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fats and oils and tropical produce, but overall net exporter of farm
products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons ranks among world's top
20 countries and is all used domestically

_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.1
billion

_#_Currency: French franc (plural--francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100
centimes

_#_Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.8 (May 1991),
5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261
(1986), 8.9852 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: French National Railways (SNCF) operates 34,568 km
1.435-meter standard gauge; 11,674 km electrified, 15,132 km double or
multiple track; 2,138 km of various gauges (1.000-meter to 1.440-meter),
privately owned and operated

_#_Highways: 1,551,400 km total; 33,400 km national highway;
347,000 km departmental highway; 421,000 km community roads; 750,000 km
rural roads; 5,401 km of controlled-access divided autoroutes; about
803,000 km paved

_#_Inland waterways: 14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 3,059 km; refined products, 4,487 km; natural
gas, 24,746 km

_#_Ports: maritime--Bordeaux, Boulogne, Brest, Cherbourg, Dunkerque,
Fos-Sur-Mer, Le Havre, Marseille, Nantes, Rouen, Sete, Toulon;
inland--42

_#_Merchant marine: 133 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,141,276
GRT/5,006,695 DWT; includes 8 short-sea passenger, 15 cargo, 18
container, 2 multifunction large-load carrier, 29 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
34 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 8 chemical tanker,
6 liquefied gas, 2 specialized tanker, 11 bulk; note--France also
maintains a captive register for French-owned ships in the Kerguelen
Islands (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) and French Polynesia

_#_Civil air: 195 (1989 est.)

_#_Airports: 470 total, 460 usable; 246 with permanent-surface
runways; 3 with runways over 3,659 m; 34 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
136 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: highly developed system provides satisfactory
telephone, telegraph, radio and TV broadcast services; 39,200,000
telephones; stations--40 AM, 138 (777 relays) FM, 216 (8,902 relays) TV;
25 submarine coaxial cables; communication satellite earth stations
operating in INTELSAT, 3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, EUTELSAT,
MARISAT, and domestic systems

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Naval Air), Air Force, National
Gendarmerie

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 14,366,492; 12,077,706 fit for
military service; 395,128 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $29.7 billion, 3.6% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_French Guiana
(overseas department of France)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 91,000 km2; land area: 89,150 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

_#_Land boundaries: 1,183 km total; Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km

_#_Coastline: 378 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani and
Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa)

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature
variation

_#_Terrain: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small
mountains

_#_Natural resources: bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered),
cinnabar, kaolin, fish

_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures NEGL%; forest and woodland 82%; other 18%

_#_Environment: mostly an unsettled wilderness

_*_People
_#_Population: 101,603 (July 1991), growth rate 3.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--French Guianese (sing., pl.); adjective--French
Guiana

_#_Ethnic divisions: black or mulatto 66%; Caucasian 12%; East Indian,
Chinese, Amerindian 12%; other 10%

_#_Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic

_#_Language: French

_#_Literacy: 82% (male 81%, female 83%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1982)

_#_Labor force: 23,265; services, government, and commerce 60.6%,
industry 21.2%, agriculture 18.2% (1980)

_#_Organized labor: 7% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Department of Guiana

_#_Type: overseas department of France

_#_Capital: Cayenne

_#_Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

_#_Independence: none (overseas department of France)

_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

_#_Legal system: French legal system

_#_National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

_#_Executive branch: French president, commissioner of the republic

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and a unicameral
Regional Council

_#_Judicial branch: highest local court is the Court of Appeals
based in Martinique with jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and
French Guiana

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May
1981);

Head of Government--Commissioner of the Republic Jean-Francois
DI CHIARA (since NA 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Guianese Socialist Party (PSG), Gerard HOLDER;
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Paulin BRUNE;
Guyanese Democratic Action (ADG), Andre Lecante;
Union for French Democracy (UDF), Claude Ho A CHUCK;
National Front (FN), Guy MALON;
Popular and National Party of Guiana (PNPG), Claude ROBO;
National Anti-Colonist Guianese Party (PANGA), Michel KAPEL

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

Regional Council--last held 16 March 1986 (next to be
held NA 1991);
results--PSG 43%, RPR 27.7%, ADG 12.2%, UDF 8.9%, FN 3.7%,
PNPG 1.4%, other 3.1%;
seats--(31 total) PSG 15, RPR 9, ADG 4, UDF 3;

French Senate--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) PSG 1;

French National Assembly--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be
held September 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(2 total) PSG 1, RPR 1

_#_Communists: Communist party membership negligible

_#_Member of: FZ, WCL, WFTU

_#_Diplomatic representation: as an overseas department of France
the interests of French Guiana are represented in the US by France

_#_Flag: the flag of France is used

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is tied closely to that of France through
subsidies and imports. Besides the French space center at Kourou, fishing
and forestry are the most important economic activities, with exports
of fish and fish products (mostly shrimp) accounting for more than 60%
of total revenue in 1987. The large reserves of tropical hardwoods, not
fully exploited, support an expanding sawmill industry that provides sawn
logs for export. Cultivation of crops--rice, cassava, bananas, and
sugarcane--are limited to the coastal area, where the population is
largely concentrated. French Guiana is heavily dependent on imports
of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious problem, particularly
among younger workers.

_#_GDP: $186 million, per capita $2,240; real growth rate NA% (1985)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.1% (1987)

_#_Unemployment rate: 15% (1987)

_#_Budget: revenues $735 million; expenditures $735 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1987)

_#_Exports: $54.0 million (f.o.b., 1987);

commodities--shrimp, timber, rum, rosewood essence;

partners--France 31%, US 22%, Japan 10% (1987)

_#_Imports: $394.0 million (c.i.f., 1987);

commodities--food (grains, processed meat), other consumer goods,
producer goods, petroleum;

partners--France 62%, Trinidad and Tobago 9%, US 4%, FRG 3%
(1987)

_#_External debt: $1.2 billion (1988)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 92,000 kW capacity; 185 million kWh produced,
1,890 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: construction, shrimp processing, forestry products,
rum, gold mining

_#_Agriculture: some vegetables for local consumption; rice, corn,
manioc, cocoa, bananas, sugar; livestock--cattle, pigs, poultry

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-87), $1.25 billion

_#_Currency: French franc (plural--francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100
centimes

_#_Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.1307 (January 1991),
5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261
(1986), 8.9852 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 680 km total; 510 km paved, 170 km improved and
unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and
river and coastal steamers; 3,300 km possibly navigable by native craft

_#_Ports: Cayenne

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 10 total, 10 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair open wire and radio relay system;
18,100 telephones; stations--5 AM, 7 FM, 9 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: French Forces, Gendarmerie

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49 28,650; 18,903 fit for military
service

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_French Polynesia
(overseas territory of France)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 3,941 km2; land area: 3,660 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than one-third the size of
Connecticut

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 2,525 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical, but moderate

_#_Terrain: mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs

_#_Natural resources: timber, fish, cobalt

_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 19%; meadows and
pastures 5%; forest and woodland 31%; other 44%

_#_Environment: occasional cyclonic storm in January; includes five
archipelagoes

_#_Note: Makatea in French Polynesia is one of the three great
phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean--the others are Banaba
(Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Nauru

_*_People
_#_Population: 195,046 (July 1991), growth rate 2.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 31 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 71 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--French Polynesian(s); adjective--French
Polynesian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Polynesian 78%, Chinese 12%, local French 6%,
metropolitan French 4%

_#_Religion: mainly Christian; Protestant 54%, Roman Catholic 30%,
other 16%

_#_Language: French (official), Tahitian

_#_Literacy: 98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 14 and over but definition
of literacy not available (1977)

_#_Labor force: 76,630 employed (1988)

_#_Organized labor: NA

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territory of French Polynesia

_#_Type: overseas territory of France since 1946

_#_Capital: Papeete

_#_Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France);
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 5 archipelagic divisions named
Archipel des Marquises, Archipel des Tuamotu, Archipel des Tubuai, Iles
du Vent, and Iles Sous-le-Vent; note--Clipperton Island is administered
from French Polynesia and may have become a dependency of French
Polynesia

_#_Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

_#_Legal system: based on French system

_#_National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

_#_Executive branch: French president, high commissioner of the
republic, president of the Council of Ministers, vice president of the
Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND (since
21 May 1981); High Commissioner of the Republic Jean MONTPEZAT
(since NA November 1987);

Head of Government--President of the Council of Ministers
Gaston FLOSSE (since 10 May 1991);
Vice President of the Council of Ministers NA

_#_Political parties and leaders:
People's Rally (Tahoeraa Huiraatira; Gaullist), Gaston FLOSSE;
Polynesian Union Party (Te Tiarama; centrist), Alexandre LEONTIEFF;
New Fatherland Party (Ai'a Api), Emile VERNAUDON;
Polynesian Liberation Front (Tavini Huiraatira), Oscar TEMARU;
other small parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

Territorial Assembly--last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held
March 1996); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(41 total) People's Rally (Gaullist) 18, Polynesian Union Party
14, New Fatherland Party 5, other 4;

French Senate--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1992); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) party NA;

French National Assembly last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be
held June 1993); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(2 total) People's Rally (Gaullist) 1, New Fatherland Party 1

_#_Member of: FZ, SPC, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: as an overseas territory of France,
French Polynesian interests are represented in the US by France

_#_Flag: the flag of France is used

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Since 1962, when France stationed military personnel in
the region, French Polynesia has changed from a subsistence economy to
one in which a high proportion of the work force is either employed by
the military or supports the tourist industry. Tourism accounts for about
20% of GDP and is a primary source of hard currency earnings.

_#_GDP: $1.2 billion, per capita $6,300; real growth rate NA% (1990
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 8% (1986 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $614 million; expenditures $957 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1988)

_#_Exports: $75 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--coconut products 79%, mother-of-pearl 14%, vanilla,
shark meat;

partners--France 54%, US 17%, Japan 17%

_#_Imports: $806 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--fuels, foodstuffs, equipment;

partners--France 53%, US 11%, Australia 6%, NZ 5%

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 72,000 kW capacity; 265 million kWh produced,
1,390 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts

_#_Agriculture: coconut and vanilla plantations; vegetables and fruit;
poultry, beef, dairy products

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $3.95 billion

_#_Currency: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural--francs);
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per
US$1--93.28 (January 1991), 99.00 (1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30 (1988),
109.27 (1987), 125.92 (1986), 163.35 (1985); note--linked at the rate of
18.18 to the French franc

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 600 km (1982)

_#_Ports: Papeete, Bora-bora

_#_Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,128
GRT/6,710 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 1 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo;
note--a captive subset of the French register

_#_Civil air: about 6 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 43 total, 41 usable; 23 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 33,200 telephones; 84,000 radio receivers;
26,400 TV sets; stations--5 AM, 2 FM, 6 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 50,844; NA fit for military
service

_#_Note: defense is responsibility of France
_%_
_@_French Southern and Antarctic Lands
(overseas territory of France)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 7,781 km2; land area: 7,781 km2; includes Ile
Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles Crozet;
excludes Terre Adelie claim of about 500,000 km2 in Antarctica
that is not recognized by the US

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Delaware

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 1,232 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (Iles Kerguelen only);

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Terre Adelie claim in Antarctica is not recognized by
the US

_#_Climate: antarctic

_#_Terrain: volcanic

_#_Natural resources: fish, crayfish

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct
volcanoes

_#_Note: located in the southern Indian Ocean about equidistant
between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia

_*_People
_#_Population: summer (January 1991)--180, winter (July 1991)--150,
growth rate 0.0% (1991);
note--mostly researchers

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic
Lands

_#_Type: overseas territory of France since 1955; governed by High
Administrator Bernard de GOUTTES (since NA May 1990), who is
assisted by a 7-member Consultative Council and a 12-member Scientific
Council

_#_Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France);
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by
the US Government, but there are 3 districts named Ile Crozet, Iles
Kerguelen, and Iles Saint-Paul et Amsterdam; excludes Terre Adelie
claim in Antarctica that is not recognized by the US

_#_Flag: the flag of France is used

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Economic activity is limited to servicing meteorological
and geophysical research stations and French and other fishing fleets.
The fishing catches landed on Iles Kerguelen by foreign ships are
exported to France and Reunion.

_#_Budget: $33.6 million (1990)

_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_#_Merchant marine: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
220,392 GRT/350,131 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo,
2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
2 liquefied gas, 2 bulk; note--a captive subset of the French register

_#_Telecommunications: NA

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: French Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force)

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_Gabon
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 267,670 km2; land area: 257,670 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Colorado

_#_Land boundaries: 2,551 km total; Cameroon 298 km, Congo 1,903 km,
Equatorial Guinea 350 km

_#_Coastline: 885 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Equatorial Guinea
because of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay

_#_Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

_#_Terrain: narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and
south

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, manganese, uranium, gold, timber,
iron ore

_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
18%; forest and woodland 78%; other 2%

_#_Environment: deforestation

_*_People
_#_Population: 1,079,980 (July 1991), growth rate 1.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 104 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 56 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Gabonese (sing., pl.); adjective--Gabonese

_#_Ethnic divisions: about 40 Bantu tribes, including four major
tribal groupings (Fang, Eshira, Bapounou, Bateke); about 100,000
expatriate Africans and Europeans, including 27,000 French

_#_Religion: Christian 55-75%, Muslim less than 1%, remainder animist

_#_Language: French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira,
Bandjabi

_#_Literacy: 61% (male 74%, female 48%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 120,000 salaried; agriculture 65.0%, industry and
commerce 30.0%, services 2.5%, government 2.5%; 58% of population of
working age (1983)

_#_Organized labor: there are 38,000 members of the national trade
union, the Gabonese Trade Union Confederation (COSYGA)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Gabonese Republic

_#_Type: republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties
legalized 1990)

_#_Capital: Libreville

_#_Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue,
Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga, Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo,
Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem

_#_Independence: 17 August 1960 (from France)

_#_Constitution: 21 February 1961, revised 15 April 1975

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the
Supreme Court; compulsory ICJ jurisdiction not accepted

_#_National holiday: Renovation Day (Gabonese Democratic Party
established), 12 March (1968)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December
1967);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Casimir OYE-MBA (since 3
May 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG,
former sole party), El Hadj Omar BONGO, president;
National Recovery Movement-Lumberjacks (Morena-Bucherons);
Gabonese Party for Progress (PGP);
National Recovery Movement (Morena-Original);
Association for Socialism in Gabon (APSG);
Gabonese Socialist Union (USG);
Circle for Renewal and Progress (CRP);
Union for Democracy and Development (UDD)

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21

_#_Elections:

President--last held on 9 November 1986 (next to be held
November 1993);
results--President Omar BONGO was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held on 28 October 1990 (next to be
held by February 1992);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(120 total, 111 elected) PDG 62, National Recovery
Movement-Lumberjacks (Morena-Bucherons) 19, PGP 18, National Recovery
Movement (Morena-Original) 7, ASPG 6, USG 4, CRP 1, independent 3

_#_Communists: no organized party; probably some Communist
sympathizers

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-24,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS (associate), NAM,
OAU, OIC, OPEC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Alexandre
SAMBAT; Chancery at 2034 20th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone
(202) 797-1000;

US--Ambassador Keith L. WAUCHOPE; Embassy at Boulevard de la Mer,
Libreville (mailing address is B. P. 4000, Libreville); telephone 762003
or 762004, 743492

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy, dependent on timber and manganese until
the early 1970s, is now dominated by the oil sector. During the period
1981-85 oil accounted for about 46% of GDP, 83% of export earnings, and
65% of government revenues on average. The high oil prices of the early
1980s contributed to a substantial increase in per capita income,
stimulated domestic demand, reinforced migration from rural to urban
areas, and raised the level of real wages to among the highest in
Sub-Saharan Africa. The three-year slide of Gabon's economy, which
began with falling oil prices in 1985, was reversed in 1989 because of a
near doubling of oil prices over their 1988 lows. In 1990 the economy
continued to grow, but debt servicing problems are hindering economic
advancement. The agricultural and industrial sectors are relatively
underdeveloped, except for oil.

_#_GDP: $3.3 billion, per capita $3,090; real growth rate 13% (1990
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $1.1 billion; expenditures $1.5 billion,
including capital expenditures of $277 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $1.16 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--crude oil 70%, manganese 11%, wood 12%, uranium 6%;

partners--France 53%, US 22%, FRG, Japan

_#_Imports: $0.78 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--foodstuffs, chemical products, petroleum products,
construction materials, manufactures, machinery;

partners--France 48%, US 2.6%, FRG, Japan, UK

_#_External debt: $3.4 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 10% (1988 est.)

_#_Electricity: 310,000 kW capacity; 980 million kWh produced,
920 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: petroleum, food and beverages, timber, cement
plywood, textiles, mining--manganese, uranium, gold)

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP (including fishing and
forestry); cash crops--cocoa, coffee, palm oil; livestock not developed;
importer of food; small fishing operations provide a catch of about
20,000 metric tons; okoume (a tropical softwood) is the most important
timber product

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $66
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $27 million

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--253.32 (December 1990), 171.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 649 km 1.437-meter standard-gauge single track
(Transgabonese Railroad)

_#_Highways: 7,500 km total; 560 km paved, 960 km laterite, 5,980 km
earth

_#_Inland waterways: 1,600 km perennially navigable

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 270 km; refined products, 14 km

_#_Ports: Owendo, Port-Gentil, Libreville

_#_Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,563
GRT/25,330 DWT

_#_Civil air: 11 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 73 total, 61 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: adequate system of open-wire, radio relay,
tropospheric scatter links and radiocommunication stations; 13,800
telephones; stations--6 AM, 6 FM, 8 TV; satellite earth stations--2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 12 domestic satellite

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Presidential Guard, paramilitary
Gendarmerie, National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 266,472; 133,648 fit for
military service; 9,634 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $102 million, 3.2% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_The Gambia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 11,300 km2; land area: 10,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Delaware

_#_Land boundary: 740 km with Senegal

_#_Coastline: 80 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 18 nm;

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: short section of boundary with Senegal is indefinite

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler,
dry season (November to May)

_#_Terrain: flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills

_#_Natural resources: fish

_#_Land use: arable land 16%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
9%; forest and woodland 20%; other 55%; includes irrigated 3%

_#_Environment: deforestation

_#_Note: almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the
continent of Africa

_*_People
_#_Population: 874,553 (July 1991), growth rate 3.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 138 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 47 years male, 51 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Gambian(s); adjective--Gambian

_#_Ethnic divisions: African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%, Wolof 16%,
Jola 10%, Serahuli 9%, other 4%); non-Gambian 1%

_#_Religion: Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous beliefs 1%

_#_Language: English (official); Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other
indigenous vernaculars

_#_Literacy: 27% (male 39%, female 16%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 400,000 (1986 est.); agriculture 75.0%, industry,
commerce, and services 18.9%, government 6.1%; 55% population of
working age (1983)

_#_Organized labor: 25-30% of wage labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of The Gambia

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Banjul

_#_Administrative divisions: 5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Lower
River, MacCarthy Island, North Bank, Upper River, Western

_#_Independence: 18 February 1965 (from UK); The Gambia and Senegal
signed an agreement on 12 December 1981 (effective 1 February 1982)
that called for the creation of a loose confederation to be known as
Senegambia, but the agreement was dissolved on 30 September 1989

_#_Constitution: 24 April 1970

_#_Legal system: based on a composite of English common law,
Koranic law, and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 18 February (1965)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Alhaji Sir Dawda
Kairaba JAWARA (since 24 April 1970); Vice President Bakary Bunja DARBO
(since 12 May 1982)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
People's Progressive Party (PPP), Dawda K. JAWARA, secretary general;
National Convention Party (NCP), Sheriff DIBBA;
Gambian People's Party (GPP), Assan Musa CAMARA;
United Party (UP);
People's Democratic Organization of Independence and Socialism (PDOIS)

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21

_#_Elections:

President--last held on 11 March 1987 (next to be held March 1992);
results--Sir Dawda JAWARA (PPP) 61.1%, Sherif Mustapha DIBBA (NCP) 25.2%,
Assan Musa CAMARA (GPP) 13.7%;

House of Representatives--last held on 11 March 1987 (next to
be held by March 1992);
results--PPP 56.6%, NCP 27.6%, GPP 14.7%, PDOIS 1%;
seats--(43 total, 36 elected) PPP 31, NCP 5

_#_Communists: no Communist party

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ousman A. SALLAH; Chancery at
Suite 720, 1030 15th Street NW, Washington DC 20005;
telephone (202) 842-1356 or 842-1359;

US--Ambassador Arlene RENDER; Embassy at Pipeline Road
(Kairaba Avenue), Fajara, Banjul (mailing address is P. M. B. No. 19,
Banjul); telephone Serrekunda [220] 92856 or 92858, 91970, 91971

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white
edges, and green

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The Gambia has no important mineral or other natural
resources and has a limited agricultural base. It is one of the world's
poorest countries with a per capita income of about $230. About 75%
of the population is engaged in crop production and livestock raising,
which contributes 30% to GDP. Small-scale manufacturing
activity--processing peanuts, fish, and hides--accounts for less than
10% of GDP. Tourism is a growing industry. The Gambia imports
one-third of its food, all fuel, and most manufactured goods. Exports
are concentrated on peanut products (about 75% of total value).

_#_GDP: $195 million, per capita $230; real growth rate 6.0% (FY90
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.0% (FY91)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $79 million; expenditures $84 million,
including capital expenditures of $21 million (FY90)

_#_Exports: $116 million (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities--peanuts and peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm
kernels;

partners--Japan 60%, Europe 29%, Africa 5%, US 1% other 5% (1989)

_#_Imports: $147 million (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities--foodstuffs, manufactures, raw materials, fuel,
machinery and transport equipment;

partners--Europe 57%, Asia 25%, USSR/EE 9%, US 6%, other 3%
(1989)

_#_External debt: $336 million (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 6.7%; accounts for 5.8%
of GDP (FY90)

_#_Electricity: 29,000 kW capacity; 64 million kWh produced, 80 kWh
per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: peanut processing, tourism, beverages, agricultural
machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking, clothing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP and employs about 75% of the
population; imports one-third of food requirements; major export crop is
peanuts; the principal crops--millet, sorghum, rice, corn, cassava,
palm kernels; livestock--cattle, sheep, and goats; forestry and fishing
resources not fully exploited

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $93
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $492 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $39 million

_#_Currency: dalasi (plural--dalasi); 1 dalasi (D) = 100 bututs

_#_Exchange rates: dalasi (D) per US$1--7.610 (January 1991),
7.883 (1990), 7.5846 (1989), 6.7086 (1988), 7.0744 (1987),
6.9380 (1986), 3.8939 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 3,083 km total; 431 km paved, 501 km gravel/laterite,
and 2,151 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 400 km

_#_Ports: Banjul

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 2,440-3,659 m

_#_Telecommunications: adequate network of radio relay and wire;
3,500 telephones; stations--3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, paramilitary Gendarmerie, National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 188,393; 95,133 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 0.7% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Gaza Strip
_#_Note: The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967
ended with Israel in control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the
Sinai, and the Golan Heights. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords
and reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace initiative,
the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, their relationship
with their neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to
be negotiated among the concerned parties. Camp David further specifies
that these negotiations will resolve the respective boundaries. Pending
the completion of this process, it is US policy that the final status of
the West Bank and the Gaza Strip has yet to be determined. In the view of
the US, the term West Bank describes all of the area west of the Jordan
under Jordanian administration before the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. With
respect to negotiations envisaged in the framework agreement, however, it
is US policy that a distinction must be made between Jerusalem and the
rest of the West Bank because of the city's special status and
circumstances. Therefore, a negotiated solution for the final status of
Jerusalem could be different in character from that of the rest of the
West Bank.

_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 380km2; land area: 380 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington,
DC

_#_Land boundaries: 62 km total; Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km

_#_Coastline: 40 km

_#_Maritime claims: Israeli occupied with status to be determined

_#_Disputes: Israeli occupied with status to be determined

_#_Climate: temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers

_#_Terrain: flat to rolling, sand and dune covered coastal plain

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land 13%, permanent crops 32%, meadows and
pastures 0%, forest and woodland 0%, other 55%

_#_Environment: desertification

_#_Note: there are 18 Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip

_*_People
_#_Population: 642,253 (July 1991), growth rate 3.2% (1991);
in addition, there are 2,500 Jewish settlers in the Gaza Strip (1990
est.)

_#_Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 41 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 67 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: NA

_#_Ethnic divisions: Palestinian Arab and other 99.8%, Jewish 0.2%

_#_Religion: Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 99%, Christian 0.7%,
Jewish 0.3%

_#_Language: Arabic, Israeli settlers speak Hebrew, English widely
understood

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: (excluding Israeli Jewish settlers) small
industry, commerce and business 32.0%, construction 24.4%, service
and other 25.5%, and agriculture 18.1% (1984)

_#_Organized labor: NA

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Note: The Gaza Strip is currently governed by Israeli military
authorities and Israeli civil administration. It is US policy that the
final status of the Gaza Strip will be determined by negotiations among
the concerned parties. These negotiations will determine how this area is
to be governed.

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Nearly half the labor force of the Gaza Strip is
employed across the border by Israeli industrial, construction, and
agricultural enterprises, with worker transfer funds accounting for 46%
of GNP in 1990. The once dominant agricultural sector now contributes
only 13% to GNP, about the same as that of the construction sector, and
industry accounts for 7%. Gaza depends upon Israel for 90% of its
imports and as a market for 80% of its exports. Unrest in the territory
in 1988-91 (intifadah) has raised unemployment and substantially
lowered the incomes of the population. Furthermore, the Persian Gulf
crisis dealt a severe blow to the Gaza Strip in 1990 and on into 1991.
Worker remittances from the Gulf states have plunged, unemployment has
increased, and export revenues have fallen dramatically. The risk of
malnutrition is a real possibility in 1991.

_#_GNP: $270 million, per capita $430; real growth rate - 25%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $36.6 million; expenditures $32.0 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (1986)

_#_Exports: $88 million;

commodities--citrus;

partners--Israel, Egypt (1989 est.)

_#_Imports: $260 million;

commodities--food, consumer goods, construction materials;

partners--Israel, Egypt (1989 est.)

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: power supplied by Israel

_#_Industries: generally small family businesses that produce cement,
textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the
Israelis have established some small-scale modern industries in an
industrial center

_#_Agriculture: olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables, beef,
dairy products

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: new Israeli shekel (plural--shekels);
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot

_#_Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1--2.0120 (January
1991), 2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987), 1.4878
(1986), 1.1788
(1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-March 31

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: one line, abandoned and in disrepair, but trackage
remains

_#_Highways: small, poorly developed indigenous road network

_#_Ports: facilities for small boats to service Gaza

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway less than 1,220 m

_#_Telecommunications: stations--no AM, no FM, no TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: NA

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 136,311; NA fit for military
service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Germany
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 356,910 km2; land area: 349,520 km2; comprises the
formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic
Republic, and Berlin following formal unification on 3 October 1990

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana

_#_Land boundaries: 3,790 km total; Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km,
Czechoslovakia 815 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km,
Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km

_#_Coastline: 2,389 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: North Sea and Schleswig-Holstein coast of
Baltic Sea--3 nm (extends, at one point, to 16 nm in the
Helgolander Bucht); remainder of Baltic Sea--12 nm

_#_Disputes: the boundaries of Germany were set by the Treaty on the
Final Settlement With Respect to Germany signed 12 September 1990 in
Moscow by the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic
Republic, France, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet
Union; this treaty entered into force on 15 March 1991; a subsequent
treaty between Germany and Poland, reaffirming the German-Polish
boundary, was signed on 14 November 1990 and is set to be ratified in
1991; the US Government is seeking to settle the property claims of US
nationals against the former GDR

_#_Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and
summers; occasional warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity

_#_Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in
south

_#_Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite,
uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel

_#_Land use: arable land 34%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and
pastures 16%; forest and woodland 30%; other 19%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: air and water pollution; ground water, lakes, and
air quality in eastern Germany are especially bad; significant
deforestation in the eastern mountains caused by air pollution and acid
rain

_#_Note: strategic location on North European Plain and along the
entrance to the Baltic Sea

_*_People
_#_Population: 79,548,498 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--German(s); adjective--German

_#_Ethnic divisions: primarily German; small Danish and Slavic
minorities

_#_Religion: Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 37%, unaffiliated or
other 18%

_#_Language: German

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970 est.)

_#_Labor force: 36,750,000; industry 41%, agriculture 6%, other 53%
(1987)

_#_Organized labor: 47% of labor force (1986 est.)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Federal Republic of Germany

_#_Type: federal republic

_#_Capital: Berlin; note--the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take
place over a period of years with Bonn retaining many administrative
functions

_#_Administrative divisions: 16 states (lander, singular--land);
Baden-Wurttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg,
Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen,
Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein,
Thuringen

_#_Independence: 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided
into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945
following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany)
proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones;
German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October
1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and
East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four power rights formally
relinquished 15 March 1991

_#_Constitution: 23 May 1949, provisional constitution known as
Basic Law

_#_Legal system:
civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: 3 October 1990, German Unity Day

_#_Executive branch: president, chancellor, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral parliament (no official name
for the two chambers as a whole) consists of an upper chamber or
Federal Council (Bundesrat) and a lower chamber or Federal Diet
(Bundestag)

_#_Judicial branch:
Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht)

_#_Leaders:
Chief of State--President Dr. Richard von WEIZSACKER
(since 1 July 1984);

Head of Government--Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL
(since 4 October 1982)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Helmut KOHL, chairman;
Christian Social Union (CSU), Theo WAIGEL;
Free Democratic Party (FDP), Otto Count LAMBSDORFF, chairman;
Social Democratic Party (SPD), Bjoern ENGHOLM, chairman;
Green Party--Volmer LUDGER, Christine WEISKE, co-chairmen
(after the 2 December 1990 election the East and West German
Green Parties united);
Alliance 90 includes three parties--New Forum, Jens REICH, Sebastian
PFLUGBEIL, spokespersons; Democracy Now, Konrad WEISS, spokesperson;
and Initiative, Peace, and Human Rights Party, Gerd POPPE;
Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS, formerly the East German
Communist Party), Gregor GYSI, chairman;
Republikaner, Franz SCHONHUBER;
National Democratic Party (NPD), Martin MUSSGNUG;
Communist Party (DKP), Herbert MIES

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:
Federal Diet--last held 2 December 1990 (next to be held
by December 1994); results--CDU 36.7%, SPD 33.5%, FDP 11.0%, CSU 7.1%,
Green Party (West Germany) 3.9%, PDS 2.4%, Republikaner 2.1%,
Alliance 90/Green Party (East Germany) 1.2%, other 2.1%;
seats--(662 total, 656 statutory with special rules to allow for
slight expansion) CDU 268, SPD 239, FDP 79, CSU 51, PDS 17, Alliance
90/Green Party (East Germany) 8; note--special rules for this
election allowed former East German parties to win seats if they
received at least 5% of vote in eastern Germany

_#_Communists:
West--about 40,000 members and supporters;
East--284,000 party members (December 1990)

_#_Other political or pressure groups: expellee, refugee, and veterans
groups

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN,
COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-5, G-7, G-10, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NEA,
OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNHCR, UPU,
WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation:

Ambassador Jeurgen RUHFUS; Chancery at 4645 Reservoir Road NW,
Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 298-4000; there are German
Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston,
Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and New York, and Consulates
in Miami and New Orleans;

US--Ambassador-designate Robert M. KIMMITT; Embassy at Deichmanns
Avenue, 5300 Bonn 2 (mailing address is APO New York 09080); telephone
[49] (228) 3391; there is a US Branch Office in Berlin and US Consulates
General in Frankfurt, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich, and Stuttgart

_#_Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The newly unified German economy presents a starkly
contrasting picture. Western Germany has an advanced market economy
and is a leading exporter. It experienced faster-than-projected real
growth largely because of demand in eastern Germany for western German
goods. Western Germany has a highly urbanized and skilled population
which enjoys excellent living standards, abundant leisure time, and
comprehensive social welfare benefits. Western Germany is relatively
poor in natural resources, coal being the most important mineral.
Western Germany's world-class companies manufacture technologically
advanced goods. The region's economy is mature: manufacturing and service
industries account for the dominant share of economic activity, and raw
materials and semimanufactured products constitute a large proportion of
imports. In 1989 manufacturing accounted for 31% of GDP, with other
sectors contributing lesser amounts. In recent years, gross fixed
investment has accounted for about 21% of GDP. In 1990 GDP in the western
region was an estimated $16,300 per capita.

In contrast, eastern Germany's obsolete command economy, once
dominated by smokestack heavy industries, has been undergoing a
wrenching change to a market economy. Industrial production in early
1991 is down 50% from the same period last year, due largely to the
slump in domestic demand for eastern German-made goods and the ongoing
economic restructuring. The FRG's legal, social welfare, and economic
systems have been extended to the east, but economic
restructuring--privatizing industry, establishing clear property rights,
clarifying responsibility for environmental clean-up, and removing
Communist-era holdovers from management--is proceeding slowly
so far, deterring outside investors. The region is one of the world's
largest producers of low-grade lignite coal, but has few other resources.
The quality of statistics from eastern Germany remains poor; Bonn is
still trying to bring statistics for the region in line with West German
practices.

The most challenging economic problem of a united Germany is the
reconstruction of eastern Germany's economy--specifically, finding the
right mix of fiscal, regulatory, monetary, and tax policies that
will spur investment in the east without derailing western Germany's
healthy economy or damaging relations with Western partners. The
biggest danger is that soaring unemployment in eastern Germany, which
could climb to the 30 to 40% range, could touch off labor disputes
or renewed mass relocation to western Germany and erode investor
confidence in eastern Germany. Overall economic activity grew an
estimated 4.6% in western Germany in 1990, while dropping roughly 15% in
eastern Germany. Per capita GDP in the eastern region was approximately
$8,700 in 1990.

_#_GDP: $1,157.2 billion, per capita $14,600; real growth rate 1.7%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices):
West--3.0% (1989);
East--0.8% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate:
West--7.1% (1990);
East--1% (1989); 3% (first half, 1990)

_#_Budget:
West--revenues $539 billion; expenditures $563 billion, including
capital expenditures of $11.5 billion (1988);
East--revenues $147.0 billion; expenditures $153.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1988)

_#_Exports:

West--$324.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--manufactures 86.6% (including machines and machine
tools, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel products),
agricultural products 4.9%, raw materials 2.3%, fuels 1.3%;

partners--EC 52.7% (France 12%, Netherlands 9%, Italy 9%, UK 9%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 7%), other West Europe 18%, US 10%, Eastern
Europe 4%, OPEC 3% (1987);

East--$32.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--machinery and transport equipment 47%, fuels and
metals 16%, consumer goods 16%, chemical products and building
materials 13%, semimanufactured goods and processed foodstuffs 8%;

partners--USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, FRG, Hungary, Bulgaria,
Switzerland, Romania, EC, US (1989)

_#_Imports:

West--$247.7 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--manufactures 68.5%, agricultural products 12.0%,
fuels 9.7%, raw materials 7.1%;

partners--EC 52.7% (France 12%, Netherlands 11%, Italy 10%, UK 7%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 7%), other West Europe 15%, US 6%, Japan 6%, Eastern
Europe 5%, OPEC 3% (1987);

East--$30.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--fuels and metals 40%, machinery and transport
equipment 29%, chemical products and building materials 9%;

partners--USSR and Eastern Europe 65%, FRG 12.7%, EC 6.0%,
US 0.3% (1989)

_#_External debt:
West--$500 million (June 1988);
East--$20.6 billion (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rates, West--3.3% (1988);
East--2.7% (1989 est.)

_#_Electricity: 133,000,000 kW capacity; 580,000 million kWh produced,
7,390 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries:
West--among world's largest producers of iron, steel, coal, cement,
chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics;
food and beverages;
East--metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding, machine
building, food and beverages, textiles, petroleum

_#_Agriculture:
West--accounts for about 2% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);

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