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international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European
countries; 2,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 79,641; 40,369 fit for military
service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 11% of GNP (FY81 est.)
_%_
_@_Ethiopia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,221,900 km2; land area: 1,101,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 5,141 km total; Djibouti 459 km, Kenya 861 km,
Somalia 1,600 km, Sudan 2,221 km

_#_Coastline: 1,094 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a
Provisional Administrative Line; possible claim by Somalia based on
unification of ethnic Somalis; territorial dispute with Somalia over
the Ogaden; separatist movement in Eritrea; antigovernment insurgencies
in Tigray and other areas

_#_Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation;
some areas prone to extended droughts

_#_Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great
Rift Valley

_#_Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash

_#_Land use: arable land 12%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
41%; forest and woodland 24%; other 22%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; deforestation; overgrazing; soil
erosion; desertification; frequent droughts; famine

_#_Note: strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest
shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; major resettlement
project--that was ongoing in rural areas and would have significantly
altered population distribution and settlement patterns over the next
several decades--has been derailed because of ongoing civil wars

_*_People
_#_Population: 53,191,127 (July 1991), growth rate 3.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 114 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 53 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Ethiopian(s); adjective--Ethiopian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%,
Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

_#_Religion: Muslim 40-45%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35-40%, animist
15-20%, other 5%

_#_Language: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga,
Somali, Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools)

_#_Literacy: 62% (male NA%, female NA%) age 10 and over can
read and write (1983 est.)

_#_Labor force: 18,000,000; agriculture and animal
husbandry 80%, government and services 12%, industry and construction 8%
(1985)

_#_Organized labor: All Ethiopian Trade Union formed by the government
in January 1977 to represent 273,000 registered trade union members

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

_#_Type: on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary
Democratic Front (EPRDF) took control in Addis Ababa; on 29 May 1991
Issayas AFEWORKE, secretary general of the Eritrean People's Liberation
Front (EPLF), announced the formation of a provisional government in
Eritrea, in preparation for an eventual referendum on independence
for the province

_#_Capital: Addis Ababa

_#_Administrative divisions: 25 administrative regions (astedader
akababiwach, singular--astedader akababi) and 5
autonomous regions* (rasgez akababiwach, singular--rasgez
akababi); Addis Abeba (Addis Ababa), Arsi, Aseb*,
Asosa, Bale, Borena, Debub Gonder, Debub Shewa, Debub Welo, Dire
Dawa*, Ertra (Eritrea)*, Gambela, Gamo Gofa, Ilubabor, Kefa,
Metekel, Mirab Gojam, Mirab Harerge, Mirab Shewa, Misrak Gojam,
Misrak Harerge, Nazaret, Ogaden*, Omo, Semen Gonder,
Semen Shewa, Semen Welo, Sidamo, Tigray*, Welega

_#_Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the
oldest in the world--at least 2,000 years

_#_Constitution: 12 September 1987

_#_Legal system: complex structure with civil, Islamic, common, and
customary law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: National Revolution Day, 12 September (1974)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of State
prime minister, five deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Shengo)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Interim President Meles ZENAWI (since 1 June
1991);

Head of Government--Acting Prime Minister Tamrat LAYNE (since 6
June 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--Workers' Party of
Ethiopia (WPE)

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 10 September 1987 (next to be held September
1992);
results--MENGISTU Haile-Mariam elected by the National Assembly, but
resigned and left Ethiopia on 21 May 1991;

National Assembly--last held 14 June 1987 (next to be
held NA);
results--WPE was the only party;
seats--(835 total) WPE 835

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Oromo Liberation Front;
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP)

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad
interim GIRMA Amare; Chancery at 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC
20008; telephone (202) 234-2281 or 2282;

US--Charge d'Affaires Robert G. HOUDEK; Embassy at Entoto Street,
Addis Ababa (mailing address is P.O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa);
telephone [251] (01) 550666

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red;
Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa and the colors of
her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon
independence that they became known as the pan-African colors

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Ethiopia is one of the poorest and least developed
countries in Africa. Its economy is based on subsistence agriculture,
which accounts for about 45% of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total
employment; coffee generates 60% of export earnings. The
manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs from the agricultural
sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but less then 10% of
agriculture, is state run. Favorable agricultural weather largely
explains the 4.5% growth in output in FY89.

_#_GDP: $6.6 billion, per capita $130, real growth rate - 0.4%
(FY89 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.2% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA

_#_Budget: revenues $1.8 billion; expenditures $1.7 billion, including
capital expenditures of $842 million (FY88)

_#_Exports: $429 million (f.o.b., FY88);

commodities--coffee 60%, hides;

partners--US, FRG, Djibouti, Japan, PDRY, France, Italy,
Saudi Arabia

_#_Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., FY88);

commodities--food, fuels, capital goods;

partners--USSR, Italy, FRG, Japan, UK, US, France

_#_External debt: $2.6 billion (1988)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (FY89 est.); accounts
for 13% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 330,000 kW capacity; 700 million kWh produced,
14 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals,
metals processing, cement

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 45% of GDP and is the most important
sector of the economy even though frequent droughts and poor cultivation
practices keep farm output low; famines not uncommon; export crops of
coffee and oilseeds grown partly on state farms; estimated 50% of
agricultural production at subsistence level; principal crops and
livestock--cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds, sugarcane, potatoes and
other vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep, goats

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $504
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $3.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $8 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $2.0 billion

_#_Currency: birr (plural--birr); 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1--2.0700 (fixed rate)

_#_Fiscal year: 8 July-7 July

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 988 km total; 681 km 1.000-meter gauge; 307 km
0.950-meter gauge (nonoperational)

_#_Highways: 44,300 km total; 3,650 km bituminous, 9,650 km gravel,
3,000 km improved earth, 28,000 km unimproved earth

_#_Ports: Aseb, Mitsiwa

_#_Merchant marine: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 69,398
GRT/89,457 DWT; includes 9 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll off cargo, 1 livestock
carrier, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker

_#_Civil air: 21 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 153 total, 111 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 49 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: open-wire and radio relay system adequate for
government use; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; radio relay to Kenya and
Djibouti; stations--4 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 45,000 TV sets; 3,300,000 radios;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 11,717,614; 6,072,112 fit for
military service; 609,346 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 8.5% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Europa Island
(French possession)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 28 km2; land area: 28 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 22.2 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claimed by Madagascar

_#_Climate: tropical

_#_Terrain: NA

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%; heavily wooded

_#_Environment: wildlife sanctuary

_#_Note: located in the Mozambique Channel 340 km west of Madagascar

_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of
the Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity

_*_Communications
_#_Airports: 1 with runway 1,220 to 2,439 m

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_#_Telecommunications: 1 meteorological station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_Falkland Islands

(Islas Malvinas)
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 12,170 km2; land area: 12,170 km2; includes the two
main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200 small islands

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 1,288 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 100 meter depth;

Exclusive fishing zone: 150 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina

_#_Climate: cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain
occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year,
except in January and February, but does not accumulate

_#_Terrain: rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating
plains

_#_Natural resources: fish and wildlife

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 99%; forest and woodland 0%; other 1%

_#_Environment: poor soil fertility and a short growing season

_#_Note: deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors

_*_People
_#_Population: 1,968 (July 1991), growth rate NEGL% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Falkland Islander(s); adjective--Falkland Island

_#_Ethnic divisions: almost totally British

_#_Religion: primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, and United Free
Church; Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day
Adventist

_#_Language: English

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%) but compulsory education age
5 to 15 (1988)

_#_Labor force: 1,100 (est.); agriculture, mostly
sheepherding about 95%

_#_Organized labor: Falkland Islands General Employees Union, 400
members

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Colony of the Falkland Islands

_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK

_#_Capital: Stanley

_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Constitution: 3 October 1985

_#_Legal system: English common law

_#_National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, Executive Council

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Governor William Hugh FULLERTON (since NA
1988)

_#_Political parties: NA

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

Legislative Council--last held 11 October 1989 (next to be
held October 1994); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(10 total, 8 elected) number of seats by party NA

_#_Member of: ICFTU

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the
outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep
raising is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire
(whose crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing
the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based on sheep farming, which directly or
indirectly employs most of the work force. A few dairy herds are kept to
meet domestic consumption of milk and milk products, and crops grown are
primarily those for providing winter fodder. Exports feature shipments
of high-grade wool to the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins.
Rich stocks of fish in the surrounding waters are not presently exploited
by the islanders. So far efforts to establish a domestic fishing industry
have been unsuccessful. In 1987 the government began selling
fishing licenses to foreign trawlers operating within the Falklands
exclusive fishing zone. These license fees amount to more than $40
million per year and are a primary source of income for the
government. To encourage tourism, the Falkland Islands Development
Corporation has built three lodges for visitors attracted by the
abundant wildlife and trout fishing.

_#_GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.4% (1980-87 average)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%; labor shortage

_#_Budget: revenues $62.7 million; expenditures $41.8 million,
excluding capital expenditures of $NA (FY90)

_#_Exports: at least $14.7 million;

commodities--wool, hides and skins, and other;

partners--UK, Netherlands, Japan (1987 est.)

_#_Imports: at least $13.9 million;

commodities--food, clothing, fuels, and machinery;

partners--UK, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Japan (1987 est.)

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 9,200 kW capacity; 17 million kWh produced, 8,680 kWh
per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: wool and fish processing

_#_Agriculture: predominantly sheep farming; small dairy herds;
some fodder and vegetable crops

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $109 million

_#_Currency: Falkland pound (plural--pounds); 1 Falkland pound
(5F) = 100 pence

_#_Exchange rates: Falkland pound (5F) per US$1--0.5171 (January
1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817
(1986), 0.7714 (1985); note--the Falkland pound is at par with the
British pound

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 510 km total; 30 km paved, 80 km gravel, and 400 km
unimproved earth

_#_Ports: Port Stanley

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 5 total, 5 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220 to 2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: government-operated radiotelephone and private
VHF/CB radio networks provide effective service to almost all points on
both islands; 590 telephones; stations--2 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth station with links through London to other countries

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: British Forces Falkland Islands (including Army, Royal
Air Force, Royal Navy, and Royal Marines); Police Force

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_Faroe Islands
(part of the Danish realm)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,400 km2; land area: 1,400 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than eight times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 764 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy

_#_Terrain: rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast

_#_Natural resources: fish

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 98%

_#_Environment: precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal
lowlands; archipelago of 18 inhabited islands and a few uninhabited
islets

_#_Note: strategically located along important sea lanes in
northeastern Atlantic about midway between Iceland and Shetland Islands

_*_People
_#_Population: 48,151 (July 1991), growth rate 0.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 81 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Faroese (sing., pl.); adjective--Faroese

_#_Ethnic divisions: homogeneous Scandinavian population

_#_Religion: Evangelical Lutheran

_#_Language: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: 17,585; largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing,
transportation, and commerce

_#_Organized labor: NA

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark

_#_Capital: Torshavn

_#_Administrative divisions: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

_#_Independence: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark

_#_Constitution: Danish

_#_Legal system: Danish

_#_National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

_#_Executive branch: Danish monarch, high commissioner, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet (Landsstyri)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Logting)

_#_Judicial branch: none

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972),
represented by High Commissioner Bent KLINTE (since NA);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Atli P. DAM (since 15
January 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
two-party ruling coalition--Social Democratic Party, Atli P. DAM;
People's Party, Jogvan SUNDSTEIN;

opposition--Cooperation Coalition Party, Pauli ELLEFSEN;
Republican Party, Signer HANSEN;
Progressive and Fishing Industry Party-Christian People's Party
(PFIP-CPP), leader NA; Progress Party, leader NA; Home Rule Party, Hilmar
KASS

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 20

_#_Elections:

Faroese Parliament--last held 17 November 1990 (next to be held
November 1994); results--Social Democratic 27.4%, People's Party 21.9%,
Cooperation Coalition Party 18.9%, Republican Party 14.7%, Home Rule
8.8%, PFIP-CPP 5.9%, other 2.4%;
seats--(32 total) two-party coalition 17 (Social Democratic 10, People's
Party 7), Cooperation Coalition Party 6, Republican Party 4,
Home Rule 3, PFIP-CPP 2;

Danish Parliament--last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be
held by December 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(2 total) Social Democratic 1, People's Party 1; note--the
Faroe Islands elects two representatives to the Danish Parliament

_#_Communists: insignificant number

_#_Member of:

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

_#_Flag: white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends to the
edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the
hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The Faroese, who have long been enjoying the affluent
living standards of the Danes and other Scandinavians,
now must cope with the decline of the all-important fishing
industry and with an external debt twice the size of annual
income. When the nations of the world extended their fishing
zones to 200 nautical miles in the early 1970s, the Faroese
no longer could continue their traditional long-distance fishing
and subsequently depleted their own nearby fishing areas; one
estimate foresaw a 25% drop in fish catch in 1990 alone. Half the
fishing fleet is for sale, and the 22 fish-processing plants work
at only half capacity. The government no longer can maintain its
high level of spending on roads and tunnels, hospitals, sports
facilities, and other social welfare programs.

_#_GDP: $662 million, per capita $14,000; real growth rate 3%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.0% (1988)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%, but increasing

_#_Budget: revenues $442 million; expenditures $442 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1989)

_#_Exports: $343 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--fish and fish products 88%, animal feedstuffs,
transport equipment;

partners--Denmark 16%, UK 14%, FRG 13.4%, US 10%, France 9%,
Japan 5%

_#_Imports: $344 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities--machinery and transport equipment 30%,
manufactures 16%, food and livestock 15%, chemicals 6%, fuels 4%;

partners: Denmark 44%, Norway 16%, FRG 6%, Sweden 6%, US 3%

_#_External debt: $1.3 billion (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 80,000 kW capacity; 280 million kWh produced,
5,910 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: fishing, shipbuilding, handicrafts

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 27% of GDP and employs 27% of labor
force; principal crops--potatoes and vegetables; livestock--sheep; annual
fish catch about 360,000 metric tons

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: Danish krone (plural--kroner); 1 Danish krone
(DKr) = 100 ore

_#_Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1--5.817 (January
1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988), 6.840 (1987), 8.091
(1986), 10.596 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 200 km

_#_Ports: Torshavn, Tvoroyri

_#_Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 17,249
GRT/11,887 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 2 cargo, 2
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo; note--a subset of the
Danish register

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good international communications; fair
domestic facilities; 27,900 telephones; stations--1 AM, 3 (10 repeaters)
FM, 3 (29 repeaters) TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: no organized native military forces; only a small
Police Force is maintained

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark
_%_
_@_Fiji
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 18,270 km2; land area: 18,270 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 1,129 km

_#_Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;
rectilinear shelf claim added;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature
variation

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin

_#_Natural resources: timber, fish, gold, copper; offshore oil
potential

_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures
3%; forest and woodland 65%; other 19%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes from November to January;
includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited

_#_Note: located 2,500 km north of New Zealand in the South Pacific
Ocean

_*_People
_#_Population: 744,006 (July 1991), growth rate 0.8% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 12 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 67 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Fijian(s); adjective--Fijian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Indian 49%, Fijian 46%, European, other Pacific
Islanders, overseas Chinese, and other 5%

_#_Religion: Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%),
Hindu 38%, Muslim 8%, other 2%; note--Fijians are mainly Christian,
Indians are Hindu, and there is a Muslim minority (1986)

_#_Language: English (official); Fijian; Hindustani

_#_Literacy: 86% (male 90%, female 81%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1985 est.)

_#_Labor force: 235,000; subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners
18%, salary earners 15% (1987)

_#_Organized labor: about 45,000 employees belong to some 46 trade
unions, which are organized along lines of work and ethnic origin (1983)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Fiji

_#_Type: military coup leader Major General Sitiveni Rabuka formally
declared Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987

_#_Capital: Suva

_#_Administrative divisions: 4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central,
Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western

_#_Independence: 10 October 1970 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987);
a new Constitution was proposed on 23 September 1988 and promulgated
on 25 July 1990

_#_Legal system: based on British system

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 10 October (1970)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: the bicameral Parliament, consisting of an
upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives,
was dissolved following the coup of 14 May 1987; the Constitution of 23
September 1988 provides for a bicameral Parliament

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Ratu Sir Penaia Kanatabatu GANILAU
(since 5 December 1987);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (since 5
December 1987); Deputy Prime Minister Josefata KAMIKAMICA (since NA
October 1991);
note--Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA served as prime minister from 10 October
1970 until the 5-11 April 1987 election; after a second coup led by
Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA on 25 September 1987, Ratu Sir Kamisese
MARA was reappointed as prime minister

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Fijian Political Party (primarily Fijian), leader NA;
National Federation (primarily Indian), Siddiq KOYA;
Western United Front (Fijian), Ratu Osea GAVIDI;
Fiji Labor Party, Adi Kuini BAVADRA

_#_Suffrage: none

_#_Elections:

House of Representatives--last held 14 May 1987 (next to be
held July 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(70 total, with ethnic Fijians allocated 37 seats, ethnic
Indians 27 seats, and independents and other 6 seats) number of seats
by party NA

_#_Communists: some

_#_Member of: ACP, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, PCA,
SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Charge d'Affaires Ratu Finau MARA;
Chancery at Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007;
telephone (202) 337-8320; there is a Fijian Consulate in New York;

US--Ambassador Evelyn I. H. TEEGEN; Embassy at 31 Loftus Street,
Suva (mailing address is P. O. Box 218, Suva); telephone [679] 314-466 or
314-069

_#_Flag: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag;
the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the
cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree,
bananas, and a white dove

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Fiji's economy is primarily agricultural, with a large
subsistence sector. Sugar exports are a major source of foreign exchange
and sugar processing accounts for one-third of industrial output.
Industry, including sugar milling, contributes 13% to GDP. Fiji
traditionally had earned considerable sums of hard currency from the
250,000 tourists who visited each year. In 1987, however, after two
military coups, the economy went into decline. GDP dropped by 7.8% in
1987 and by another 2.5% in 1988; political uncertainty created a drop in
tourism, and the worst drought of the century caused sugar production
to fall sharply. In contrast, sugar and tourism turned in strong
performances in 1989, and the economy rebounded vigorously. In 1990
the economy received a setback from cyclone Sina which cut sugar
output by an estimated 21%.

_#_GDP: $1.3 billion, per capita $1,693; real growth rate 3.5%
(1991 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.5% (1991 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 5.9 (1991 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $314 million; expenditures $355 million,
including capital expenditures of $81 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $646 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.);

commodities--sugar 40%, gold, clothing, copra, processed fish,
lumber;

partners--EC 31%, Australia 21%, Japan 8%, US 6%

_#_Imports: $840 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.);

commodities--machinery and transport 32%, food 15%, petroleum
products, consumer goods, chemicals;

partners--Australia 30%, NZ 17%, Japan 13%, EC 6%, US 6%

_#_External debt: $428 million (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 8.4% (1991 est.); accounts
for 13% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 215,000 kW capacity; 330 million kWh produced, 430
kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, fishing, clothing,
lumber, small cottage industries

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 23% of GDP; principal cash crop is
sugarcane; coconuts, cassava, rice, sweet potatoes, and bananas; small
livestock sector includes cattle, pigs, horses, and goats

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1980-87), $732 million

_#_Currency: Fijian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Fijian dollar
(F$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1--1.4476 (January
1991), 1.4809 (1990), 1.4833 (1989), 1.4303 (1988), 1.2439 (1987), 1.1329
(1986), 1.1536 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 644 km 0.610-meter narrow gauge, belonging to the
government-owned Fiji Sugar Corporation

_#_Highways: 3,300 km total (1984)--390 km paved; 1,200 km
bituminous-surface treatment; 1,290 km gravel, crushed stone, or
stabilized soil surface; 420 unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and
200-metric-ton barges

_#_Ports: Lambasa, Lautoka, Savusavu, Suva

_#_Merchant marine: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 34,214
GRT/37,161 DWT; includes 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 container,
1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker

_#_Civil air: 1 DC-3 and 1 light aircraft

_#_Airports: 26 total, 24 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: modern local, interisland, and international
(wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph,
and teleprinter facilities; regional radio center; important COMPAC cable
link between US-Canada and New Zealand-Australia; 53,228 telephones;
stations--7 AM, 1 FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Fiji Military Force (FMF; Army, Navy, Police)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 190,120; 104,861 fit for
military service; 7,879 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $25.8 million, 2.5% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Finland
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 337,030 km2; land area: 305,470 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana

_#_Land boundaries: 2,628 km total; Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km,
USSR 1,313 km

_#_Coastline: 1,126 km excluding islands and coastal indentations

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 6 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm;

Territorial sea: 4 nm

_#_Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively
mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current,
Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

_#_Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes
and low hills

_#_Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
NEGL%; forest and woodland 76%; other 16%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: permanently wet ground covers about 30% of land;
population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

_#_Note: long boundary with USSR; Helsinki is northernmost national
capital on European continent

_*_People
_#_Population: 4,991,131 (July 1991), growth rate 0.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 80 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Finn(s); adjective--Finnish

_#_Ethnic divisions: Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar

_#_Religion: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%,
none 9%, other 1%

_#_Language: Finnish 93.5%, Swedish (both official) 6.3%; small Lapp-
and Russian-speaking minorities

_#_Literacy: 100% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2,470,000; services 38.2%, mining and manufacturing
22.7%, commerce 14.9%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 8.8%,
construction 8.0%, transportation and communications 7.2% (1989)

_#_Organized labor: 80% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Finland

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Helsinki

_#_Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (laanit,
singular--laani); Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi, Kuopio, Kymi,
Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu, Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa, Vaasa

_#_Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)

_#_Constitution: 17 July 1919

_#_Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court
may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Council of State (Valtioneuvosto)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Eduskunta

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Mauno KOIVISTO (since 27 January 1982);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Esko AHO (since 26 April 1991);
Deputy Prime Minister Ilkka KANERVA (since 26 April 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:

government coalition--Center Party, Esko AHO;
National Coalition (Conservative) Party, Ilkka SUOMINEN; and
Swedish People's Party, (Johan) Ole NORRBACK;

other parties--Social Democratic Party, Pertti PAASIO;
Leftist Alliance (Communist) consisting of People's Democratic League and
Democratic Alternative, Claes ANDERSSON;
Green League, Heidi HAUTALA;
Rural Party, Heikki RIIHIJAERVI;
Finnish Christian League, Esko ALMGREN;
Liberal People's Party, Kyosti LALLUKKA

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 31 January-1 February and 15 February
1988 (next to be held January 1994);
results--Mauno KOIVISTO 48%, Paavo VAYRYNEN 20%, Harri HOLKERI 18%;

Eduskunta--last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March
1995);
results--Center Party 24.8%, Social Democratic Party 22.1%, National
Coalition (Conservative) Party 19.3%, Leftist Alliance (Communist)
10.1%, Green League 6.8%, Swedish People's Party 5.5%, Rural 4.8%,
Finnish Christian League 3.1%, Liberal People's Party 0.8%;
seats--(200 total) Center Party 55, Social Democratic Party 48,
National Coalition (Conservative) Party 40, Leftist Alliance (Communist)
19, Swedish People's Party 12, Green League 10, Finnish Christian League
8, Rural 7, Liberal People's Party 1

_#_Communists: 28,000 registered members; an additional 45,000 persons
belong to People's Democratic League

_#_Other political or pressure groups:
Finnish Communist Party-Unity, Esko-Juhani TENNILA;
Constitutional Rightist Party;
Finnish Pensioners Party;
Communist Workers Party, Timo LAHDENMAKI

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD,
ECE, EFTA, ESA (associate), FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, OAS
(observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jukka VALTASAARI; Chancery at
3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington DC 20016; telephone (202) 363-2430;
there are Finnish Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York,
and Consulates in Chicago and Houston;

US--Ambassador John G. WEINMANN; Embassy at Itainen Puistotie
14A, SF-00140, Helsinki (mailing address is APO New York 09664);
telephone [358] (0) 171931

_#_Flag: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the
flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in
the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free market
economy, with per capita output nearly three-fourths the US figure.
Its main economic force is the manufacturing sector--principally
the wood, metals, and engineering industries. Trade is important, with
the export of goods representing about 30% of GDP. Except for timber and
several minerals, Finland depends on imported raw materials, energy, and
some components of manufactured goods. Because of the climate,
agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in
basic commodities. The economy, which experienced an average of 4.9%
annual growth between 1987 and 1989, leveled off in 1990 and is now
in a recession facing negative growth in 1991. The clearing account
system between Finland and the Soviet Union in the postwar period--mainly
Soviet oil and gas for Finnish manufactured goods--had kept Finland
isolated from world recessions; the system, however, was dismantled on
1 January 1991 in favor of hard currency trade. As a result, Finland must
increase its competitiveness in certain sectors, for example, textiles,
foodstuffs, paper, and metals, and has already begun to shift trade
westward. Finland, as a member of EFTA, is negotiating a European
Economic Area arrangement with the EC which would allow for free
movement of capital, goods, services, and labor within the organization.

_#_GDP: $77.3 billion, per capita $15,500; real growth rate - 0.1%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.0% (1991 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 5.7% (1991 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $35.1 billion; expenditures $33.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of $1.4 billion (1990)

_#_Exports: $23.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--timber, paper and pulp, ships, machinery, clothing and
footwear;

partners--EC 44.0% (UK 12.0%, FRG 10.8%), USSR 14.5%, Sweden 14.3%,
US 6.4%

_#_Imports: $24.4 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products,
chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn
and fabrics, fodder grains;

partners--EC 44.5% (FRG 17.3%, UK 6.6%), Sweden 13.6%, USSR 11.5%,
US 6.3%

_#_External debt: $5.3 billion (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 3.0% (1991 est.); accounts
for 28% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 13,324,000 kW capacity; 49,330 million kWh produced,
9,940 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: metal manufacturing and shipbuilding, forestry and wood
processing (pulp, paper), copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals,
textiles, clothing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 8% of GNP (including forestry); livestock
production, especially dairy cattle, predominates; forestry is an
important export earner and a secondary occupation for the rural
population; main crops--cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85%
self-sufficient, but short of food and fodder grains; annual fish catch
about 160,000 metric tons

_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.7
billion

_#_Currency: markka (plural--markkaa); 1 markka (FMk) or
Finmark = 100 pennia

_#_Exchange rates: markkaa (FMk) per US$1--3.6421 (January 1991),
3.8235 (1990), 4.2912 (1989), 4.1828 (1988), 4.3956 (1987), 5.0695
(1986), 6.1979 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 5,924 km total; Finnish State Railways (VR) operate a
total of 5,863 km 1.524-meter gauge, of which 480 km are multiple track
and 1,445 km are electrified

_#_Highways: about 103,000 km total, including 35,000 km paved
(bituminous, concrete, bituminous-treated surface) and 38,000 km unpaved
(stabilized gravel, gravel, earth); additional 30,000 km of private
(state-subsidized) roads

_#_Inland waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km
suitable for steamers

_#_Pipelines: natural gas, 580 km

_#_Ports: Helsinki, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku; 6 secondary, numerous
minor ports

_#_Merchant marine: 83 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 807,020
GRT/831,774 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 10 short-sea passenger, 16 cargo,
1 refrigerated cargo, 23 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 14 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 6 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 8 bulk

_#_Civil air: 42 major transport

_#_Airports: 160 total, 157 usable; 57 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 23 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good service from cable and radio relay
network; 3,140,000 telephones; stations--4 AM, 42 (101 relays) FM, 79
(197 relays) TV; 2 submarine cables; satellite service via Swedish earth
stations; earth stations--2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 EUTELSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (including
Sea Guard)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,313,346; 1,089,217 fit for
military service; 32,866 reach military age (17) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.1 billion, 1.5% of GDP (1989 est.)
_%_
_@_France
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 547,030 km2; land area: 545,630 km2; includes Corsica
and the rest of metropolitan France, but excludes the overseas
administrative divisions

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Colorado

_#_Land boundaries: 2,892.4 km total; Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km,
Germany 451 km, Italy 488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km,
Spain 623 km, Switzerland 573 km

_#_Coastline: 3,427 km (includes Corsica, 644 km)

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12-24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Canada (Saint Pierre and
Miquelon); Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso
Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island; Comoros claims
Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; Seychelles claims Tromelin
Island; Suriname claims part of French Guiana; Mexico claims Clipperton
Island; territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land)

_#_Climate: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters
and hot summers along the Mediterranean

_#_Terrain: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and
west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in
east

_#_Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc,
potash

_#_Land use: arable land 32%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures
23%; forest and woodland 27%; other 16%; includes irrigated 2%

_#_Environment: most of large urban areas and industrial centers in
Rhone, Garonne, Seine, or Loire River basins; occasional warm tropical
wind known as mistral

_#_Note: largest West European nation

_*_People
_#_Population: 56,595,587 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 82 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women);
adjective--French

_#_Ethnic divisions: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North
African, Indochinese, and Basque minorities

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%,
Muslim (North African workers) 1%, unaffiliated 6%

_#_Language: French (100% of population); rapidly declining regional
dialects (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque,
Flemish)

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980 est.)

_#_Labor force: 24,170,000; services 61.5%, industry 31.3%,
agriculture 7.3% (1987)

_#_Organized labor: 20% of labor force (est.)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: French Republic

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Paris

_#_Administrative divisions: metropolitan France--22 regions
(regions, singular--region); Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne,
Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse,
Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon,
Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais,
Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes,
Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes;

note--the 22 regions are subdivided into 96 departments; see separate
entries for the overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe,
Martinique, Reunion) and the territorial collectivities (Mayotte,
Saint Pierre and Miquelon)

_#_Dependent areas: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands,
Juan de Nova Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna;
note--the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

_#_Independence: unified by Clovis in 486, First Republic proclaimed
in 1792

_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958, amended concerning election of
president in 1962

_#_Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of
administrative but not legislative acts

_#_National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of an
upper house or Senate (Senat) and a lower house or National Assembly
(Assemblee Nationale)

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May
1981);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Edith CRESSON (since 15 May
1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR, formerly UDR), Jacques CHIRAC;
Union for French Democracy (UDF, federation of PR, CDS, and RAD),
Valery Giscard d'ESTAING;
Republican Party (PR), Gerard LONGUET;
Center for Social Democrats (CDS), Pierre MEHAIGNERIE;
Radical (RAD), Yves GALLARD;
Socialist Party (PS), Pierre MAUROY;
Left Radical Movement (MRG), Yves COLLIN;
Communist Party (PCF), Georges MARCHAIS;
National Front (FN), Jean-Marie LE PEN

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held May 1995);
results--Second Ballot Francois MITTERRAND 54%, Jacques CHIRAC 46%;

Senate--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September
1992); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(321 total; 296 metropolitan France, 13 for overseas departments
and territories, and 12 for French nationals abroad) RPR 93,
UDF 143 (PR 53, CDS 65, RAD 25), PS 64, PCF 16, independents 2,
unknown 3;

National Assembly--last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held
June 1993);
results--Second Ballot PS-MRG 48.7%, RPR 23.1%, UDF 21%, PCF 3.4%,
other 3.8%;
seats--(577 total) PS 275, RPR 132, UDF 90, UDC 40, PCF 25, independents
15

_#_Communists: 700,000 claimed but probably closer to 150,000;
Communist voters, 2.8 million in 1988 election

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Communist-controlled labor
union (Confederation Generale du Travail) nearly 2.4 million
members (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation
Francaise Democratique du Travail or CFDT) about 800,000 members
est.; independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) 1 million members
(est.); independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale
des Cadres) 340,000 members (claimed); National Council of French
Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais--CNPF or Patronat)

_#_Member of: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BDEAC,
BIS, CCC, CDB, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECA (associate),
ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, FZ, GATT, G-5, G-7, G-10, IABD, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NATO, NEA, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UN Security Council, UN Trusteeship Council,
UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jacques ANDREANI; Chancery at
4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 944-6000;
there are French Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston,
Los Angeles, New Orleans, Miami, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan
(Puerto Rico);

US--Ambassador Walter J. P. CURLEY; Embassy at 2 Avenue
Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08 (mailing address is APO New York 09777);
telephone [33] (1) 42-96-12-02 or 42-61-80-75; there are US Consulates
General in Bordeaux, Lyon, Marseille, and Strasbourg

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and
red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and
colors have been the basis for a number of other flags, including those
of Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Ivory Coast, and Luxembourg; the official flag
for all French dependent areas

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: One of the world's most developed economies, France
has substantial agricultural resources and a highly diversified modern
industrial sector. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of
modern technology, and subsidies have combined to make it the leading
agricultural producer in Western Europe. France is largely
self-sufficient in agricultural products and is a major exporter of
wheat and dairy products. The industrial sector generates about
one-quarter of GDP, and the growing services sector has become crucial
to the economy. After sluggish growth during the period 1982-87, the
economy expanded at a rapid 3.8% pace in 1988-89. The economy
slowed down in 1990, with growth of 2.0% expected in 1991.
The economy has had difficulty generating enough jobs for new
entrants into the labor force, resulting in a high unemployment rate,
which probably will rise to around 10% during the slowdown.
The steadily advancing economic integration within the European
Community is a major force affecting the fortunes of the various economic
sectors.

_#_GDP: $873.5 billion, per capita $15,500; real growth rate 2.8%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 9% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $207.6 billion; expenditures $224.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $34 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $181.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals,
foodstuffs, agricultural products, iron and steel products, textiles and
clothing;

partners--FRG 16%, Italy 12.1%, UK 9.5%, Spain 9.5%,
Netherlands 9.2%, Belgium-Luxembourg 8.9%, US 6.6%, Japan 1.9%,
USSR 1.0% (1989 est.)

_#_Imports: $201.6 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural
products, chemicals, iron and steel products;

partners--FRG 19.4%, Italy 11.6%, Belgium-Luxembourg 9.2%,
Netherlands 8.6%, US 7.6%, Spain 7.4%, UK 7.1%, Japan 4.1%,
USSR 1.4% (1989 est.)

_#_External debt: $59.3 billion (December 1987)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3.7% (1989); accounts
for 26% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 109,972,000 kW capacity; 403,570 million kWh produced,
7,210 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy,
aircraft, electronics, mining, textiles, food processing, and tourism

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GNP (including fishing and
forestry); one of the world's top five wheat producers; other principal
products--beef, dairy products, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine
grapes; self-sufficient for most temperate-zone foods; shortages include

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