Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Books, poems, drama…

Part 6 out of 39

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 3.3 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

_#_Elections:

Chairman of the State Council--last held 1 August 1990
(next to be held May 1991);
results--Zhelyo ZHELEV was elected by the National Assembly;

National Assembly--last held 10 and 17 June 1990 (next to be held
in autumn 1991);
results--BSP 48%, UDF 32%;
seats--(400 total) BSP 211, UDF 144, Rights and Freedoms Movement
23, Agrarian Party 16, Nationalist parties 3, independents and other 3

_#_Communists: Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), formerly
Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP), 501,793 members

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Ecoglasnost; Podkrepa
(Support) Labor Confederation; Fatherland Union; Bulgarian
Democratic Youth (formerly Communist Youth Union); Confederation
of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria (KNSB);
Committee for Defense of National Interests;
Peasant Youth League; National Coalition of Extraparliamentary
Political Forces;
numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various
agendas

_#_Member of: BIS, CCC, CSCE, ECE, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBEC,
ICAO, IIB, ILO, IMO, INMARSAT, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ognyan PISHEV;
Chancery at 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
387-7969;

US--Ambassador H. Kenneth HILL; Embassy at 1 Alexander Stamboliski
Boulevard, Sofia (mailing address is APO New York 09213-5740);
telephone [359] (2) 88-48-01 through 05

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red;
the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has
been removed--it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat ears
below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the dates 681
(first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation from Nazi
control)

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Growth in the lackluster Bulgarian economy fell to the
2% annual level in the 1980s. By 1990 Sofia's foreign debt had
skyrocketed to over $10 billion--giving a debt service ratio of more
than 40% of hard currency earnings and leading the regime to declare
a moratorium on its hard currency payments. The post-Zhivkov regime
faces major problems of renovating an aging industrial plant;
coping with worsening energy, food, and consumer goods shortages;
keeping abreast of rapidly unfolding technological developments;
investing in additional energy capacity (the portion of electric
power from nuclear energy reached over one-third in 1990); and
motivating workers, in part by giving them a share in the earnings of
their enterprises. A major decree of January 1989 summarized and
extended the government's economic restructuring efforts, which include
a partial decentralization of controls over production decisions and
foreign trade. In October 1990 the Lukanov government proposed an
economic reform program based on a US Chamber of Commerce study. It was
never instituted because of a political stalemate between the BSP and the
UDF. The new Popov government launched a similar reform program in
January 1991, but full implementation has been slowed by continuing
political disputes.

_#_GNP: $47.3 billion, per capita $5,300; real growth rate - 6.0%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 100% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 2% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $26 billion; expenditures $28 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA billion (1988)

_#_Exports: $16.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--machinery and equipment 60.5%; agricultural products
14.7%; manufactured consumer goods 10.6%; fuels, minerals, raw materials,
and metals 8.5%; other 5.7%;

partners--Communist countries 82.5% (USSR 61%, GDR 5.5%,
Czechoslovakia 4.9%); developed countries 6.8% (FRG 1.2%, Greece 1.0%);
less developed countries 10.7% (Libya 3.5%, Iraq 2.9%)

_#_Imports: $15.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--fuels, minerals, and raw materials 45.2%; machinery
and equipment 39.8%; manufactured consumer goods 4.6%; agricultural
products 3.8%; other 6.6%;

partners--Communist countries 80.5% (USSR 57.5%, GDR 5.7%),
developed countries 15.1% (FRG 4.8%, Austria 1.6%); less developed
countries 4.4% (Libya 1.0%, Brazil 0.9%)

_#_External debt: $10 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 10.7% (1990); accounts for
about 50% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 11,500,000 kW capacity; 45,000 million kWh produced,
5,040 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: machine and metal building,food processing, chemicals,
textiles, building materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP; climate and soil conditions
support livestock raising and the growing of various grain crops,
oilseeds, vegetables, fruits and tobacco; more than one-third of the
arable land devoted to grain; world's fourth-largest tobacco exporter;
surplus food producer

_#_Economic aid: donor--$1.6 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist
less developed countries (1956-89)

_#_Currency: lev (plural--leva); 1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki

_#_Exchange rates: leva (Lv) per US$1--16.13 (March 1991),
0.7446 (November 1990), 0.84 (1989), 0.82 (1988), 0.90 (1987), 0.95
(1986), 1.03 (1985); note--floating exchange rate since February 1990

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 4,300 km total, all government owned (1987); 4,055 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, 245 km narrow gauge; 917 km double track;
2,510 km electrified

_#_Highways: 36,908 km total; 33,535 km hard surface (including 242 km
superhighways); 3,373 km earth roads (1987)

_#_Inland waterways: 470 km (1987)

_#_Pipelines: crude, 193 km; refined product, 418 km; natural gas,
1,400 km (1986)

_#_Ports: Burgas, Varna, Varna West; river ports are Ruse, Vidin, and
Lom on the Danube

_#_Merchant marine: 112 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 1,227,817
GRT/1,860,294 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 33 cargo, 2 container,
1 passenger-cargo training, 6 roll-on/roll-off, 18 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical carrier, 2 railcar carrier, 47 bulk;
Bulgaria owns 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 51,035 DWT operating
under Liberian registry

_#_Civil air: 86 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 380 total, 380 usable; about 120 with permanent-surface
runways; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 2.5 million telephones; direct dialing to 36
countries; phone density is 25 phones per 100 persons; 67% of Sofia
households now have a phone (November 1988); stations--21 AM, 16 FM,
and 19 TV, with 1 Soviet TV relay in Sofia; 2.1 million TV sets (1990);
92% of country receives No. 1 television program (May 1990)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Bulgarian People's Army, Bulgarian Navy, Air and Air
Defense Forces, Frontier Troops, Civil Defense

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,183,539; 1,826,992 fit for
military service; 67,836 reach military age (19) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: 1.615 billion leva, NA% of GDP (1990);
note--conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate would produce misleading results
_%_
_@_Burkina
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 274,200 km2; land area: 273,800 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Colorado

_#_Land boundaries: 3,192 km total; Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km,
Ivory Coast 584 km, Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Disputes: the disputed international boundary between Burkina and
Mali was submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October
1983 and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both
sides agreed to accept; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary
demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger

_#_Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

_#_Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west
and southeast

_#_Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits
of gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc,
silver

_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 37%; forest and woodland 26%; other 27%, includes irrigated
NEGL%

_#_Environment: recent droughts and desertification severely affecting
marginal agricultural activities, population distribution, economy;
overgrazing; deforestation

_#_Note: landlocked

_*_People
_#_Population: 9,359,889 (July 1991), growth rate 3.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 50 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 119 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 53 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Burkinabe; adjective--Burkinabe

_#_Ethnic divisions: more than 50 tribes; principal tribe is Mossi
(about 2.5 million); other important groups are Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi,
Bobo, Mande, and Fulani

_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs about 65%, Muslim 25%,
Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) 10%

_#_Language: French (official); tribal languages belong to Sudanic
family, spoken by 90% of the population

_#_Literacy: 18% (male 28%, female 9%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 3,300,000 residents; 30,000 are wage earners;
agriculture 82%, industry 13%, commerce, services, and government 5%;
20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for
seasonal employment (1984); 44% of population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: four principal trade union groups represent less
than 1% of population

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Burkina Faso

_#_Type: military; established by coup on 4 August 1983

_#_Capital: Ouagadougou

_#_Administrative divisions: 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba,
Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Kadiogo,
Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri,
Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno,
Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo

_#_Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France; formerly Upper Volta)

_#_Constitution: none; constitution of 27 November 1977 was abolished
following coup of 25 November 1980; constitutional referendum scheduled
for June 1991

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)

_#_Executive branch: chairman of the Popular Front, Council of
Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale) was dissolved on 25 November 1980

_#_Judicial branch: Appeals Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--Chairman of the
Popular Front Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)

_#_Political parties and leaders: all political parties banned
following November 1980 coup

_#_Suffrage: none

_#_Elections: the National Assembly was dissolved 25 November 1980;
presidential elections are scheduled for 3 November 1991 and legislative
elections for 8 December 1991

_#_Communists: small Communist party front group; some sympathizers

_#_Other political or pressure groups: committees for the defense of
the revolution, watchdog/political action groups throughout the country
in both organizations and communities

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO,
FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Paul Desire KABORE;
Chancery at 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 332-5577 or 6895;

US--Ambassador Edward P. BRYNN; Embassy at Avenue Raoul Follerau,
Ouagadougou (mailing address is 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou);
telephone [226] 30-67-23 through 25 and [226] 33-34-22

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a
yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African
colors of Ethiopia

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina
has a high population density, few natural resources, and relatively
infertile soil. Economic development is hindered by a poor communications
network within a landlocked country. Agriculture provides about 40% of
GDP and is entirely of a subsistence nature. Industry, dominated by
unprofitable government-controlled corporations, accounts for about
15% of GDP.

_#_GDP: $1.75 billion, per capita $205 (1988); real growth rate 3%
(1989)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 0.5% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $275 million; expenditures $287 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

_#_Exports: $262 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--oilseeds, cotton, live animals, gold;

partners--EC 42% (France 30%, other 12%), Taiwan 17%,
Ivory Coast 15% (1985)

_#_Imports: $619 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--grain, dairy products, petroleum, machinery;

partners--EC 37% (France 23%, other 14%), Africa 31%, US 15%
(1985)

_#_External debt: $962 million (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5.7% (1990est.), accounts for
about 15%
of GDP (1988)

_#_Electricity: 121,000 kW capacity; 320 million kWh produced, 37
kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing,
soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 40% of GDP; cash crops--peanuts,
shea nuts, sesame, cotton; food crops--sorghum, millet, corn, rice;
livestock; not self-sufficient in food grains

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $294
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.7 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $113 million

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1--256.54 (January 1991),
272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30
(1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 620 km total; 520 km Ouagadougou to Ivory Coast border
and 100 km Ouagadougou to Kaya; all 1.00-meter gauge and single track

_#_Highways: 16,500 km total; 1,300 km paved, 7,400 km improved,
7,800 km unimproved (1985)

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 50 total, 43 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: all services only fair; radio relay, wire, and
radio communication stations in use; 13,900 telephones; stations--2 AM,
2 FM, 2 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,838,000; 937,304 fit for
military service; no conscription

_#_Defense expenditures: $55 million, 2.7% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Burma
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 678,500 km2; land area: 657,740 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 5,876 km total; Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km,
India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

_#_Coastline: 1,930 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers
(southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild
temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December
to April)

_#_Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper,
tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural
gas

_#_Land use: arable land 15%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 49%; other 34%; includes irrigated 2%

_#_Environment: subject to destructive earthquakes and cyclones;
flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September);
deforestation

_#_Note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

_*_People
_#_Population: 42,112,082 (July 1991), growth rate 2.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 32 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 95 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 53 years male, 56 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Burmese; adjective--Burmese

_#_Ethnic divisions: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%,
Chinese 3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%

_#_Religion: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic
1%), Muslim 4%, animist beliefs 1%, other 2%

_#_Language: Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages

_#_Literacy: 81% (male 89%, female 72%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 16,036,000; agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade
10.1%, government 6.3%, other 4.1% (FY89 est.)

_#_Organized labor: Workers' Asiayone (association), 1,800,000
members; Peasants' Asiayone, 7,600,000 members

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Union of Burma; note--the local official name is
Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw which has been translated by the US
Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar

_#_Type: military regime

_#_Capital: Rangoon (sometimes translated as Yangon)

_#_Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular--yin) and
7 states (pyine-mya, singular--pyine); Chin State, Irrawaddy*, Kachin
State, Karan State, Kayah State, Magwe*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Pegu*,
Rakhine State, Rangoon*, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tenasserim*

_#_Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988)

_#_Legal system: martial law in effect throughout most of the
country; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

_#_Executive branch: chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration
Council, State Law and Order Restoration Council

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw)
was dissolved after the coup of 18 September 1988

_#_Judicial branch: Council of People's Justices was abolished after
the coup of 18 September 1988

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--Chairman of the State Law
and Order Restoration Council Gen. SAW MAUNG (since 18 September 1988)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Unity Party (NUP; proregime), THA KYAW;
National League for Democracy (NLD), U TIN OO and AUNG SAN SUU KYI;
League for Democracy and Peace, U NU

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

People's Assembly--last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never
convened;
results--NLD 80%;
seats--(485 total) NLD 396, the regime-favored NUP 10, other 79

_#_Communists: several hundred (est.) in Burma Communist Party (BCP)

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Kachin Independence Army (KIA),
United Wa State Army (UWSA), Karen National Union (KNU), several Shan
factions, including the Shan United Army (SUA) (all ethnically-based
insurgent groups)

_#_Member of: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador U MYO AUNG; Chancery at
2300 S Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-9044 through
9046; there is a Burmese Consulate General in New York;

US--Ambassador (vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission Franklin P.
HUDDLE, Jr.; Embassy at 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (mailing address
is G. P. O. Box 521, Rangoon or Box B, APO San Francisco 96346);
telephone 82055 or 82181

_#_Flag: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner
bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel
containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative
divisions

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Burma is a poor Asian country, with a per capita GDP
of about $400. The nation has been unable to achieve any substantial
improvement in export earnings because of falling prices for many
of its major commodity exports. For rice, traditionally the most
important export, the drop in world prices has been accompanied by
shrinking markets and a smaller volume of sales. In 1985 teak replaced
rice as the largest export and continues to hold this position. The
economy is heavily dependent on the agricultural sector, which generates
about half of GDP and provides employment for 66% of the work force.

