Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

Part 20 out of 39

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 3.3 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

_#_Electricity: 23,000 kW capacity; 150 million kWh produced,
5,340 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics,
pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism

_#_Agriculture: livestock, vegetables, corn, wheat, potatoes, grapes

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: Swiss franc, franken, or franco (plural--francs, franken,
or franchi); 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes,
rappen, or centesimi

_#_Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per
US$1--1.2724 (January 1991), 1.3892 (1990), 1.6359 (1989), 1.4633 (1988),
1.4912 (1987), 1.7989 (1986), 2.4571 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 18.5 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, electrified; owned,
operated, and included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways

_#_Highways: 130.66 km main roads, 192.27 km byroads

_#_Civil air: no transport aircraft

_#_Airports: none

_#_Telecommunications: automatic telephone system; 25,400 telephones;
stations--no AM, no FM, no TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Police Department

_#_Note: defense is responsibility of Switzerland
_%_
_@_Luxembourg
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 2,586 km2; land area: 2,586 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

_#_Land boundaries: 359 km total; Belgium 148 km, France 73 km,
Germany 138 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Climate: modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

_#_Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys;
uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle
floodplain in the southeast

_#_Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited)

_#_Land use: arable land 24%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
20%; forest and woodland 21%; other 34%

_#_Environment: deforestation

_#_Note: landlocked

_*_People
_#_Population: 388,017 (July 1991), growth rate 1.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 8 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 80 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Luxembourger(s); adjective--Luxembourg

_#_Ethnic divisions: Celtic base, with French and German blend; also
guest and worker residents from Portugal, Italy, and European countries

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant and Jewish 3%

_#_Language: Luxembourgish, German, French; many also speak English

_#_Literacy: 100% (male 100%, female 100%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980 est.)

_#_Labor force: 169,600; one-third of labor force is foreign workers,
mostly from Portugal, Italy, France, Belgium, and FRG; services 50%,
industry 23.2%, government 14.4%, construction 9%, agriculture 3.4%
(1987)

_#_Organized labor: 100,000 (est.) members of four confederated
trade unions

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Luxembourg

_#_Administrative divisions: 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher,
Luxembourg

_#_Independence: 1839

_#_Constitution: 17 October 1868, occasional revisions

_#_Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: National Day (public celebration of the Grand
Duke's birthday), 23 June (1921)

_#_Executive branch: grand duke, prime minister, vice prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des
Deputes); note--the Council of State (Conseil d'Etat) is an advisory
body whose views are considered by the Chamber of Deputies

_#_Judicial branch: Superior Court of Justice (Cour Superieure de
Justice)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Grand Duke JEAN (since 12 November 1964);
Heir Apparent Prince HENRI (son of Grand Duke Jean, born 16 April 1955);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Jacques SANTER (since 21 July
1984); Vice Prime Minister Jacques F. POOS (since 21 July 1984)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Christian Social Party (CSV), Jacques SANTER;
Socialist Workers Party (LSAP), Jacques POOS;
Liberal (DP), Colette FLESCH;
Communist (KPL), Andre HOFFMANN;
Green Alternative (GAP), Jean HUSS

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

_#_Elections:

Chamber of Deputies--last held on 18 June 1989 (next to be held
by June 1994);
results--CSV 31.7%, LSAP 27.2%, DP 16.2%, Greens 8.4%, PAC 7.3%,
KPL 5.1%, other 4.1%;
seats--(60 total) CSV 22, LSAP 18, DP 11, Greens 4, PAC 4, KPL 1

_#_Communists: 500 party members (1982)

_#_Other political or pressure groups: group of steel industries
representing iron and steel industry, Centrale Paysanne representing
agricultural producers; Christian and Socialist labor unions; Federation
of Industrialists; Artisans and Shopkeepers Federation

_#_Member of: ACCT, Benelux, CCC, CE, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB,
EMS, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NEA, OECD, PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Andre PHILIPPE; Chancery at
2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
265-4171; there are Luxembourg Consulates General in New York and San
Francisco;

US--Ambassador Edward M. ROWELL; Embassy at 22 Boulevard
Emmanuel-Servais, 2535 Luxembourg City (mailing address is APO New York
09132); telephone [352] 460123

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light
blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands which uses a darker blue and
is shorter; design was based on the flag of France

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The stable economy features moderate growth, low
inflation, and negligible unemployment. Agriculture is based on small but
highly productive family-owned farms. The industrial sector, until
recently dominated by steel, has become increasingly more diversified,
particularly toward high-technology firms. During the past decade, growth
in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in
steel. Services, especially banking, account for a growing proportion
of the economy. Luxembourg participates in an economic union with
Belgium on trade and most financial matters and is also closely connected
economically to the Netherlands.

_#_GDP: $6.9 billion, per capita $18,000; real growth rate 2.5%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 1.3% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $2.5 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of NA (1988)

_#_Exports: $5.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--finished steel products, chemicals, rubber products,
glass, aluminum, other industrial products;

partners--EC 75%, US 5%

_#_Imports: $6.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities--minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods;

partners--Belgium 37%, FRG 31%, France 12%, US 2%

_#_External debt: $131.6 million (1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 1% (1990 est.); accounts for
25% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 1,500,000 kW capacity; 1,163 million kWh produced,
3,170 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals,
metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum

_#_Agriculture: accounts for less than 3% of GDP (including forestry);
principal products--barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes;
cattle raising widespread

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: Luxembourg franc (plural--francs);
1 Luxembourg franc (LuxF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Luxembourg francs (LuxF) per US$1--31.102 (January
1991), 33.418 (1990), 39.404 (1989), 36.768 (1988), 37.334 (1987), 44.672
(1986), 59.378 (1985); note--the Luxembourg franc is at par with the
Belgian franc, which circulates freely in Luxembourg

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: Luxembourg National Railways (CFL) operates 270 km
1.435-meter standard gauge; 162 km double track; 162 km electrified

_#_Highways: 5,108 km total; 4,995 km paved, 57 km gravel, 56 km
earth; about 80 km limited access divided highway

_#_Inland waterways: 37 km; Moselle River

_#_Pipelines: refined products, 48 km

_#_Ports: Mertert (river port)

_#_Merchant marine: 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker
(1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,731 GRT/2,460 DWT

_#_Civil air: 13 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways less than 1,220 m

_#_Telecommunications: adequate and efficient system, mainly buried
cables; 230,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, 4 FM, 6 TV; 2 communication
satellite earth stations operating in EUTELSAT and domestic systems

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, National Gendarmerie

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 100,476; 83,724 fit for
military service; 2,297 reach military age (19) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $90 million, 1.2% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Macau
(overseas territory of Portugal)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 16 km2; land area: 16 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundary: 0.34 km with China

_#_Coastline: 40 km

_#_Maritime claims: not known

_#_Disputes: scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of
China in 1999

_#_Climate: subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

_#_Terrain: generally flat

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: essentially urban; one causeway and one bridge connect
the two islands to the peninsula on mainland

_#_Note: 27 km west southwest of Hong Kong on the southeast coast of
China

_*_People
_#_Population: 446,262 (July 1991), growth rate 1.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Macanese (sing. and pl.); adjective--Macau

_#_Ethnic divisions: Chinese 95%, Portuguese 3%, other 2%

_#_Religion: Buddhist 45%, Roman Catholic 7%, Protestant 1%, none
45.8%, other 1.2% (1981)

_#_Language: Portuguese (official); Cantonese is the language of
commerce

_#_Literacy: 90% (male 93%, female 86%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981)

_#_Labor force: 180,000 (1986)

_#_Organized labor: none

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: overseas territory of Portugal; scheduled to revert to China
in 1999

_#_Capital: Macau

_#_Administrative divisions: 2 districts (concelhos,
singular--concelho); Ilhas, Macau

_#_Independence: none (territory of Portugal); Portugal signed an
agreement with China on 13 April 1987 to return Macau to China on 20
December 1999; in the joint declaration, China promises to respect
Macau's existing social and economic systems and lifestyle for 50 years
after transition

_#_Constitution: 17 February 1976, Organic Law of Macau

_#_Legal system: Portuguese civil law system

_#_National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June

_#_Executive branch: president of Portugal, governor,
Consultative Council (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: Legislative Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President (of Portugal) Mario Alberto SOARES
(since 9 March 1986);

Head of Government--Governor Gen. Vasco Joachim Rocha VIEIRA
(since 20 March 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Association to Defend the Interests of Macau;
Macau Democratic Center;
Group to Study the Development of Macau;
Macau Independent Group

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

Legislative Assembly--last held on 9 November 1988 (next to be
held November 1991);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(17 total; 6 elected by universal suffrage, 6 by indirect
suffrage) number of seats by party NA

_#_Other political or pressure groups: wealthy Macanese and Chinese
representing local interests, wealthy pro-Communist merchants
representing China's interests; in January 1967 the Macau Government
acceded to Chinese demands that gave China veto power over administration

_#_Member of: GATT, WTO (associate)

_#_Diplomatic representation: as Chinese territory under Portuguese
administration, Macanese interests in the US are represented by Portugal;

US--the US has no offices in Macau and US interests are monitored
by the US Consulate General in Hong Kong

_#_Flag: the flag of Portugal is used

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based largely on tourism (including
gambling), and textile and fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to diversify
have spawned other small industries--toys, artificial flowers, and
electronics. The tourist sector has accounted for roughly 25% of GDP, and
the clothing industry has provided about two-thirds of export earnings.
Macau depends on China for most of its food, fresh water, and energy
imports. Japan and Hong Kong are the main suppliers of raw materials and
capital goods.

_#_GDP: $2.9 billion, per capita $6,560; real growth rate 6%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 2% (1989 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $305 million; expenditures $298 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

_#_Exports: $1.7 billion (1989 est.);

commodities--textiles, clothing, toys;

partners--US 33%, Hong Kong 15%, FRG 12%, France 10% (1987)

_#_Imports: $1.6 billion (1989 est.);

commodities--raw materials, foodstuffs, capital goods;

partners--Hong Kong 39%, China 21%, Japan 10% (1987)

_#_External debt: $91 million (1985)

_#_Industrial production: NA

_#_Electricity: 203,000 kW capacity; 495 million kWh produced,
1,120 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: clothing, textiles, toys, plastic products, furniture,
tourism

_#_Agriculture: rice, vegetables; food shortages--rice, vegetables,
meat; depends mostly on imports for food requirements

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: pataca (plural--patacas); 1 pataca (P) = 100 avos

_#_Exchange rates: patacas (P) per US$1--8.03 (1989), 8.044 (1988),
7.993 (1987), 8.029 (1986), 8.045 (1985); note--linked to the Hong Kong
dollar at the rate of 1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 42 km paved

_#_Ports: Macau

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: none useable, 1 under construction; 1 seaplane station

_#_Telecommunications: fairly modern communication facilities
maintained for domestic and international services; 52,000 telephones;
stations--4 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 75,000 radio receivers (est.); international
high-frequency radio communication facility; access to international
communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and China; 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 167,289; 93,142 fit for
military service

_#_Note: defense is responsibility of Portugal
_%_
_@_Madagascar
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 587,040 km2; land area: 581,540 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 4,828 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands,
Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)

_#_Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

_#_Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

_#_Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt,
quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish

_#_Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
58%; forest and woodland 26%; other 11%; includes irrigated 2%

_#_Environment: subject to periodic cyclones; deforestation;
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

_#_Note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location
along Mozambique Channel

_*_People
_#_Population: 12,185,318 (July 1991), growth rate 3.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 95 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 54 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Malagasy (sing. and pl.); adjective--Malagasy

_#_Ethnic divisions: basic split between highlanders of predominantly
Malayo-Indonesian origin (Merina 1,643,000 and related Betsileo 760,000)
on the one hand and coastal tribes, collectively termed the Cotiers,
with mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry (Betsimisaraka
941,000, Tsimihety 442,000, Antaisaka 415,000, Sakalava 375,000), on the
other; there are also 11,000 European French, 5,000 Indians of French
nationality, and 5,000 Creoles

_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian about 41%, Muslim 7%

_#_Language: French and Malagasy (official)

_#_Literacy: 80% (male 88%, female 73%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 4,900,000; 90% nonsalaried family workers engaged in
subsistence agriculture; 175,000 wage earners--agriculture 26%, domestic
service 17%, industry 15%, commerce 14%, construction 11%, services 9%,
transportation 6%, other 2%; 51% of population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: 4% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Democratic Republic of Madagascar

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Antananarivo

_#_Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (plural--NA,
singular--faritanin); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa,
Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara

_#_Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France; formerly Malagasy
Republic)

_#_Constitution: 21 December 1975

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional
Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

_#_Executive branch: president, Supreme Council of the Revolution,
prime minister, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Popular National Assembly
(Assemblee Nationale Populaire)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), High
Constitutional Court (Haute Cour Constitutionnelle)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Adm. Didier RATSIRAKA (since 15 June
1975);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Guy RASANAMAZY (since
8 August 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: a presidential decree issued early
last year, legalized the existence of political parties outside of the
Ruling Front; some thirty political parties now exist in Madagascar, the
most important of which are the
Advance Guard of the Malagasy Revolution (AREMA), Didier RATSIRAKA;
Congress Party for Malagasy Independence (AKFM), RAKOTOVAO-ANDRIATIANA;
Congress Party for Malagasy Independence-Revival (AKFM-R), Pastor Richard
ANDRIAMANJATO;
Movement for National Unity (VONJY), Dr. Marojama RAZANABAHINY;
Malagasy Christian Democratic Union (UDECMA), Norbert ANDRIAMORASATA;
Militants for the Establishment of a Proletarian Regime (MFM), Manandafy
RAKOTONIRINA;
National Movement for the Independence of Madagascar (MONIMA), Monja
JAONA;
Socialist Organization Monima (VSM, an offshoot of MONIMA), Tsihozony
MAHARANGA

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held on 12 March 1989 (next to be held March 1996);
results--Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 62%, Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA (MFM/MFT)
20%, Dr. Jerome Marojama RAZANABAHINY (VONJY) 15%, Monja JAONA
(MONIMA) 3%;

Popular National Assembly--last held on 28 May 1989 (next to
be held May 1994);
results--AREMA 88.2%, MFM 5.1%, AKFM 3.7%, VONJY 2.2%, other 0.8%;
seats--(137 total) AREMA 120, MFM 7, AKFM 5, VONJY 4, MONIMA 1

_#_Communists: Communist party of virtually no importance; small and
vocal group of Communists has gained strong position in leadership of
AKFM, the rank and file of which is non-Communist

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Pierrot Jocelyn
RAJAONARIVELO; Chancery at 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC
20008; telephone (202) 265-5525 or 5526; there is a Malagasy Consulate
General in New York;

US--Ambassador Howard K. WALKER; Embassy at 14 and 16 Rue
Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo (mailing address is B. P. 620,
Antananarivo); telephone 212-57, 209-56, 200-89, 207-18

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a
vertical white band of the same width on hoist side

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world.
During the period 1980-85 it had a population growth of 3% a year and
a - 0.4% GDP growth rate. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is
the mainstay of the economy, accounting for over 40% of GDP, employing
about 80% of the labor force, and contributing to more than 70% of total
export earnings. Industry is largely confined to the processing of
agricultural products and textile manufacturing; in 1990 it accounted for
only 16% of GDP and employed 3% of the labor force. In 1986 the
government introduced a five-year development plan that stresses
self-sufficiency in food (mainly rice) by 1990, increased production for
exports, and reduced energy imports.

_#_GDP: $2.4 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate 3.8% (1990
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $390 million; expenditures $525 million, including
capital expenditures of $240 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $290 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--coffee 45%, vanilla 15%, cloves 11%, sugar, petroleum
products;

partners--France, Japan, Italy, FRG, US

_#_Imports: $436 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%,
petroleum 15%, consumer goods 14%, food 13%;

partners--France, FRG, UK, other EC, US

_#_External debt: $3.6 billion (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5.2% (1990 est.); accounts
for 16% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 119,000 kW capacity; 430 million kWh produced,
40 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: agricultural processing (meat canneries, soap
factories, breweries, tanneries, sugar refining plants), light consumer
goods industries (textiles, glassware), cement, automobile assembly
plant, paper, petroleum

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops--coffee, vanilla,
sugarcane, cloves, cocoa; food crops--rice, cassava, beans, bananas,
peanuts; cattle raising widespread; almost self-sufficient in rice

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild
varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $136
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $491 million

_#_Currency: Malagasy franc (plural--francs);
1 Malagasy franc (FMG) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1--1,454.6 (December
1990), 1,494.1 (1990), 1,603.4 (1989), 1,407.1 (1988), 1,069.2 (1987),
676.3 (1986), 662.5 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 1,020 km 1.000-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 40,000 km total; 4,694 km paved, 811 km crushed stone,
gravel, or stabilized soil, 34,495 km improved and unimproved
earth (est.)

_#_Inland waterways: of local importance only; isolated streams and
small portions of Canal des Pangalanes

_#_Ports: Toamasina, Antsiranana, Mahajanga, Toliara

_#_Merchant marine: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 59,416
GRT/82,869 DWT; includes 9 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas

_#_Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 148 total, 115 usable; 30 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 42 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: above average system includes open-wire lines,
coaxial cables, radio relay, and troposcatter links; submarine cable to
Bahrain; satellite earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT; over 38,200 telephones; stations--14 AM, 1 FM, 7 (30
repeaters) TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Popular Armed Forces (includes Intervention Forces,
Development Forces, Aeronaval Forces--includes Navy and Air Force),
Gendarmerie, Presidential Security Regiment

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,637,866; 1,570,393 fit for
military service; 119,882 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $37 million, 2.2% of GDP (1989 est.)
_%_
_@_Malawi
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 118,480 km2; land area: 94,080 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

_#_Land boundaries: 2,881 km total; Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania
475 km, Zambia 837 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Disputes: dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa
(Lake Malawi)

_#_Climate: tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season
(May to November)

_#_Terrain: narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded
hills, some mountains

_#_Natural resources: limestone; unexploited deposits of uranium,
coal, and bauxite

_#_Land use: arable land 25%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 20%; forest and woodland 50%; other 5%; includes irrigated
NEGL%

_#_Environment: deforestation

_#_Note: landlocked

_*_People
_#_Population: 9,438,462 (July 1991), growth rate 1.8% (1991);
note--900,000 Mozambican refugees in Malawi (1990 est.)

_#_Birth rate: 52 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 17 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 136 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 51 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Malawian(s); adjective--Malawian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga,
Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian, European

_#_Religion: Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%;
traditional indigenous beliefs are also practiced

_#_Language: English and Chichewa (official); other languages
important regionally

_#_Literacy: 22% (male 34%, female 12%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1966)

_#_Labor force: 428,000 wage earners; agriculture 43%, manufacturing
16%, personal services 15%, commerce 9%, construction 7%, miscellaneous
services 4%, other permanently employed 6% (1986)

_#_Organized labor: small minority of wage earners are unionized

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Malawi

_#_Type: one-party state

_#_Capital: Lilongwe

_#_Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa,
Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Lilongwe,
Machinga (Kasupe), Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ncheu,
Nkhata Bay, Nkhota Kota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba

_#_Independence: 6 July 1964 (from UK; formerly Nyasaland)

_#_Constitution: 6 July 1964; republished as amended January 1974

_#_Legal system: based on English common law and customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1964)

_#_Executive branch: president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: High Court, Supreme Court of Appeal

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Dr. Hastings
Kamuzu BANDA (since 6 July 1966; sworn in as President for Life 6 July
1971)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--Malawi Congress Party
(MCP), Maxwell PASHANE, administrative secretary; John TEMBO, treasurer
general; top party position of secretary general vacant since 1983

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21

_#_Elections:

President--President BANDA sworn in as President for Life on
6 July 1971;

National Assembly--last held 27-28 May 1987 (next to be held
by May 1992);
results--MCP is the only party;
seats--(133 total, 112 elected) MCP 133

_#_Communists: no Communist party

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Robert B. MBAYA; Chancery at
2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
797-1007;

US--Ambassador George A. TRAIL, III; Embassy in new capital city
development area, address NA (mailing address is P. O. Box 30016,
Lilongwe); telephone [265] 730-166

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green
with a radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band; similar to
the flag of Afghanistan which is longer and has the national coat of arms
superimposed on the hoist side of the black and red bands

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: A landlocked country, Malawi ranks among the world's
least developed with a per capita GDP of $175. The economy is
predominately agricultural and operates under a relatively free
enterprise environment, with about 90% of the population living in
rural areas. Agriculture accounts for 40% of GDP and 90% of export
revenues. After two years of weak performance, economic growth improved
significantly in 1988-90 as a result of good weather and a broadly based
economic adjustment effort by the government. The economy depends on
substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank,
and individual donor nations. The closure of traditional trade routes
through Mozambique continues to be a constraint on the economy.

_#_GDP: $1.6 billion, per capita $175; growth rate 4.8% (1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.7% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $398 million; expenditures $510 million, including
capital expenditures of $154 million (FY91 est.)

_#_Exports: $390 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--tobacco, tea, sugar, coffee, peanuts;

partners--US, UK, Zambia, South Africa, FRG

_#_Imports: $560 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--food, petroleum, semimanufactures, consumer goods,
transportation equipment;

partners--South Africa, Japan, US, UK, Zimbabwe

_#_External debt: $1.4 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (1989 est.); accounts
for about 18% of GDP (1988)

_#_Electricity: 181,000 kW capacity; 535 million kWh produced,
60 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: agricultural processing (tea, tobacco, sugar),
sawmilling, cement, consumer goods

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops--tobacco,
sugarcane, cotton, tea, and corn; subsistence crops--potatoes, cassava,
sorghum, pulses; livestock--cattle and goats

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $215
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.0 billion

_#_Currency: Malawian kwacha (plural--kwacha);
1 Malawian kwacha (MK) = 100 tambala

_#_Exchange rates: Malawian kwacha (MK) per US$1--2.6300 (January
1991), 2.7289 (1990), 2.7595 (1989), 2.5613 (1988), 2.2087 (1987), 1.8611
(1986), 1.7191 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 789 km 1.067-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 13,135 km total; 2,364 km paved; 251 km crushed stone,
gravel, or stabilized soil; 10,520 km earth and improved earth

_#_Inland waterways: Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Shire River, 144 km

_#_Ports: Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, and Nkotakota--all on Lake
Nyasa (Lake Malawi)

_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 48 total, 46 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system of open-wire lines, radio relay
links, and radio communication stations; 36,800 telephones; stations--8
AM, 4 FM, no TV; satellite earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

_#_Note: a majority of exports would normally go through Mozambique
on the Beira or Nacala railroads, but now most go through South Africa
because of insurgent activity and damage to rail lines

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (includes Air Wing and Naval Detachment),
Police (includes paramilitary Mobile Force Unit), paramilitary
Malawi Young Pioneers

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,960,082; 995,864 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $22 million, 1.6% of GDP (1989 est.)
_%_
_@_Malaysia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 329,750 km2; land area: 328,550 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

_#_Land boundaries: 2,669 km total; Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782,
Thailand 506 km

_#_Coastline: 4,675 km total (2,068 km Peninsular Malaysia,
2,607 km East Malaysia)

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation,
specified boundary in the South China Sea;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands
with China, Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam; state of Sabah claimed by
the Philippines; Brunei may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that
divides Brunei into two parts

_#_Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and
northeast (October to February) monsoons

_#_Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains

_#_Natural resources: tin, crude oil, timber, copper, iron ore,
natural gas, bauxite

_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops 10%; meadows and pastures
NEGL%; forest and woodland 63%; other 24%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: subject to flooding; air and water pollution

_#_Note: strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern
South China Sea

_*_People
_#_Population: 17,981,698 (July 1991), growth rate 2.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 29 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 71 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Malaysian(s); adjective--Malaysian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Malay and other indigenous 59%, Chinese 32%,
Indian 9%

_#_Religion: Peninsular Malaysia--Malays nearly all Muslim, Chinese
predominantly Buddhists, Indians predominantly Hindu; Sabah--Muslim 38%,
Christian 17%, other 45%; Sarawak--tribal religion 35%, Buddhist and
Confucianist 24%, Muslim 20%, Christian 16%, other 5%

_#_Language: Peninsular Malaysia--Malay (official); English, Chinese
dialects, Tamil; Sabah--English, Malay, numerous tribal dialects,
Mandarin and Hakka dialects predominate among Chinese; Sarawak--English,
Malay, Mandarin, numerous tribal languages

_#_Literacy: 78% (male 86%, female 70%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 6,800,000; agriculture 30.8%, manufacturing 17%,
government 13.6%, construction 5.8%, finance 4.3%, business services,
transport and communications 3.4%, mining 0.6%, other 24.5% (1989 est.)

_#_Organized labor: 660,000, 10% of total labor force (1988)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 1963; constitutional
monarchy nominally headed by the paramount ruler (king) and a bicameral
Parliament; Peninsular Malaysian states--hereditary rulers in all
but Penang and Melaka, where governors are appointed by Malaysian
Government; powers of state governments are limited by federal
Constitution; Sabah--self-governing state, holds 20 seats in House of
Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and
other powers delegated to federal government; Sarawak--self-governing
state within Malaysia, holds 27 seats in House of Representatives, with
foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated
to federal government

_#_Capital: Kuala Lumpur

_#_Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri,
singular--negeri) and 2 federal territories* (wilayah-wilayah
persekutuan, singular--wilayah persekutuan); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan,
Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang,
Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*

_#_Independence: 31 August 1957 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963 when
Federation of Malaya became Federation of Malaysia

_#_Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the
federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: National Day, 31 August (1957)

_#_Executive branch: paramount ruler, deputy paramount ruler, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlimen) consists of an
upper house or Senate (Dewan Negara) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Dewan Rakyat)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Paramount Ruler AZLAN Muhibbuddin Shah ibni Sultan
Yusof Izzudin (since 26 April 1989); Deputy Paramount Ruler JA'AFAR ibni
Abdul Rahman (since 26 April 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since
16 July 1981); Deputy Prime Minister Abdul GHAFAR Baba (since 7 May 1986)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Peninsular Malaysia--
National Front, a confederation of 13 political parties dominated by
United Malays National Organization Baru (UMNO Baru), MAHATHIR bin
Mohamad;
Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), LING Liong Sik;
Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia, Datuk LIM Keng Yaik;
Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC), Datuk S. Samy VELLU;

Sabah--Berjaya Party, Datuk Haji Mohammed NOOR Mansor;
Bersatu Sabah (PBS), Joseph Pairin KITINGAN;
United Sabah National Organizaton (USNO), Tun Datu Haji MUSTAPHA;

Sarawak--coalition Sarawak National Front composed of the Party
Pesaka Bumiputra Bersatu (PBB), Datuk Patinggi Amar Haji Abdul TAIB
Mahmud;
Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP), Datuk Amar Stephen YONG Kuet Tze;
Sarawak National Party (SNAP), Datuk James WONG Kim Min;
Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak (PBDS), Datuk Leo MOGGIE;
major opposition parties are
Democratic Action Party (DAP), LIM Kit Siang
and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), Fadzil NOOR

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21

_#_Elections:

House of Representatives--last held 21 October 1990 (next to be
held by August 1995);
results--National Front 52%, other 48%;
seats--(180 total) National Front 127, DAP 20, PAS 7, independents 4,
other 22; note--within the National Front, UMNO got 71 seats and MCA 18
seats

_#_Communists: Peninsular Malaysia--about 1,000 armed insurgents on
Thailand side of international boundary and about 200 full time inside
Malaysia surrendered on 2 December 1989; about 50 Communist insurgents in
Sarawak surrendered on 17 October 1990

_#_Member of: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdul MAJID Mohamed; Chancery
at 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
328-2700; there are Malaysian Consulates General in Los Angeles and
New York;

US--Ambassador Paul M. CLEVELAND; Embassy at 376 Jalan Tun Razak,
50400 Kuala Lumpur (mailing address is P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala
Lumpur); telephone [60] (3) 248-9011

_#_Flag: fourteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating
with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the
crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was
based on the flag of the US

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: In 1988-90 booming exports helped Malaysia continue to
recover from the severe 1985-86 recession. Real output grew by 8.8% in
1989 and 10% in 1990, helped by vigorous growth in manufacturing
output, further increases in foreign direct investment, particularly
from Japanese and Taiwanese firms facing higher costs at home, and
increased oil production in 1990. Malaysia has become the world's
third-largest producer of semiconductor devices (after the US and Japan)
and the world's largest exporter of semiconductor devices. Inflation
remained low as unemployment stood at 6% of the labor force and as
the government followed prudent fiscal/monetary policies. The country is
not self-sufficient in food, and some of the rural population subsists at
the poverty level. Malaysia's high export dependence leaves it
vulnerable to a recession in the OECD countries or a fall in world
commodity prices.

_#_GDP: $43.1 billion, per capita $2,460; real growth rate 10%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.1% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 6% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $12.6 billion; expenditures $11.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $3.2 billion (1991 est.)

_#_Exports: $28.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--natural rubber, palm oil, tin, timber, petroleum,
electronics, light manufactures;

partners--Singapore, US, Japan, EC

_#_Imports: $26.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--food, crude oil, consumer goods, intermediate goods,
capital equipment, chemicals;

partners--Japan, US, Singapore, FRG, UK

_#_External debt: $20.0 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 15.8% (1990 est.); accounts
for 27% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 5,600,000 kW capacity; 16,500 million kWh produced,
940 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries:

Peninsular Malaysia--rubber and oil palm processing and
manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and
smelting, logging and processing timber;

Sabah--logging, petroleum production;

Sarawak--agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining,
logging

_#_Agriculture:

Peninsular Malaysia--natural rubber, palm oil, rice;

Sabah--mainly subsistence, but also rubber, timber, coconut,
rice;

Sarawak--rubber, timber, pepper; there is a deficit
of rice in all areas; fish catch of 608,000 metric tons in 1987

_#_Illicit drugs: transit point for Golden Triangle heroin
going to the US, Western Europe, and the Third World

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-84), $170
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $4.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $42 million

_#_Currency: ringgit (plural--ringgits); 1 ringgit (M$) = 100 sen

_#_Exchange rates: ringgits (M$) per US$1--2.7151 (January 1991),
1.7048 (1990), 2.7088 (1989), 2.6188 (1988), 2.5196 (1987), 2.5814
(1986), 2.4830 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads:

Peninsular Malaysia--1,665 km 1.04-meter gauge; 13 km double
track, government owned;

Sabah--136 km 1.000-meter gauge

_#_Highways:

Peninsular Malaysia--23,600 km (19,352 km hard surfaced, mostly
bituminous-surface treatment, and 4,248 km unpaved);

Sabah--3,782 km;

Sarawak--1,644 km

_#_Inland waterways:

Peninsular Malaysia--3,209 km;

Sabah--1,569 km;

Sarawak--2,518 km

_#_Ports: Tanjong Kidurong, Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Pasir Gudang,
Penang, Port Kelang, Sandakan, Tawau

_#_Merchant marine: 157 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,530,756
GRT/2,246,358 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 65 cargo, 22
container, 2 vehicle carrier, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 livestock
carrier, 31 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 chemical
tanker, 6 liquefied gas, 1 passenger-cargo, 23 bulk

_#_Civil air: 53 major transport aircraft

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 1,307 km; natural gas, 379 km

_#_Airports: 125 total, 119 usable; 32 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 18 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good intercity service provided to peninsular
Malaysia mainly by microwave relay, adequate intercity radio relay
network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; international service good;
good coverage by radio and television broadcasts; 994,860 telephones
(1984); stations--28 AM, 3 FM, 33 TV; submarine cables extend to India
and Sarawak; SEACOM submarine cable links to Hong Kong and Singapore;
satellite earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT, and 2 domestic

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal
Malaysian Air Force, Royal Malaysian Police Force, Marine Police,
Sarawak Border Scouts

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 4,620,418; 2,815,910 fit for
military service; 180,991 reach military age (21) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.7 billion, 3.9% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Maldives
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 300 km2; land area: 300 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 644 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 35-310 nm (defined by geographic
coordinates; segment of zone coincides with maritime boundary with
India);

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to
March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

_#_Terrain: flat with elevations only as high as 2.5 meters

_#_Natural resources: fish

_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
3%; forest and woodland 3%; other 84%

_#_Environment: 1,200 coral islands grouped into 19 atolls

_#_Note: archipelago of strategic location astride and along
major sea lanes in Indian Ocean

_*_People
_#_Population: 226,200 (July 1991), growth rate 3.7% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 72 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 65 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Maldivian(s); adjective--Maldivian

_#_Ethnic divisions: admixtures of Sinhalese, Dravidian, Arab, and
black

_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim

_#_Language: Divehi (dialect of Sinhala; script derived from Arabic);
English spoken by most government officials

_#_Literacy: 92% (male 92%, female 92%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1985)

_#_Labor force: 66,000 (est.); 25% engaged in fishing industry

_#_Organized labor: none

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Maldives

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Male

_#_Administrative divisions: 19 district (atolls); Aliff, Baa, Daalu,
Faafu, Gaafu Aliff, Gaafu Daalu, Haa Aliff, Haa Daalu, Kaafu, Laamu,
Laviyani, Meemu, Naviyani, Noonu, Raa, Seenu, Shaviyani, Thaa, Waavu

_#_Independence: 26 July 1965 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 4 June 1964

_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law with admixtures of English
common law primarily in commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1965)

_#_Executive branch: president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Citizens' Council (Majlis)

_#_Judicial branch: High Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Maumoon Abdul
GAYOOM (since 11 November 1978)

_#_Political parties and leaders: no organized political parties;
country governed by the Didi clan for the past eight centuries

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21

_#_Elections:

President--last held 23 September 1988 (next to be held September
1994);
results--President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM reelected;

Citizens' Council--last held on 7 December 1989 (next to be held
7 December 1994);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(48 total, 40 elected)

_#_Communists: negligible

_#_Member of: AsDB, C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OIC,
SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Maldives does not maintain an embassy
in the US, but does have a UN mission in New York;

US--the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to Maldives and
makes periodic visits there; US Consular Agency, Midhath Hilmy,
Male; telephone 2581

_#_Flag: red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a
vertical white crescent; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist
side of the flag

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and shipping.
Agriculture is limited to the production of a few subsistence crops that
provide only 10% of food requirements. Fishing is the largest industry,
employing 25% of the work force and accounting for over 60% of exports;
it is also an important source of government revenue. During the 1980s
tourism has become one of the most important and highest growth sectors
of the economy. In 1988 industry accounted for about 5% of GDP. Real
GDP is officially estimated to have increased by about 10% annually
during the period 1974-87, and GDP estimates for 1988 show a further
growth of 9% on the strength of a record fish catch and an improved
tourist season.

_#_GDP: $136 million, per capita $670; real growth rate 9.2% (1988)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% (1988 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NEGL%

_#_Budget: revenues $51 million; expenditures $50 million, including
capital expenditures of $25 million (1988 est.)

_#_Exports: $39.4 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--fish 57%, clothing 39%;

partners--Thailand, Western Europe, Sri Lanka

_#_Imports: $105.7 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--intermediate and capital goods 47%, consumer goods
42%, petroleum products 11%;

partners--Japan, Western Europe, Thailand

_#_External debt: $70 million (December 1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 5.0% (1988); accounts
for 5% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 5,000 kW capacity; 11 million kWh produced,
50 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: fishing and fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat
building, some coconut processing, garments, woven mats, coir (rope),
handicrafts

_#_Agriculture: accounts for almost 30% of GDP (including fishing);
fishing more important than farming; limited production of coconuts,
corn, sweet potatoes; most staple foods must be imported; fish catch
of 63,000 tons (1988 est.)

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $28
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $105 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $14 million

_#_Currency: rufiyaa (plural--rufiyaa); 1 rufiyaa (Rf) = 100 laaris

_#_Exchange rates: rufiyaa (Rf) per US$1--9.937 (January 1991),
9.509 (1990), 9.0408 (1989), 8.7846 (1988), 9.2230 (1987), 7.1507 (1986),
7.0981 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: Male has 9.6 km of coral highways within the city

_#_Ports: Male, Gan

_#_Merchant marine: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,131
GRT/85,770 DWT; includes 14 cargo, 1 container, 1 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 bulk

_#_Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 2 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m

_#_Telecommunications: minimal domestic and international facilities;
2,804 telephones; stations--2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: National Security Service (paramilitary police force)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 50,788; 28,378 fit for military
service

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.8 million, NA% of GDP (1984 est.)
_%_
_@_Mali
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,240,000 km2; land area: 1,220,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 7,243 km total; Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina 1,000
km, Guinea 858 km, Ivory Coast 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km,
Senegal 419 km

Book of the day: