10 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 465,000 (1981 est.); 45,000 wage earners (1980);
agriculture 47%, services 29%, industry and commerce 14%, government 10%;
53% of population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: 30,000 members claimed by single union,
Mauritanian Workers' Union

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Islamic Republic of Mauritania

_#_Type: republic; military first seized power in bloodless coup
10 July 1978; a palace coup that took place on 12 December 1984 brought
President Taya to power

_#_Capital: Nouakchott

_#_Administrative divisions: 12 regions (regions,
singular--region); Adrar, Brakna, Dakhlet Nouadhibou, El Acaba,
Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh ech Chargui, Hodh el Gharbi, Inchiri, Tagant,
Tiris Zemmour, Trarza; note--there may be a new capital district of
Nouakchott

_#_Independence: 28 November 1960 (from France)

_#_Constitution: 20 May 1961, abrogated after coup of 10 July 1978;
provisional constitution published 17 December 1980 but abandoned in
1981; new constitutional charter published 27 February 1985

_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1960)

_#_Executive branch: president, Military Committee for National
Salvation (CMSN), Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale), dissolved after 10 July 1978 coup; legislative power
resides with the CMSN

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Col. Maaouya Ould
SidAhmed TAYA (since 12 December 1984)

_#_Political parties and leaders: suspended

_#_Suffrage: none

_#_Elections: last presidential election August 1976; National
Assembly dissolved 10 July 1978; no national elections are scheduled

_#_Communists: no Communist party, but there is a scattering of Maoist
sympathizers

_#_Member of: ABEDA, ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU,
CAEU, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdellah OULD DADDAH;
Chancery at 2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
232-5700;

US--Ambassador William H. TWADDELL; Embassy at address NA,
Nouakchott (mailing address is B. P. 222, Nouakchott); telephone [222]
(2) 252-660 or 252-663

_#_Flag: green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow,
horizontal crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down; the
crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: A majority of the population still depends on agriculture
and livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and many
subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in
the 1970s and 1980s. Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore that
account for almost 50% of total exports. The decline in world demand for
this ore, however, has led to cutbacks in production. The nation's
coastal waters are among the richest fishing areas in the world, but
overexploitation by foreigners threatens this key source of revenue. The
country's first deepwater port opened near Nouakchott in 1986. In recent
years, the droughts, the conflict with Senegal, rising energy costs,
and economic mismanagement have resulted in a substantial buildup of
foreign debt. The government now has begun the second stage of an
economic reform program in consultation with the World Bank, the IMF,
and major donor countries.

_#_GDP: $942 million, per capita $500; real growth rate 3.5% (1989
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.2% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 21% (1989 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $280 million; expenditures $346 million, including
capital expenditures of $61 million (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $519 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--iron ore, processed fish, small amounts of gum arabic
and gypsum, unrecorded but numerically significant cattle exports to
Senegal;

partners--EC 57%, Japan 39%, Ivory Coast 2%

_#_Imports: $567 million (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--foodstuffs, consumer goods, petroleum products,
capital goods;

partners--EC 79%, Africa 5%, US 4%, Japan 2%

_#_External debt: $2.3 billion (December 1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.4% (1988 est.); accounts
for 10% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 189,000 kW capacity; 136 million kWh produced,
70 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: fishing, fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 29% of GDP (including fishing); largely
subsistence farming and nomadic cattle and sheep herding except in
Senegal river valley; crops--dates, millet, sorghum, root crops; fish
products number-one export; large food deficit in years of drought

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $168
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $490 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $277 million

_#_Currency: ouguiya (plural--ouguiya); 1 ouguiya (UM) = 5 khoums

_#_Exchange rates: ouguiya (UM) per US$1--77.450 (January 1991),
80.609 (1990), 83.051 (1989), 75.261 (1988), 73.878 (1987), 74.375
(1986), 77.085 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 670 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track, owned
and operated by government mining company

_#_Highways: 7,525 km total; 1,685 km paved; 1,040 km gravel, crushed
stone, or otherwise improved; 4,800 km unimproved roads, trails, tracks

_#_Inland waterways: mostly ferry traffic on the Senegal River

_#_Ports: Nouadhibou, Nouakchott

_#_Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,290 GRT/1,840 DWT

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 30 total, 29 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: poor system of cable and open-wire lines, minor
radio relay links, and radio communications stations; 5,200 telephones;
stations--2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; satellite earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT and 2 ARABSAT, with a third planned

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National
Guard, National Police, Presidential Guard, Nomad Security Guard

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 423,501; 206,733 fit for
military service; conscription law not implemented

_#_Defense expenditures: $37 million, 4.2% of GDP (1987)
_%_
_@_Mauritius
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,860 km2; land area: 1,850 km2; includes Agalega
Islands, Cargados Carajos Shoals (Saint Brandon), and Rodrigues

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 10.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 177 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claims Chagos Archipelago, which includes the island of
Diego Garcia in UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory; claims
French-administered Tromelin Island

_#_Climate: tropical modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry
winter (May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)

_#_Terrain: small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains
encircling central plateau

_#_Natural resources: arable land, fish

_#_Land use: arable land 54%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures
4%; forest and woodland 31%; other 7%; includes irrigated 9%

_#_Environment: subject to cyclones (November to April); almost
completely surrounded by reefs

_#_Note: located 900 km east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean

_*_People
_#_Population: 1,081,000 (July 1991), growth rate 0.8% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 20 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Mauritian(s); adjective--Mauritian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Indo-Mauritian 68%, Creole 27%, Sino-Mauritian
3%, Franco-Mauritian 2%

_#_Religion: Hindu 52%, Christian (Roman Catholic 26%, Protestant
2.3%) 28.3%, Muslim 16.6%, other 3.1%

_#_Language: English (official), Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka,
Bojpoori

_#_Literacy: 61% (male 72%, female 50%) age 13 and over can
read and write (1962)

_#_Labor force: 335,000; government services 29%, agriculture and
fishing 27%, manufacturing 22%, other 22%; 43% of population of working
age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: 35% of labor force in more than 270 unions

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Port Louis

_#_Administrative divisions: 9 districts and 3 dependencies*;
Agalega Islands*, Black River, Cargados Carajos*, Flacq, Grand Port,
Moka, Pamplemousses, Plaines Wilhems, Port Louis, Riviere du Rempart,
Rodrigues*, Savanne

_#_Independence: 12 March 1968 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 12 March 1968

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system with elements of
English common law in certain areas

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 12 March (1968)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Veerasamy RINGADOO (since 17 January
1986);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH (since 12
June 1982); Deputy Prime Minister Prem NABABSING (since 26 September
1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:

government coalition--Militant Socialist Movement (MSM), A.
JUGNAUTH; Mauritian Militant Movement (MMM), Paul BERENGER;
Organization of the People of Rodrigues (OPR), Louis Serge CLAIR;
Democratic Labor Movement (MTD), Anil BAICHOO;

opposition--Mauritian Labor Party (MLP), Navin RAMGOOLMAN;
Socialist Workers Front, Sylvio MICHEL;
Mauritian Social Democratic Party (PMSD), G. DUVAL

_#_Suffrage universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

Legislative Assembly--last held on 15 September 1991 (next to be
held by 15 September 1996);
results--MSM/MMM 53%, MLP/PMSD 38%;
seats--(70 total, 62 elected) MSM/MMM alliance 59 (MSM 29, MMM 26,
OPR 2, MTD 2); opposition 3

_#_Communists: may be 2,000 sympathizers; several Communist
organizations; Mauritius Lenin Youth Organization, Mauritius Women's
Committee, Mauritius Communist Party, Mauritius People's Progressive
Party, Mauritius Young Communist League, Mauritius Liberation Front,
Chinese Middle School Friendly Association, Mauritius/USSR Friendship
Society

_#_Other political or pressure groups: various labor unions

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Chitmansing JESSERAMSING;
Chancery at Suite 134, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 244-1491 or 1492;

US--Ambassador Penne Percy KORTH; Embassy at 4th Floor, Rogers
House, John Kennedy Street, Port Louis; telephone [230] 208-9763 through
208-9767

_#_Flag: four equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, yellow,
and green

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based on sugar, manufacturing (mainly
textiles), and tourism. Sugarcane is grown on about 90% of the cultivated
land area and accounts for 32% of export earnings. The government's
development strategy is centered on industrialization (with a view to
exports), agricultural diversification, and tourism. Economic performance
in 1989 was impressive, with 5.0% real growth and low unemployment.

_#_GDP: $2.1 billion, per capita $2,000; real growth rate 5.5% (FY89)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.7% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 2.7% (1989 est.)

Book of the day: