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_#_Nationality: noun--Costa Rican(s); adjective--Costa Rican

_#_Ethnic divisions: white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Indian
1%, Chinese 1%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%

_#_Language: Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon

_#_Literacy: 93% (male 93%, female 93%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 868,300; industry and commerce 35.1%, government and
services 33%, agriculture 27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)

_#_Organized labor: 15.1% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Costa Rica

_#_Type: democratic republic

_#_Capital: San Jose

_#_Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias,
singular--provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon,
Puntarenas, San Jose

_#_Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

_#_Constitution: 9 November 1949

_#_Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

_#_Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea
Legislativa)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Rafael Angel
CALDERON Fournier (since 8 May 1990); First Vice President German
SERRANO Pinto (since 8 May 1990); Second Vice President Arnoldo LOPEZ
Echandi (since 8 May 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Liberation Party (PLN), Rolando ARAYA Monge;
Social Christian Unity Party (PUSC), Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier;
Marxist Popular Vanguard Party (PVP), Humberto VARGAS Carbonell;
New Republic Movement (MNR), Sergio Erick ARDON Ramirez;
Progressive Party (PP), Isaac Felipe AZOFEIFA Bolanos;
People's Party of Costa Rica (PPC), Lenin ChACON Vargas;
Radical Democratic Party (PRD), Juan Jose ECHEVERRIA Brealey

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held February
1994);
results--Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier 51%, Carlos Manuel
CASTILLO 47%;

Legislative Assembly--last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held
February 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(57 total) PUSC 29, PLN 25, PVP/PPC 1, regional parties 2

_#_Communists: 7,500 members and sympathizers

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Costa Rican Confederation of
Democratic Workers (CCTD; Liberation Party affiliate), Confederated Union
of Workers (CUT; Communist Party affiliate), Authentic Confederation of
Democratic Workers (CATD; Communist Party affiliate), Chamber of Coffee
Growers, National Association for Economic Development (ANFE), Free Costa
Rica Movement (MCRL; rightwing militants), National Association of
Educators (ANDE)

_#_Member of: AG (observer), BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (observer),
OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Gonzalo FACIO Segreda;
Chancery at Suite 211, 1825 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009;
telephone (202) 234-2945 through 2947; there are Costa Rican Consulates
General at Albuquerque, Boston, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans,
New York, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico),
and Tampa, and Consulates in Austin, Buffalo, Honolulu, and Raleigh;

US--Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Robert O. HOMME;
Embassy at Pavas Road, San Jose (mailing address is APO Miami 34020);
telephone [506] 20-39-39

_#_Flag: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double
width), white, and blue with the coat of arms in a white disk on the
hoist side of the red band

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: In 1990 the economy grew at an estimated 3.5%
rate, a decrease from the strong 5.0% gain of the previous year.
Gains in agricultural production (on the strength of good coffee and
banana crops) and in construction, were partially offset by lower
rates of growth for industry. In 1990 consumer prices rose by about 25%
and the trade deficit widened. Unemployment is officially reported at
6%, but much underemployment remains. External debt, on a per
capita basis, is among the world's highest.

_#_GDP: $5.5 billion, per capita $1,810; real growth rate 3.6% (1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 6% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $831 million; expenditures $1.08 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar;

partners--US 75%, FRG, Guatemala, Netherlands, UK, Japan

_#_Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--petroleum, machinery, consumer durables, chemicals,
fertilizer, foodstuffs;

partners--US 35%, Japan, Guatemala, FRG

_#_External debt: $4.5 billion (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (1990 est.); accounts for
23% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 927,000 kW capacity; 2,987 million kWh produced,
980 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, construction
materials, fertilizer, plastic products

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 20-25% of GDP and 70% of exports; cash
commodities--coffee, beef, bananas, sugar; other food crops include corn,
rice, beans, potatoes; normally self-sufficient in food except for
grain; depletion of forest resources resulting in lower timber output

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit production of cannabis on small scattered
plots; transshipment country for cocaine from South America

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $781 million; Communist countries (1971-88), $27 million

_#_Currency: Costa Rican colon (plural--colones);
1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos

_#_Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1--105.82 (January
1991), 91.58 (1990), 81.504 (1989), 75.805 (1988), 62.776 (1987), 55.986
(1986), 50.453 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 950 km total, all 1.067-meter gauge; 260 km electrified

_#_Highways: 15,400 km total; 7,030 km paved, 7,010 km gravel,
1,360 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: about 730 km, seasonally navigable

_#_Pipelines: refined products, 176 km

_#_Ports: Puerto Limon, Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puntarenas

_#_Merchant marine: 12 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 2,831 GRT/4,506 DWT

_#_Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 173 total, 159 usable; 26 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: very good domestic telephone service; 292,000
telephones; connection into Central American Microwave System;
stations--71 AM, no FM, 18 TV, 13 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Civil Guard, Rural Assistance Guard; note--Constitution
prohibits armed forces

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 807,853; 545,541 fit for
military service; 32,149 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $20 million, 0.4% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Cuba
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 110,860 km2; land area: 110,860 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

_#_Land boundary: 29.1 km with US Naval Base at Guantanamo;
note--Guantanamo is leased and as such remains part of Cuba

_#_Coastline: 3,735 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: US Naval Base at Guantanamo is leased to US and only
mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease

_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November
to April); rainy season (May to October)

_#_Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and
mountains in the southeast

_#_Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese,
salt, timber, silica

_#_Land use: arable land 23%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and pastures
23%; forest and woodland 17%; other 31%; includes irrigated 10%

_#_Environment: averages one hurricane every other year

_#_Note: largest country in Caribbean; 145 km south of Florida

_*_People
_#_Population: 10,732,037 (July 1991), growth rate 1.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 78 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Cuban(s); adjective--Cuban

_#_Ethnic divisions: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

_#_Religion: 85% nominally Roman Catholic before Castro assumed power

_#_Language: Spanish

_#_Literacy: 94% (male 95%, female 93%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 3,578,800 in state sector; services and government
30%, industry 22%, agriculture 20%, commerce 11%, construction 10%,
transportation and communications 7% (June 1990); economically active
population 4,620,800 (1988)

_#_Organized labor: Workers Central Union of Cuba (CTC), only labor
federation approved by government; 2,910,000 members; the CTC is an
umbrella organization composed of 17 member unions

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Cuba

_#_Type: Communist state

_#_Capital: Havana

_#_Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias,
singular--provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial);
Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma,
Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas,
Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa
Clara

_#_Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898;
administered by the US from 1898 to 1902)

_#_Constitution: 24 February 1976

_#_Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large
elements of Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 January (1959)

_#_Executive branch: president of the Council of State, first vice
president of the Council of State, Council of State, president of the
Council of Ministers, first vice president of the Council of Ministers,
Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly of the People's
Power (Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular)

_#_Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President of the Council of
State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz
(became Prime Minister in February 1959 and President since 2 December
1976);
First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President
of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December
1976)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--Cuban Communist Party
(PCC), Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 16

_#_Elections:

National Assembly of the People's Power--last held NA December
1986 (next to be held December 1991);
results--PCC is the only party;
seats--(510 total) PCC 510 (indirectly elected)

_#_Communists: about 600,000 full and candidate members

_#_Member of: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBEC,
ICAO, IFAD, IIB, ILO, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES,
LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation
since 1962), OPANAL (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: none; protecting power in the US is
Switzerland--Cuban Interests Section; Counselor Jose Antonio ARBESU
Fraga; 2630 and 2639 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202)
797-8518 or 8519, 8520, 8609, 8610;

US--protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland--US Interests Section;
Principal Officer Alan H. FLANIGAN; Calzada entre L y M, Vedado Seccion,
Havana (mailing address is USINT, c/o International Purchasing Group,
2052 NW 93rd Avenue, Miami, FL 33172); telephone 329-700

_#_Flag: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom)
alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist
side bears a white five-pointed star in the center

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy, centrally planned and largely state owned,
is highly dependent on the agricultural sector and foreign trade. Sugar
provides about 75% of export revenues and over half is exported to the
USSR. The economy has stagnated since 1985 under policies that have
deemphasized material incentives in the workplace, abolished farmers'
informal produce markets, and raised prices of government-supplied goods
and services. In 1990 the economy probably fell 3%, largely as a result
of declining trade with the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Recently
the government has been trying to increase trade with Latin America and
China. Cuba has had difficulty servicing its foreign debt since 1982. The
government currently is encouraging foreign investment in tourist
facilities. Other investment priorities include sugar, basic foods, and
nickel. The annual $4 billion Soviet subsidy, a main prop to Cuba's
threadbare economy, is likely to show a substantial decline over the
next few years in view of the USSR's mounting economic problems. Instead
of highly subsidized trade, Cuba will be shifting to trade at market
prices in convertible currencies. In early 1991, the shortages of fuels,
spare parts, and industrial products in general had become so severe as
to amount to a deindustrialization process in the eyes of some observers.

_#_GNP: $20.9 billion, per capita $2,000; real growth rate - 3%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment: 6% overall, 10% for women (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $12.46 billion; expenditures $14.45 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $5.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--sugar, nickel, shellfish, citrus, tobacco, coffee;

partners--USSR 67%, GDR 6%, China 4% (1988)

_#_Imports: $8.1 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--capital goods, industrial raw materials, food,
petroleum;

partners--USSR 71%, other Communist countries 15% (1988)

_#_External debt: $6.8 billion (convertible currency, July 1989)

_#_Industrial production: 3% (1988); accounts for 45% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 3,890,000 kW capacity; 16,267 million kWh produced,
1,530 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: sugar milling, petroleum refining, food and tobacco
processing, textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products, metals
(particularly nickel), cement, fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural
machinery

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GNP (including fishing and
forestry); key commercial crops--sugarcane, tobacco, and citrus fruits;
other products--coffee, rice, potatoes, meat, beans; world's largest
sugar exporter; not self-sufficient in food (excluding sugar)

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $695 million; Communist countries (1970-89),
$18.5 billion

_#_Currency: Cuban peso (plural--pesos); 1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100
centavos

_#_Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1--1.0000 (linked to the
US dollar)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 14,925 km total; Cuban National Railways operates
5,295 km of 1.435-meter gauge track; 199 km electrified; 9,630 km of
sugar plantation lines of 0.914-1.435-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 26,477 km total; 14,477 km paved, 12,000 km gravel
and earth surfaced (1989 est.)

_#_Inland waterways: 240 km

_#_Ports: Cienfuegos, Havana, Mariel, Matanzas, Santiago de Cuba;
7 secondary, 35 minor

_#_Merchant marine: 87 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
638,462 GRT/925,380 DWT; includes 54 cargo, 9 refrigerated cargo, 2
cargo/training, 12 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1
chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 6 bulk; note--Cuba beneficially owns
an additional 37 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 512,346 DWT under
the registry of Panama, Cyprus, and Malta

_#_Civil air: 59 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 205 total, 176 usable; 75 with permanent-surface runways;
3 with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 25 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: stations--150 AM, 5 FM, 58 TV; 1,530,000 TVs;
2,140,000 radios; 229,000 telephones; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (including Ground Forces,
Revolutionary Navy, Air and Air Defense Force), Ministry of Interior
Special Troops, Border Guard Troops, Territorial Militia Troops, Youth
Labor Army, Civil Defense, National Revolutionary Police

_#_Manpower availability: eligible 15-49, 6,087,253; of the 3,054,158
males 15-49, 1,914,080 are fit for military service; of the 3,033,095
females 15-49, 1,896,449 are fit for military service; 89,194 males and
85,968 females reach military age (17) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.2-$1.4 billion, 6% of GNP (1989 est.)
_%_
_@_Cyprus
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 9,250 km2; land area: 9,240 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 648 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: 1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto
autonomous areas--a Greek area controlled by the Cypriot Government (60%
of the island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (35% of the island)
that are separated by a narrow UN buffer zone; in addition, there are two
UK sovereign base areas (about 5% of the island's land area)

_#_Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool,
wet winters

_#_Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south

_#_Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt,
marble, clay earth pigment

_#_Land use: arable land 40%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures
10%; forest and woodland 18%; other 25%; includes irrigated 10% (most
irrigated lands are in the Turkish-Cypriot area of the island)

_#_Environment: moderate earthquake activity; water resource problems
(no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, and
most potable resources concentrated in the Turkish-Cypriot area)

_*_People
_#_Population: 709,343 (July 1991), growth rate 1.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 78 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Cypriot(s); adjective--Cypriot

_#_Ethnic divisions: Greek 78%; Turkish 18%; other 4%

_#_Religion: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian,
Apostolic, and other 4%

_#_Language: Greek, Turkish, English

_#_Literacy: 90% (male 96%, female 85%) age 10 and over can
read and write (1976)

_#_Labor force: Greek area--246,100; services 42%, industry 33%,
agriculture 22%; Turkish area--NA (1989)

_#_Organized labor: 156,000 (1985 est.)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Cyprus

_#_Type: republic; a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities
inhabiting the island began after the outbreak of communal strife in
1963; this separation was further solidified following the Turkish
invasion of the island in July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de
facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only
internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish
Cypriot President Rauf Denktash declared independence and the formation
of a Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which has been recognized
only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of
intercommunal differences and creation of a new federal system of
government

_#_Capital: Nicosia

_#_Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia,
Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos

_#_Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for
a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better
relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held
intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own Constitution
and governing bodies within the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus, which
was renamed the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 1983; a new
Constitution for the Turkish area passed by referendum in May 1985

_#_Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October

_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet);
note--there is a president, prime minister, and Council of Ministers
(cabinet) in the Turkish area

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (Vouli
Antiprosopon); note--there is a unicameral Assembly of the Republic
(Cumhuriyet Meclisi) in the Turkish area

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court; note--there is also a Supreme Court
in the Turkish area

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President George VASSILIOU
(since February 1988); note--Rauf R. DENKTASH has been president
of the Turkish area since 13 February 1975

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Greek Cypriot--Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL;
Communist Party), Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS,
Democratic Rally (DESY), Glafcos CLERIDES;
Democratic Party (DEKO), Spyros KYPRIANOU;
United Democratic Union of the Center (EDEK), Vassos LYSSARIDES;
Socialist Democratic Renewal Movement (ADESOK), Pavlos DINGLIS, chairman;
Liberal Party, Nikos ROLANDIS;

Turkish area--National Unity Party (UBP), Dervis EROGLU;
Communal Liberation Party (TKP), Mustafa AKINCI;
Republican Turkish Party (CTP), Ozker OZGUR;
New Cyprus Party (NKP), Alpay DURDURAN;
New Dawn Party (YDP), Ali Ozkan ALTINISHIK;
Free Democratic Party, Ismet KOTAK; note--CTP, TKP, and YDP joined
in the coalition Democratic Struggle Party (DMP) for the 22 April
1990 legislative election

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 14 February and 21 February 1988 (next
to be held February 1993);
results--George VASSILIOU 52%, Glafcos CLERIDES 48%;

House of Representatives--last held 8 December 1985 (next to
be held 19 May 1991);
results--DESY 33.56%, DEKO 27.65%, AKEL (Communist) 27.43%, EDEK 11.07%;
seats--(56 total) DESY 19, DEKO 16, AKEL (Communist) 15, EDEK 6;

Turkish Area: President--last held 22 April 1990 (next to be
held April 1995);
results--Rauf R. DENKTASH 66%, Ismail BOZKURT 32.05%;

Turkish Area: Assembly of the Republic--last held 6 May 1990
(next to be held May 1995);
results--UBP (conservative) about 55%, DMP NA%;
seats--(50 total) UBP (conservative) 34, CTP (Communist) 7,
TKP (center-right) 7, New Dawn Party 2

_#_Communists: about 12,000

_#_Other political or pressure groups: United Democratic Youth
Organization (EDON; Communist controlled); Union of Cyprus Farmers (EKA;
Communist controlled); Cyprus Farmers Union (PEK; pro-West); Pan-Cyprian
Labor Federation (PEO; Communist controlled); Confederation of Cypriot
Workers (SEK; pro-West); Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions
(Turk-Sen); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions (Dev-Is)

_#_Member of: C, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Michael E. SHERIFIS;
Chancery at 2211 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
462-5772; there is a Cypriot Consulate General in New York;

US--Ambassador Robert E. LAMB; Embassy at the corner of Therissos
Street and Dositheos Street, Nicosia (mailing address is FPO New York
09530); telephone [357] (2) 4651511

_#_Flag: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the
name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green
crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize
the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish
communities

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: These data are for the area controlled by the Republic of
Cyprus (information on the northern Turkish-Cypriot area is sparse).
The economy is small, diversified, and prosperous. Industry contributes
about 25% to GDP and employs 35% of the labor force, while the service
sector contributes about 55% to GDP and employs 40% of the labor force.
Rapid growth in exports of agricultural and manufactured products
and in tourism have played important roles in the average 6% rise in GDP
in recent years.

_#_GDP: $5.4 billion, per capita $7,960; real growth rate 5.5%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: below 2% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $178 million (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $770 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and
shoes;

partners--UK 23%, Greece 10%, Lebanon 9%, Saudi Arabia 4%

_#_Imports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and
feed grains, machinery;

partners--France 12%, UK 11%, Japan 11%, Italy 10%

_#_External debt: $2.2 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 6.5% (1988); accounts for
27% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 620,000 kW capacity; 1,770 million kWh produced,
2,530 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products,
tourism, wood products

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 7% of GDP and employs 22% of labor force;
major crops--potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, and citrus
fruits; vegetables and fruit provide 25% of export revenues

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $292
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $230 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $62 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $24 million

_#_Currency: Cypriot pound (plural--pounds) and in Turkish area,
Turkish lira (plural--liras); 1 Cypriot pound (5C) = 100 cents and
1 Turkish lira
(TL) = 100 kurus

_#_Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds (5C) per US$1--0.4325 (December
1990), 0.4572 (1990), 0.4933 (1989), 0.4663 (1988), 0.4807 (1987), 0.5167
(1986), 0.6095 (1985); in Turkish area, Turkish liras (TL) per
US$1--2,873.9 (December 1990), 2,608.6 (1990), 2,121.7 (1989), 1,422.3
(1988), 857.2 (1987), 674.5 (1986), 522.0 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 10,780 km total; 5,170 km bituminous surface treated;
5,610 km gravel, crushed stone, and earth

_#_Ports: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos

_#_Merchant marine: 1,169 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
19,310,063 GRT/34,338,028 DWT; 10 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo,
435 cargo, 76 refrigerated cargo, 20 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 48
container, 4 multifunction large load carrier, 111 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 specialized tanker, 8 liquefied gas, 17
chemical tanker, 30 combination ore/oil, 360 bulk, 2 vehicle carrier, 44
combination bulk; note--a flag of convenience registry; Cuba owns at
least 25 of these ships, USSR owns 52, and Yugoslavia owns 1

_#_Civil air: 11 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 13 total, 13 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: excellent in the area controlled by the Cypriot
Government (Greek area), moderately good in the Turkish-Cypriot
administered area; 210,000 telephones; stations--14 AM, 7 (7 repeaters)
FM, 2 (40 repeaters) TV; tropospheric scatter circuits to Greece and
Turkey; 3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations--INTELSAT, 1
Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, and EUTELSAT systems

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Greek area--Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG;
includes air and naval elements), Greek Cypriot Police; Turkish
area--Turkish Cypriot Security Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 182,426; 125,839 fit for
military service; 5,169 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $209 million, 5% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Czechoslovakia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 127,870 km2; land area: 125,460 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than New York State

_#_Land boundaries: 3,446 km total; Austria 548 km, Germany 815 km,
Hungary 676 km, Poland 1,309 km, USSR 98 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Disputes: Nagymaros Dam dispute with Hungary

_#_Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

_#_Terrain: mixture of hills and mountains separated by plains and
basins

_#_Natural resources: coal, timber, lignite, uranium, magnesite,
iron ore, copper, zinc

_#_Land use: arable land 40%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
13%; forest and woodland 37%; other 9%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: infrequent earthquakes; acid rain; water pollution;
air pollution

_#_Note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest
and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a
traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the
Danube in central Europe

_*_People
_#_Population: 15,724,940 (July 1991), growth rate 0.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 11 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 77 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Czechoslovak(s); adjective--Czechoslovak

_#_Ethnic divisions: Czech 62.9%, Slovak 31.8%, Hungarian 3.8%,
Polish 0.5%, German 0.3%, Ukrainian 0.3%, Russian 0.1%, other 0.3%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Orthodox 2%,
other 28%

_#_Language: Czech and Slovak (official), Hungarian

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970 est.)

_#_Labor force: 8,200,000 (1987); industry 36.9%, agriculture 12.3%,
construction, communications, and other 50.8% (1982)

_#_Organized labor: Czech and Slovak Confederation of Trade
Unions (CSKOS); new independent trade unions forming

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Czech and Slovak Federal Republic; note--on
23 March 1990 the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was renamed the
Czechoslovak Federative Republic; Slovak concerns about their
status in the federation prompted the Federal Assembly to approve the
name Czech and Slovak Federative Republic on 20 April 1990; on 23 April
1990 the name was modified to Czech and Slovak Federal Republic

_#_Type: federal republic in transition to a confederative republic

_#_Capital: Prague

_#_Administrative divisions: 2 republics (republiky,
singular--republika); Czech Republic (Ceska Republika),
Slovak Republic (Slovenska Republika)

_#_Independence: 28 October 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)

_#_Constitution: 11 July 1960; amended in 1968 and 1970; new
Czech, Slovak, and federal constitutions to be drafted in 1991-92

_#_Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes,
modified by Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative
acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code in
process of modification to bring it in line with Conference on
Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) obligations and to expunge
Marxist-Leninist legal theory

_#_National holiday: National Liberation Day, 9 May (1945) and
Founding of the Republic, 28 October (1918)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (Federalni
Shromazdeni) consists of an upper house or Chamber of Nations
(Snemovna Narodu) and a lower house or Chamber of the People
(Snemovna Lidu)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Vaclav HAVEL;
(interim president from 29 December 1989 and president since
5 July 1990);

Head of Government--Premier Marian CALFA (since
10 December 1989);
Deputy Premier Vaclav VALES (since 28 June 1990);
Deputy Premier Jiri DIENSTBIER (since 28 June 1990);
Deputy Premier Jozef MIKLOSKO (since 28 June 1990);
Deputy Premier Pavel RYCHETSKY (since 28 June 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Civic Forum, Vaclav KLAUS, chairman;
Public Against Violence, Fedor GAL, chairman;
Christian and Democratic Union, Vaclav BENDA;
Christian Democratic Movement, Jan CARNOGURSKY;
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSC), Pavol KANIS, chairman;
KSC toppled from power in November 1989 by massive antiregime
demonstrations, minority role in coalition government since 10 December
1989

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 5 July 1990 (next to be held July 1992);
results--Vaclav HAVEL elected by the Federal Assembly;

Federal Assembly--last held 8-9 June 1990 (next to be held June
1992);
results--Civic Forum/Public Against Violence coalition 46%, KSC 13.6%;
seats--(300 total) Civic Forum/Public Against Violence coalition 170,
KSC 47, Christian and Democratic Union/Christian Democratic
Movement 40, Czech, Slovak, Moravian, and Hungarian groups 43

_#_Communists: 760,000 party members (September 1990); about
1,000,000 members lost since November 1989

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Czechoslovak Socialist Party,
Czechoslovak People's Party, Czechoslovak Social Democracy, Slovak
Nationalist Party, Slovak Revival Party, Christian Democratic Party;
over 80 registered political groups fielded candidates in the 8-9 June
1990 legislative election

_#_Member of: BIS, CCC, CSCE, ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBEC,
ICAO, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN,
UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Rita KLIMOVA;
Chancery at 3900 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
363-6315 or 6316;

US--Ambassador Shirley Temple BLACK; Embassy at Trziste 15,
125 48, Prague 1 (mailing address is AMEM, Box 5630, APO New York
09213-5630); telephone [42] (2) 536641 through 536649

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue
isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Czechoslovakia is highly industrialized and has a
well-educated and skilled labor force. Its industry, transport, energy
sources, banking, and most other means of production are state owned. The
country is deficient, however, in energy and in many raw materials.
Moreover, its aging capital plant lags well behind West European
standards. Industry contributes almost 50% to GNP and construction
contributes 10%. About 95% of agricultural land is in collectives or
state farms. The centrally planned economy has been tightly linked in
trade (80%) to the USSR and Eastern Europe. Growth has been sluggish,
averaging less than 2% in the period 1982-89. GNP per capita is the
highest in Eastern Europe. As in the rest of Eastern Europe, the sweeping
political changes of 1989-90 have been disrupting normal channels of
supply and compounding the government's economic problems. Having eased
restrictions on private enterprise in 1990 and having adjusted some key
prices, Czechoslovakia is now implementing a broad two-year program
to make the difficult transition from a command to a market economy.
Inflation and unemployment are beginning to rise, albeit from
comparatively low levels.

_#_GNP: $120.3 billion, per capita $7,700; real growth rate - 2.9%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: officially 0.8% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $17.1 billion; expenditures $16.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $1.5 billion (1991)

_#_Exports: $14.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--machinery and equipment 42.7%; fuels, minerals,
and metals 16.4%; agricultural and forestry products 12.5%, other
28.4%;

partners--USSR, GDR, Poland, Hungary, FRG, Yugoslavia, Austria,
Bulgaria, Romania, US

_#_Imports: $14.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--machinery and equipment 38.6%;
fuels, minerals, and metals 24.1%; agricultural and forestry
products 16.4%; other 20.9%;

partners--USSR, GDR, Poland, Hungary, FRG, Yugoslavia, Austria,
Bulgaria, Romania, US

_#_External debt: $7.6 billion, hard currency indebtedness (September
1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 3.3% (1990 est.); accounts
for almost 50% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 23,000,000 kW capacity; 90,000 million kWh produced,
5,740 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: iron and steel, machinery and equipment, cement, sheet
glass, motor vehicles, armaments, chemicals, ceramics, wood, paper
products, footwear

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 7% of GNP (includes forestry); largely
self-sufficient in food production; diversified crop and livestock
production, including grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit, hogs,
cattle, and poultry; exporter of forest products

_#_Economic aid: donor--$4.2 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist
less developed countries (1954-89)

_#_Currency: koruna (plural--koruny); 1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru

_#_Exchange rates: koruny (Kcs) per US$1--27.65 (January 1991),
17.95 (1990), 15.05 (1989), 14.36 (1988), 13.69 (1987), 14.99 (1986),
17.14 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 13,103 km total; 12,855 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
102 km 1.520-meter broad gauge, 146 km 0.750- and 0.760-meter narrow
gauge; 2,861 km double track; 3,798 km electrified; government owned
(1988)

_#_Highways: 73,540 km total; including 517 km superhighway (1988)

_#_Inland waterways: 475 km (1988); the Elbe (Labe) is the principal
river

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 1,448 km; refined products, 1,500 km; natural
gas, 8,100 km

_#_Ports: maritime outlets are in Poland (Gdynia, Gdansk, Szczecin),
Yugoslavia (Rijeka, Koper), Germany (Hamburg, Rostock); principal river
ports are Prague on the Vltava, Decin on the Elbe (Labe),
Komarno on the Danube, Bratislava on the Danube

_#_Merchant marine: 24 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 363,002 GRT/
565,813 DWT; includes 15 cargo, 6 bulk

_#_Civil air: 47 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 158 total, 158 usable; 40 with permanent-surface
runways; 19 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 37 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 4 million telephones; 25% of households
have a telephone; stations--60 AM, 16 FM, 39 TV (11 Soviet TV
relays); 4.4 million TVs (1990)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Czechoslovak People's Army, Air and Air Defense Forces,
Civil Defense, Border Guard

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 4,066,419; 3,110,958 fit for
military service; 140,620 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: 26.9 billion koruny, NA% of GDP (1991);
note--conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading
results
_%_
_@_Denmark
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 43,070 km2; land area: 42,370 km2; includes the island
of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark, but
excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of
Massachusetts

_#_Land boundaries: 68 km with Germany

_#_Coastline: 3,379 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 4 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Disputes: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Iceland,
Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement
in the Rockall area); Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims
between Greenland and Jan Mayen

_#_Climate: temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and
cool summers

_#_Terrain: low and flat to gently rolling plains

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone

_#_Land use: arable land 61%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 6%; forest and woodland 12%; other 21%; includes irrigated 9%

_#_Environment: air and water pollution

_#_Note: controls Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

_*_People
_#_Population: 5,132,626 (July 1991), growth rate NEGL% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Dane(s); adjective--Danish

_#_Ethnic divisions: Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German

_#_Religion: Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 2%, other 7% (1988)

_#_Language: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect); small
German-speaking minority

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2,581,400; private services 36.4%; government services
30.2%; manufacturing and mining 20%; construction 6.8%; agriculture,
forestry, and fishing 5.9%; electricity/gas/water 0.7% (1990)

_#_Organized labor: 65% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Denmark

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Copenhagen

_#_Administrative divisions: metropolitan Denmark--14 counties (amter,
singular--amt) and 1 city* (stad); Arhus, Bornholm, Frederiksborg,
Fyn, Kobenhavn, Nordjylland, Ribe, Ringkobing, Roskilde,
Sonderjylland, Staden Kobenhavn*, Storstrom, Vejle, Vestsjaelland,
Viborg; note--see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland
which are part of the Danish realm and self-governing administrative
divisions

_#_Independence: became a constitutional monarchy in 1849

_#_Constitution: 5 June 1953

_#_Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative
acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

_#_Executive branch: monarch, heir apparent, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Folketing)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen MARGRETHE II (since January 1972);
Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the Queen (born 26
May 1968);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Poul SCHLUTER (since 10
September 1982)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic, Svend AUKEN;
Conservative, Poul SCHLUTER;
Liberal, Uffe ELLEMANN-JENSEN;
Socialist People's, Holger K. NIELSEN;
Progress Party, Pia KJAERSGAARD;
Center Democratic, Mimi Stilling JAKOBSEN;
Radical Liberal, Marianne JELVED;
Christian People's, Flemming KOTOED-SVENDSEN;
Left Socialist, Elizabeth BRUN-OLESEN;
Justice, Poul Gerhard KRISTIANSEN;
Socialist Workers Party, leader NA;
Communist Workers' Party (KAP), leader NA;
Common Course, Preben Moller HANSEN;
Green Party, Inger BORLEHMANN

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21

_#_Elections:

Parliament--last held 12 December 1990 (next to be held by
December 1994);
results--Social Democratic 37.4%, Conservative 16.0%, Liberal 15.8%,
Socialist People's 8.3%, Progress Party 6.4%, Center Democratic 5.1%,
Radical Liberal 3.5%, Christian People's 2.3%, other 5.2%;
seats--(175 total; includes 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe
Islands) Social Democratic 69, Conservative 30, Liberal 29,
Socialist People's 15, Progress Party 12, Center Democratic 9, Radical
Liberal 7, Christian People's 4

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM,
CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, OECD,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG,
UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Peter Pedersen DYVIG;
Chancery at 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 234-4300; there are Danish Consulates General at Chicago, Houston,
Los Angeles, and New York;

US--Ambassador Keith L. BROWN; Embassy at Dag Hammarskjolds Alle
24, 2100 Copenhagen O (mailing address is APO New York 09170);
telephone [45] (31) 42 31 44

_#_Flag: red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag;
the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side and that
design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was subsequently
adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and
Sweden

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: This modern economy features high-tech
agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry, extensive
government welfare measures, comfortable living standards, and high
dependence on foreign trade. The Danish economy is likely to maintain
its slow but steady improvement in 1991. GDP grew by 1.3% in 1990
and probably will grow by about 1.25% in 1991; unemployment is running
close to 10%. In 1990 Denmark had the lowest inflation rate in the EC,
a record trade surplus, and the first balance-of-payments surplus in
26 years. As the government prepares for the economic integration of
Europe during 1992, growth, investment, and competitiveness are expected
to improve, reducing unemployment, inflation, and debt.

_#_GDP: $78.0 billion, per capita $15,200; real growth rate 1.3%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.7% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 9.5% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $62.5 billion; expenditures $60 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA billion (1989)

_#_Exports: $34.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--meat and meat products, dairy products, transport
equipment, fish, chemicals, industrial machinery;

partners--EC 52.2% (Germany 19.5%, UK 10.9%, France 6.1%), Sweden
12.5%, Norway 5.8%, US 5.0%, Japan 4.3% (1990)

_#_Imports: $31.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--petroleum, machinery and equipment, chemicals, grain
and foodstuffs, textiles, paper;

partners--EC 57% (Germany 25.6%, UK 8.4%), Sweden 12.7%, US 6.7%
(1990)

_#_External debt: $45 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.1% (1989)

_#_Electricity: 11,215,000 kW capacity; 30,910 million kWh produced,
6,030 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and
clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and
other wood products

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GNP and employs 6% of labor force
(includes fishing and forestry); farm products account for nearly 15%
of export revenues; principal products--meat, dairy, grain, potatoes,
rape, sugar beets, fish; self-sufficient in food production

_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89) $5.9 billion

_#_Currency: Danish krone (plural--kroner); 1 Danish krone
(DKr) = 100 ore

_#_Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1--5.817 (January
(1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988), 6.840 (1987), 8.091
(1986), 10.596 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 2,675 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; Danish State
Railways (DSB) operate 2,025 km (1,999 km rail line and 121 km rail ferry
services); 188 km electrified, 730 km double tracked; 650 km of
standard-gauge lines are privately owned and operated

_#_Highways: 66,482 km total; 64,551 km concrete, bitumen, or stone
block; 1,931 km gravel, crushed stone, improved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 417 km

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 110 km; refined products, 578 km; natural
gas, 700 km

_#_Ports: Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia;
numerous secondary and minor ports

_#_Merchant marine: 281 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,888,064
GRT/7,131,949 DWT; includes 13 short-sea passenger, 85 cargo, 15
refrigerated cargo, 35 container, 40 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 railcar
carrier, 37 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 14 chemical
tanker, 22 liquefied gas, 4 livestock carrier, 14 bulk, 1 combination
bulk; note--Denmark has created its own internal register, called the
Danish International Ship Register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to
meet Danish manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience
within the Danish register; by the end of 1990, 258 of the Danish-flag
ships belonged to the DIS

_#_Civil air: 69 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 129 total, 112 usable; 27 with permanent-surface
runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 9 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: excellent telephone, telegraph, and broadcast
services; 4,509,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, 15 (39 repeaters) FM, 27
(25 repeaters) TV; 7 submarine coaxial cables; 1 earth station operating
in INTELSAT, 4 Atlantic Ocean, EUTELSAT, and domestic systems

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air
Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,369,684; 1,179,991 fit for
military service; 36,991 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $2.4 billion, 2% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Djibouti
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 22,000 km2; land area: 21,980 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Massachusetts

_#_Land boundaries: 517 km total; Ethiopia 459 km, Somalia 58 km

_#_Coastline: 314 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic
Somalis

_#_Climate: desert; torrid, dry

_#_Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains

_#_Natural resources: geothermal areas

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
9%; forest and woodland NEGL%; other 91%

_#_Environment: vast wasteland

_#_Note: strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes
and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia

_*_People
_#_Population: 346,311 (July 1991), growth rate 2.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 117 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 46 years male, 50 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Djiboutian(s); adjective--Djiboutian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Somali (Issa) 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab,
Ethiopian, and Italian 5%

_#_Religion: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

_#_Language: French and Arabic (both official); Somali and Afar widely
used

_#_Literacy: 48% (male 63%, female 34%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: NA, but a small number of semiskilled laborers at
the port and 3,000 railway workers; 52% of population of working age
(1983)

_#_Organized labor: 3,000 railway workers

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Djibouti

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Djibouti

_#_Administrative divisions: 5 districts (cercles, singular--cercle);
Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura

_#_Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France; formerly French Territory
of the Afars and Issas)

_#_Constitution: partial constitution ratified January 1981 by the
National Assembly

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system, traditional
practices, and Islamic law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Hassan GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June
1977);

Head of Government--Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30
September 1978)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--People's Progress
Assembly (RPP), Hassan GOULED Aptidon

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

_#_Elections:

President--last held 24 April 1987 (next to be held April 1993);
results--President Hassan GOULED Aptidon was reelected without
opposition;

National Assembly--last held 24 April 1987 (next to be
held April 1992); results--RPP is the only party; seats--(65 total)
RPP 65

_#_Communists: NA

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Roble OLHAYE; Chancery
(temporary) at the Djiboutian Permanent Mission to the UN; 866 United
Nations Plaza, Suite 4011, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 753-3163;

US--Ambassador Robert S. BARRETT IV; Embassy at Villa Plateau du
Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti (mailing address is B. P.
185, Djibouti); telephone [253] 35-39-95

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light
green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a
red five-pointed star in the center

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based on service activities connected with
the country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone in
northeast Africa. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port
for the region and an international transshipment and refueling center.
It has few natural resources and little industry. The nation is,
therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support its
balance of payments and to finance development projects. An unemployment
rate of over 40% continues to be a major problem. Per capita
consumption dropped an estimated 35% over the last five years with
a population growth rate of 6% (including immigrants and refugees) and a
recession.

_#_GDP: $340 million, $1,030 per capita; real growth rate - 1.0% (1989
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: over 40% (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $131 million; expenditures $154 million, including
capital expenditures of $25 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $190 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--hides and skins, coffee (in transit);

partners--Middle East 50%, Africa 43%, Western Europe 7%

_#_Imports: $311 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals,
petroleum products;

partners--EC 36%, Africa 21%, Asia 12%, US 2%

_#_External debt: $355 million (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0.1% (1989); manufacturing
accounts for 4% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 110,000 kW capacity; 190 million kWh produced,
580 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as
dairy products and mineral-water bottling

_#_Agriculture: accounts for only 5% of GDP; scanty rainfall limits
crop production to mostly fruit and vegetables; half of population
pastoral nomads herding goats, sheep, and camels; imports bulk of food
needs

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $39
million; Western (non-US) countries, including ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $1,035 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89),
$149 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $35 million

_#_Currency: Djiboutian franc (plural--francs); 1 Djiboutian franc
(DF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1--177.721 (fixed
rate since 1973)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: the Ethiopian-Djibouti railroad extends for 97 km
through Djibouti

_#_Highways: 2,900 km total; 280 km bituminous surface, 2,620 km
improved or unimproved earth (1982)

_#_Ports: Djibouti

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 13 total, 10 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system of urban facilities in Djibouti and
radio relay stations at outlying places; 7,300 telephones; stations--2
AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station and 1 ARABSAT;
1 submarine cable to Saudi Arabia

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (including Navy and Air Force), paramilitary
National Security Force, National Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 89,519; 52,093 fit for military
service

_#_Defense expenditures: $29.9 million, NA% of GDP (1986)
_%_
_@_Dominica
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 750 km2; land area: 750 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 148 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy
rainfall

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