_#_GDP: $16.8 billion, per capita $408; real growth rate NEGL%
(FY90 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22.6% (FY89 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 9.6% in urban areas (FY89 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $4.9 billion; expenditures $5.0 billion,
including capital expenditures of $0.7 billion (FY89 est.)

_#_Exports: $228 million (f.o.b., FY89)

commodities--teak, rice, oilseed, metals, rubber, gems;

partners--Southeast Asia, India, China, EC, Africa

_#_Imports: $540 million (c.i.f., FY89)

commodities--machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, food
products;

partners--Japan, EC, China, Southeast Asia

_#_External debt: $5.5 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.6% (FY90 est.); accounts
for 10% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 950,000 kW capacity; 2,900 million kWh produced,
70 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood
and wood products; petroleum refining; mining of copper, tin, tungsten,
iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 51% of GDP (including fish and
forestry); self-sufficient in food; principal crops--paddy rice, corn,
oilseed, sugarcane, pulses; world's largest stand of hardwood trees;
rice and teak account for 55% of export revenues; fish catch of
732,000 metric tons (FY90)

_#_Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit producer of opium poppy
and minor producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; opium
production is on the increase as growers respond to the collapse
of Rangoon's antinarcotic programs

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $158
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $3.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $424 million

_#_Currency: kyat (plural--kyats); 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas

_#_Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1--6.0476 (January 1991), 6.3386
(1990), 6.7049 (1989), 6.3945 (1988), 6.6535 (1987), 7.3304 (1986),
8.4749 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,991 km total, all government owned; 3,878 km
1.000-meter gauge, 113 km narrow-gauge industrial lines; 362 km double
track

_#_Highways: 27,000 km total; 3,200 km bituminous, 17,700 km improved
earth or gravel, 6,100 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial
vessels

_#_Pipelines: crude, 1,343 km; natural gas, 330 km

_#_Ports: Rangoon, Moulmein, Bassein

_#_Merchant marine: 60 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 968,226
GRT/1,433,584 DWT; includes 3 passenger-cargo, 19 cargo, 2 refrigerated
cargo, 3 vehicle carrier, 2 container, 3 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical, 1 combination ore/oil, 24 bulk,
1 combination bulk

_#_Civil air: 17 major transport aircraft (including 3 helicopters)

_#_Airports: 86 total, 79 usable; 29 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 37
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: meets minimum requirements for local and
intercity service; international service is good; radiobroadcast coverage
is limited to the most populous areas; 53,000 telephones (1986);
stations--2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (1985); 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

_#_Manpower availability: eligible 15-49, 20,766,975; of the
10,378,743 males 15-49, 5,566,247 are fit for military service; of the
10,388,232 females 15-49, 5,558,007 are fit for military service; 442,200
males and 431,407 females reach military age (18) annually; both sexes
are liable for military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $315.0 million, 3% of GDP (FY88)
_%_
_@_Burundi
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 27,830 km2; land area: 25,650 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

_#_Land boundaries: 974 km total; Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km,
Zaire 233 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Climate: temperate; warm; occasional frost in uplands

_#_Terrain: mostly rolling to hilly highland; some plains

_#_Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxide, peat, cobalt,
copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium

_#_Land use: arable land 43%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and pastures
35%; forest and woodland 2%; other 12%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: soil exhaustion; soil erosion; deforestation

_#_Note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed

_*_People
_#_Population: 5,831,233 (July 1991), growth rate 3.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 109 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 54 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Burundian(s); adjective--Burundi

_#_Ethnic divisions: Africans--Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%,
Twa (Pygmy) 1%; other Africans include about 70,000 refugees, mostly
Rwandans and Zairians; non-Africans include about 3,000 Europeans and
2,000 South Asians

_#_Religion: Christian about 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%).
indigenous beliefs 32%, Muslim 1%

_#_Language: Kirundi and French (official); Swahili (along Lake
Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

_#_Literacy: 50% (male 61%, female 40%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 1,900,000 (1983 est.); agriculture 93.0%, government
4.0%, industry and commerce 1.5%, services 1.5; 52% of population of
working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: sole group is the Union of Burundi Workers (UTB);
by charter, membership is extended to all Burundi workers (informally);
active membership figures NA

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Burundi

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Bujumbura

_#_Administrative divisions: 15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi,
Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya,
Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

_#_Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian
administration)

_#_Constitution: 20 November 1981; suspended following the coup of
3 September 1987; referendum for a new constitution scheduled for
March 1992

_#_Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and
customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

_#_Executive branch: president; chairman of the Central Committee
of the National Party of Unity and Progress (UPRONA), prime minister

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale) was dissolved following the coup of 3 September 1987;
at an extraordinary party congress held from 27 to 29 December 1990,
the Central Committee of the National Party of Unity and Progress
(UPRONA) replaced the Military Committee for National Salvation, and
became the supreme governing body during the transition to constitutional
government

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Pierre BUYOYA (since 9 September 1987);

Head of Government Prime Minister Adrien SIBOMANA (since 26
October 1988)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--National Party of
Unity and Progress (UPRONA), President Pierre BUYOYA, chairman, and
Nicolas MAYUGI, secretary general

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

_#_Elections:

National Assembly--dissolved after the coup of 3 September
1987;

note--The National Unity Charter outlining the principles for
constitutional government was adopted by a national referendum on 5
February 1991

_#_Communists: no Communist party

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77,
GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Julien KAVAKURE; Chancery at
Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington DC 20007;
telephone (202) 342-2574;

US--Ambassador Cynthia Shepherd PERRY; Embassy at Avenue du Zaire,
Bujumbura (mailing address is B. P. 1720, Avenue des Etats-Unis,
Bujumbura); telephone 234-54 through 56

_#_Flag: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and
bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk
superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined
in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars
below)

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: A landlocked, resource-poor country in an early stage
of economic development, Burundi is predominately agricultural with only
a few basic industries. Its economic health depends on the coffee
crop, which accounts for an average 90% of foreign exchange earnings each
year. The ability to pay for imports therefore continues to rest largely
on the vagaries of the climate and the international coffee market.

_#_GDP: $1.1 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate 1.5% (1989)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.7% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $158 million; expenditures $204 million,
including capital expenditures of $131 million (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $81 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--coffee 88%, tea, hides, and skins;

partners--EC 83%, US 5%, Asia 2%

_#_Imports: $197 million (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--capital goods 31%, petroleum products 15%, foodstuffs,
consumer goods;

partners--EC 57%, Asia 23%, US 3%

_#_External debt: $957 million (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: real growth rate 5.1% (1986); accounts
for about 10% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 51,000 kW capacity; 105 million kWh produced, 19 kWh
per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap;
assembly of imports; public works construction; food processing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 60% of GDP; 90% of population dependent
on subsistence farming; marginally self-sufficient in food production;
cash crops--coffee, cotton, tea; food crops--corn, sorghum, sweet
potatoes, bananas, manioc; livestock--meat, milk, hides, and skins

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $71
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $10.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $32 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $175 million

_#_Currency: Burundi franc (plural--francs); 1 Burundi franc
(FBu) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1--163.29 (January
1991), 171.26 (1990), 158.67 (1989), 140.40 (1988), 123.56 (1987), 114.17
(1986), 120.69 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 5,900 km total; 400 km paved, 2,500 km gravel or
laterite, 3,000 km improved or unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: Lake Tanganyika

_#_Ports: Bujumbura (lake port) connects to transportation systems of
Tanzania and Zaire

_#_Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 8 total, 7 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none
with runways 1,220 to 2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: sparse system of wire, radiocommunications, and
low-capacity radio relay links; 8,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, 2 FM, 1
TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (includes naval and air units); paramilitary
Gendarmerie

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,268,342; 661,888 fit for
military service; 64,538 reach military age (16) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $33 million, 3.1% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Cambodia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 181,040 km2; land area: 176,520 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oklahoma

_#_Land boundaries: 2,572 km total; Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km,
Vietnam 1,228 km

_#_Coastline: 443 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: offshore islands and three sections of the
boundary with Vietnam are in dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam
not defined; occupied by Vietnam on 25 December 1978

_#_Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to October); dry
season (December to March); little seasonal temperature variation

_#_Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

_#_Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese,
phosphates, hydropower potential

_#_Land use: arable land 16%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
3%; forest and woodland 76%; other 4%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: a land of paddies and forests dominated by Mekong
River and Tonle Sap

_#_Note: buffer between Thailand and Vietnam

_*_People
_#_Population: 7,146,386 (July 1991), growth rate 2.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 38 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 125 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 51 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Cambodian(s); adjective--Cambodian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Khmer 90%, Chinese 5%, other 5%

_#_Religion: Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%

_#_Language: Khmer (official), French

_#_Literacy: 35% (male 48%, female 22%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2.5-3.0 million; agriculture 80% (1988 est.)

_#_Organized labor: Kampuchea Federation of Trade Unions (FSC); under
government control

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: disputed between the National Government of Cambodia (NGC)
led by Prince NORODOM SIHANOUK, and the State of Cambodia (SOC) led by
HENG SAMRIN

_#_Capital: Phnom Penh

_#_Administrative divisions: NGC--18 provinces (khet, singular and
plural) and 1 capital city* (rottatheanei);
Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang,
Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong,
Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah
Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanokiri, Siemreab-Otdar
Meanchey, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev; note--the SOC adds
a province of Banteay Meanchey and an autonomous municipality of
Kampong Saom to the NGC administrative structure

_#_Independence: 9 November 1953 (from France)

_#_Constitution: SOC--27 June 1981

_#_National holidays: NGC--Independence Day, 17 April (1975);
SOC--Liberation Day, 7 January (1979)

_#_Executive branch: NGC--president, prime minister; SOC--chairman
of the Council of State, Council of State, chairman of the Council of
Ministers, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: NGC--none; SOC--unicameral National Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: NGC--none; SOC--Supreme People's Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--NGC--President Prince NORODOM SIHANOUK
(since NA July 1982); SOC--Chairman of the Council of State HENG
SAMRIN (since 27 June 1981)

Head of Government--NGC--Prime Minister SON SANN (since NA July
1982);
SOC--Chairman of the Council of Ministers HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985)

_#_Political parties and leaders: NGC--three resistance groups
including:
Democratic Kampuchea (DK, also known as the Khmer Rouge) under KHIEU
SAMPHAN;
Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) under SON SANN;
and National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and
Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC) under Prince NORODOM RANNARIDH;
SOC--Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP) led by HENG SAMRIN

_#_Suffrage: NGC--none; SOC--universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

NGC--none;

SOC--National Assembly--last held 1 May 1981; in February 1986 the
Assembly voted to extend its term for five years; results--KPRP is the
only party;
seats--(123 total) KPRP 123

_#_Member of: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, ITU, LORCS, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: none

_#_Flag:
NGC--three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue
with a white stylized three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat
centered on the red band;

SOC--two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and blue with a gold
stylized five-towered temple representing Angkor Wat in the center

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Cambodia is a desperately poor country whose economic
development has been stymied by deadly political infighting. The
economy is based on agriculture and related industries. Over the
past decade Cambodia has been slowly recovering from its near destruction
by war and political upheaval. It still remains, however, one of the
world's poorest countries, with an estimated per capita GDP of about
$130. The food situation is precarious; during the 1980s famine has
been averted only through international relief. In 1986 the production
level of rice, the staple food crop, was able to meet only 80% of
domestic needs. The biggest success of the nation's recovery program has
been in new rubber plantings and in fishing. Industry, other than rice
processing, is almost nonexistent. Foreign trade is primarily with the
USSR and Vietnam. Statistical data on the economy continues to be sparse
and unreliable. Foreign aid from the USSR and Eastern Europe almost
certainly is being slashed.

_#_GDP: $890 million, per capita $130; real growth rate 0% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital
expenditures of $NA

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50% (first half 1990)

_#_Exports: $32 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--natural rubber, rice, pepper, wood;

partners--Vietnam, USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, India

_#_Imports: $147 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--international food aid; fuels, consumer goods,
machinery;

partners--Vietnam, USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, India

_#_External debt: $600 million (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 126,000 kW capacity; 150 million kWh produced,
20 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber,
cement, gem mining

_#_Agriculture: mainly subsistence farming except for rubber
plantations; main crops--rice, rubber, corn; food shortages--rice, meat,
vegetables, dairy products, sugar, flour

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $719
million; Western (non-US) countries (1970-88), $285 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $1,800 million

_#_Currency: riel (plural--riels); 1 riel (CR) = 100 sen

_#_Exchange rates: riels (CR) per US$1--560 (November 1990), 159.00
(1988), 100.00 (1987), 30.00 (1986), 7.00 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 612 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned

_#_Highways: 13,351 km total; 2,622 km bituminous; 7,105 km crushed
stone, gravel, or improved earth; 3,624 km unimproved earth; some roads
in disrepair

_#_Inland waterways: 3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6
meters; 282 km navigable to craft drawing 1.8 meters

_#_Ports: Kampong Saom, Phnom Penh

_#_Airports: 22 total, 9 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: service barely adequate for government
requirements and virtually nonexistent for general public; international
service limited to Vietnam and other adjacent countries; stations--1 AM,
no FM, 1 TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: SOC--Cambodian People's Armed Forces (CPAF); Communist
resistance forces--National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge);
non-Communist resistance forces--Armee National Kampuchea Independent
(ANKI) which is sometimes anglicized as National Army of Independent
Cambodia (NAIC) and Khmer People's National Liberation Armed Forces
(KPNLAF)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,869,880; 1,030,356 fit for
military service; 57,288 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Cameroon
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 475,440 km2; land area: 469,440 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than California

_#_Land boundaries: 4,591 km total; Central African Republic 797 km,
Chad 1,094 km, Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km,
Nigeria 1,690 km

_#_Coastline: 402 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 50 nm

_#_Disputes: demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad,
the lack of which has led to border incidents in the past, is completed
and awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria;
Nigerian proposals to reopen maritime boundary negotiations and
redemarcate the entire land boundary have been rejected by Cameroon

_#_Climate: varies with terrain from tropical along coast to semiarid
and hot in north

_#_Terrain: diverse with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau
in center, mountains in west, plains in north

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, bauxite, iron ore, timber,
hydropower potential

_#_Land use: arable land 13%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures
18%; forest and woodland 54%; other 13%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous
gases; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification

_#_Note: sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa

_*_People
_#_Population: 11,390,374 (July 1991), growth rate 2.7% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 41 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 118 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 53 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Cameroonian(s); adjective--Cameroonian

_#_Ethnic divisions: over 200 tribes of widely differing background;
Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%,
Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%,
non-African less than 1%

_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16%

_#_Language: English and French (official), 24 major African language
groups

_#_Literacy: 54% (male 66%, female 43%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: NA; agriculture 74.4%, industry and transport 11.4%,
other services 14.2% (1983); 50% of population of working age (15-64
years) (1985)

_#_Organized labor: under 45% of wage labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Cameroon

_#_Type: unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition
parties legalized 1990)

_#_Capital: Yaounde

_#_Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est,
Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

_#_Independence: 1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under
French administration; formerly French Cameroon)

_#_Constitution: 20 May 1972

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law
influence; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: National Day, 20 May (1972)

_#_Executive branch: president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982);

Head of Government interim Prime Minister Sadou HAYATOU (since
25 April 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Cameroon People's Democratic
Movement (RDPC), Paul BIYA, president, is government-controlled and was
formerly the only party; 17 parties formed by 1 May 1991

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21

_#_Elections:

President--last held 24 April 1988 (next to be held April 1993);
results--President Paul BIYA reelected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held 24 April 1988 (next to be
held by the end of 1992);
results--RDPC was the only party;
seats--(180 total) RDPC 180

_#_Communists: no Communist party or significant number of
sympathizers

_#_Other political or pressure groups: NA

_#_Member of: ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA,
FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA,
UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Paul PONDI; Chancery at
2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
265-8790 through 8794;

US--Ambassador Frances D. COOK; Embassy at Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
(mailing address is B. P. 817, Yaounde); telephone [237] 234014; there is
a US Consulate General in Douala

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and
yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the
popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Over the past decade the economy has registered a
remarkable performance because of the development of an offshore oil
industry. Real GDP growth annually averaged 10% from 1978 to 1985. In
1986 Cameroon had one of the highest levels of income per capita in
tropical Africa, with oil revenues picking up the slack as growth in
other sectors softened. Because of the sharp drop in oil prices, however,
the economy experienced serious budgetary difficulties and
balance-of-payments disequilibrium. Despite the recent upsurge in oil
prices, Cameroon's economic outlook is troubled. Oil reserves currently
being exploited will be depleted in the early 1990s, so ways must be
found to boost agricultural and industrial exports in the medium term.
The Sixth Cameroon Development Plan (1986-91) stresses balanced
development and designates agriculture as the basis of the country's
economic future.

_#_GDP: $11.5 billion, per capita $1,040; real growth rate 0.7%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.6% (FY88)

_#_Unemployment rate: 25% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $2.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA million (FY89)

_#_Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--petroleum products 56%, coffee, cocoa, timber,
manufactures;

partners--EC (particularly the French) about 50%, US 10%

_#_Imports: $2.1 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--machines and electrical equipment, transport equipment,
chemical products, consumer goods;

partners--France 41%, Germany 9%, US 4%

_#_External debt: $4.9 billion (December 1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 6.4% (FY87); accounts
for 30% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 752,000 kW capacity; 2,940 million kWh produced,
270 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: crude oil products, food processing, light consumer
goods industries textiles, sawmills

_#_Agriculture: the agriculture and forestry sectors provide
employment for the majority of the population, contributing nearly 25%
to GDP and providing a high degree of self-sufficiency in staple foods;
commercial and food crops include coffee, cocoa, timber, cotton, rubber,
bananas, oilseed, grains, livestock, root starches

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $440
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $4.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $29 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $125 million

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs
(CFAF) per US$1--256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989),
297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 1,003 km total; 858 km 1.000-meter gauge, 145 km
0.600-meter gauge

_#_Highways: about 65,000 km total; includes 2,682 km bituminous,
30,000 km unimproved earth, 32,318 km gravel, earth, and improved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 2,090 km; of decreasing importance

_#_Ports: Douala

_#_Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
24,122 GRT/33,509 DWT

_#_Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 60 total, 52 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 21 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good system of open wire, cable, troposcatter,
and radio relay; 26,000 telephones; stations--10 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force; paramilitary
Gendarmerie

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,628,909; 1,324,899 fit for
military service; 125,421 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $219 million, 1.7% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Canada
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 9,976,140 km2; land area: 9,220,970 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than US

_#_Land boundaries: 8,893 km with US (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

_#_Coastline: 243,791 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: maritime boundary disputes with France (Saint Pierre and
Miquelon) and US

_#_Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in
north

_#_Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in
southeast

_#_Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum,
potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, crude oil, natural gas

_#_Land use: arable land 5%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 3%; forest and woodland 35%; other 57%; includes NEGL%
irrigated

_#_Environment: 80% of population concentrated within 160 km of US
border; continuous permafrost in north a serious obstacle to development

_#_Note: second-largest country in world (after USSR); strategic
location between USSR and US via north polar route

_*_People
_#_Population: 26,835,036 (July 1991), growth rate 1.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Canadian(s); adjective--Canadian

_#_Ethnic divisions: British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%,
other European 20%, indigenous Indian and Eskimo 1.5%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 46%, United Church 16%, Anglican 10%

_#_Language: English and French (both official)

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981 est.)

_#_Labor force: 13,380,000; services 75%, manufacturing 14%,
agriculture 4%, construction 3%, other 4% (1988)

_#_Organized labor: 30.6% of labor force; 39.6% of nonagricultural
paid workers

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: confederation with parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Ottawa

_#_Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta,
British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland,
Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island,
Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

_#_Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to
Canada 17 April 1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs

_#_Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where
civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of an
upper house or Senate (Senat) and a lower house or House of Commons
(Chambre des Communes)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Raymond John HNATSHYN (since 29 January
1990);

Head of Government--Prime Minister (Martin) Brian MULRONEY (since
4 September 1984); Deputy Prime Minister Donald Frank MAZANKOWSKI (since
NA June 1986)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Progressive Conservative, Brian MULRONEY;
Liberal, Jean CHRETIEN;
New Democratic, Audrey McLAUGHLIN

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

House of Commons--last held 21 November 1988 (next to be
held by November 1993);
results--Progressive Conservative 43.0%, Liberal 32%,
New Democratic Party 20%, other 5%;
seats--(295 total) Progressive Conservative 159, Liberal 80, New
Democratic Party 44, independent 12

_#_Communists: 3,000

_#_Member of: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB,
BIS, C, CCC, CDB, COCOM, CP, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LORCS, NATO, NEA, OAS, OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Derek BURNEY; Chancery at
1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202)
785-1400; there are Canadian Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston,
Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis,
New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Seattle;

US--Ambassador Edward N. NEY; Embassy at 100 Wellington Street,
K1P 5T1, Ottawa (mailing address is P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY
13669-0430); telephone (613) 248-25256, 25106, 25271, and 25170; there
are US Consulates General in Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto,
and Vancouver

_#_Flag: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double
width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada
today closely resembles the US in per capita output, market-oriented
economic system, and pattern of production. Since World War II the
impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has
transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily
industrial and urban. In the 1980s Canada registered one of the highest
rates of real growth among the OECD nations, averaging about 3.2%. With
its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital
plant, Canada has excellent economic prospects. In mid-1990, however, the
long-simmering problems between English- and French-speaking areas
became so acute that observers spoke openly of a possible split in the
confederation; foreign investors were becoming edgy.

_#_GDP: $516.7 billion, per capita $19,500; real growth rate 0.9%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.8% (1990)

Book of the day: