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_#_Exchange rates: yuan (3) per US$1--5.31 (April 1991),
4.7832 (1990), 3.7651 (1989), 3.7221 (1988), 3.7221 (1987), 3.4528
(1986), 2.9367 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: total about 54,000 km common carrier lines; 53,400 km
1.435-meter standard gauge; 600 km 1.000-meter gauge;
all single track except 11,200 km double track on standard-gauge lines;
6,500 km electrified; 10,000 km industrial lines
(gauges range from 0.762 to 1.067 meters)

_#_Highways: about 980,000 km all types roads; 162,000 km paved
roads, 617,200 km gravel/improved earth roads, 200,800 km unimproved
natural earth roads and tracks

_#_Inland waterways: 138,600 km; about 109,800 km navigable

_#_Pipelines: crude, 6,500 km; refined products, 1,100 km; natural
gas, 6,200 km

_#_Ports: Dalian, Guangzhou, Huangpu, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai,
Xingang, Zhanjiang, Ningbo, Xiamen, Tanggu, Shantou

_#_Merchant marine: 1,421 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
14,010,317 GRT/21,223,170 DWT; includes 24 passenger, 42 short-sea
passenger, 19 passenger-cargo, 7 cargo/training, 776 cargo, 11
refrigerated cargo, 70 container, 17 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2
multifunction barge carrier, 181 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 9 chemical tanker, 250 bulk, 2 liquefied gas, 2 vehicle carrier,
9 combination bulk; note--China beneficially owns an additional 183 ships
(1,000 GRT or over) totaling approximately 5,921,000 DWT that operate
under Maltese and Liberian registry

_#_Airports: 330 total, 330 usable; 260 with permanent-surface
runways; fewer than 10 with runways over 3,500 m; 90 with runways
2,440-3,659 m; 200 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: domestic and international services are
increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed internal
system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and most townships;
11,000,000 telephones (December 1989); stations--274 AM, unknown FM,
202 (2,050 relays) TV; more than 215 million radio receivers; 75 million
TVs; satellite earth stations--4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 INMARSAT, and 55 domestic

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Chinese People's Liberation Army (CPLA), CPLA Navy
(including Marines), CPLA Air Force, Chinese People's Armed Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 335,382,062; 187,046,680 fit
for military service; 10,967,622 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GNP
_%_
_@_Christmas Island
(territory of Australia)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 135 km2; land area: 135 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 138.9 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

_#_Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

_#_Natural resources: phosphate

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: almost completely surrounded by a reef

_#_Note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

_*_People
_#_Population: 2,278 (July 1991), growth rate NA% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Christmas Islander(s), adjective--Christmas
Island

_#_Ethnic divisions: Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%;
no indigenous population

_#_Religion: Buddhist 36.1%, Muslim 25.4%, Christian 17.7% (Roman
Catholic 8.2%, Church of England 3.2%, Presbyterian 0.9%, Uniting Church
0.4%, Methodist 0.2%, Baptist 0.1%, and other 4.7%), none 12.7%, unknown
4.6%, other 3.5% (1981)

_#_Language: English

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: NA; all workers are employees of the Phosphate Mining
Company of Christmas Island, Ltd.

_#_Organized labor: NA

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territory of Christmas Island

_#_Type: territory of Australia

_#_Capital: The Settlement

_#_Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

_#_Independence: none (territory of Australia)

_#_Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958

_#_Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of
Australia

_#_National holiday: NA

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general of Australia,
administrator, Advisory Council (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: none

_#_Judicial branch: none

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Administrator A. D. TAYLOR (since NA)

_#_Communists: none

_#_Member of: none

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

_#_Flag: the flag of Australia is used

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Phosphate mining had been the only significant
economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government
closed the mine as no longer economically viable. Plans have been
under way to reopen the mine and also to build a casino and hotel to
develop tourism, with a possible opening date during the first half of
1992.

_#_GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: 0%

_#_Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital
expenditures of $NA

_#_Exports: $NA;

commodities--phosphate;

partners--Australia, NZ

_#_Imports: $NA;

commodities--NA;

partners--NA

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 11,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced,
13,170 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: phosphate extraction (near depletion)

_#_Agriculture: NA

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: Australian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Australian dollar
($A) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.2834 (January
1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905
(1986), 1.4269 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Ports: Flying Fish Cove

_#_Airports: 1 usable with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 4,000 radios (1982)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia
_%_
_@_Clipperton Island
(French possession)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 7 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 12 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 11.1 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claimed by Mexico

_#_Climate: tropical

_#_Terrain: coral atoll

_#_Natural resources: none

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other (coral) 100%

_#_Environment: reef about 8 km in circumference

_#_Note: located 1,120 km southwest of Mexico in the North Pacific
Ocean; also called Ile de la Passion

_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: French possession administered from French Polynesia
by High Commissioner of the Republic Jean MONTPEZAT; note--may have
become a dependency of French Polynesia

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: only economic activity is a tuna fishing station

_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(territory of Australia)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 14 km2; land area: 14 km2; main islands are West Island
and Home Island

_#_Comparative area: about 24 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 42.6 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: pleasant, modified by the southeast trade winds for about
nine months of the year; moderate rainfall

_#_Terrain: flat, low-lying coral atolls

_#_Natural resources: fish

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms
and other vegetation

_#_Note: located 1,070 km southwest of Sumatra (Indonesia) in the
Indian Ocean about halfway between Australia and Sri Lanka

_*_People
_#_Population: 684 (July 1991), growth rate NEGL% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Cocos Islander(s); adjective--Cocos Islander(s)

_#_Ethnic divisions: mostly Europeans on West Island and Cocos Malays
on Home Island

_#_Religion: almost all Sunni Muslims

_#_Language: English

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: none

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands

_#_Type: territory of Australia

_#_Capital: West Island

_#_Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

_#_Independence: none (territory of Australia)

_#_Constitution: Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955

_#_Legal system: based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

_#_National holiday: NA

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general of Australia,
administrator, chairman of the Islands Council

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Islands Council

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Administrator D. LAWRIE (since NA 1989);
Chairman of the Islands Council Parson Bin YAPAT (since NA)

_#_Suffrage: NA

_#_Elections: NA

_#_Member of: none

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

_#_Flag: the flag of Australia is used

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash
crop. Copra and fresh coconuts are the major export earners. Small local
gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but additional food
and most other necessities must be imported from Australia.

_#_GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment: NA

_#_Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital
expenditures of $NA

_#_Exports: $NA;

commodities--copra;

partners--Australia

_#_Imports: $NA;

commodities--foodstuffs;

partners--Australia

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 1,000 kW capacity; 2 million kWh produced, 2,980 kWh
per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: copra products

_#_Agriculture: gardens provide vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: Australian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Australian dollar
($A) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.2834 (January
1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905
(1986), 1.4269 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; lagoon anchorage only

_#_Airports: 1 airfield with permanent-surface runway, 1,220-2,439 m;
airport on West Island is a link in service between Australia and South
Africa

_#_Telecommunications: 250 radios (1985); linked by telephone,
telex, and facsimile communications via satellite with Australia;
stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia
_%_
_@_Colombia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,138,910 km2; land area: 1,038,700 km2; includes Isla
de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of
Montana

_#_Land boundaries: 7,408 km total; Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km,
Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900, Venezuela 2,050 km

_#_Coastline: 3,208 km total (1,448 km North Pacific Ocean;
1,760 Caribbean Sea)

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specified;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the
Gulf of Venezuela; territorial dispute with Nicaragua over Archipelago
de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

_#_Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in
highlands

_#_Terrain: mixture of flat coastal lowlands, plains in east, central
highlands, some high mountains

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel,
gold, copper, emeralds

_#_Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures
29%; forest and woodland 49%; other 16%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions;
deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; periodic droughts

_#_Note: only South American country with coastlines on both
North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

_*_People
_#_Population: 33,777,550 (July 1991), growth rate 2.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 37 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Colombian(s); adjective--Colombian

_#_Ethnic divisions: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%,
mixed black-Indian 3%, Indian 1%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%

_#_Language: Spanish

_#_Literacy: 87% (male 88%, female 86%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 11,000,000 (1986); services 53%, agriculture 26%,
industry 21% (1981)

_#_Organized labor: 1,400,000 members (1987), about 12% of labor
force; the Communist-backed Unitary Workers Central or CUT is the largest
labor organization, with about 725,000 members (including all affiliate
unions)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Colombia

_#_Type: republic; executive branch dominates government structure

_#_Capital: Bogota

_#_Administrative divisions: 23 departments (departamentos,
singular--departamento), 5 commissariats* (comisarias,
singular--comisaria), and 4 intendancies** (intendencias,
singular--intendencia);
Amazonas*, Antioquia, Arauca**, Atlantico, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas,
Caqueta, Casanare**, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca,
Guainia*, Guaviare*, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino,
Norte de Santander, Putumayo**, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y
Providencia**, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes*,
Vichada*; note--there may be a new special district (distrito especial)
named Bogota; the Constitution of 5 July 1991 states that the
commissariats and intendancies are to become full departments and a
capital district (distrito capital) of Santa Fe de Bogota is to be
established by 1997

_#_Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

_#_Constitution: 5 July 1991

_#_Legal system: based on Spanish law; judicial review of legislative
acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

_#_Executive branch: president, presidential designate, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of a
nationally elected upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a regionally
elected lower chamber or Chamber of Representatives (Camara de
Representantes)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de
Justica)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Cesar
GAVIRIA Trujillo (since 7 August 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Party (PL), Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo, president, and
Alfonso LOPEZ Michelsen, party head;
Social Conservative Party (PCS), Misael PASTRANA Borrero;
National Salvation Movement (MSN), Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado;
Democratic Alliance (AD) is headed by 19th of April Movement (M-19)
leader Antonio NAVARRO Wolf, coalition of small leftist parties and
dissident liberals and conservatives;
Patriotic Union (UP), is a legal political party formed by
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and Colombian
Communist Party (PCC), Carlos ROMERO

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 27 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994);
results--Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo (Liberal) 47%, Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado
(National Salvation Movement) 24%, Antonio NAVARRO Wolff (M-19) 13%,
Rodrigo LLOREDA (Conservative) 12%;

Senate--last held 11 March 1990 (next to be held 27 October
1991);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(114 total) Liberal 72, Conservative 40, UP 1, vacant 1;

Chamber of Representatives last held 11 March 1990 (next to be
held 27 October 1991); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(199 total) Liberal 122, Conservative 68, UP 3, M-19 1, other 5;
note--on 5 July 1991 the new Constitution dissolved Congress and
replaced it with a multiparty 36-member legislative commission until
a new congress, to be elected on 27 October 1991, takes office on 1
December 1991

_#_Communists: 18,000 members (est.), including Communist Party Youth
Organization (JUCO)

_#_Other political or pressure groups: three insurgent groups are
active in Colombia--Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC),
led by Manuel MARULANDA and Alfonso CANO; National Liberation Army (ELN),
led by Manuel PEREZ; and dissidents of the recently demobilized People's
Liberation Army (EPL) led by Francisco CARABALLO

_#_Member of: AG, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS,
NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jaime GARCIA Parra; Chancery
at 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-8338;
there are Colombian Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico), and
Consulates in Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Ft. Lauderdale, Los Angeles,
San Diego, and Tampa;

US--Ambassador-designate Morris D. BUSBY; Embassy at Calle 38,
No.8-61, Bogota (mailing address is P. O. Box A. A. 3831, Bogota or
APO Miami 34038); telephone [57] (1) 285-1300 or 1688; there is a US
Consulate in Barranquilla

_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue,
and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador which is longer and bears the
Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Economic development has slowed gradually since 1986, but
growth rates remain high by Latin American standards. Conservative
economic policies have kept inflation and unemployment near 30% and 10%,
respectively. The rapid development of oil, coal, and other
nontraditional industries over the past four years has helped to offset
the decline in coffee prices--Colombia's major export. The collapse of
the International Coffee Agreement in the summer of 1989, a troublesome
rural insurgency, and drug-related violence dampen prospects for future
growth.

_#_GDP: $43.0 billion, per capita $1,300; real growth rate 3.7% (1990
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 32.4% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 10.4% (urban areas 1990) (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $4.39 billion; current expenditures $3.93
billion, capital expenditures $1.03 billion (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $6.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--coffee 24%, petroleum, coal, bananas, fresh cut
flowers;

partners--US 36%, EC 21%, Japan 5%, Netherlands 4%, Sweden 3%

_#_Imports: $5.0 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--industrial equipment, transportation equipment,
foodstuffs, chemicals, paper products;

partners--US 34%, EC 16%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 3%, Japan 3%

_#_External debt: $16.7 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5.0% (1990 est.); accounts
for 25% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 9,435,000 kW capacity; 36,071 million kWh produced,
1,090 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear,
beverages, chemicals, metal products, cement; mining--gold, coal,
emeralds, iron, nickel, silver, salt

_#_Agriculture: growth rate 4.9% (1990); accounts for 22% of GDP;
crops make up two-thirds and livestock one-third of agricultural output;
climate and soils permit a wide variety of crops, such as coffee,
rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseeds, vegetables;
forest products and shrimp farming are becoming more important

_#_Illicit drugs: major illicit producer of cannabis and coca; key
supplier of marijuana and cocaine to the US and other international drug
markets; drug production and trafficking accounts for an estimated 4%
of GDP and 28% of foreign exchange earnings

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.6
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $3.1 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $399 million

_#_Currency: Colombian peso (plural--pesos);
1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos

_#_Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1--574.09 (January
1991), 502.24 (1990), 382.57 (1989), 299.17 (1988), 242.61 (1987), 194.26
(1986), 142.31 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,386 km; 3,236 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track
(2,611 km in use), 150 km 1.435-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 75,450 km total; 9,350 km paved, 66,100 km earth and
gravel surfaces

_#_Inland waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by river boats

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 3,585 km; refined products, 1,350 km;
natural gas, 830 km; natural gas liquids, 125 km

_#_Ports: Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Covenas, San Andres,
Santa Marta, Tumaco

_#_Merchant marine: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 330,316
GRT/484,351 DWT; includes 23 cargo, 1 chemical tanker, 3 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker, 8 bulk; note--2 naval tankers are
sometimes used commercially

_#_Civil air: 106 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 1,165 total, 1,045 usable; 69 with permanent-surface
runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
192 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: nationwide radio relay system; 1,890,000
telephones; stations--413 AM, no FM, 33 TV, 28 shortwave 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations with 2 antennas and 11 domestic satellite
stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional),
Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Colombia), National Police (Policia Nacional)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 8,998,759; 6,102,745 fit for
military service; 353,122 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $892 million, 2.2% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Comoros
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 2,170 km2; land area: 2,170 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than 12 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 340 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claims French-administered Mayotte

_#_Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

_#_Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains
to low hills

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land 35%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and
pastures 7%; forest and woodland 16%; other 34%

_#_Environment: soil degradation and erosion; deforestation;
cyclones possible during rainy season

_#_Note: important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

_*_People
_#_Population: 476,678 (July 1991), growth rate 3.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 87 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 59 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Comoran(s); adjective--Comoran

_#_Ethnic divisions: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14%

_#_Language: Shaafi Islam (a Swahili dialect), Malagasy, French

_#_Literacy: 48% (male 56%, female 40%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)

_#_Labor force: 140,000 (1982); agriculture 80%, government 3%; 51% of
population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: NA

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros

_#_Type: independent republic

_#_Capital: Moroni

_#_Administrative divisions: 3 islands; Anjouan, Grande Comore,
Moheli; note--there may also be 4 municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni,
Moroni, and Mutsamudu

_#_Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

_#_Constitution: 1 October 1978, amended October 1982 and January 1985

_#_Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Federal Assembly (Assemblee
Federale)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Said
Mohamed DJOHAR (since 11 March 1990)

_#_Political parties:
Comoran Union for Progress (Udzima), Said Mohamed DJOHAR, president;
National Union for Democracy (UNDC), Mohamed TAKI

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 11 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996);
results--Said Mohamed DJOHAR (Udzima) 55%; Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim
(UNDC) 45%;

Federal Assembly--last held 22 March 1987 (next to be held March
1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(42 total) Udzima 42

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Amini Ali MOUMIN; Chancery
(temporary) at the Comoran Permanent Mission to the UN, 336 East 45th
Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 972-8010;

US--Ambassador Kenneth N. PELTIER; Embassy at address NA, Moroni
(mailing address B. P. 1318, Moroni); telephone 73-22-03, 73-29-22

_#_Flag: green with a white crescent placed diagonally (closed side of
the crescent points to the upper hoist-side corner of the flag); there
are four white five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of
the crescent; the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional
symbols of Islam; the four stars represent the four main islands of the
archipelago--Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (which is a territorial
collectivity of France, but claimed by the Comoros)

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made
up of several islands that have poor transportation links, a young and
rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low
educational level of the labor force contributes to a low level of
economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign
grants and technical assistance. Agriculture, including fishing and
forestry, is the leading sector of the economy. It contributes about 40%
to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports.
The country is not self-sufficient in food production, and rice, the main
staple, accounts for 90% of imports. During the period 1982-86 the
industrial sector grew at an annual average rate of 5.3%, but its
contribution to GDP was only 5% in 1988. Despite major investment in the
tourist industry, which accounts for about 25% of GDP, growth has
stagnated since 1983. A sluggish growth rate of 1.5% during 1985-90 has
led to large budget deficits, declining incomes, and balance-of-payments
difficulties.

_#_GDP: $245 million, per capita $530; real growth rate 1.5% (1990
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: over 16% (1988 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $88 million; expenditures $92 million,
including capital expenditures of $13 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $16 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--vanilla, cloves, perfume oil, copra;

partners--US 53%, France 41%, Africa 4%, FRG 2% (1988)

_#_Imports: $41 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--rice and other foodstuffs, cement, petroleum products,
consumer goods;

partners--Europe 62% (France 22%, other 40%), Africa 5%, Pakistan,
China (1988)

_#_External debt: $242 million (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3.4% (1988 est.); accounts
for 5% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 16,000 kW capacity; 24 million kWh produced,
55 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry,
construction materials

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; most of population works in
subsistence agriculture and fishing; plantations produce cash crops for
export--vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, and copra; principal food
crops--coconuts, bananas, cassava; world's leading producer of essence of
ylang-ylang (for perfumes) and second-largest producer of vanilla; large
net food importer

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-89), $10
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $406 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $22 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $18 million

_#_Currency: Comoran franc (plural--francs); 1 Comoran franc
(CF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Comoran francs (CF) per US$1--256.54 (January
1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30
(1986), 449.26 (1985); note--linked to the French franc at 50 to 1 French
franc

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 750 km total; about 210 km bituminous, remainder crushed
stone or gravel

_#_Ports: Mutsamudu, Moroni

_#_Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: sparse system of radio relay and high-frequency
radio communication stations for interisland and external communications
to Madagascar and Reunion; over 1,800 telephones; stations--2 AM, 1 FM,
1 TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Comoran Defense Force (FCD), Federal Gendarmerie (GFC)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 101,332; 60,592 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 3% of GDP (1981)
_%_
_@_Congo
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 342,000 km2; land area: 341,500 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana

_#_Land boundaries: 5,504 km total; Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km,
Central African Republic 467 km, Gabon 1,903 km, Zaire 2,410 km

_#_Coastline: 169 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

_#_Disputes: long section with Zaire along the Congo River is
indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has been made)

_#_Climate: tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June
to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly
enervating climate astride the Equator

_#_Terrain: coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern
basin

_#_Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium,
copper, phosphates, natural gas

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 29%; forest and woodland 62%; other 7%

_#_Environment: deforestation; about 70% of the population lives in
Brazzaville, Pointe Noire, or along the railroad between them

_*_People
_#_Population: 2,309,444 (July 1991), growth rate 3.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 108 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 56 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Congolese (sing., pl.); adjective--Congolese
or Congo

_#_Ethnic divisions: about 15 ethnic groups divided into some 75
tribes, almost all Bantu; most important ethnic groups are Kongo (48%) in
the south, Sangha (20%) and M'Bochi (12%) in the north, Teke (17%) in the
center; about 8,500 Europeans, mostly French

_#_Religion: Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%

_#_Language: French (official); many African languages with Lingala
and Kikongo most widely used

_#_Literacy: 57% (male 70%, female 44%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 79,100 wage earners; agriculture 75%, commerce,
industry, and government 25%; 51% of population of working age; 40% of
population economically active (1985)

_#_Organized labor: 20% of labor force (1979 est.)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of the Congo

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Brazzaville

_#_Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regions,
singular--region); Bouenza, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala,
Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha; note--there may be a new capital district
of Brazzaville

_#_Independence: 15 August 1960 (from France; formerly
Congo/Brazzaville)

_#_Constitution: 8 July 1979, currently being modified

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

_#_National holiday: National Day, 15 August (1960)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly
(Assemblee Nationale Populaire)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 8 February
1979);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Brig. Gen. Louis-Sylvain
GOMA (since 9 January 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Congolese Labor Party
(PCT), President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, leader; note--multiparty system
legalized, with over 50 parties established

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 26-31 July 1989 (next to be held July 1994);
results--President SASSOU-NGUESSO unanimously reelected leader of the
PCT by the Party Congress, which automatically made him president;

People's National Assembly--last held 24 September 1989 (next
to be held NA 1994); results--PCT was the only party;
seats--(153 total) single list of candidates nominated by the PCT

_#_Communists: unknown number of Communists and sympathizers

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Union of Congolese Socialist
Youth (UJSC), Congolese Trade Union Congress (CSC), Revolutionary Union
of Congolese Women (URFC), General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students
(UGEEC)

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77,
GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Roger ISSOMBO; Chancery at
4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington DC 20011; telephone (202) 726-5500;

US--Ambassador James Daniel PHILLIPS; Embassy at Avenue
Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville (mailing address is B. P. 1015, Brazzaville,
or Box C, APO New York 09662-0006); telephone (242) 83-20-70 or 83-26-24

_#_Flag: red with the national emblem in the upper hoist-side corner;
the emblem includes a yellow five-pointed star above a crossed hoe and
hammer (like the hammer and sickle design) in yellow, flanked by two
curved green palm branches; uses the popular pan-African colors of
Ethiopia

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the
economy, providing about two-thirds of government revenues and
exports. In the early 1980s rapidly rising oil revenues enabled Congo
to finance large-scale development projects with growth averaging 5%
annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. The world decline in
oil prices, however, has forced the government to launch an austerity
program to cope with declining receipts and mounting foreign debts.

_#_GDP: $2.26 billion, per capita $1,050; real growth rate 0.6%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.6% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $522 million; expenditures $767 million,
including capital expenditures of $141 million (1989)

_#_Exports: $751 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--crude petroleum 72%, lumber, plywood, coffee, cocoa,
sugar, diamonds;

partners--US, France, other EC

_#_Imports: $564 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--foodstuffs, consumer goods, intermediate manufactures,
capital equipment;

partners--France, Italy, other EC, US, FRG, Spain, Japan, Brazil

_#_External debt: $4.5 billion (December 1988)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.2% (1989); accounts for
33% of GDP, including petroleum

_#_Electricity: 133,000 kW capacity; 300 million kWh produced,
130 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: crude oil, cement, sawmills, brewery, sugar mill, palm
oil, soap, cigarettes

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP (including fishing and
forestry); cassava accounts for 90% of food output; other crops--rice,
corn, peanuts, vegetables; cash crops include coffee and cocoa; forest
products important export earner; imports over 90% of food needs

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $60
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $15 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $338 million

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 797 km, 1.067-meter gauge, single track (includes 285 km
that are privately owned)

_#_Highways: 12,000 km total; 560 km bituminous surface treated;
850 km gravel, laterite; 5,350 km improved earth; 5,240 km unimproved
roads

_#_Inland waterways: the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide
1,120 km of commercially navigable water transport; the rest are used for
local traffic only

_#_Pipelines: crude oil 25 km

_#_Ports: Pointe-Noire (ocean port), Brazzaville (river port)

_#_Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 50 total, 45 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 18 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: services adequate for government use; primary
network is composed of radio relay routes and coaxial cables; key centers
are Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; 18,100 telephones;
stations--3 AM, 1 FM, 4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, paramilitary
National People's Militia, National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 509,040; 258,861 fit for
military service; 24,068 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $99 million, 4.6% of GDP (1987 est.)
_%_
_@_Cook Islands
(free association with New Zealand)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 240 km2; land area: 240 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 1.3 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 120 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or minimum of 200
nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

_#_Terrain: low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in
south

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops 22%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 74%

_#_Environment: subject to typhoons from November to March

_#_Note: located 4,500 km south of Hawaii in the South Pacific Ocean

_*_People
_#_Population: 17,882 (July 1991), growth rate 0.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Cook Islander(s); adjective--Cook Islander

_#_Ethnic divisions: Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and
European 7.7%, Polynesian and other 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%

_#_Religion: Christian, majority of populace members of Cook Islands
Christian Church

_#_Language: English

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: 5,810; agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%,
industry 15%, and other 4% (1981)

_#_Organized labor: NA

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: self-governing in free association with New Zealand; Cook
Islands fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains
responsibility for external affairs, in consultation with the Cook
Islands

_#_Capital: Avarua

_#_Administrative divisions: none

_#_Independence: became self-governing in free association with
New Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to
full independence by unilateral action

_#_Constitution: 4 August 1965

_#_National holiday: NA

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, representative of the UK,
representative of New Zealand, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament; note--the House of
Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters, but has no legislative
powers

_#_Judicial branch: High Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
Representative of the UK Sir Tangaroa TANGAROA (since NA);
Representative of New Zealand Adrian SINCOCK (since NA);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Geoffrey HENRY
(since NA February 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Inatio AKARURU (since NA
February 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY;
Democratic Tumu Party, Vincent INGRAM;
Democratic Party, Dr. Vincent Pupuke ROBATI;
Cook Islands Labor Party, Rena JONASSEN;
Cook Islands People's Party, Sadaraka SADARAKA

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

_#_Elections:

Parliament--last held 19 January 1989 (next to be held by
January 1994); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(24 total) Cook Islands Party 12, Democratic
Tumu Party 2, opposition coalition (including Democratic Party) 9,
independent 1

_#_Member of: AsDB, ESCAP (associate), FAO, ICAO, IOC, SPC,
SPF, UNESCO, WHO

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing in free association
with New Zealand)

_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island)
centered in the outer half of the flag

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Agriculture provides the economic base. The major export
earners are fruit, copra, and clothing. Manufacturing activities are
limited to a fruit-processing plant and several clothing factories.
Economic development is hindered by the isolation of the islands from
foreign markets and a lack of natural resources and good transportation
links. A large trade deficit is annually made up for by remittances from
emigrants and from foreign aid. Current economic development plans call
for exploiting the tourism potential and expanding the fishing industry.

_#_GDP: $40.0 million, per capita $2,200 (1988 est.); real growth rate
5.3% (1986-88 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.0% (1988)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $33.8 million; expenditures $34.4 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $4.0 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--copra, fresh and canned fruit, clothing;

partners--NZ 80%, Japan

_#_Imports: $38.7 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber;

partners--NZ 49%, Japan, Australia, US

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 14,000 kW capacity; 21 million kWh produced,
1,170 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: fruit processing, tourism

_#_Agriculture: export crops--copra, citrus fruits, pineapples,
tomatoes, bananas; subsistence crops--yams, taro

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $128 million

_#_Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural--dollars); 1 New Zealand
dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1--1.6798 (January
1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088
(1986), 2.0064 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 187 km total (1980); 35 km paved, 35 km gravel, 84 km
improved earth, 33 km unimproved earth

_#_Ports: Avatiu

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 7 total, 6 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: stations--2 AM, no FM, no TV; 10,000 radio
receivers; 2,052 telephones; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
_%_
_@_Coral Sea Islands
(territory of Australia)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: undetermined; includes numerous small islands and reefs
scattered over a sea area of about 1 million km2, with Willis Islets the
most important

_#_Comparative area: undetermined

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 3,095 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: tropical

_#_Terrain: sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other, mostly grass or scrub cover 100%;
Lihou Reef Reserve and Coringa-Herald Reserve were declared National
Nature Reserves on 3 August 1982

_#_Environment: subject to occasional tropical cyclones; no permanent
fresh water; important nesting area for birds and turtles

_#_Note: the islands are located just off the northeast coast of
Australia in the Coral Sea

_*_People
_#_Population: 3 meteorologists (1991)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Coral Sea Islands Territory

_#_Type: territory of Australia administered by the Minister for
Arts, Sport, the Environment, Tourism, and Territories Roslyn
KELLY

_#_Flag: the flag of Australia is used

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity

_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorages only

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly
by the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities
of visitors
_%_
_@_Costa Rica
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 51,100 km2; land area: 50,660 km2; includes Isla del
Coco

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

_#_Land boundaries: 639 km total; Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

_#_Coastline: 1,290 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season
(May to November)

_#_Terrain: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains

_#_Natural resources: hydropower potential

_#_Land use: arable land 6%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures
45%; forest and woodland 34%; other 8%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: subject to occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along
Atlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season;
active volcanoes; deforestation; soil erosion

_*_People
_#_Population: 3,111,403 (July 1991), growth rate 2.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 15 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.2 children born/woman (1991)

Book of the day: